Sample Theology Essay Paper on I-O Psychology

I-O Psychology

Industrial and Organizational psychology also known as work psychology or I-O psychology is the study of employees, places of work, and organizations. This scientific study contributes greatly to the success of organizations by increasing performance, customer and employee satisfaction, environmental safety and health. A psychologist in this area undertakes research on employee behavior, attitudes, and they can improve them through training forums, feedback mechanisms, support systems, management, and hiring. The psychologists are also helpful in the transitioning periods of an organization. Generally, industrial and organizational psychology is associated with organization behaviors and work force (Linne et al, 2012).

Industrial and organizational psychology as a branch of psychology applies psychological theories and practices to day-to-day operations of an organization. Commonly known as I/O psychology, it is committed to increasing productivity and associated issues like mental health, physical well-being, and safety of employees. I/O psychologists are responsible for a wide variety of duties, which include observing and studying employees’ behavior and attitudes, analyzing companies, and undertaking training of employees on leadership (Halbesleben, 2012). This field has an overall mission of studying and understanding employee behavior in workplace.

The I-O psychologists always assist human resources specialist in designing processes for recruitment and personnel selection as well as placement. Personnel recruitment refers to the process of locating candidates who qualify for an advertised job and having them apply for the jobs in an organization. On the other hand, personnel recruitment involves advertising a job, stating qualifications for the job, and screening the applications received. Yet, personnel selection is the step-by-step process of hiring and developing personnel (Paul, 2011). It employs practices that are evidence-based in determining the most qualified applicants. The selection process involves all new employees and those who need promotion within an organization. Personnel selection utilizes tools like ability, knowledge, and personality tests, interviews, biographical data, and work experience. In the selection process, I-O psychologists have a role to ensure that selection tools are effective in predicting job performance (Lois, 2012).

As a profession, I-O psychology has values. Throughout the history of the field, the values have never been an issue to the psychologists (Katzell & Austin, 1992). In essence, the lack of guiding principles is not something so unique to the I-O psychology. Gardener & Damon (2001) wonder why experts always teach young professionals about techniques and ignore the values associated with the field and have perpetrated the creativity.

This is a very crucial issue since it forms the profession’s core matter that supports and triggers the behavior and responsibilities expected of its members. (Gellerman, Frankel, & Ladenson, 1990). Therefore, ethical considerations form the basis of professional values. The Professional values are indicated in its considerations, goals, and mission as well as objectives that it tries to attain. It is also reflected in the sociopolitical activities that affect it including legislation of civil rights and downsizing, choices made by members regarding place of work, study, and means of evaluating their performance.

The Scientist-practitioner model (S-P) perhaps, is the tool towards a statement of the I-O psychology values. However, the psychologists on how it should direct their activities the way it has been conceptualized in clinical, education, and counseling psychology have never taken the S-P model seriously. The model has also been disqualified as an incomplete record of values for Industrial organizational psychologist. This is because the model does not include moral perspective associated with tradition of I-O psychology. From the inception of the psychology, its practice in America involved both scientific study and application of the knowledge gained for the betterment of human behavior. Psychologists always assume their responsibility is to the client and not the organization regardless of whether they are employed in a school, clinic, or institution. However, it is uncertain whether the same can be applied to I-O psychology and the resulting implications are unknown if the organization is taken to mean a client (Cascio, 2008).

The preamble of the code of ethics reflects the humanistic tradition which states that psychologists are dedicated to improving the conditions of people, organization, and society at large (APA, 2002). This objective is in line with the common knowledge of what is meant by the achievement of the status of a profession form occupation. Professionals have a responsibility to both the clients and the society. In this regard, there are several concerns about traditional role of professions. First, modern lives create new professions, however, they lack a key component associated with the old profession. Second, the professions of medicine, education, and law are associated with a spirit of service, which is not found in the new professions. Therefore, these concerns raise the issue of moral responsibility (Travis, 2012).

The code of ethics of the new profession has left out the moral standards because it somehow does not have the concept of spirit of service. The traditional profession always failed in applying moral standards to their professional goals. However, the new professions fail in the same manner because they do not even try to mention the standards. As a result, the question is whether the I-O psychology is more related to the less moral new profession or the traditional one that emphasized on responsibility and spirit of service to people and society as a major value.
The above concern leads to the consideration of whether to improve the state of organizations, society, or individuals, which involve values and choices that are contested concerning what improvement constitutes. Most psychologists try to avoid making choices by opting for advocacy of value less scientific study and practices (Lois, 2012).

As observed by many researchers, I-O psychologists generally decided to remain mute as far as social issues are concerned on assumption that their credibility as scientists depend on their learning and they must analyze their values from the conception. However, is it possible for I-O psychology to work without values and result in human betterment? Is there need for moral compass to direct the social and behavioral science application? Even more specifically, I-O psychology can be argued that it is not neutral or insignificant but serves to cover the influence of contradicting systems of values like profitability, prizing, and value for shareholders. It is the value system and not the human tradition one that consist of professional domain of practice for S-P model in I-O psychology. This makes the model inadequate for I-O psychology (House, 1987).

As a result, it is not acceptable for social science, which has always emphasized on bettering human state by making choices of values regarding objectives of the society. In addition, it not acceptable for applied social science that focuses on problems affecting real social functions by defining methods or objects of study. Clearly, the value free psychology is unacceptable to professional practice of I-O psychology.

