Europe and the U.S.
List and discuss the background differences as it relates to planning in Europe and the United States
In looking at the difference in planning, Great Britain and the US have much in common. Although the US draws most of its laws from the British Common Law, their planning is much more different from that of the US (Levy, 2011, p. 363). One historical difference in planning between Britain and the US is the lack of a written constitution and therefore much power is relegated to the parliament, which makes most of the planning decision. For the US, however, subnational governments are much more powerful and make most of the planning decision. Each state in the US therefore has its own planning agenda and timelines, which they strictly follow. Congressional legislations therefore have minimal effect on the planning decision of each state (Levy, 2011, p. 363).
In fact, for the United States, a National Planning Resource Board was disbanded in 1943 and Congress prohibited the formation of any other national agency that would undertake such national planning function (Levy, 2011, p. 340). For Britain however, the government took much of the responsibility of planning, in what was a comprehensive set of planning that was national government driven. Organizations such as the Urban Development Corporation were initiated with a mandate to plan the cities, and with enough authority to override any local government plans, while such an area attractive for private developers and establishing conditionality for the private developers (Levy, 2011, p. 370).
Citizen involvement in planning as well as media coverage of issues relating to the government and planning are limited in Britain, than they are in the US. The US citizenry remains vigilant in the actions of the government, keeping an eye on every move by both the government and politicians. In this case, therefore, public involvement in planning is more deeply rooted in the U.S. than it is in Great Britain. This is even visible in the litigious nature of the US citizenry on matters of planning than it is among the Great Britain citizenry (Levy, 2011, p. 364).
Provide a comprehensive analysis related to key planning issues for the nation of your choosing
In the wake of the Great Depression and the Second World War, much of the planning in Great Britain was affected. While the greater London metropolitan area remained minimally affected by the two events, the peripheries were adversely affected, which therefore prompted the government and planners to limit London’s metropolitan growth while diverting economic growth to other national parts (Levy, 2011, p.364).this vision was effected through a series of laws passed by the British parliament. The purpose of these laws was to effect a limitation of London’s growth, preserve the farmland and to improve the economy, while preventing population decrease in London periphery areas (Levy, 2011, p.364).
The undertakings to achieve these elements were successful, especially through the greenbelt system through London and other major cities as well as the creation of many other cities. With the bulk of the population in London, however, businesses flaunted the regulations and moved into London (Levy, 2011, p.365). The restrictions of development of other areas in preference for the development only within urban areas have, however created congestion within the city centers, while leaving large expanses of undeveloped land. The densely populated towns have however created a problem of traffic congestion given automobile ownership by majorities of the cities’ residents (Levy, 2011, p.367).
How does planning theory differ from the practice of planning?
Theory to large extent is an idea that guides the practical application of the very idea. In essence, therefore, one gains an insight from a developed theory. Planning theory therefore gives an insight into how to make effective plans. More than one theory can however exist in giving insight, such as the rational model, disjointed incrementalism and Middle-Range Model theories of planning (Levy, 2011, p.409). The practice of planning on the other hand, while drawing from the theories, tests the practicability of the theories. Theories are therefore developed and tested from the practical experiences (Levy, 2011, p.403). The idea here is that both practice and theory are dynamic, drawing from each other, with theory developing ideas, while practice acts as the test for modification of the theory as well as development of other theories.
What is the major difference between public planning and private planning?
Public planning remains more difficult than private planning. The results of public planning, in addition, are sometime less rational than it would be the case with private planning. The rationale behind the difficulty in public planning stems from the fact that public planning has to satisfy different ends, most of which clash with each other. On the other hand, private planning is largely geared towards the satisfaction of a single or sometimes limited number of ends (Levy, 2011, p.403).
List and discuss three theoretical approaches to the process of planning
The three theoretical approaches to planning include the rational model, the disjointed incrementalism and middle-range model. The rational model advocates for a comprehensive plan in which the planning process is not only rational but also systematic (Levy, 2011, p. 404). The model lists a sequence through which the planning process should follow beginning with the definition of the problem, clarification of values, selecting goals to be achieved, formulation of alternative plans and a forecast of the consequences for any alternatives undertaken in any previous steps. The steps also include the evaluation and selection of alternative course of action, development of comprehensive plan and final review and evaluation of the whole process.
The disjointed incrementalism theory focuses on working with little bits and not within a comprehensive framework. Fronted by Lindblom, the theory suggests that planners should develop short lists of achievable objectives and focus on these (Levy, 2011, p. 408). This theory suggests learning from experience and focus on benefiting from policy options that present incremental change from previous policies (Levy, 2011, p. 408).
The middle-range theory on the other hand, fuses both the rational and disjointed theories. This therefore advocates for detailed examination of particular segments and a truncated review of other relevant sectors. In this manner, the Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threats of each plan are taken into consideration for a wholesome and workable plan (Levy, 2011, p. 408).
Which approach do you feel is most effective for urban planners? Why?
The middle-range approach provides the best option for planners. Not only do the planners look at the bigger picture of the whole city or nation, but as well enables them to divide the larger plan into manageable bits, drawing experience from previous projects and policies that have worked, while avoiding the pitfalls of others that have failed. The middle-range theory considers the comprehensive plan, while at the same time taking care to execute the plan in manageable sections for completion.
Levy, J.M. (2011). Contemporary Urban Planning (9th ed.). Upper Saddler River, NJ: Pearson-Prentice Hall Press
Urban Planning 7
Running head: Urban Planning
Major Urban Problems
It is worthwhile to note that change is inevitable, and it will always happen. Therefore, it is important to shift our deliberation on preventing change, but concentrate on embracing it. Living in denial will cause changes to creep on unprepared individuals. This is what happened when urban cities crept upon unprepared citizens. Even though urbanization is good, it brought a number of problems that both the public and the government were unprepared for.
The first major problem that came up with urban towns is the overwhelming power of mayors. The new Urbanization introduced a strong mayoral system that had the power to influence the livelihood of the population in a negative way if the mayor saw fit. A strong mayoral system will provide an avenue for corruption since the mayors have overwhelming powers.
What is most upsetting is that the mayor can hire and fire anyone at will. Such power will intimidate all the civil workers and they will always do what the mayor asks of them in order to be on the mayor’s good side. The mayor therefore can ask for unconstitutional favors and the civil servants will not have the power to deny him his request. Furthermore, the mayor can also elect individuals to key positions in the public institution because he has the power. If such an incident happens then that person will be indebted to the mayor and might act unconstitutionally if asked to do so.
Another problem affecting urban areas is the staffing requirements in the new system. The system employs lower public employees based on their profession. This creates a system that is extremely specialized robbing individuals of the need to innovate or expand beyond their niche. This type of work environment eventually leads to boredom reducing the efficiency and productivity of the employees.
Another change that is experienced through the urban political system is the increased collaboration between the public and private sectors. Even though collaboration between the two sectors is beneficial, it has various drawbacks. The biggest problem with public and private partnerships is the risks involved in the transactions. The risk is usually transferred to the government in form of increased expenditure on the part of the government. This will increase the town’s budget, prompting the mayor to increase the taxes.
Progress in Reforming City Government
As stated earlier, change is inevitable, it is therefore important to note the progress of changes. One should compare the situation before the change and the situation after the change and take stock of whether the change is good or bad. The second part of this article will look into the way city government has reformed in a period of 100 years. The paper will recommend whether the reforms are positive or negative and whether change has actually helped improve the situation of city government or it has deteriorated the way they are run.
After analyzing the steps city governments have evolved over the past 100 years, it is evident that there is progress. The first indication of progress is the issue of voting rights. In the beginning of the 19th century, voting rights were held only by white men who owned property. Men who did not have property and women were denied voting rights regardless of their ethnicity. This trend has long ceased to exist with the evolution of city governments. All citizens have the power to appoint their political leaders and influence how their city is run.
