Chapter 20 Write-up
This chapter is concerned with many factors revolving around sexual and reproduction health and activities. It discusses issues like feminine hygiene and the menstrual factor of reproduction, as well as products and problems associated with reproduction. Contraception, therapeutic termination of pregnancy, approaches to infertility, prenatal care, delivery methods and hormone replacement therapy are also other factors that are contained in this chapter.
Reproductive health issues
Menstruation is a key concept in matters of reproduction. This is because it influences a woman’s fertility and infertility periods, at which she can get or fail to get pregnant. Menstruation takes place once a month, and is the shedding of the uterine lining if fertilization fails to take place during a woman’s ovulation period in the menstruation cycle. The onset of menstruation is at puberty and stops at menopause. During menopause, some of the products that a woman can use to dispose the menstrual fluid include tampons, menstrual caps and sanitary towels. Unhygienic use of these products may lead to infection of the birth canal and surrounding reproductive organs, leading to infertility and consequent inability to conceive and deliver. Some of the diseases that may result include vaginitis, which is excessive inflammation of the genital area. Jock itch is a fungal infection that causes a rash around the genitals and without proper initial treatment; it may lead to complications that are more serious in the reproductive system (Ann, 2007, p. 28).
Reproductive system hygiene is very important, whether a woman is in her menstruation period or not. Under normal circumstances, the birth canal of a woman cleans itself with secretions that push debris from the inside towards the outside. The bacteria around the organ also help keep the acidity level of the organ at the normal levels, and this discourages the growth of other harmful disease causing microorganisms. Sometimes, a woman may feel the need to clean the reproductive organ herself. One of the methods commonly used is douching, which consists of forcing water or other medically recommended fluids up the birth canal to clean. Douching is normally unnecessary and may cause infections, except in cases where it has been recommended by a doctor. Douching should be avoided at all costs during pregnancy, three days before a pap smear or within six weeks after child delivery. Other methods of maintaining external hygiene include regular and intensive washing of undergarments after each use and regular washing of the genital area with warm soapy water, avoiding the delicate tissues that are near the entrance of the birth canal.
In reproductive health issues, sexually transmitted diseases and infections require to be given the attention they deserve. They are commonly known as STDs and STIs and are spread from one infected person to another through sexual intercourse.They are many in type and exhibit themselves through various signs and symptoms. The most common ones are hepatitis B, gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes and HIV/AIDS. Most of them are incurable, and hence, it is important that people be sensitized on how to prevent transmission. In cases where one is already infected, measures to relieve, suppress or reduce the symptoms become necessary. If not treated in good time, the consequences may lead to infertility and other fatal results. Some of the symptoms of STDs and STIs include abnormal discharge from the vagina or penis, burning and painful urination, blisters, sores, pus and pelvic pain. Women are more affected than men are, but lack of treatment affects both equally. Strategies for reducing or preventing infection include reducing the number of sexual partners, using protection (condoms) and delaying the onset of sexual involvement. The most effective and sure way of preventing infection is abstinence (Anderson, 2005, p. 140-150).
Contraception is about the measures that both men and woman take to reduce the chances of conception or causing a pregnancy. The five major types of contraception methods used in the world over include the rhythm method that entails abstaining from sexual intercourse during the fertility days of a woman in the menstrual cycle. Condoms are rubber sheaths that prevent a man’s sperms from getting into the reproductive tract after intercourse. Intrauterine devices, hormones and sterilization, which includes tube ligation and vasectomy, are also other methods of preventing pregnancy. The choice of the method to use depends on factors like personal preference, effectiveness, safety, partner preference, convenience and availability. Research shows that lack of awareness of contraception methods accounted for 60% of unintended pregnancies in United States in the year 1994.
It is worth noting that apart from the rhythm method, all the other types of birth control methods have their own side effects, which are possible to deal with when proper management is applied. One irregular contraception method is the morning after pill, as it is commonly known, but it is the emergency contraception pill. This is a hormonal pill taken within 72 hours after unprotected sex, especially around the ovulation date or if one is not sure of their cycle, and they do not wish to become pregnant. It should not be used as a regular contraception method and should be taken at a maximum of four times per year.
Sometimes a contraception method may fail and lead to an unplanned pregnancy. In such cases, a woman may opt for abortion, which is allowed by the Supreme Court during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. This is known as voluntary abortion. Although abortion is a controversial subject, advocates believe that women have a right to choose whether to carry a pregnancy to term or not (Gina $ Ralph, 2002, p. 9-10).
Infertility is a topic that is close to the heart of reproduction. It has caused distress among many people both men and women, and it is defined as the inability to conceive over a long time, despite not using contraception. Infertility may be because of low sperm count in men and impotence or complications on the part of the woman like unreliable menstrual cycle in which ovulation does not occur despite the flow. Solutions to deal with infertility include IVF (in vitro fertilization), where egg cells from the woman are fertilized with her partner’s sperms outside the body and implanted into her womb through a thin plastic tube.
Pregnancy and delivery is a crucial component of reproductive health. Many changes take place in a woman’s body when she becomes pregnant, and as such, there is need to access medical care to be guided on the best way to take care of the mother and the unborn child. This is known as pre-natal care and is best initiated as soon as the pregnancy is confirmed. In these prenatal care programs, pregnant women are advised on all they need to know about the pregnancy and consequent childbirth. Ultrasound is a popular procedure during pregnancy bur should be avoided as much as possible for the sake of the health of the unborn baby (Ann, 2007, p. 18).
Delivery options include having a normal birth in which the baby passes through the birth canal, or caesarian section, where the mother undergoes surgery and the baby is pulled out. A mother needs to be informed on the advantage and disadvantage of both methods of delivery. To make the process more bearable, these days it has been allowed that a woman’s partner may stay with her in the delivery room during the process.
After a woman has undergone all these stages of reproduction, the menstruation cycle disappears and she can no longer conceive. This is known as menopause and is characterized by vagina dryness, hot flashes and night sweats. These symptoms however do not last for long but may take up to three years to clear.
Reproductive health is a very crucial aspect of life and requires a lot of attention, both from a personal perspective and from the medical sector. Reproductive health knowledge is the supporting factor behind mortality and population growths of a nation.
Anderson, B. A. (2005). Reproductive health: Women and men’s shared responsibility. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Byers, A. (2007). Frequently asked questions about menstruation. New York, NY: Rosen Pub. Group.
Wingood, G. M., & DiClemente, R. J. (2002). Handbook of women’s sexual and reproductive health. New York: Kluwer academic / Plenum publ.
Chapter 20 6
Person Centered Therapy Theory Analysis
Anna Bunch, Aneissa Nutter, Amanda O’Neal Edelen, & Racheal ParsonsSchool of Professional Counseling
Lindsey Wilson College
Anna Bunch, Aneissa Nutter, Amanda O’Neal Edelen, & Racheal Parsons, The School of Professional Counseling, Lindsey Wilson College.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Anna Bunch, Aneissa Nutter, Amanda O’Neal Edelen, & Racheal Parsons, 300 Ott Elliott LN Harrodsburg, KY 40330. Email: Rachal.Parsons@lindsey.eduAbstract
Person Centered Therapy was developed by Carl Rogers, who was a very optimistic man. This therapy is characterized by four phases: nondirective counseling, client-centered therapy, becoming a person, and worldwide issues. Person Centered therapy focuses on three core conditions: congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathic understanding.
Keywords: Client-centered therapy, congruence, Emotion focused therapy, Accurate Empathy
Person Centered Therapy Theory Analysis
Who was the principle theorist of this theory?
Dr. Carl Ransom Rogers was the principle theorist of Person Centered Therapy; he was born in Oaks Park Illinois 1902 (Flanagan & Flanagan, 2012). (How did the training and life experiences have influenced the development of his or her theory?) He was raised on a farm with his brothers and sister in Illinois. Rogers’s family was based upon Christian beliefs and had very strict values. Carl Rogers’s parents taught him to keep his distance from people who were not family. The strict values that were instilled in him laid the groundwork for conversion that he would later experience. Carl Rogers made a point to create an accepting, permissive, and nonjudgmental environment when speaking with clients.