The I-O psychologists’ research agendas, work problems, and methods of evaluating performance is based on goals and objectives of employees or clients for whom they work for and show their values and considerations as well as those for economic system. The psychologist’s clients expect support of their goals (Bernard, 2007). Actually, in all fields of psychology, the client has the choice of the issues to be examined and not the practitioner himself. However, in cases of any difference between conceptions of the practitioner and a client who is a school, institution or mental health clinic, a social science that solve the moral issues can be sought to explain and describe the issues of moral concern. These would reflect issues other than those disagreed on. The humanistic values are associated with a problem for the entire field of organizational psychology since the features can contest with the objective of the science or they can erode strong need for performance efficiency and productivity (Cascio, 2008).

On the other hand, there is need to seek normative dimension for the purpose of I-O psychology because of a number of reasons. First, the objective of the dimension is essential for moral justification for institution so f business and society. The perspective is in line with the institution of free market and address distributional inequalities. Second, the executives of an institution are a minority part of the corporate managers. Hence, the transgressions and mistakes of the executives in the recent years ought to be overlooked (Lois, 2012). Third, it is obvious that I_O psychologists and the human resources managers are able to accomplish an ethical role and guide the organizations even when the norm of their profession may place them in a conflicting position with the organization’s goals. Fourth, support for ethical issues is critical in promoting psychologists values called for in the normative perspective. Final but most important, there is an anticipated reception for this approach form the audience. Many psychologists are struggling to improve human condition is areas like safety in work places, work burnout, displacement, hiring, and many others (Christmann, 2009).

In fact, I-O psychologists play very important role in designing processes for recruitment and personnel selection as well as placement. Personnel recruitment refers to the process of locating candidates who qualify for an advertised job and having them apply for the jobs in an organization. On the other hand, personnel recruitment involves advertising a job, stating qualifications for the job, and screening the applications received. Yet, personnel selection is the step-by-step process of hiring and developing personnel. It employs practices that are evidence-based in determining the most qualified applicants (House, 1987). The selection process involves all new employees and those who need promotion within an organization. Personnel selection utilizes tools like ability, knowledge, and personality tests, interviews, biographical data, and work experience. In the selection process, I-O psychologists have a role to ensure that selection tools are effective in predicting job performance.

The main challenge to the profession is that to what extent the good work of I-O psychologist has been controlled by virtue of level of education, training, and socialization. Although it clear that the professionals include very caring and concern personnel committed to the betterment of human condition, there is need for improvement in the extent to which the professionals show sensitivity in their work (Halbesleben, 2012).
In all fields of psychology, the client has the choice of the issues to be examined and not the practitioner himself. However, in cases of any difference between conceptions of the practitioner and a client who is a school, institution or mental health clinic, a social science that solve the moral issues can be sought to explain and describe the issues of moral concern. These would reflect issues other than those disagreed on (Linne et al, 2013). The humanistic values are associated with a problem for the entire field of organizational psychology since the features can contest with the objective of the science or they can erode strong need for performance efficiency and productivity. Consequently, the I-O psychologists’ research agendas, work problems, and methods of evaluating performance is based on goals and objectives of employees or clients for whom they work for and show their values and considerations as well as those for economic system

In summary, industrial and organizational psychology is a branch of psychology that applies psychological theories and practices to day-to-day operations of an organization. Commonly known as I/O psychology, it is committed to increasing productivity and associated issues like mental health, physical well-being, and safety of employees (Paul, 2011). I/O psychologists are responsible for a wide variety of duties, which include observing and studying employees’ behavior and attitudes, analyzing companies, and undertaking training of employees on leadership. This field has an overall mission of studying and understanding employee behavior in workplace. The professionals include very caring and concern personnel committed to the betterment of human condition. In addition, the value free psychology is unacceptable to professional practice of I-O psychology (Bradley, 2007).

References
Bernard, M. B. (2007). Executive and Strategic Leadership. Journal of Managerial Psychology. Vol. 12(1), 1083-4346.
Badgley, S. (2012). The Role of I-O Psychologists. Field Journal of Observation. Vol. 2 (1).
Cascio, W. (2008). Research in Industrial and Organizational psychology. Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Selection. Vol. 8(2), 24-26.
Christmann, L. (2009). Industrial/Organizational Psychology. Journal of Applied Psychology Vol. 2(1).
Halbesleben, J. (2012). Organizational and Industrial psychology. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. Vol. 85(4).
House, R. (1987). Organizational Behavior: Some new Directions for I-O Psychology. An International Journal of Psychology. Vol. 3(6).
Linne, D., Aukerman, C., & Palaszewski, B. (2013). Strategic I-O Psychology. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, Vol. 26, 317-333.
Lois, T. (2012). Industrial/Organizational Psychology. Journal of Occupational Psychology.
Vol. 25(1), 353-354.
Paul, R. (2011). About Organizational and Industrial Psychology. Journal of Occupational Organizational Psychology. Vol. 33(2), 78-82.
Travis, T. (2012). Champions of Psychology. Journal of Occupational and Organizational
Psychology. Vol. 82(4).

I-O PSYCHOLOGY 2

Running head: I-O PSYCHOLOGY