Evolution of city governments has also brought the concept of voting with your feet. This is a system where individuals who are displeased with the way the city is operated have the option of looking for greener pastures in other cities. One might consider this a drawback in the way cities are now run, because people have the option of leaving their cities instead of sticking around and changing it. During the 1960s, citizens participated in civil rights in order to affect the change needed in the society. This fighting spirit has long been lost since individuals who are capable of leaving the city can just move away, leaving the rest to struggle with the political system. Voting by feet can also be used to oppress the citizens since they have no power to move their immovable assets. Once they leave such property behind, then the city can decide to cease such property for its own use.
Before analyzing the progress of city governments in 100-year period, it is imperative to note its shortcomings. One shortcoming that can be noticed is the reluctance of the city government to allocate resources based on census as it was done in the earlier days. This ensured that the resources were allocated to the area that is most needed. It is unlike nowadays where resources are allocated based on the needs of various interest parties. This means the interested parties with the most convincing power get what they need while the weaker interested parties suffer.
Even though voting by feet has a few drawbacks, it is important to note that it is much better than denying certain members of the city the right to vote. This means that voting by feet is an improvement in the way city governments are run in the modern era. Voting by feet has also accommodated regional preferences and diversity in the nation. This is due to the decentralization of authority enabling the cities to experience the various improvements in economic bases and social preferences.
Evolution of mayors has introduced the concept of putting the interest of the public first. Since 1990, mayors are trying to implement the best business practices in the cities. This means that they are trying to govern the city based on public interest and not on political intention. This attribute is based on the intention of the mayors to advance their economies and develop their cities. This progress is observed in the evolution of city governments.
Another progress in the evolution of city government is the distribution of power to commissioners and councilors. The commissioners and councilors meet and discuss various policies based on the interest of the people they represent. This means that if the system of city government is not tampered with, then the policies passed in the city will always reflect the need of the majority members of the society.
After examining both the shortcomings and progress of the evolution of city governments, it is evident that the governance of cities has improved in the 100-year period. This is portrayed by handing the citizens more power to choose who lead their cities. In addition, the leaders in form of mayor show progress by running the cities using good business policies and not political intuition.
Comparative study of cultures of Cities (New York and Harlem)
For ages, urban landscape has been viewed as a composer and a transmitter of culture (Czepczyński 2). Architectural works provide a physical expression of thoughts patterns, experience, beliefs and values unique to the urban culture concerned. The various forms of urban space and organization of cities vividly portray the urban culture’s wisdom. For instant, architectural expressions reveal the spiritual dimension of not only architects but also investors and users (Czepczyński 2). Buildings and the values embedded in them could provide useful tips for understanding social, economic and cultural processes. By studying expressions and values embedded in them, we can understand and even compare the cultures of different cities. Using this approach, this paper seeks to compare and contrast the cultures of New York and Harlem cities.
New York’s Empire State Building and its cultural values
The Empire State Building is an important architectural expression in the culture of New York City. Completed in 1931, the 102-storey building is the tallest in New York as at now (Tieck 4). It was the tallest building in the world at the time of its completion (Tieck 5). The building was a dream-come-true of one man, John Jacob Raskob, competing with Walter Chrysler to see whose building would be the tallest. Thus the contest yielded two skyscrapers, the Empire State and Chrysler buildings. The Empire State Building was built at a time when America and the world were experiencing a major economic crisis commonly referred to as the Great Depression, which began in 1929. Despite the difficulties, New York was determined to pursue modernization and economic development under the American capitalism (Young and Young 144). Apart from its physical magnificence, the Empire State Building represented specific values of American capitalistic culture including individualism, confidence, and efficiency (Young and Young 144).
How the Empire State Building reflects the culture of New York
The Empire State Building was not just a business venture. It was a tool for celebrating a new America. Indeed the constructors and clients were themselves children of immigrants hence were new in America (Flowers 15). The Empire State Building was built in the period when America was divided culturally and politically between traditional rural societies and emerging urban cultures. The Empire State Building not only established the status and legitimacy of the new Americans who constructed it but also articulated the vision of a multicultural urban America. Its unique design, which sets it apart from the historical and traditional approaches to architecture, is expressive of the independent mindedness and individualism of the new America, free from the constraints of the past. Considering that New York was one of the fastest growing centers of modern culture, the building had a central role to play in representing the city’s vision (Flowers 15).
Numerous characteristics of the Empire State Building enabled it to serve its purpose. Being a skyscraper and the tallest building in the world at that time, it proclaimed America the leading nation in architecture hence enabling America to assume a new identity and independence from cultural influence of the former colonial power, Europe. Many have regarded skyscrapers as expressions of human achievement, energy, vitality and confidence (Flowers 16). The man behind the construction of the Empire State Building was John Raskob, an Irish self-made millionaire. Raskob can be regarded as a model of American capitalist democracy characterized by determination, talent, and courage rather than ancestry. Raskob co-worked with another Irish immigrant and a high profile politician, Emmanuel smith. Their success in business evidenced by the empire state skyscraper testifies of the values and opportunities of American capitalism (Flowers 16). Although the building was an initiative of few individuals, it clearly reflects the American philosophy of economic individualism and independence. It was designed specifically to serve the needs of small and medium private businesses, which is an important aspect of American capitalism founded by small independent producers (Flowers 17).
Harlem’s Cotton Club and its cultural values
The Cotton Club was a famous entertainment spot in Harlem opened after World War I (McCurdy 13). Owney Madden, an Irish immigrant, bought the club from its original owner, Jack Johnson, a former boxer in 1922. The club’s original name was Club Deluxe. The Cotton Club was unique in that all patrons were white and performers were black Americans of African origin. The club featured top dancers, singers, and comedians. Some of the renowned bandleaders and songwriters who worked for the club include Duke Ellington, Ted Koehler, Cab Valloway and Harold Arlen. The club capitalized on the primitive aspects of African Americans by portraying their negative stereotypes through dances and comedies. Despite the negative racial connotation, the club provided African Americans with opportunities to exploit their talents while familiarizing America with African American experiences (McCurdy 13). The Cotton Club played a crucial role in expressing various values of renaissance culture of Harlem including identity, freedom and meaning.
Significance of Cotton Club to the culture of Harlem
The Cotton Club played an important role in Harlem artistic and cultural renaissance especially in promoting African American involvement in modern entertainment and urban life. During the 1920s, Harlem became a centre for African American art, politics, drama, literature and other aspects of culture (Rau 33). At that time, African Americans were migrating in large numbers from the south to cities in search of freedom and jobs. The white patrons-only policy adopted by the Cotton Club reminded Americans of racism and reflected the gap that existed between the whites and blacks (Rau 33). By emphasizing on African Americans’ exorcism and negative stereotypes, the club might have undermined their efforts to find their identity and place in a foreign land. The club’s unique operation portrays the complex relationship between racism and art that dominated the lives of African Americans (Nash 53). The policy was a crafty way of solving the existing dilemma whereby white Americans were interested in African American arts but did not want to mix with them. In a way, it reveals the shrewdness of its capitalistic manager, who saw an opportunity and jumped at it.
Despite being discriminatory and portraying blacks as primitives, the Cotton Club became a center for many African Americans to launch their careers and establish identify. The Harlem renaissance was a source of inspiration to not only the African Americans but also America as a community (Bowers 16). Cotton Club provided an opportunity for development of jazz music, and led to emergence of many jazz musicians of African American origin. During its time, America’s view of African-Americans was transformed through discovering their talents, thus contributing to the break from old stereotypes (Rau 40). Several radio stations and newspapers covered the clubs seasonal releases and helped to publicize talented African Americans who performed there. Within a short period, some of them started receiving recording contracts (Schweiger, Donald G. Mathews 232). Harlem artists played a crucial role of articulating the vision of African Americans in their search for identity in the populist America.