Rogers attended the University of Wisconsin, he began to get involved in a campus group called Yong Men’s Christian Association, and this group attended the World Student Christian Federation Conference in Beijing China (Boree, 1998). This trip lasted 6 months and it was there were Carl Rogers beliefs began to be challenges and transformed. He began to reject his parent’s beliefs and followed his own (Boree, 1998). In 1924 Rogers Completed is Bachelors of Arts at the University of Wisconsin; four years later he received his Master’s degree in Clinical Psychology from Columbia University (Boree, 1998). He continued his education by getting his Doctoral Degree in Psychotherapy from Columbia University.
During this time, Rogers was doing his clinical at the Rochester Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children was where he learned about the Otto Rank theory and therapy techniques while learning about these techniques he met a women by the name of Elizabeth Davis (Flanagan & Flanagan, 2012). He hired this lady to work for him because she had a unique talent of tuning into the clients feelings; Rogers were intrigued by this and acknowledges her for the best know therapeutic method (Flanagan & Flanagan, 2012). In 1961 Carl Rogers wrote in his book It is the Client who knows what hurts, what direction to go in, what problems are crucial (Rogers, 1961, pp.11-12). Through this principle he founded Person center therapy. Using this approach Rogers listened to the client, gave them the utmost respect, and remained genuine throughout sessions (Boree, 1998).
While during his clinical at this agency began to develop his own theory. While working at Ohio State University he wrote his first book Counseling and Psychotherapy and set up a counseling center at the University of Chicago (Boree, 1998). It was while working there he published his major work, Client-Centered Therapy, wherein he outlines his basic theory (Boree, 1998). Rogers gave a vast majority of tribute to his client for the growth of his theories: Through them he learned what was affective and what was not (Flanagan & Flanagan, 2012).
During his many years in Rochester learning with Otto Rank he began to collaborate his learning and his own practicing together, by doing this many ideals were born such as Clients have creative power, Therapy should assist client to except their uniqueness, Therapist should seek to educate clients, and many more (Flanagan & Flanagan, 2012).
In 1930 Rogers was influenced by social policies and President Franklin D. Roosevelt Character, He was very fond that President Roosevelt permitted his joining people in public policy and encouraging his team to be inventive (Flanagan & Flanagan, 2012). John Dewey was also a person Rogers was intrigued that they mutually had similar objectives, approaches about psychopathology also looked up to his wife for bringing him out of his shell, and she was the first person he had ever had a devoted and compassionate relationship with (Flanagan & Flanagan, 2012).
What Historical Factor Influenced the Development of this theory?
There are four crucial periods of Carl Rogers development of Person Centered Theory (Flanagan & Flanagan, 2012).One period can be categorized as Non directive Counseling. In the 1940 this period was said to be a growing aversion to directive, traditional therapy methods. Rogers’s publication of his work dabbed, Counseling and Psychotherapy marked this very important phase of his life.
The second period is categorized as Client-centered therapy. This period took place in the 1950s, where the theorist changed his theory’s name from non-directive counseling to newly dabbed, direct-centered therapy. In this period of the theorist life, he published a book that was known as, Client-Centered Therapy in 1951. He also changed the focus of his therapies from non-directive process to honoring the client’s ability to leading the therapy (Flanagan & Flanagan, 2012).
The third period that took place in the 1960s was categorized as, Becoming a person. During this period, Carl Rogers focus was on self development. The works of Rogers during this period was strongly associated with human potential movement. In 1961, he published a book, On Becoming a Person and thereafter, 1964; he moved from his academia within the University of Wisconsin and relocated to California. He published some other publications during this period reflecting on person-centered theory application, including Freedom to Learn: A View of what Education Might Become and Carl Rogers on Encounter Groups in 1969 and 1970 respectively. During this period, he also changed his approach’s name to Person-Centered Therapy (PCT) (Flanagan & Flanagan, 2012)
Worldview Issues was the fourth period of Roger’s history that influenced development of his theory. The period that took place in the 1970s and 1980s got Rogers concerned more on worldwide issues.
In 1968, he established the Center for t he Study of the Person within La Jolla and began dedicating most of his work on improvement of interracial relationships, with efforts of increasing world peace. During this period, he met Irish Protestants and Catholics, visited the Soviet Union and South Africa, and conducted some cross-cultural workshops across Dublin, Hungary and Brazil. He also published the book, On Personal Power and A Way of Being in 1977 and 1980 respectively (Flanagan & Flanagan, 2012).
Person Centered Therapy’s Conceptualization of Mental Health
How does the person centered theory conceptualize mental health? Carl Rogers was adamant that the term client rather that patient should be used. Rogers thought that the term patient implied that the individual was sick and seeking a cure from the therapist. Carl Rogers felt that the term client emphasized the individual emphasized was seeking assistance, controlling their destiny and overcoming their difficulties. Carl Rogers was the first therapist to refer to the individual as a client instead of a patient. Person centered therapy is all about self-direction.
Congruence of Person Centered Theory with Wellness Model
Much like Sigmund Freud, Rogers believed that the therapeutic relationship could lead to insights and lasting changes in a client. While Freud focused on offering interpretations of what he believed were the unconscious conflicts that led to a client’s troubles, Rogers believed that the therapist should remain non-directive. That is to say, the therapist should not direct the client, should not pass judgments on the client’s feelings and should not offer suggestions or solutions. Instead, the client should be the one in control. While a number of philosophers and psychologists have addressed the idea that behavior is influenced by the way people see themselves, investigation into the importance of self-concept is most closely associated with the writings and therapeutic practices of Carl Rogers (Goodman RF, JulyAugust 2004). According to Rogers, one’s self-concept influences how one regards both oneself and one’s environment. The self-concept of a mentally healthy person is consistent with his or her thoughts, experiences, and behavior. However, people may maintain a self-concept that is at odds with their true feelings to win the approval of others and to fit in.
Conceptualization of Person Centered Theory and the Mental and Medical Models
Repressing true feelings and impulses can eventually cause a client to become alienated from them, distorting their own experience of the world and limiting their potential for self-actualization, or fulfillment. The gulf between a person’s self-concept and his/her actual experiences is a chronic source of anxiety, and can even result in mental disorders. According to Rogers, a strong self-concept is flexible and allows a person to confront new experiences and ideas without feeling threatened. Social psychologists have pointed out that self-concept also plays an important role in social perception-the process by which we form impressions of others. Attribution-how we explain the causes of our own and other people’s behavior-is particularly influenced by our own self-concept. Social learning theory is also concerned with the ways in which we view ourselves, especially in terms of our perceived impact on our environment.
In the first major theory of social learning, Julian B. Rotter claimed that the expected outcome of an action and the value we place on that outcome determine much of our behavior. For example, people whose positive self-concept leads them to believe they will succeed at a task are likely to behave in ways that ultimately lead to success, while those who expect failure are much more likely to bring it about through their own actions. In a general theory of personality he developed subsequently with two colleagues, Rotter designated variables based on the ways that individuals habitually think about their experiences. One of the most important was I-E, which distinguished “internals,” who think of themselves as controlling events, from “externals,” who view events as largely outside their control. Internal-external orientation has been found to affect a variety of behaviors and attitudes (S, July 2000).
Key Concepts of Person Centered Theory
The person-centered approach has three core conditions that provide a climate conducive to growth and therapeutic change. They contrast with those conditions believed to be responsible for psychological disturbance. The core conditions are:
Unconditional positive regard
The first unconditional positive regard means that the counselor accepts the client unconditionally and non-judgmentally. The client is free to explore all thoughts and feelings, positive or negative, without danger of rejection or condemnation. Crucially, the client is free to explore and to express without having to do anything in particular or meet any particular standards of behavior to earn’ positive regard from the counselor.
The second empathic understanding means that the counselor accurately understands the client’s thoughts, feelings, and meanings from the client’s own perspective. When the counselor perceives what the world is like from the client’s point of view, it demonstrates not only that that view has value, but also that the client is being accepted.
The third congruence means that the counselor is authentic and genuine. The counselor does not present an aloof professional facade, but is present and transparent to the client. There is no air of authority or hidden knowledge, and the client does not have to speculate about what the counselor is really like’ (S, July 2000).
Together, these three core conditions are believed to enable the client to develop and grow in their own way to strengthen and expand their own identity and to become the person that they really’ are independently of the pressures of others to act or think in particular ways. As a result, person-centered theory takes these core conditions as both necessary and sufficient for therapeutic movement to occur.
