Sample Theology Essay Paper on12 Domains of Culture Experiential and Formal Learning

12 Domains of Culture Experiential and Formal Learning


Learning is an act, activity and practice aimed at acquiring new, improved or modified skills, values, knowledge, behaviors and information. Humans, machines and animals possess a certain level of capability with regard to learning. Progress in life forms a gradual learning curve which follows certain principles. Although learning is not a compulsory necessity, it is recommended and contextual. Learning is therefore a process where procedural and actual knowledgeable values and skills are gathered in order to transform an organism’s life relatively and permanently. Therefore, this article will discuss both formal and experiential learning cultures focusing on their learning processes, how they are adapted among people, institutions, organizations and communities as well as the various experiences they undergo when learning and/or teaching.

Human learning culture can be categorized as an educative, training, goal oriented and personal improvement motivational process. Experiential learning culture is a procedure in creating knowledge as well as life changes and transformations attributed to various learning experiences. Thus, it provides multi-linear and holistic models in adult transformation and development. Discussing experiential learning will mostly utilize cognitive skills as the focal point. Formal learning conversely revolves around an education system involving concepts and presentations comprised in a systematic, structured, well organized and administered plan or model. They are based on a set of norms and laws in an institution between a student and a teacher. Although these two learning models seem different, this article aims at retrieving and discussing the similarities.

Experiential learning
This model discusses two sets of dialect modes; Concrete Experience and Abstract Conceptualization. They are applied in a learning process in order to grasp values, skills and knowledge from an experience as well as Reflective Observation and Active Experimentation. These are involved in transforming lives from learning experiences. These four dialectally related modes of experiential learning form experiential learning observations and reflections (David et al. 2).

Experiential learning modes emphasize on polar opposite capabilities chosen by the students in order to apply them in a learning environment and situation. While most people in the world depend on their senses, tangible and experienced world qualities, the rest depend on their assumptions and perceptions. However, in both sets, they are able to acquire new informative knowledge and skills. They revise symbolic representations in their lives and/or abstract conceptualization whereby they think, analyze and plan without relying on their sensed guidelines (David et al. 3).

A transforming or processing experience on the other hand involves various individuals watching people they interact with in life undergoing a learning and reflective occurrence while the rest opt at actually going through a similar experience. Individuals prefer to watch their friends, colleagues and neighbors favor Reflective Observation. Individuals who decide to jump right in and do similar things therefore favor Active Experimentation. Based on these four dimensions, it is clear that experiential learning theory offers people different and diverse choices to choose from in order to learn, improve and advance. Thus, experiential learning is utilized by people seeking to resolve conflicting dilemmas as it is based on; hereditary equipment’s, past experiences and environmental demands. Conflicts between Abstract and Concrete as well as Reflective and Active are resolved in patterned learning styles and characteristics (David et al. 4).

Formal learning
This is an educative process adopted in schools, universities and colleges across the world. These education institutions are administratively, physically and curricular planned and organized. They demand that students should always attend classroom based on a formulated formal education program followed by both instructors and learners. This program is believed to assist instructors in carrying out intermediate and final assessment tests aimed at advancing their learners to the next level in a learning process. Formal learning offers degrees, certificates and diplomas to students who pass and advance to the next learning stage. Therefore, it can be classified as a strict, well organized and planned education process governed by a set of rules and regulations (Claudio 1).

In order to teach an important lesson, acquire good characters and respect the sole purpose in formal learning, punishments are applied to those who fail to obey and uphold the mono-directional methodology, rules and regulations. The learners are encouraged in undertaking active participation within the formal learning process. As a result, there are punitive records to learners who fail to advance due to indiscipline and disrespect of the learning process. Learner’s values, attitudes, standards are rendered neither important to the education process nor efficient or effective. Courses offered in this learning system are categorized into; theory, exercises and laboratory activities. Thus, they disregard the course’s adequate order and correlation. Student’s needs and desires in order to record personal growth are therefore disregarded because; basic education values and principles are ignored in the planning and implementation stages of an education system which aims at improving general performance rates. However, students are neither prohibited nor denied the chance to apply; Reflective Observation, Active Experimentation, Concrete Experience and Abstract Conceptualization in order to grasp values, skills and knowledge when they are not following the formal education program (Claudio 1).

Formal learning can be summarized as a system where the students, teachers and institutions are involved in pretense. Instructors pretend they are teaching students who pretend they are learning in an institution pretending to cater, respect and uphold society, teacher and student interests, personal values and principles. Experiential learning conversely assists learners to acquire deep, flexible and comprehensive understanding from life practices and experiences. Therefore, although the two modes portray different modes of learning, they both have similar aims and objectives. They both aim at improving, enhancing, advancing, developing and designing better education systems, processes and assessment methodologies. Thus, learners and instructors in both modes of learning are involved in experiences, concepts and abstracts that are either active or reflective.

Works Cited
Claudio, Dib. Formal, Non-formal and Informal Education: Concepts/Applicability, New York, American Institute of Physics, 2013. Print.
David, Kolb, Richard Boyatzis, and Charalampos Mainemelis. Experiential Learning Theory: Previous Research and New Directions, Weather head School of Management, Department of Organizational Behavior, Case Western Reserve University, 1999. Print.

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