Comparison between Empire State Building and Cotton Club as cultural expressions
Both the Empire State Building and Cotton Club are material expressions that offer a good avenue for understanding cultural values and beliefs of New York and Harlem respectively. Both were architectural structures owned by Irish Americans for business purposes. One striking difference between the two expressions is the fact while the Empire State Building earned much of its meaning from its physical appearance; the Cotton Club derived its meaning from the activities attached to it. Despite the difference, these expressions represented some common values such as identity and independence. However, each of the structures represented some unique values. For instance, the Empire State Building clearly demonstrated America’s superiority in architecture and value for efficiency and individualism in pursuit of capitalistic gains. Cotton Club, on the other hand, expressed unique values related to Harlem renaissance mainly identity, meaning and freedom (Rau 40).
Further, the expressions dealt with served a similar purpose of articulating the vision of a multicultural America whereby individuals have equal opportunities to pursue their dreams and exploit their talents without discrimination on basis of ancestry, color or religion. However, the scope of success achieved by the two expressions differs greatly due to the difference challenges that had to be overcome. The Cotton Club, for instance, offered a limited opportunity for African Americans to express themselves due to its strong element of racism represented by the white-patrons-only policy. However, the club did provide a ground for African Americans to define their identity and careers.
Cultural differences between New York and Harlem
One of the main differences in cultures of New York City and Harlem as portrayed by the Empire State Building and the Cotton Club respectively is the forces behind the cultural changes that were taking place. While New York City culture was shaped by American capitalism and individual entrepreneurship, Harlem culture was driven by racism and urbanization (Flowers 73; Carol 189). Racism was clearly portrayed in Cotton Club where only whites could patronize. Further, Harlem was nearly entirely an African American city and the culture there was more traditional compared to that of New York. As the expressions show, the main attraction in New York was its spectacular buildings thus reflecting its modern culture. On the other hand, the cultural significance of Harlem was the artistic works of African Americans, which primarily reflected their traditional life.
In addition, while New York seems to be accommodative of immigrants, granting them equal opportunities as Americans in the capitalist market, Harlem does not quite reflect the harmonious populist nature of America and the idea of equal opportunities. Instead, the message that Harlem sends is that whites and blacks could not mix even if they had genuine reasons to do so. In fact, the gap between the whites and African Americans cultures as reflected in the activities of Cotton Club is so wide that it is difficult to imagine integrating the two. This is particularly significant considering that both cities are only a few miles apart. Further, the racial riots of 1935 that led to temporary closure of the Cotton Club indicate that Americans were far from achieving harmonious coexistence implied in New York (Rucker and Upton 265).
Similarities in culture
One of the similarities between the culture of New York and Harlem as revealed by the values embedded in their cultural expressions is that both cultures were undergoing transition. New York was transitioning from traditional rural culture to a modern urban culture characterized by new technology and a different way of doing things. The rise of skyscrapers transformed the face of New York City forever and introduced new approaches to technology, thus the departure from traditional gothic styles that characterized middle ages (Pile 99). Similarly, Harlem was experiencing renaissance, a period of recreating African American culture through arts and entertainment after centuries of slavery and oppression. At the same time, African Americans were abandoning their rural plantation life of misrepresentation in search of identity and better economic opportunities in the cities and Harlem provided a strategic starting point.
Another cultural similarity between the two cities is that immigrants took deliberate attempts to create an American identity and acquire legitimacy as Americans. The people behind the construction of the Empire State Building were Irish immigrants who were determined to identify themselves with America by proving to the world what they had to offer. By constructing such a spectacular structure, the immigrants gained legitimacy as Americans and even became models of American cultural values such as determination, courage, confidence and talent. Similarly, through pursuing superiority in arts, African Americans in Harlem were determined to reconstruct their identity through acknowledging their uniqueness while proving their capability and talent at the same time. Though they were haunted by racial discrimination, oppression and poverty, their prowess in arts opened doors for them to reach for the many opportunities available to other Americans and feel at home in the populist America. Their migration into urban centers demonstrated their desire to embrace modernism together with other Americans.
Clearly, the cultural expressions of New York and Harlem cities reveal a lot about the cultures of the two cities in the 1920s and 1930s. While the Empire State Building was expressive of the elements of American capitalism including individualism, efficiency, determination and courage, the Cotton Club represented the elements of Harlem renaissance including African Americans’ quest for identity, freedom and independence. In both cities, the main agents of cultural change were immigrants trying to consolidate their identity in the populist America leading to advancements in architecture, arts and music. The simultaneous existence of the two very different cultures in neighboring cities reflected both the beauty of America’s cultural diversity and the difficult challenge of overcoming racial discrimination that stood in the way of shaping America’s image.
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McCurdy, Ronald C. Meet the Great Jazz Legends. Van Nuys, CA: Alfred Pub, 2004. Print.
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Pile, John. A History of Interior Design. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2005. Print.
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Rucker Walter C. and James N. Upton. Encyclopedia of American Race Riots: 1. Westport, CO: Greenwood Press, 2007. Print.
Tieck, Sarah. Empire State Building. Edina, MN: ABDO Pub. Co, 2008. Print.
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Country report and costs and benefits of privatization
Country Report: Brazil
Due to the recent trends that show Brazil as having a potential for economic growth, it has created attention from many countries as a favorite business partner. For the last 80 years, the US has been the Brazil’s most influential business partner. However, this seems to be changing as China is now taking its place. This has been traced to the fact that china has recently shown a huge demand for iron ore. This is seen as the primary reason that has led the Americans to be edged by china. In 2009, the Brazilian trade minister resented a report that showed the trade between brazil and china as amounting to $3.2bn which represented almost twelve-fold increase since 2001(Moore 2009). Brazil is now in the process of diversifying in terms of products that are exported to china. Other products that sre now exported to china include fuel, soya beans meant for Chinese tofu and also cellulose.
Due to the recent growth in public markets, the country has become one of the favorite s in terms of foreign investment. This has led it to become the second largest foreign investment destination after china. This also points out the reason as to why china is getting more interested to strengthen the trade links between these countries. It is therefore logical to point out that Brazil has seen more potential in china than the US due to these factors thus completely edging out the dominance of the Americans since the 1930s.
President Dilma Rousseff has been through a lot of challenges since her election as the first female president in Brazil on January 1st 2011. This is majorly due to the ten-party electoral coalition. This is what has proven to be a challenge in her bid to advance her political agenda. Some of the parties shave expressed disappointment in the way the Roussef is attempting to constrain spending as well as his tactics of fighting corruption. PSD is one of the parties that have been a constant critic of the Rousssef administration. The dispute is mainly on budget cuts as well as the appointment s to the plum government jobs.
The recent resignation her most powerful minister led to more ridicule from PSd which is the main opposition party in the country. There were question as to who will salvage the rising inflation now that Rouseffs ministers seem to be stepping aside. More criticism came from Sergio Guerra who is the leader of PSD. This thus shows that there seems to be no partnership in the coming year between Roussef and PSD. They do not seem to agree on any political agenda and this has thus strained the relationship further. There was also a case in the recent past whereby his authority has been put in doubt after former president Luiz da Sillva, who is considered as her mentor came to the limelight when he tried to look for a lasting solution in terms of relation with the congress. This did not go well with PSD who believe that she does not have enough authority over her duties as the president. This therefore points out that there is no possibility that PSD will be a friend to Roussef in the coming year.