Why is Key Concepts Important to the Person Centered Theory?
If these core conditions are provided, then the client will experience therapeutic change. Notably, person-centered theory suggests that there is nothing essentially unique about the counseling relationship and that in fact healthy relationships with significant others may well manifest the core conditions and thus be therapeutic, although normally in a transitory sort of way, rather than consistently and continually (Anderson, 2001). Finally, as noted at the outset, the person-centered approach takes clients as their own best authorities. The focus of person-centered therapy is always on the client’s own feelings and thoughts, not on those of the therapist and certainly not on diagnosis or categorization (A., July). The person-centered therapist makes every attempt to foster an environment in which clients can encounter themselves and become more intimate with their own thoughts, feelings and meanings.
According to Rogers, the therapist has a very significant role to play as far as the recovery of the client is concerned. He posited that the condition of the client can only be improved if the therapist is genuine, understanding and warm during the interaction with the patient. Regerian approach to psychotherapy and counseling is has best been stated in the works of Teich, (1992), as drawn in Rogers (1986). Teich has observed, It is that the individual has within himself or herself vast resources for self-understanding, for altering his or her self-concept, attitudes and self-directed behavior – and that these resources can be tapped if only a definable climate of facilitative psychological attitudes can be provided (1992, p. 254). The definable climate that Rogers was talking about includes having a therapist who understands his/her role in the client’s recovery process.
In an article about Carl Rogers Therapy by Saul McLeod (2008), the authors has noted that Person centered therapy is perceived as a client centered therapy. This perception plays an important role in defining the role of a therapist. As opposed to humanistic counseling that sees the person as a patient, the person centered therapy perceives the person as a client, and places both the client and the therapist on the level playing ground; they will have a partnership relationship rather than patient-expert relationship. In this kind of therapy, the client has a greater responsibility of improving his/her life rather than the vice-versa, where the therapist usually goes an extra mile in improving the patient’s wellbeing. Rogers employed this approach as a deliberate alternatives from behavioral and psychoanalysis therapies where doctors treat the diagnosed problem on the patient. The therapist acts more as a counselor or a friend who listens while encouraging the client on equal level (McLeod, 2008).
In Roger’s psychotherapy, there is almost absolute absence of techniques due to the unique nature of each counseling relationship. According to Rogers, what is of greatest important in the therapy process is the relationship that exists between the therapist and the client. He argued that, The therapeutic relationship…is the critical variable, not what the therapist says or does (Peltier, 2009, p. 101). Formation of an appropriate understanding relationship between the client and the therapist is what lays down the foundation of the healing process: The absence of such leads to incongruence, thus the therapist will not achieve the desired objective (McLeod, 2008).
How does the role fit with the theory of mental health? The role of a therapist in dealing with mental health issues is more of providing a platform for the client and the therapist to work together than having the patient situated in a certain location where the therapist comes to analyze the situation and give prescriptions. According to Rogers, self-concept is very crucial in person centered therapy. A therapist has a role of helping the person realize the internal resources within him/her that could be capitalized on improving personal mental health. The therapist is not entitled to curing the patient, but rather exposing them to their vast resources such as self-understanding, self-concept, self-directed behaviors, and personal attitudes, all of which would be very productive if the client was to discover them and make use of them in improving their mental health. The development of self-concept is gradual and heavily dependent on personal attitudes about individual’s significant others. Mental health is subject to the circumstances and environment surrounding the victim: The therapist will create a fertile environment for development and prevalence of mental health (Thorne, 1995).
The primary techniques of this theory
According to Tan (2011) the Person-centered therapy was developed by Rogers with no specific therapeutic interventions or techniques. His therapy does not formerly engage the client in psychological diagnosis, but rather treats every client in a unique approach depending on the issue being addressed. Person centered therapy might diagnose the problem of the client just for the sake of medical insurance reimbursement but not for treatment. Rogers perceived the formal psychological diagnosis as unnecessary for the therapy and actually argued that this form of diagnosis has deleterious effects upon the therapy process (Tan, 2011).
Tan further noted that even though there are no specific techniques in the person centered kind of therapy, therapeutic attitude of person-centered therapist towards his/her client could be described as encompassing 3 fundamental techniques, which include, experiencing and expressing congruence, experiencing and expressing unconditional positive regard, and experiencing and expressing empathetic understanding (Tan, 2011, p. 139).
Experiencing and expressing Congruence:
A therapist that is congruent means it is real, open, honest, and genuine in relating with the client. Nonetheless, such does not imply that the therapist should always engage the client in total self-disclosure or share every feeling and thoughts that he/she might have during the session of therapy. Some self-control and discernment are still needed: The therapist should only share what is important in relation to the client’s case so that the information will be helpful to the client. Such may include sharing of negative feelings like feeling bored, but avoid sharing feelings that might have negative implications on the client, such as sexual attraction towards the client. Rogers seems to have believed that therapists can use techniques in therapy but only if they occurs spontaneously, and not in a preplanned way (Tan, 2011, p. 139). Therefore, if therapy techniques are to be effective, they must emerge in a spontaneous and genuine way, consistent with congruent therapist behaviors.
Experiencing and expressing unconditional positive regard:
This is another core therapeutic condition advanced by Rogers. The unconditional positive regard is among the primary conditions for experiencing therapeutic change by the client. It involves an attitude of warmth, deep caring, respect as well as acceptance of the client: The client is held with high regard and greatly valued because of who she/he is as a person with no conditions attached to the valuing. Rogers argued that such unconditional and positive regard of the person is the kind of love, which is equivalent to agape love (term employed by theologians in expressing the unconditional love of God towards mankind). Owing to the fact there are no perfect therapists, it is not practical to express the unconditional positive regard upon the client during person-centered therapy, but therapists are encouraged to strive as much as possible in showing unconditional positive regard towards clients (Tan, 2011).
Experiencing and expressing Empathetic Understanding:
Even though it is not possible for one to fully experience the feelings of another person, the person-centered therapists work their best in experiencing and expressing subjective feelings with as much accuracy as possible. Rogers presented some for primary components of experiencing as well as expressing empathetic understanding upon the client. He observed that, entering and becoming at home in the client’s private perceptual world; being sensitive from moment to moment with the client’s changing meanings and emotions; temporarily living and moving about delicately in the client’s life; and assessing deep meanings, but not uncovering feelings that are too far out of awareness (Tan, 2011, p. 141-142).
There is a need to employ extra caution because in temporarily moving and living about the client’s personal world, the therapist is in danger of becoming too involved, to an extent that the empathetic therapist loses personal sense of self which is unhealthy and potentially harmful to the therapist and to the client. Rogers became too involved within the subjective world of a certain female client and ultimately lost sense of self within the relationship (Tan, 2011).
For each technique describe how the technique is congruent with the theory’s conceptualization of mental health.
Secker (1998) has observed that while there is a general lack of consensus amongst various groups and schools of thoughts about the aims and objectives of mental health promotion, some groups and schools of thought’s perspectives appear as increasingly influential in determining the course of health promotion agenda. Even though such might not be holly appreciated and somewhat inappropriate, the health promotion is agreed as underpinned by the principles that differ in various respects from the interests of other groups. There are a number of principles that tend to govern provision of health services, and thus are applicable even in provision of mental health. Among them is holistic approach to health and respect for diversified beliefs and cultures (p 57).
In employment of the technique of experiencing and expressing Congruence in person-centered therapy, respect, openness, and genuineness are among the features that characterize the process. Respect in addressing certain mental issues implies that the persons are not maltreated because they do not share some inclinations of the therapist. In relation to the technique of experiencing and expressing unconditional positive regard, conceptualization of mental health requires that the therapist promote positive health and prevent ill health (Secker, 1998, p. 57).
The technique requires that the therapist shows unconditional regards: The primary objective is promoting the health of the client, thus the therapist should employ extra effort, such as showing unconditional regards, in realizing this objective. The conceptualization of mental health posits that health is not limited to lack of diseases: One might not have a disease but the person is not healthy. Mental health conceptualization requires an employment of a holistic approach in responding to a health issue (Secker, 1998, p. 57-58): This means that one needs to get into the shoes of the client and try to experience what they are going through for appropriate therapy, which is a technique of person-centered therapy, experiencing and expressing empathetic understanding.