Since Roussef inherited the economic situation from her predecessor Luiz da Silva. She has been struggling to deal with the rising inflation in the country. Although she had established her identity as a hard-nosed pol, this has not been easy. This is especially from the unions. The union had set a minimum wage that they had demanded Roussef to abide by it through the congress. However, the February minimum wage that she had hammered through the congress did not go well with the unions taking into consideration that her Workers party constitute these unions. This led to a protest from the unions who demanded to understand why their grievances could not be met even by the party that they are associated with. The unions had demanded a minimum wage of $360 but president Roussef saw the logic of trying to do the spending cuts imperative by demanding a 6.8% minimum wage increase which translated to $324 in a month. Interestingly the bill was passed. This greatly angered the unions with Ricardo Patah who is the president of the union workers describing it as a disaster (Maurer par. 4).
Brazil has always been known to enjoy good trade relations with other countries in terms of imports and exports. However, in the recent past, we have witnessed a wave of protectionism in the country. The main reason as to why the government has resorted to protectionism is because is in the bid to help the local firms that produce products similar to those being imported. The firms in question range from the motor industry, farming, oil and many more. The big demand for locally produced goods has fuelled this policy. The recent discovery of significant gas and oil reserves in Brazil for example has led to the government to order the foreign firms to pump the oil into this local oil field only as junior partners of Petrobras which is state controlled. This is a strategy that was meant to make locals more interested in the local oil and gas and thus reduce the competition from the foreign firms.
The recent thirty point increase in the industrial-product tax that was put on cars was simply necessitated by the fact that the government believed that imports had appropriated the Brazilian consumption. This measure was therefore taken to cushion the Brazilian consumption (Economist, par. 1).
Costs and Benefits of Privatization: Evidence from Brazil
Privatization in Brazil came with it its own measure of approval as well as criticism. However, a cording top a survey that was conducted at that time, it showed that Brazilians had higher ratings in terms of approval of privatization than their neighbors like Chile. This approval came mostly from the Brazilian elites. However, the non-Brazilian elites were not contented with this privatization issue at all. This is because of the method that was used. There was privatization of by distribution of wealth to the local elites. This kind of privatization did not seem to go well with the non-Brazilian elites in terms of doing business in the country. It meant that they had to either start all over again or simply quit. Another reason is the fact that the state owned enterprises were being sold to the highest bidders. In this case the highest bidders had to be the foreign enterprises or the rich local elites. Priority was thus given to the highest bidder of the rich Brazilian elites (Parker and Saal 227).
The privatization in Brazil meant that there was a massive loss of jobs among the working class. This was expected as the government looked at the best way they could do to increase profitability and be efficient in its operations. Due to this policy however, there were redistribution costs that the government had to incur. This meant that the citizens had to pay more in order to fill the gap that was left as a result of privatization. The cost of basic commodities was seen to shoot up and this adversely affected the unemployed population.
During this turning point in the Brazilian economy, the government was forced to privatize Telebras which was the main communication medium in the country. The aim for this privatization was to make sure that the huge external debts were paid. In this bid Anatel which was the national telecommunication agency was given the task to coordinate Telebras privatization. This thus meant there would now be competition in the telecommunication sector. The government then decided that the small companies that constituted Telebras were given the go ahead to work independently. They were however being governed by the general laws of communication that were passed during that time. In year 1972, Fondo Nacional de Telecomunicaciones (FNT) was created by the government. This was meaqnt to make sure that the internal assets of Telebras were pooled for equal disbursement in the whole Telebras system. It was not long before the funding of FNT got depleted. This is what helped Telebras to shift their focus to capital markets in order to look for capital. They were able to tap both the internal and external capital markets (Molano 29).
For the past two decades, Brazil has been involved in privatization of it SOEs in order to clear the debts it owes. However this trend does not seem to end anytime soon. With the proposal for the renewed privatization of the oil, electricity and banking sectors there seems to be confusion within the public domain. Companies like Petrobras are privately managed but it still has the involvement of the government. The renewed privatization of these companies will therefore mean more burdens on the citizens in terms of the redistribution costs. On the other hand, they are set to benefit from the foreign investment. This can be seen in the recent privatization of state bank of Ceara which went for USD297.9 million as well as the Paulista Electric Energy Transmission Company that was privatized in 2006 for USD 230 million. The Brazilian government has therefore seen more benefit than harm in the privatization of these companies. The improvement of the economy that results from the privatization of these companies may however prove to be of benefit to the citizens in the long run. There should however be a balance between the government and citizen’s benefit when it comes to privatization of these companies. In regard to the oil industry, I believe that it will increase efficiency due to the fact that it is competitive enough now with the discovery of new oil fields.
“Business: protectionism in Brazil.” Sep 24th 2011: 11. Print
Molano, Walter T. The Logic of Privatization: The Case of Telecommunications in the Southern Cone of Latin America. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Greenwood Press, 1997. Print.
Muarer, Harry “Brazilian President Rousseff Escapes Lula’s Shadow” Bloomsnerg Businessweek 24 March 2011. 4. Print.
Parker, David, and David S. Saal. International Handbook on Privatization. Cheltenham [u.a.: Elgar, 2003. Print.
Globalization and the United States
Globalization is a concept with a wide variety of meanings making it quite disputed. The concept has the tendency of expanding its embrace in order to explain a wider variety of events as well as aspects of personal and social life. However, some scholars have attempted to offer some presentable definitions of this concept: It has been defined as the increasing unification in the economic order of the world via the reduction of barriers to free international trade like tariffs, import quotas, and export fees. The objective is increasing material wealth, services and, goods via an international labor division by the efficiencies catalyzed by specialization, competition, and international relations. Globalization thus describes the process in which regional economies, cultures, and societies have become integrated via transportation, communication, and trade (Croucher 10). Globalization is closely associated with economic globalization, which is “the process by which markets and production in different countries are becoming increasingly interdependent due to the dynamics of trade in goods and services and flows of capital and technology.” (Held, 2000: 92) However, globalization is not only driven by economic factors but also a combination of the economic factors with the technological, biological, political, and socio-cultural factors (Croucher 10).
Globalization has also been defined as the increment in the disintegration of various national boundaries in the favor of a shared culture, global economy, as well as worldwide political integration (Leon 90). Globalization by all measures appears to be an unstoppable and inevitable progression and its likely consequences and impacts are the same across many nations. Scholars and writers do not question the plusses and minuses, or the benefits and costs associated with globalization (Bertho, Crawford and Fogarty xi). There are benefits to the less developed nations and cultures such as the chances of improving their economic conditions, sharing in the new global economy, as well as advancing their citizenry political freedoms. On the other hand, the wealthier nations in the world enjoy such benefits as lessened national barriers for economic integration and cultural interaction, lowered trade restrictions, and creation of new opportunities for their economic growth (Bwagwati 14).
Correspondingly, for each or every globalization’s positive impact, there are also some negative consequences. As a culture and a nation, the US is effectively surrendering a portion of her national sovereignty hoping that any costs will be offset by the benefits of globalization. The purpose of this paper is to examine the various impacts that globalization have upon the United States. The impacts are both in positive and negative dimensions with focus being on the impacts of the US by such factors.
The Impact of Globalization on the United States
American society is well represented by Thomas L. Friedman (1999) in his book entitled “The Lexus and the Olive Tree” in which the author posits that the whole world is presently going through two forms of struggle. These struggles are the drive for development and prosperity, which is represented by the Lexus on one hand, and the interest of retaining traditions and identity- represented by olive tree on the other hand. Globalization has contributed greatly towards the fragmentation of the American society, which is a concern marking a very sharp break from the past cultural critiques in America. In 1950s as well as early 1960s, the US society received much criticism for its homogeneity and conformity. Some observers like David Riesman, William H. Whyte, George William Domhoff, and C. Wright Mills decried what they collectively perceived as the muffling and leveling impact of mass society and bureaucracy. However, in the recent years, such concerns regarding a community that is overly oppressive have been done away with and replaced by some opposite focus on pronounced differences or indifferences within a society that is generally driven by race, immigration, ethnicity, identity divisions, and class (Bertho, Crawford and Fogarty xv).
The US is viewed as the strongest advocate for globalization by most of the other global nations. The US appears to be pushing globalization on everyone else. Often, globalization is thought of as a thing impacting the other nations although it has impacted the US quite strongly in both positive and negative aspects on the nation itself as well as on its domestic politics. A couple of American organizations have migrated majority of their manufacturing works to foreign nations in which doing business has become cheaper. Moreover, technical and service jobs are currently going through a large exodus towards the foreign labor too, a process that has been termed as offshoring or outsourcing (Held 92). The development of globalization has greatly coincided with arrival of a number of both human-made and natural new threats to the American society. Racial barriers have contributed towards the fragmentation of the US multiracial-multicultural society; the steady growth in the income gap existing between the poor and the rich; breakdown of cultural boundaries; and the erosion of the prophylactic powers of national borders. In the meantime, the US is occupied by creation of physical fences between nations when environmental threats have cross-border effects, which are only exacerbated by the issue of global warming resulting into migration (Bertho, Crawford and Fogarty xix).
In understanding the influence of globalization on the US foreign and domestic policies, it is important to analyze her historical role since to an extent, globalization is a representation of the negation of various benefits afforded by the nation-state politics. Modern nation-state concept according to Flora, Kuhnle and Urwin “can be defined as a sovereign political entity that governs a geographical region that is inhabited by a population with a shared sense of collective identity.” (12). Simply, modern nation-state combines the basic idea of a nation (defined as a unified populace generally linked by belief, heritage, shared values, or religion) with a state’s political construct. A state in this sense means sovereign political power that is centralized (Michener 48). The nation-state in the 21st century has become a dominant worldwide political organization system in which a vast majority of global population lives under the governance of a sovereign authority, which regulates a constituency characterized by shared social and cultural identity. Increasingly, however, the globalization process serves as nationalism’s counter-balance with both advantages and disadvantages. Nationalism forces and the nation-state represent competing paradigms in which nationalism creates shared cultural identity cohesion while nationalism results into conflict with the other nations because of competition for scarce resources (Flora, Kuhnle and Urwin, 1999: 12).
In a global interaction model of balance-of-power, there are rules governing this interaction and it amounts to a balancing test. In selection of courses of action by the US, each state is required to weigh its responsibility towards own populace against the long-term stability of the global community (Brubaker 19). For majority of the nation-states early history, interactions depended on their power and opportunity: if a country had power of controlling a natural resource plus the opportunity of doing so, such course of action could not be selected. Currently, international interaction is frequently constrained by the political and economic forces of globalization and by the collective action of the international community’s power. Therefore, globalization in the US is working towards the harnessing of the runaway nationalism with destructive potential. However, globalization is a barrier to nationalism benefits such as technical innovation, space exploration, and other activities that are pursued as national efforts towards achievement of comparative excellence (Flora, Kuhnle and Urwin, 1999: 12).
The advantages of globalization on both their impacts on the American domestic policy and on a global scale are lucid. Throughout the globe, the globalization’s economic domino effects have significantly strengthened the poor nations’ economies, raised environmental concerns’ attention, decreased levels of poverty, as well as resulting into frequent intervention in the national-level abuses on human rights (Wener 122). Even if such benefits have often been political, they originate from the globalization economics. In both the US as well as the poorer nations, it has been argued by Bhagwati “that the economic benefits from the increased prosperity that globalization will bring through trade, aid, investments, and technical change” (115) have had substantial impact on both national and global levels. Ironically, for the nations opposed to globalization, economics benefits tend to be actually experienced more strongly in the poorer states, as the impacts to the domestic policy of the US being loss of the Americans employment opportunities (Bhagwati 115).
Globalization has led to movement of Americans to other nations as expert workers. Singer notes that it is impossible to complain about nationalism being bad or even complain that World Trade Organization (WTO) erodes national sovereignty. This is because the key impact of NAFTA, which was denounced by anti-globalization, is the creation of high-paying jobs in some American nations like Mexico. NAFTA’s point was shipping Americans to the Mexican job market, which is a bad endeavor for the American labor but an advantage to the Mexicans. The transfer of labor from the US to Mexico is expected to increase the people’s income, especially those who are averagely much worse off compared to the US workers losing their jobs. According to Easterbrook, ““Those who favor reducing poverty globally, rather than just in their own country should see this as a good thing.” (48)
The US has also benefited from globalization in such aspects as lower trade barriers, significance increase in the abilities of real-time communication between her international organizations, increase in her economic interactions, and a greater emphasis on the international cooperation. All these are some consequences of globalization on the US, which have been crucial in serving in strengthening of the economy of the US domestically (Bhagwati 89). Unfortunately, however, these great economic benefits are being offset by the massive trade deficit the US is currently operating under, which has become a troubling and new impact of globalization in the 21st century. In the past eras, US and other wealthy countries benefitted from globalization due to the fact that new markets commenced for both goods and services. Currently, globalization has had some net effect upon the US in terms of increase in trade deficits.
Globalization has decreased the national sovereignty of the US; especially with the rise in global terrorism, war against terrorism, as well as similar conflicts that arise from the clash of globalization and religious identity or national culture. The globalization’s inescapable reality is the fact that the world has become a very small place. There is an increase in interactions between individuals from different civilizations, which in turn lead into intensification of civilization awareness and consciousness of the variations between commonalities within civilizations and civilizations (Huntington 23). The resultant political, economic, and cultural benefits have been great but the costs have also been on the rise. Particularly, the costs towards the American domestic economy as well as her national policies have become unprecedented. The global war against terror has had high costs on both human and financial aspects. Over $315 billion have been used in the fight against terrorism in Iraq alone by the US. More billions have been used to fight other global terrorist groups like Al- Qaeda. In addition, there are some unaccountable costs such as the number of human lives that have been lost, the possible future conflicts’ creation as well as the rise of new terrorists’ generations after the current war is won (Bertho, Crawford and Fogarty xv). Such human and economic costs obviously carry significant and frequently incalculable effects on the American domestic policy as well as the American domestic economy.
The war on terrorism has other further costs, which may be unseen impacts on the economy such as the curtailed civil liberties. American corporations, for instance, conducting business in the foreign markets are faced with significantly raised costs as a result of security concerns. The organizations relying on global trade are faced with increased risk, new costs and shipping delays due to the terrorism menaces and the war with Iraq. With such dual threats from terrorism and war, the US may be positioned to achieve the objectives that the anti-globalization proponents have not such as a substantial slowdown, even fall in the global investment and trade. As a counter measure, the US firms have greatly adjusted to new requirements and tighter security at the American entry ports since the 11 September terror attacks. Commencement of the war with Iraq necessitated a new extent of scrutiny on all the cargo entering into the US (Sparshott 7).
In conclusion, globalization is a reality across the globe and it has impacted nations in different perspectives. The impacts have been studied on two broad categories: the effects of globalization on the rich nations and the impacts on the poor or developing nations. In both cases, there are a number of factors, which stand out as the consequences of globalization. There are benefits to the less developed nations and cultures such as the chances of improving their economic conditions, sharing in the new global economy, as well as advancing their citizenry political freedoms. On the other hand, the wealthier nations in the world enjoy such benefits as lessened national barriers for economic integration and cultural interaction, lowered trade restrictions, and creation of new opportunities for their economic growth. The US has greatly benefited via globalization though the current deficits in trade. The country has enjoyed greater investment opportunities for her organizations in other foreign countries and this has boosted her global relationship with other countries.
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Croucher, Sheila L. Globalization and Belonging: The Politics of Identity in a Changing World. London: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004.
Easterbrook, Gregg. Greatest Good for the Greatest Number: Philosopher Peter Singer will Anger His Traditional Lefty Fans with a Clear-Eyed Account of the Benefits of Globalization. Washington Monthly, November 2002.