Strengths and Weakness Person-Centered Theory
Carl Rogers acknowledged that every theory, his not an exceptional, contains some unknown or perhaps at that time unknowable, sum of mistakes and errors (Zeig, 1987, p. 184). According to Rogers, a theory ought not to serve as the final knowledge but as stimulus to furthering creativity in thinking about the issue. The theory of person-centered has a very powerful heuristic value, continuing to generate numerous interest and debates within the sphere of promotion of healthcare. This theory focuses upon the whole individual just as they experience the world. Free will and agency will are not undermined within this model, which is a great strength of the theory. They theory provides considerable attention upon the concept of self while suggesting various alternatives that could be employed in overcoming the damages inflicted upon the client. Rogers did not assume that females are inferior to males, thus even the sexist language he had previously employed in his work were rectified in the later works. As opposed to many theories that use other animals to study human behavior and then generalize them to fit in human life, the person-centered theory by Rogers had used human persons that leading to strong applied value within many aspects of life (Pescitelli, 1996).
The theory’s main weakness is related to lack of specificity and precision in relation to some commonly employed concepts and terms. The logical consistency of the theory is rated as only fair, with sentiments that there are some connections that are not completely clear. The theory also fails to address the various stages of development and lacks attention upon the unconscious because of the emphasis on the conscious experiences. The criticism is acknowledged because in his later works, Rogers, 1977, he explored unconsciousness (Pescitelli, 1996).
How does the theory’s conceptualization of mental health contribute to these strengths and weakness?
According to Rogers, addressing mental health must involve addressing the issues that surround the person as a whole, not just aspects of the person’s life. He presents the theory of person centered theory a call upon both the therapist and the client to work together towards realizing the desired objectives. The therapist in this case is not superior to the client, but rather they operate on same-level ground. Therefore, the therapist does not offer absolute statements, but instead provides alternatives to the problem, thus strengthening the aspect of free will.
One of the strengths of the theory is the use of humans to analyze human behaviors. The mental health comprehension encompasses dealing with every individual case in a unique approach, thus providing therapists with opportunities of studying the case separately and in a more comprehensive way.
The theory is perceived as fair: This is contributed by the fact that this theory, unlike most other theories that have definite approaches to issues, does not have specific umbrella technique of models that are universally applicable. This is because in comprehension of mental health, each case is dealt with differently.
Boree, C. (1998). Carl rogeers. Personality Theories, Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/rogers.html
Flanagan, J., & Flanagan, R. (2012). Counseling and psychotherapy theories in context and practice. (2nd ed., p. 153). Hoboken: John Wiley& Son.
McLeod, S. (2008). Person Centered Therapy. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/client-centred-therapy.html
Peltier, B. (2009). The Psychology of Executive Coaching. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
Pescitelli, D. (1996). Rogerian Therapy. Retrieved from http://pandc.ca/?cat=carl_rogers&page=rogerian_therapy
Rogers, C. (1961). On becoming a person. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton, Miffilin. Retrieved from http://faculty.spokanefalls.edu/InetShare/AutoWebs/kimt/rogers this is me.pdf
Secker, J. (1998). Current conceptualizations of mental health and mental health promotion. Health Education Research, 13(1), pp. 57-66.
Tan, S. (2011). Counseling and Psychotherapy: A Christian Perspective. New York, NY: Baker Academic.
Teich, N. (1992). Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication. New York, NY: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Thorne, B. (1995). Person Centered Therapy. Retrieved from http://www.elementsuk.com/libraryofarticles/personcentred.pdf
Zeig, J. (1987). The Evolution of Psychotherapy. London: Psychology Press.
Person Centered Theory Analysis13
Running head: Person Centered therapy Theory analysis1
Buddhist was a divine semi-God who was adored by his subjects and every believer in Buddhism. These teachings were first given to the disciples who were all over and had abandoned the seriousness of their belief. These teachings mostly emphasized the way of living and interactions and how addresses were supposed to be carried out with concern to young and old. Bodhisatta was their king who used to be adored with songs and dances till he fell asleep. This demonstrates that, subjects of this movement were brainwashed to worship their leader who was supreme and demi-God for some kind. Budhisatta was a person who deserved respect from all subjects who followed the teachings. This is demonstrated when he wanted to go out horse riding and called one of his servants. The teaching required him to obey without questioning the King, Channa who was instructed by the Bodhisatta to bring a horse does so without questioning. These teachings demands total subjection and obedience.
The teachings emphasized on respect of the authority and urged the subjects not to refer the former by their names or even calling them friends but should highly regard them because they are divine and anointed servants. The teaching emphasized total respect for the leaders and strict following of their counsel and command. Right endeavors, conduct and respect were highly regarded in the teaching and tranquility was the order of the day with bad habits highly discouraged. In this setting, life is portrayed as suffering; from birth to death hence the only positive thing is the rebirth which is accompanied by pleasure and lust which is the ideal craving for prosperity.
The belief and respect accorded to this doctrine was so much that, every aspect of their lives was supported based on this teaching, from Buddha, doctrine and order were all based on this course. Therefore every aspect of their lives was based on these three aspects (Buddha, doctrine and order) which guides interactions, address of young and adults with the societal settings which follow strictly the guidelines of the Boddhisatta. Regardless of how the Lord used to communicate with them, the bottom line stood that obedience was the order of the day regardless of how much someone may agree or disagree. The Lords decrees were the absolute orders to be followed by all people without questioning the legality and authenticity of the decrees. This demonstrates total obedience and submissive of these people to the religion and budhith teaching.
Every person who conversed with the Lord was considered holy and sanctified and he or she was not supposed to be seen not even by close family members. This happened when Yasa met with the Lord but not even his mother could visit him and talk to him. His holiness was highly regarded and ought to be respected by all despite their neither status nor relationship with the subject. Sanctification, holiness and sanity were virtues highly regarded and considered as the best and ought to guide the relationships and interactions among subjects within the kingdom that profess Buddhism. The teaching as well emphasized on importance of incarnation which was considered as an encounter with God. From his or her experiences with the Lord, the personality was pure and holy and no earthly, lust and humanly contamination whatsoever was permitted to these sanctified personalities.
The teachings were highly based and relied heavily on Ten Commandments which were divided into three sections to cater for various grouping in the Kingdom. However, all were regarded as absolute with respect for all as the guiding principle. They were emphasis on respect for life with respect of each other. From these teachings, life was highly regarded as absolute gift that ought to be respected regarded of the situation on the ground. Personal sanity regarded as the absolute way to interact and behave. This is regarded as pointing to the Budisotta who enjoys dancing, music and plays which are restraints in the Ten Commandments and teachings of Buddhists. The emphasize and symbolic use of fire to denounce wrongdoings and a sign of punishment to those who does not obey the teachings. Fire is also used as a sign of demonstration of the interactions between the natural where Lord used fire to cross over people from one life to another where the question of malunkyaputta was addressed.
When the commandments are followed, the teachings indicates the benefits to be accrued afterwards the best been the avoidance of fire. Fire was a symbol used in the teachings to demonstrate suffering that would get those against the teachings. When a disaster occurred in any other confines of the subjects, the unlucky person was chosen and handed over a raft which was supposed to prevent perishing of many people but the one person given the raft was a necessary sacrifice. The love for money and material wealth was also discouraged and sincerity adhered as a virtue.
In conclusion therefore, Buddhism was kind of following where the followers had to completely abide and obey fully the teachings offered without questioning. The leader is respected because he is considered to be representative of divinity which should be respected as supreme. Every person who comes into contact with the Lord is regarded as pure with salinity that guaranteed separation. Hence Buddhist teachings were absolute and ideal which emphasized on obedience.