Flora, Peter, Kuhnle, Stein and Urwin, Derek. Eds. State Formation, Nation-Building, and Mass Politics in Europe: The Theory of Stein Rokkan: Based on His Collected Works. Oxford: Oxford University, 1999.
Friedman, Thomas L. The Lexus and the Olive Tree. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 2000.
Held, David. A Globalizing World?: Culture, Economics, Politics. New York: Routledge, 2000.
Huntington, Samuel. The Clash of Civilizations. Foreign Affairs, 72.3, 22-28, 1993.
Leon, Rafo. Peru’s globalization problem. Foreign Policy, (133), 90-91, Retrieved on November 7, 2011 from:http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2002/11/01/perus_globalization_problem
Michener, Roger. Eds. Nationality, Patriotism, and Nationalism in Liberal Democratic Societies. St. Paul, MN: PWPA, 1993.
Wenar, Leif. One World: The Ethics of Globalization. Ethics & International Affairs, 17.2, 122, 2003.
Total Population and Growth
Qatar has a total population of 1,951,591 people and it is ranked in position 147 as far as the world population is concerned. The population grows at a rate of 4.93% and it is the world’s fastest-growing nation (CIA).
Distribution of Population
12.5 % of the entire population is made of people between 0 and 14 years who total up to 244,871. The other category the people between the ages of 15 and 24 years. This category forms 14 .4% of the entire population and the people in the category total up to 281 497(CIA). The category of people between 25 and 54 years adds up to 1,345, 087 people and they form 68.9% of the population (CIA). The other category are people aged between ages 55 and 64 who form 3.3% of the population and total up to 64,633 people. The final category of Qatar population is those who are aged above 65 years and they form 0.8% of the entire population. They add up to 15, 503 people.
The people between 0-14 years are the first group. The male in this category are slightly more than females as they total to 124, 303 while females are 120,568. The male in this group form 50.7% while females form 49.3%. The population between 15 -24 years is composed of 73.8% male who total up to 207942(CIA). Females total up to 73,555 people and they form 26.2% of the group (CIA). The category of people between 25 and 54 years has 1,105, 087 males who form 82% of the population while females add up to 240, 000 and form 18% of the group. The population between ages 55 and 64 is composed of 49,965 males forming 77% of the population and 14,668 females who form 23% of the population. The final group is that of people aged over 64 years who are composed of 60% males adding up to 9,312. The group also has 6,191 females and they form 40% of this population (CIA).
Most of the population is concentrated in urban areas as 96% of the people live in the cities. This means that only 4% population lives in the rural areas. Doha is the capital city and the total population within the town is 427, 000 inhabitants.
Availability, coverage, and restrictions
Radios and TVs are controlled by the state in Qatar. Al-Jazeera TV belonged to Qatar government. The government then who financed and controlled it. It, however, moved from state ownership to private operation. It is clear that liquor consumption, which is regulated by the law, would not get much airing in the television stations (CIA). The government would give the firm great restrictions and thus using this media would be limited. Qatar also has 897 internet hosts, which makes it ranked position 173 in the whole world. Most of the people in Qatar are also connected to the internet and they constantly use it.
Costs of TV, radio, print
The cost of television advertisements is expensive given that the government owns most TV stations. Existence of private international channels like Al- Jazeera, however, serves to make the prices slightly competitive (CIA). This is also true about radio stations as they are also controlled by the government and this makes it relatively expensive as compared to places where there are many private owners. The print media tends to be cheaper as there are private owners in the nation. This means that the government does not control print media.
Qatar has 897 internet hosts and it is ranked position 173 worldwide. It is also notable that internet is easily accessible among most Qataris. Most homes have internet connections and this means many people connect to the rest of the world through the internet (CIA). Statistics reveal that most of the people between ages 10 to 50 use the internet and the social media to connect to the rest of the world. The high population that accesses internet is explained by the high urbanization rate in the nation (CIA).
Promotion and Advertising
The advertising media that shall be used to reach the target market is the internet and social media (CIA). This media is termed competitive, as it is cheap as compared to other media. The target group is also youthful and urbanized a factor that makes it the most preferred medium. Print media is also competitive based on its affordable price (CIA).
Promotions Customarily Used
The sales promotion that is customarily used is advertisements, which are placed in the social media, the print media or even on televisions. Televisions are mostly used despite their high costs as the youth easily watch them. The social media is also highly preferred as it less costly and easily accessible to the youth, which is the product’s target group (CIA).
CIA. THE WORLD FACT BOOK. 5 Feb. 2013 web, 6 Mar 2013. < https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/qa.html>.
Urban Challenge: How Can Abu Dhabi Create A Hardworking Entrepreneurial Culture And More Self-Dependant Working Class?
Abu Dhabi is the largest emirate out of the seven United Arabs Emirates, taking up 85% 67,340 square kilometers of the nation’s land area. Abu Dhabi shares borders with Saudi Arabia, Oman and Dubai, and is the stool of the UAE federal government. Abu Dhabi is a sandy beach coastline that expands for over 400 kilometers. The Arab emirate is partitioned into three administrative areas: Abu Dhabi City; the Eastern Region having Al-Ain as its biggest city; and the Western Region that has Madinat Zayed as the largest city. About 995% of UAE’s hydrocarbons reserves are found within Abu Dhabi’s territory meaning that it is the wealthiest state in the UAE.
Abu Dhabi makes up approximately 70 per cent of UAE government reserves and generates around 60% of the group’s gross domestic product (GDP). As a result, it also takes on the weight of the government budget, taking up 30-40 per cent of expenditure, while Dubai puts in approximately 3 per cent, and the rest is made available through income from national bodies for example the finance, labour and interior ministries. Abu Dhabi is a contemporary city that boasts of broad boulevards, iconic office along with apartment buildings and shopping malls that are full of activities boasting of best intercontinental brands. In spite of its physically sandy environment, Abu Dhabi is famous for its greenery. The dessert strip has been successfully turned into parks and gardens counting the picturesque Corniche.
Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed al-Nahyan has been Abu Dhabi’s ruler and president of the UAE ever since his father Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan al-Nahyan passed on in 2004. Sheikh Zayed was UAE’s founding father and had been the president of UAE since 1971. Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed al-Nahyan is Abu Dhabi’s crown prince. The crown prince encompasses numerous political, economical and lawmaking tasks and is the chairperson of the Executive Council of Abu Dhabi and Deputy Supreme Commander of the UAE Armed Forces. Abu Dhabi emirate is the home of UAE University, Zayed University and the Higher Colleges of Technology. Its infrastructural facilities including a world class port; Abu Dhabi International Airport; Abu Dhabi National Exhibition Centre and Zayed Sports City.
Important Statistics on the Demographics of Abu Dhabi
Economic growth has led to unprecedented growth in Abu Dabhi with population increasing by double in the last two decades. Abu Dhabi has a total population of about 2,120 700 with 1,499 900 males and 620 900, females. Majority of the population is comprised of non-Abu Dhabi nationals that comprise about 79.5% (1,681,700) of the whole population. Most of the non-Abu Dhabi nationals come from Asian countries followed by other Arab countries. A huge percentage of Abu Dhabi’s population is young between 0 and 29 years, which translates to a high dependency ratio by the young people of about 21.1. Abu Dhabi’s labour force stands at 1,443, 700 which represents about 68% of the population. The registered unemployed are 40,300 with an unemployment rate of about 2.8 percent by 2011. Most of the male Abu Dhabi nationals take up careers as managers, technician or associate professional or a sales worker while only a small percentage are machine operators, clerks or in elementary and craft occupation. Most of the women within the labour force are professionals, technicians and in clerical work. However, the number of women in the labour force is low compared to that of male at 24.67% among the nationals, while the non-nationals stand at 13% with an average of 14% for the whole population.