Buddhist Scriptures, Retrieved on 25th May, 2012 from: http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/busc/pageidx.htm
Buddhist Scriptures 5
Outward Foreign Direct Investments
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has been acknowledged to have enormous benefits to developing economies across the world especially in Africa, Asia and Latin American countries. FDI usually represents assistance from one country to a host country translating to a long term commitment to the latter hence contributing significantly in the holistic process of gross fixed capital and human formation especially in developing countries. FDI is mostly preferred by concerned parties due to its advantageous position over other forms of capital flows. This is due to its greater stability and mostly the fact that, it does not create and further obligation for the host State. This view has been held mainly by the neo liberal as well as development economists who advocate for this feature in developing economies. (Wiorke 45)
These economists describe FDI as an important concept since it provides the vital and much needed capital and resources for investment, increasing local competition with host economies as well as aiding local firms in their efforts to increase their productivity through adoption of efficient technologies as well as heavily investing in human capital. FDI is also advocated due to its stability as a source of capital compared to other forms that these economies so much rely on in their development endeavors (Vernun 198).
FDI became an interesting feature to developing countries especially in the 1990s due to decline in the over relied Official Development Assistance (ODA) from developed countries and international organizations. FDI has been described to be interesting to host countries due to its enormous benefits that it accrues to the host country. Besides FDI been a preferred source of capital, it’s also another reliable source of technology transfer, market know how, new management skills as well as job creation. However FDI can as well be potentially harmful to the host country and its economy if the ramifications are resource exploitation, abuse of market power and environmental degradation and pollution. These negative consequences can be avoided if they are proper regulations, laws and guidelines.
Outward Foreign Direct Investment (OFDI) by China and India
In addition, the question of whether China and India have the competitive strengths to go global will also be answered into details supported by relevant theories of growth in emerging economies. Lastly this paper will assess whether China and India FDI are likely to be another form of forward integration. This paper will discuss into details key factors contributing to the rapid growth of backward integration.
Key factors that contribute to the growth of outward growth direct investment in china and India.
Political and administrative actors in China have been great contributors to the all foreign exchange transactions. The Ministry of Commerce which became fully functional in 2003 plays a sensitive role in these developments. It drafts and implements policies and regulations concerning OFDI, coordinates bilateral and multilateral trade agreements taking into account all representations of China in world trade organizations, national development and Reform commission designs, regulates and coordinates economic and industrial development in China. State Asset Supervising and Administration Commission is relatively new department that grew to its full capacity in 2004. It was established to represent the Chinese government in State owned enterprises since the government remains the main investor in these enterprises (Wiorke 47).
The Chinese economy has experienced several changes in regulatory mechanisms concerning the OFDI. These have occurred since 1979 and have hugely contributed to the development of the OFDI overtime. Below are the periods and the occurrences that contributed to the development of OFDI in China as outlined by Deng Xiapeng (1996). The first phase is termed as tasting the water (1979-1985). This includes the open-door policy and the initial stage of involvement in the international arena. During this time the Chinese government established institutions so as to attract foreign investors into china and to encourage Chinese Companies to seek foreign markets. These was done so as to secure access to resources that were not available within China, opening up export possibilities for domestic companies, establishment of joint ventures with foreigner to enable transfer of technology and on- the job training of the Chinese.
The second phase ranging from (1986-1991), in which the government of China took the initiative of encouraging Chinese OFDI. Previous regulation on who should participate in OFDI were eased, the privately owned companies were allowed to go global. However this did not happen without political aspects questioning the move. In addition this move improved efficiency and transparency in the approval process to invest in foreign countries. Other factors contributed to the growth of OFDI such as a development strategy shift from import substitution orientation to export led growth (World Bank 2005).
In India almost similar factors have been researched and found to have greatly enabled the development OFDI in India. These factors are discussed below and their contributions. India has had the greatest rate of growth in Southern Asia. This Asian nation has had adequate economic capability to handle foreign and international investments. The manifestation can be accorded to India’s growth of the manufacturing and IT industries and the availability of skilled labor that has been also expurgated to the developed world. In the 1st phase of (1992-1995) known as Period of liberalization of Indian Economy, the laws and regulations towards OFDI remained restricted however at the start of this period polices were changed to keep in step with the growing economy. Hence in 1992 companies were allowed to go global but the remittance was restricted to a US $ 2 million (UNTAD 1997).
As the success of these ventures was closely monitored, there arose need to come up with a comprehensive policy framework that was flexible enough to positively respond to changing future trends. These came to be known as the fast track Route of 1995-2000. The scope of OFDI however received a great boost with the enactment of Foreign Exchange Management Act (2000). In 2000 till today per annum upper limit has continued to be raised and it now a stand at 400% a rise from US$ 2million in the 1990’s. This change in policy is reflected in overseas cooperate acquisition that has been continuously rising.
Dunning’s theory remains to be the most comprehensive in explain the OFDI in developing countries especially China and India. According to Dunning’s Eclectic approach on international production, FDI develops as a result of ownership, localization, and internalization advantages. Nevertheless this theory falls short of explaining the emergence of OFDI in the developing countries. Thus the following factors are attributed to these recent developments in China and India. First, there are trade related advantages which include: growing volumes of trade between developing and the developed world that enhanced trade through increment if bilateral and multilateral trade partnerships. The increased importation may have assured the receiving countries hence encouraging more investments (Wiorke 51).
Again, increased imports may have had a displacement effect leading to investments being directed to economies with lower production costs. A large number of trade agreements among many countries may have also contributed to the OFDI in these nations. Domestic factors within the host countries are also contributors. They include: small market size and a potential risk of losing market share, low availability of infrastructure and the high cost of skilled labor. Low level of technology and domestic policies in relation to labor laws are key factors towards OFDI in the developing world.
Competencies Chinese and Indian Firms possess to enable them go global.
These companies are encouraged by their governments to have a global vision that is instilled in each and every employee, and facilitated through enactment of law and regulation that ease the challenge of obtaining foreign markets. Since the legal hurdles are removed, the companies are set free to dream big and go global. Due to the affiliation established earlier on, these companies have direct and fast transfer of technology from the developed countries, they remain at per with trends of international business all because of the established trade links with their business partners. The companies to a huge extent aim at the international market other than locally. Due to the huge cost of production on the developed world, the markets are ready to harvest affordable quality products from the developing world.
Huge investments especially technologically have contributed to this firms keeping in touch with the fast developing world. In particular China lacks its own technological innovations but solely relies on the transfers from its partners. They use this technology to make cheaper products that are far from the products of their partners. This trend affects China forms negatively in their involvement in international business. Restricted laws that existed have been amended for example the privatization of companies has encouraged innovations and autonomy hence large rate of growth compared to when most companies were state run. However these countries have hindrances that limit their maximum entry into the global market. They include the corrupt values that allow form inefficiency within companies with no proper legal systems to take action. There have been fewer investments in infrastructure though the trend has been a slight improvement in the recent past. Upgrading of transport and logistics, information in fracture, capital markets and financial institutions can take the companies miles higher in the international market (Wiorke 56).
Firms from china and India are making up their deficits to make OFDI
Both countries have opened up the OFDI to private companies therefore huge production is being experienced due to increased innovation and variety that has being enable through change of regulatory measures. The governments have encouraged countries to invest in the most lucrative ventures in the developed and developing worlds. China has established a niche in investing in countries with mineral resources while India is interested in providing affordable services to developing countries such as outsourcing industry that has massively grown in India.
Both countries have enabled Green fields investments that are considered the most profitable. In addition to that joint ventures and mergers and acquisitions are likely to bring returns in future, India and china are not let behind in this too. Relaxing laws that could hinder smooth participation in the global market has been valuable in encouraging firms to go global. These laws and regulations continue to be amended and changed to fit the current trends (Markusen 23).
Theoretical support that explains internalization process of Emerging Economy Business Firms
Recent corporate developments have been characterized by internalization of firms in the form of OFDI; this has led to 3 different theoretical frameworks that are discussed below.
Resource based view Theory
Resource based view has its roots in the emphasis on firm specific intangible assets as drivers of internalization. This view focuses on the heterogenous and the firm specific characteristics. Foreign expansion is seen as a means of appropriation of overseas markets form exploitation of technological capabilities brand name and capability know how. The transfer of these to overseas is deemed to buffer additional costs and risks incurred due to greater managerial complexities and achieve economies of scale.
Industry-based view Theory
This perspective attributes of the industry structure such as competitive rivalry, homogeneity of products and barriers of entry and exit that determine to what extent the firm is likely to achieve a global scale. High competition in the domestic market motivates firms to seek other markets. The degree of globalization is higher on the sectors that rely on the standardized structure for all consumers than in companies that produce products according to tastes and preferences. Internalization is more advanced in companies that provide technological services than in low technological industries. However industries also vary in established policies. The need for internalization is higher in companies that are going through massive deregulation for instance, the telecommunication industry.
Institution-based view Theory
Institution is the legal, political and economic holding that articulates for widely observed rules and norms. Business choices and strategies can also be driven by formal and informal constrains of an established institution that a firm is attached to. The institution-based view suggests that the strategic choice of the firm is enabled or constrained by a multitude of institutional forces including elements that both promote and hinder the upgrading of existing resources and capabilities (Dunning and Lundan, 2008). The regulations enacted by a government can enable the firm in that country to change their strategy. In addition, poor frameworks can inhibit formation of new business networks, increase production costs and frequent change of regulations discourages foreign direct investments. Therefore firms, business strategies are actually shaped by the institution established within its home country.
Discuss the importance of opportunity assessment
Opportunity assessment enables one to get the information that is needed and the type of needs accrued to the client. So for one to sell they must have information on the products and the needs. The seller is able to uncover implied need during the sale and is likely to respond appropriately for need to be properly identified then the art of questioning should be put into practice. One is also able to confirm the company structures, business and understand their concerns (Dunning 345).
One obtains information on whether there have been any budgetary allocations, their achievements so far and where they want to be in a few years. This encourages development of rapport since you’re not only interested in what they are selling or you are selling but also in their goals and successes. You are also able to determine the buying criteria. This involves how they are able to determine their suppliers, what they look for you therefore after learning that enter the office and introduce you as a potential supplier. Another important thing is to find out who is the potential competitor and what is it they do that you do not. Ask them what they are hoping to achieve in the recent future, this question is important since it gives one an idea of where there are going and how you can join in. having this information enable you to be able to come up with a creation of your own original service or product and see how you can improve it to fit the customer’s needs.
Forward and Backward Integration: China and India
Backward integration refers to when a company controls subsidiaries that produce some of the inputs used in production of its produce. This ensures that there is constituency in quality in their final products. One of the major factors is the high demand for the products and the huge market share creates a need for integration polices in the two countries. Both china and India have invested heavily in the in the manufacturing industry and these puts them on their toes to ensure quality products are manufactured (Gupat 90)
Factors for internalization
Internalization is largely practiced in the developing countries especially those with large international market potential. They include: Degree of rivalry and competition of a particular industry in which the firm operates. Researchers argue that a firm is likely to pursue international market if there are many other firms in the same industry in the country. Another factor is the differences of the companies in their globalization potentials. The institutions that have been set by the government and other sectors of the economy that are involved in them can actually determine how far the firm can go since they are the ones that regulate the market. Weak regulations lead to weak firms and poor performance in the world market. Internalization is likely to be more in industries where the technology is changing fast and not in industries where technological evolution is little or nonexistent. Again, internalization is important in industries that are have been deregulated.
Backward and Forward Integration Strategies: China and India
Backward integration refers to when a company controls subsidiaries that produce some of the inputs used in production of its produce. This ensures that there is constituency in quality in their final products. One of the major factors is the high demand for the products and the huge market share creates a need for integration polices in the two countries. Both china and India have invested heavily in the in the manufacturing industry and these puts them on their toes to ensure quality products are manufactured .(Gupat ,2007)
China and India have formed a significant proportion of Outward Foreign Direct Investment. Currently, China is considered to be the fastest growing economy in the world with a maintained 11.5 percent annual growth rate. India has as well been witnessed to have a robust economic growth rate especially considering its Gross Domestic Product. However, China is leading in the Outward Foreign Direct Investment in the Asia Region and among the best performing worldwide as discussed above. Sound economic policies have greatly contributed to such an enormous growth which is anticipated to increase in the coming years due to the effects of sound macroeconomic policies. FDI involves investments of another country to a host country especially in the developing economies. It has observed that, it enormously contributes positively to the economic development of the host economy through technological transfers, human capital improvements and economic growth.
Dunning, Krafs. The Management of China’s International Reserves: China and a SWF Scoreboard London, University of Cambridge, 2008
Gupat, Sung. Outward Foreign Direct Investments in India, 2007, Retrieved on 25th May, 2012 from: http://apo.org.au/webboard/results.chtml
Hong, Erien and Sun, Luck. Dynamics of internationalization and outward investment: Chinese corporations’ strategies, The China Quarterly,(2000) 187, 610-634
Markusen, Daniel, and James Rowen. Journal of Economic Perspectives “The boundaries of multinational enterprises and the theory of international trade”. J Business Issues 1995; 169-189.
Vernon, International investment and international trade in the product cycle, Quarterly Journal of Economics1996; 2:190-207
Weick, Krone, The Significance of Corporate Culture, 3rd edition, McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, 1996.
World development Indicators, World Bank 2005
World Investment Report. UNCTAD, Geneva.1997
Criminal Event Study
Question 1: The theory that Cohen and Felson are talking about
Cohen and Felson are talking about human ecological theory that can be used to smooth the progress of investigations addicted to ways in which social structure turns out the union thus permitting prohibited activities to feed upon the permissible activities of everyday life. According to the theory, the community is not a straightforward component of a territory but it is a group of communalistic and symbiotic relationship as human activities that are carried out over a given space and time. The theory identifies three important temporal components of community structure like rhythm which is the standard periodicity with which events occur. The other temporal factor is tempo which is the number of events for each unit time and this may include the number of criminal violations per day on a given street. Furthermore, the theory identifies timing as an important temporal component of community structure that coordinates among different activities that are less or more important and this may include the coordination of an offender’s rhythms together with those of victims (Cohen and Felson, 1979, p. 589).
Question 2: Years that witnessed huge crime rate
According to Cohen and Felson, the years that witnessed increased crimes was between 1960 and 1975 whereby the rate of robbery increased by two hundred and sixty three percent, aggravated assault increased by one hundred and sixty four percent, the rate of forcible rape increased by one hundred and seventy four percent, and homicide increased by one hundred and eighty eight percent. During the same time, property crime rate (burglary) increased by two hundred percent (Cohen and Felson, 1979, p. 588).
Question 3: Causes of the increased crime rates
The causes of increased crime from 1960 to 1975 are believed to be low income to families and high unemployment rate. Moreover the increased crime rate might have been caused by alcoholism and drugs as well as ineffective law and order system.
Question 4: Elements that are required for a crime to occur
For any violation to be successful, it requires an offender who has a criminal tendency and the capability to carry out the tendency. Moreover, there must be an object or a person that can provide the offender with a suitable target. Furthermore, successfully completed violation requires absences of guardians that are in a position to prevent violations from taking place (Cohen and Felson, 1979, p. 590).
Question 5: Activities that people engage on daily basis
The daily activities that people engage in occurs at home and jobs away from home. Nonetheless, there are other activities that occur away from home and they include: formalized work, shelter, provision of standard food, social interaction, leisure, and sexual outlet (Cohen and Felson, 1979, p. 593).
Question 6: Crime and Poverty
According to Cohen and Felson crime is not caused by poverty. They believe that the benefits of life increases the opportunity for predatory violations and these includes: Automobiles that present freedom of movement to the offenders as well as the average citizens thus presenting susceptible targets for theft. The other benefits of life that increases the same are female labor force participation, urbanization, vacations, college enrolment, and new electronics durables (Cohen and Felson, 1979, 2011, p. 605).
Question 7: The criminal event
Criminal event usually consists of predecessors like location and situational factors. The event itself defines the outcome of the crimes. According to Sacco and Kennedy crime can be defined as acts or behaviors that the society provides formally sanctioned crime. In the United States, crimes are specified in the written law. Violent crimes are referred to us events like rape, homicide, and assault that can lead to injury to a person. Robbery can be considered as violent crime due to the fact that it involves the use of force or threat of force against a person. Property crimes are considered unlawful acts with the intent of gaining property but it does not involve the use of threat or force (Sacco and Kennedy, 2011, p. 44).
Characteristics of the most common serious crimes
The most common serious crimes are homicide, rape, robbery, and assault.
Homicide can be defined as causing the death of another person without legal any legal justification or any excuse. It is normally considered the smallest violent crime with almost ninety three percent of the victims is slain in single victim situation. In any homicide, not less than fifty five percent of the murders are relatives or acquaintances of their victim (Sacco and Kennedy, 2011, p. 40).