A large percentage of the labour force is employed, particularly the male nationals are employed in wholesale $ retail trade repair of motor vehicle or motorcycles and mining and quarrying while women are employed in education. Male non-nationals tend to dominate most of the industries both in the blue and white collar jobs such as education, construction, wholesale $ retail trade repair of motor vehicle or motorcycles, transportation and storage, financial and insurance activities, accommodation and food services and human health and social work. This reveals that the labour force of Abu Dhabi is largely dominated by foreigners. In addition, most of the women the labour force are also non-nationals in the financial and insurance sectors, professional, scientific and technical activities. Most of the women have ventured into education sector wile men dominate the blue-collar jobs. Ironically, the biggest percentage of the unemployed citizens is by Abu Dhabi nationals at 11.8%, female at 17.8% and men by 6.8%, while non-nationals have an unemployment rate of 1.9%.
Abu Dhabi Vision 2030 Plan and Its Main Priorities
Abu Dhabi vision 2030 is built on sustainability and diversification, and a high-value economy properly integrated into the international economy to gain greater access to high-value opportunities for its citizens and residents. As a result, the Abu Dhabi vision 2030 is based on two policy priorities:
Build a sustainable economy
Abu Dhabi will ensure a balanced regional and social development to convey the benefits of economic well-being and growth to the whole emirate population.
The core objectives of the two priorities include building a sustainable economy through diversification to trim down economic growth volatility. Diversification will involve broadening enterprise base, economic sectors, encouraging entrepreneurship, Foreign Direct Investments (FDI), small businesses and development of national champion enterprises.
Another core objective is to equip the youth to take part in the labor force and increase women participation in employment with more focus on nationals across emirates in a bid to achieve social and regional development in all the sections of the society.
In an attempt to develop these core objectives, that will drive the policy priorities, seven areas of ongoing economic policy. These areas of policy focus include
Building an open, well-organized, efficient and internationally incorporated business environment
This will be achieved by developing a vibrant economy for the future since Abu Dhabi already enjoys an enviable economic position as per the economic indicators. As demand and price of oil as the chief export continues to swell in the international markets, the economy intends to use the opportunity to leverage current wealth to fashion a sustainable and a steady economy. this will be accompanied b stimulating growth in non-oil sectors.
Developing A Highly Skilled And Productive Workforce
Abu Dhabi aims at continuing to attract highly skilled labor force to increase economic valor. The economy also wants to create links between educational establishments and employers to sharpen the skills of the nationals and increase their employability by increasing flexibility and productivity.
a disciplined fiscal policy
that are responsive to economic cycles
The economy boasts of substantial success in having budget planning in the past three decades due to constant revenues from investments and oil rents and thus gaining economic stability. The intention here is to decouple growth of the economy from the global oil price and apply fiscal tools to stabilize economic conditions.
Facilitate Financial Markets as the Key Financiers of Economic Sectors and Projects
A wider framework that calls for consultation and coordination of local and federal authorities to instill effective reforms governs Abu Dhabi’s financial plans. However, there is a need for Abu Dhabi to develop debt and equity markets as drivers of economic growth. The economy is looking onto the potential of tapping into infant securities market with an opportunity to trade bonds and sukuks. This will also see stimulation of savings by private sector in a bid to grow loans and deposits for private sector credit that is more productive than personal loans.
Establishing a Resilient Monetary and Financial Market Environment with Manageable Levels of Inflation
There is a need to develop complex financial tools to safeguard financial and money markets of Abu Dhabi in a bid to counter inflation and ensure price stability. As the UAE money markets continue to attract more players and grow, there is need for Abu Dabhi to control liquidity, inflation and credit in order to boost investor confidence in a stable market.
Driving Significant Improvement in the Efficiency of the Labour Market
Abu Dhabi is a highly liberalized and flexible labour market meant to attract and retain skilled labour force to enhance productivity. This openness serves as a competitive advantage for Abu Dhabi. The economy hopes to go a step further and ensure that the right regulations that increase efficiency are not overlooked to maintain high unemployment levels while at the same time having safe and ethical labour resources management.
Developing a resilient and sufficient infrastructure with an ability of supporting expected economic growth
Abu Dhabi understands that economic growth comes with need for high-end infrastructure. As a result, Abu Dhabi will develop its energy, telecommunications, technology and transport systems to ensure security and resilience required for growth. Current infrastructure faculty, though, is not enough to deal with the designed and envisaged economic and the resultant population expansion in the next two decades. This will be accompanied by developments in ICT and infrastructure aimed at protecting the environment.
Economic Targets for Abu Dhabi Vision 2030
Every organizational or institutional vision must be measured through certain parameters to ensure and gauge its success. This success is measured through certain put across targets in the process of vision or project formulation. Abu Dhabi’s vision 2030 has five economic targets that will act as a measure of success for the project.
Abu Dhabi will be keen to foster higher non-oil GDP growth compared to oil GDP in a bid to diversify with the aim of getting to equilibrium by 2028. Oil revenue will continue to maintain its position however, non-oil revenue will bring a balance that will withstand long-term economic trends and reduce volatility through non-oil exports. On the same note, the economy will also lessen its focus on domestic market through expoert-oriented industries (The Abu Dhabi Economic Vision 2030 126).
With diversification, non-oil fiscal deficit will fall considerably that will also pave way for inflation mitigation policies. This will also call for alignment of local economy with international that will necessitate change in investment and consumption patterns. Stability will also be generated when skilled foreign entrants will be in line with Abu Dhabi’s growth needs and demands. As the economy shifts from local economy and public sector towards private sector and export-oriented sectors, there will be higher demand for qualified and competent skills of non-nationals to drive Abu Dhabi to national stability.
Labour force productivity will be improved through improved education systems and technology. National workforce will be the center of attention as the economy strive to each full employment and enable all citizens get a share of economic benefits. This will also lead to increased number of national workers while than non-national will come down to 62%. Diversification calls for quality skills and higher wages for both national and non-national employees. Abu Dhabi will double the number of students in universities or getting degrees to and equip them with economic skills to diversify.
Productivity and Competitiveness
By 2020, Abu Dhabi aims to creep up transformation economic index rankings for trade standards and competitiveness, whether calculated by the World Economic Forum (WEF) or the World Bank (The Abu Dhabi Economic Vision 2030 127).
. Abu Dhabi aims to increase its real GDP growth to about five times its current levels. More significantly, strategic economic growth, supremacy of the oil sector as a GDP component, as well as government expenditure, will decline, while private local and household investment and expenditure will structure a greater part of the real GDP makeup. Both domestic consumption and investment are expected to increase at higher rates than other real GDP components, signifying amplified depth and multiplicity in the economy.
Physical and Financial Capital
Net exports including oil, are targeted to increase by almost four-fold by 2030; therefore, a growing percentage of national asset structure will emanate from domestic investments. Domestic investments within Abu Dhabi’s economy are set to double to 23%, which is a nine-fold increase. Asset formation will derive more benefit from the diversification of the trade balance, as extra income flows into the economy through long-term capital investments, rather than short-term consumption (The Abu Dhabi Economic Vision 2030 129).
Critique of Abu Dhabi Vision 2030
Abdelal, Rawi. “Sovereign Wealth in Abu Dhabi.” Geopolitics 14.2 (2009): 317-327. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.
Davidson, Christopher. “Abu Dhabi’s New Economy: Oil, Investment And Domestic Development.” Middle East Policy 16.2 (2009): 59-79. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.
Lancaster, Pat. “Abu Dhabi.” Middle East 423 (2011): 40-45. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.
Luomi, Mari. “Abu Dhabi’s Alternative-Energy Initiatives: Seizing Climate-Change Opportunities.” Middle East Policy 16.4 (2009): 102-117. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.