Rape can be defined as illegal sexual intercourse with a female with a female without a truthful consent or by force. More often than not rapes involve lone offenders with lone victims. Most of rapes are committed in the victim’s home. Almost sixty percent of the rapes occur at night (Sacco and Kennedy, 2011, p. 37).
Robbery can be defined as the illicit taking of or attempted taking of property that is in the immediate possession of another by using for or even a threat of the force. This is a form of violent crime that typically involves more than one offender. Almost half of the robberies that are involved use weapons (Sacco and Kennedy, 2011, p. 222).
Assault can be defined as the prohibited deliberate inflicting or challenged inflicting of injury upon other people. Aggravated assault is defined as the illicit planned inflicting of serious bodily injury, unlawful threat, or the attempt to inflict bodily injury or death by means of way of deadly or dangerous weapons. Simple assault is the criminal that is on purpose inflicting of less than a serious bodily injury without deadly or dangerous weapons. Simple assault usually occurs more frequently that the aggravated assault. Assault is considered as the most common type of violent crime (Sacco and Kennedy, 2011, p. 56).
Question 8: The relationship between criminal event and Routine activities according to Sacco and Kennedy
According to Sacco and Kennedy, routine activities such as family and household, leisure and recreation, and workplace help in identifying patterns of crime. They believe that leisure sphere of influence is very disreputable for Juvenile delinquencies. Family routine can be easily noted by offenders because the house may be on the routine pathway of the offenders (Sacco and Kennedy, 2011, p. 364).
Question 9: Sacco and Kennedy social domains and routine activities
Social domains can be defined as the main specialties of life that we spend most of our time as well as energy. The three social domains are leisure and recreation, workplace, and family and household. According to Sacco and Kennedy the three social norms exposes more people to criminal dangers that they are insulated from. What people normally do or how they behave is a routine behavior that explains how people suffer or avoid numerous misfortunes. The routines activities bring easy crime opportunities for the offenders. Leisure activities can be easily avoided that any other work or home related activities (Sacco and Kennedy, 2011, p. 314).
Cohen, L and Felson, M. (1979). Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach. American Sociological Review. Vol. 44. No. 4, pp, 588-608.
Sacco, V. F., & Kennedy, L. W. (2011). The criminal event: An introduction to criminology in Canada. Toronto: Nelson Education.
Criminal Justice 6
In the United States, race and ethnicity refer to self-identification items of data in which the American residents decide the race they closely identify with, and thus help in indicating whether they are Latino or Hispanic in terms of their origin or ethnicity (Busch & Annas, 2008). Race and ethnicity, in their traditional definition, refer to the biological and/or sociological factors respectively. Ethnicity refers to such cultural factors as culture, nationality, language, beliefs, and ancestry while race refers to such physical appearances of an individual as skin color, hair color, eye color, and jaw/bone structure among other factors (Dennis & Stone, 2002).
Race and ethnicity have been used interchangeably in various situations though they mean different things altogether. Race refers to inherited characteristics, which help in identification of a group of individuals. Racism is also an important concept in this paper and it refers to the belief that each race’s members possess distinctive abilities or features specific to their race, particularly used in differentiation of the race as superior or inferior to the other race (Busch & Annas, 2008). On the other hand, ethnicity is a collection of individuals who identify themselves via a common language, heritage, or ideology, which stresses their ancestry (Dennis & Stone, 2002). This differentiation is imperative since minorities across the globe face race or ethnic issues in their daily life. All societies have minorities and they are rather an unfortunate group, as they are sometimes perceived as subordinate group. As such, minorities share some common characteristics including distinguishing cultural or physical traits, unequal treatment, in-group marriage, awareness of their position as subordinates, and involuntary membership (Busch & Annas, 2008).
This paper wishes to examine the theme of race/ethnicity and this will involve the comparison and contrast of the literary works of Patricia Smith’s What It’s like to Be a Black Girl and Aurora Levin Morales’ Child of the Americans. The paper will seek to have an overview of each of the above literary works to foster a deeper understanding of each work and then help in drawing a section of comparison and contrast between the two works. Finally, a comprehensive conclusion shall be drawn as a culmination of the paper findings.
Overview of the Literary Works
Child of the Americas- Aurora Levins Morales:
In her poem, Morales explains about the US melting pot. Her father’s descent is Jewish while her mother hails from Puerto Rico and thus understands the issue of race and ethnicity in the American context. Morales moved to the US at the age of thirteen and she uses the poem in describing her uniqueness and own melting pot by sharing the manner in which the New York ghettos molded her being an immigrant as well as a granddaughter and daughter of immigrants (Augenbraum & Fernandez, 1997, p. 438). The poem is a celebration of the girls culture and race and dares disowning the other races or ethnic groups such as African, European, and Taina claiming that her race is natural and has been defined by history. As such, the young lady cannot change her history and accepts and appreciates it as it is (Augenbraum & Fernandez, 1997, p. 439).
Morale mentions that spanglish’ was her first language, which describes the language spoken by majority of the Hispanic immigrants in their homes. Morales appreciate her culture, race, and ethnicity terming them as natural. The title of her poem illustrates that America is really a melting pot for so many diverse cultures. This has led to the mushrooming of other cultures’ within the American nation as people from different backgrounds seek a means of acclimitasing to the American society with most ending up with their own distinctive cultures. The last stanza of her poem states that History made me (Women in World History Curriculum, 1996, Para 3) an illustration that history will go on to create and change the world and it remains the responsibility of human beings to draw their lessons from what history offers.
What it’s like to Be a Black Girl- Patricia Smith:
This poem seems as an explanation of a hot issue of being a black girl. From the initial three syllables, Smith furnishes the reader with a sense of narration of a story. She utilizes strong forceful language and jagged sentence structure to help illustrate her topic’s seriousness. Her poem gives audience an insider perception into the transition of a young black girl into black womanhood during a time in which being either a black girl or woman was an unwelcome issue. According to Hayward (2003), puberty is defined by changes in the biological and physical features of young boys or girls around the prime age of nine years until around fourteen years of age. The thoughts portrayed by Smith in her first few lines whereby the young ones feel as if something or even everything is wrong (Ayao, 2011) strike majority of the youngsters at puberty. However, the subject of Smith seems to have added some pressures about a society that is racially jagged. They young girl Smith refers to has the awkward feeling of her changing body as well as the anticipation of a different or even better thing to come (Seltzer & Johnson, 2009).
Thus, the poem is a narration of a young girl (black) exploring as well as experiencing what it means to become a mature black woman within her varying social circle. Perkins (1982) refers to the section talking about bleaching of hair and addition of food coloring into the eyes of the girl, which can only represent the desire of the young girl to grow and develop into a more acceptable form within the society- white skinned, blonde hair, and blue-eyed men and women. For the girl, however, it’s flame and fists and life according to Motown (Ayao, 2011, Para 1) implying the sounds and sites of racial fighting and slurs, alongside the Motown music’s rhythmic blues. This shows that the transition from a girl into a woman is a hard experience without the additional pressures of acceptance due to ones skin color, hair, or the taste in music.
Smith also tries to explain the way a young girl attempts balancing her child-like mentality and her lately formed body. Among the passage parts of every girl includes the great white gown worn on wedding day marking the end of one chapter of her life and commencement of a new one. Having a man reach out for you and caving in around his fingers (Ayao, 2011, Para 1) gives an inside examination into the submissive mentality that women faced during that era. Lastly, the young girl is depicted to have gone through the transition and is currently a mature woman. The author, throughout the poem has assisted readers in understanding transition into black womanhood in a racially uncertain era (Ayao, 2011).