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The Abu Dhabi Economic Vision 2030. Section Five: Delivering the Abu Dhabi Economic Vision 2030. 2011. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. http://www.adced.ae/PDF/EcoVisionReports/Delivering%20the%20Abu%20Dhabi%202030%20Economic%20Vision.pdf
The Abu Dhabi Economic Vision 2030. Section Four: Measures of Success. 2011. Web. 17 Dec. 2012.
Changes in San Francisco and Their Impacts
San Francisco has passed a metamorphosis of changes in the recent twenty years. There are noticeable changes in its development as compared to its past conditions. These changes are majorly categorized into the levels of infrastructure, job opportunities, rates of immigration and the level of technology among others. In effect, there are associated positive and negative impacts because of such changes in this city as discussed below.
To begin with, San Francisco has improved in its fixed or long-term structures. When I first visited this town, the structures or buildings were few and less developed. The number of roads has increased at an alarming rate. As compared in the last twenty years, the residents can now access this city more easily at reduced transport costs. In addition to the increase in the number, the roads and other streets have been improved through proper lighting and sanitation. Many cases of ill health were associated to the poor sanitation of these road networks as compared to today. There are also evident changes in electricity supplies in this city. Most of the public offices are equipped with power supply. In contrast, San Francisco had no sources of power in the last fifteen years.
Infrastructure has also improved in this town in terms of manmade structures. One is in a position to locate these erected structures from far distance as compared to the last decade. To add on, more buildings of higher density have been constructed. These architectural constructions are meant to counteract the increased demand for new, assembled and manufactured products. In the last twenty years, this town had only countable buildings that were small in size and less density. On the other hand, water supply has been increased and mechanized since these new factories and assembling plants use water as their major coolant and solvent. In contrast, when I came in this town in the first time, water was limited in supply and the only available sources were polluted.
San Francisco has had immense changes in technology as compared to its level in the few decades ago. This is evident in the level of information technology (IT) infrastructure, the cost of accessing internet services and the improved internet speeds. In this regard, there were no adequate internet services offered in this city in my first visit, for instance, the only cite where internet was available was in a small room which has now been improved to accommodate many customers. This increased availability of internet and the associated services has greatly lowered the rate of costs of browsing. Today the browsing costs are as cheap as forty cents as compared which is a significant decrease. To add on this, there is a tremendous change in the government goodwill for the support of investment in the information communication and technology. This town has recently grown to be the focus by many investors due to the financial incentives offered by the government as compared to past periods.
Similarly, there have been significant changes in immigration levels in this city. San Francisco was adversely populated since there were no enough economic resources and income generating activities. In contrast, today many people are moving and settling in the town looking for new jobs. This has been necessitated by the availability of new structures, enough water supplies, electricity power and a good political will.
In my view, I think the above-mentioned changes have both positive and negative impacts to both the human life and the natural environment. Various benefits are being derived by the dwellers in this city today. Firstly, the improved levels of technology have led to efficient production systems. This is because use of high-speed internet networks reduces the cost of production, for instance, through research, computerized systems and high quality products. Remarkably, I think that the standards of living in San Francisco have also been improved due to the presence of safe social amenities and jobs. The US’s economy is also improved by the properly designed information systems in this town. The level of any country’s Gross Domestic Product is determined by the amounts of income earned by the citizens. Since there are opportunities for new jobs in this town, it is obviously that the dwellers have a source of income, which in effect improves the economy. Secondly, the structural developments in San Francisco will attract potential investors from within and outside the country. I tend to think that investors opt to invest financial assets in those regions that are accessible and less risky just like this town.
The other positive impact brought about by the high rates of immigration is the creation of ready market for consumer goods. People must satisfy their basic needs such as food. These essential commodities in the town are sources of consumer markets for the suppliers. Similarly, increased population in this town calls for provision of public utilities such as learning institutions, electricity and infrastructure. The government is compelled to provide such services to its citizens. In effect, efficient public utilities improve the living standards and the country’s overall GDP. I also think that the high levels of immigration in San Francisco reduce the cost of labor. This is because many people will be competing and chasing the few available job opportunities in the city. Likewise, a decrease in the costs of labor leads to reduced costs of production.
However, this town is likely to be affected negatively by the changes it has made for the last twenty years. There are diverse consequences associated by the growth of any town. One of the major effects is pollution. Today San Francisco is likely to face air pollution from the human activities such as industrial effluents and poisonous fumes in factories. In my opinion, I think that air pollution in this town may lead to other hazards such as airborne diseases and global warming. To add on this, the chances of water pollution are also high because of congestion and over exploitation of the available economic resources in the town.
I also think that improved information technology in this city has some consequences, for instance, it is possible for the crime rates to increase. It has been a common practice for terrorists to hack and control some websites. This poses a major threat to the people living in the town. Changes in information technology are also likely to degrade the moral values in the town. This is because some people may be tempted to watch pornography materials through the internet. Lastly, it is my view that the government through taxation may over exploit people living in San Francisco. This is because increase in population in the city will call for provision of more public utilities, which should be paid for by the citizens through taxation.
Development in South Africa
South Africa development focused more on Education, Training and Development. The leaders and people of South Africa implemented these three factors into practice to lay a better and comfortable platform for the country’s development. The labor market in South Africa is characterized by over supply of unskilled workers and shortage of professional or skilled workers ( Coetzee, 2007, p. 4), and this was one of the reasons they had to ensure that education is upgraded in the country and made accessible to a large number of people living in the country. However, it is faced with an ageing population that has high workforce skills thus creating a skills gap between the young –who are energetic- and the old. The integration of the education system and training that provide different opportunities for all; women and men, young and old, urban and rural.
The purpose was to ensure that the integrated education system to address the development of knowledge and skills that can be used to produce high quality goods and services in such a way as to enable the development of the various cultures, the society and the economy (Abdi, 2005, p.116). However, there are policies made in the progressive education system, for instance special emphasis on girls’ and women education, special education, reorganize higher education among other policies. Moreover, the country of South Africa focused to ensure that there was equally regardless of anyone’s religion, gender, age and race. This helped to ensure people are awarded fairly for any production work they take. Agriculture has also been a development initiative in South Africa, since it helps in the creation of jobs and also the production of crops for instance grapefruits, cereals, sisal and fiber crops.
Abdi, A. A. (2005). Culture, education and development in South Africa: Historical and contemporary perspectives. S.l.: Information Age Publ.
Coetzee, M. (2007). Practicing education, training and development in South African organizations. Cape Town: Juta.
Insecurity in Suburbs
Of the two articles given, the most surprising one to me was the one entitled “The next Slum?”, that was posted on the Atlantic magazine on March 2008. This is because, this article, which was written by Leinberger, talks about the escalating cases on insecurity that now has become commonplace in most American Suburbs, especially those in the Charlotte region of North Carolina. According to the post, residence of this region have become more fearful following the advent of rampant encroach burglary that is penetrating more and more into the once quiet residential area. This unwelcome intrusion has saw a number of people leave their homes for fear that burglars and robbers may destroy or steal their property, as well as for the feeling that their lives were under threat. This is a very alarming issue as security of life and property is one of the most important aspects of a society that people look for if they are to stay in a city.
The article further noted that such occurrences have prompted immediate action of different government agencies, including the police and the city council, which started working together to find the hotspots of these illegal activities in bit to put an end to them. There are a number of implications that these revelations hold for North Carolina and the rest of the US, with statistics showing that people are getting more fearful of the suburban settlement with time. This has seen many people who had initially settled in the suburbs relocate to the urban areas, despite the congestion and high costs of mortgages in the latter regions. However, with increased government action, the security in the suburbs are bound to reduce, but until such a time, the prices of housing will continue to soar in urban regions because of the compelling demand.
Leinberger, C.B. (2008). The Next Slum? Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2008/03/the-next-slum/6653/