Comparison and Contrast of the Literary Works
After a critical evaluation, the writer was fascinated by two poems: Aurora Levins Morales’ Child of the Americas and Patricia Smith’s What it’s Like to be a Black Girl. Both Smith and Morales were born in America, an important fact since Blacks and the other US minorities experienced extreme prejudice and racism in comparison to their colleagues in other nations. These two poems narrate on the subject of two young women, from diverse cultures, who perceive themselves with varied beliefs (Busch & Annas, 2008). The poems are so vital as they deal with discrimination and racism issues that occurred before the era of Civil Rights though are still existing to date. Although each of the young women experienced discrimination, their insight, its impacts, as well as the way in which they coped varied greatly (Augenbraum & Fernandez, 1997). Both authors acknowledge the diversities in race and ethnicity and indicate the difficulties some disadvantaged groups in the society go through in their definition. They depict that the American society deals with diverse issues associated with race and ethnicity. Both poems focus on experience and imagination of the authors and they present aspects of ethnicities and racialism by narrowing down to a black female in each poem. Moreover, these females, in the two poems, deal with the aspect of discrimination attributed to their race and ethnicity (Perkins, 1982).
The two poems centre on the consciousness of two ladies of African descent who are plagued by historical public perceptions of the Americans regarding their culture. Such negative perceptions about their culture play an imperative role of the psyche of the individual due to prejudice. Actually, this perception has distorted and misconstrued these young African-American girls’ minds. Thus, these literary works illustrate how the two young ladies from varied American minority sub-cultures perceive themselves in totally diverse perspectives (Busch & Annas, 2008). Morale’s poem features a young lady who wishes to embrace as well as celebrate her heritage of African-Latino while Smith portrays another one whose desire is identifying with the image and culture of her African-American slave owners’ ancestors. What it’s like to be a Black Girl looks into a black girl’s mind within a society fueled by discrimination and racism, in terms of both gender and race (Perkins, 1982).
The young girl is in her transition into a young black lady from her current state of a juvenile black girl and trying to acknowledge her changing body. This black girl has had enough lessons of being ashamed of her being that is her appearance, as well as her ancestry or place of origin. Thus, her desire is having her physical features resembling those of the individuals accepted in the society (Busch & Annas, 2008). Smith writes, It’s being 9 years old and feeling like you’re not finished like your edges are wild, like there’s something, everything, wrong. (Ayao, 2011, Para 1) The implication of this passage is that this young girl witnesses her changing body right before her eyes but also sees herself in the eyes of the society. From the societal perspective, the girl had enough lessons to shape her mindset that her appearance was wrong. By saying that her edges are wild (Ayao, 2011, Para 1), the girl refers to the changes being experienced by her body. In essence, the development of her breasts as well as her bottom area was beginning to arouse her and she feels quite uncomfortable within her own skin (Busch & Annas, 2008).
On the other hand, Aurora in the Child of the Americans portrays the pride of the girl in her race and culture. Morales does not desire making any excuses regarding her appearance but wish telling about the pride of the girl due to her appearance (Women in World History Curriculum, 1996). The girl appreciates her appearance and claims she found no means of changing it but rather demonstrate that history made her the way she looks like as a Puerto Rican immigrant. Despite the fact that Morales talks about ones pride in her heritage, her anger towards a less understood culture is eminent in the fact that she attributes the differences in culture to nature, which no single individual can change. Therefore, the desire of Morales is for people to understand their diversities and learn living with each other regardless of the variations of culture and race (Augenbraum & Fernandez, 1997).
Seltzer and Johnson (2009) looks at the challenges of a relationship between a black and a white and highlights that racial factors contribute to the most hardships between them. The scholars give an illustration of a black girl who fell in love with a white young man but parted ways after some time due to their racial inclinations (Perkins, 1982). The first and most serious challenge came from their friends who joked over the difference in their races and this did not augur so well as they were always finding themselves at defensive positions. Looking the literary works above, Smith admits that her race dictates so much in her life and even accepts her minority role in the American society. She even laments being black, as she perceives this as her first challenge in life. This paper agrees with her to an extent, especially after looking at the case given by Seltzer and Johnson. On the contrary, Morales may rubbish off this case claiming that it lacked maturity as she believes that history made me (Women in World History Curriculum, 1996, Para 3) and thus has no cost to pay for it.
In conclusion, race and ethnicity are hard-biting factors, which shape and influence societal operations to a great level. Even though race and ethnicity are different, they seem to have a common ground in that they both refer to variations in people’s social aspect of life. The paper has examined two literary works and has established that race plays a critical role in some societies, especially in the US where Morales cites the American society as a melting pot of cultures and races. Smith believes that race and ethnicity have critical roles to play in definition of the life of a young lady as she claims that her misfortunes and challenges in life originate from her black descent. Race may present numerous challenges in ones life but this paper agrees with Morales that race should not be a determinant of an individual’s direction of life since it is a historical aspect, which should not be used against an individual in any way. However, the paper does not refute the fact that race is a critical player in shaping ones life as advocated by Smith’s What it’s like to be a Black Girl.
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Does Mandatory Auditor Rotation Really Improve Audit Quality?
Such factors as auditor indepence, healthy professional skepticism, objectivity, as well as overall quality of audit are crucial in auditing operations since the internal auditors cooperate with the external auditors quite effectively as directed by Professional Internal Auditing Practice’s international standards. However, the mandatory rotation of audit firm could influence the association between internal and external auditors significantly. This could be via the mechanisms in which they plan, coordinate, and/or perform their audits; as well as the way in which external auditors control the experience, expertise, and the knowledge of the internal auditors in enhancing their overall efficiency and effectiveness. Actually, this argument has been the overarching institute of internal auditors’ message in response towards the concept release of the oversight board of public company accounting concerning audit firm rotation and auditor independence (Lu & Sivaramakrishnan, 2010).
It is imperative to examine the impact that such a rule could make to help get an understanding of this debate’s quality. Blouin et al (2007) has clarified that the academic literature covering the impacts of auditor rotation upon the quality of audit is quite scant with most conclusion of such literature being hihgly inconsistent. Furthermore, the accessible surveys were naturally conducted under a regime of voluntary rotation, or under a setting of forced rotation such as the one subsequent to the demise of Arthur Andersen. Consequently, these studies lack direct evidence provision pertaining whether or not audit quality improved or else hampered by a mandatory rotation rule of auditor. Actually, the studies just demonstrate that under voluntary auditor rotation, the quality of audit could or could not seem to decline immediately after changing the auditor or even with tenure.
The deficiency in the empirical evidence on mandatory rotation issue originates from the narrow number of settings whereby obligatory rotation is enforced in actual sense. Italy is among the limited number of nations in which mandatory rule of audit firm alternation has been in force for around twenty-five years. The term of the auditor, according to the regulations of Italy could be renewed after every 3 years as well as be extended to a maximum limit of nine years tenure. This implies the existence of a rotation and retention rule in the country. The audit firm, once appointed, was retained for a minimum of three years after which the auditee could retain the firm’s services or seek the services of another different firm. However, an auditee must change the audit firm compulsorily upon the expiry of the nine consecutive engagement years. The purpose of this rule is preservation of the independence of the auditor grounded on the postulation that such auditor independence could easily be compromised pursuant to a lengthy work relationship between such an auditee and the auditor (Cameran, Prencipe & Trombetta, 2007).
Thus, the institutional setting of Italy permits an effective testing of the impacts of the tenure of the auditor and consequent change in a compulsory auditor rotation environment. This paper focuses on the effects of auditor change and auditor tenure on the quality of audit. The existing literature argues that incentives for auditors may vary while performing their audit activities when they realize that renewal of their engagement could be impossible, courtesy of the mandatory audit rotations.
Similarly, an auditor may provide a different signal, in a deliberate setting of audit rotation, from a comparable change under a compulsory rotation regime. Consequently, this could affect the audit quality in some diverse ways (Cameran, Prencipe & Trombetta, 2007). Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of compulsory audit rotation upon the audit quality. The paper has suggested that the quality of an audit seems to improve with the auditor tenure with the audit quality having more likelihood of improving incase of a voluntary replacement of an auditor under a compulsory regime of rotation. On the contrary, a compulsory change as opposed to a voluntary one has the tendency of hampering the quality of audit. Generally, this paper lacks sufficient evidence of supporting the argument for mandatory rotation rule in auditing; there is no enough evidence to show that the rule improves the quality of an audit. Thus, the paper is an argument against the move of making auditor rotation a mandatory move in the contemporary auditing practices since it has nothing to do with quality improvement but rather foster its decline.
Mandatory Auditor Rotation versus Improvement of Audit Quality
The mandatory audit rotation role is still a subject for debate by practioners (such as Healey & Kim, 2003) as well as academics (Myers et al, 2003). The debate has deepened courtesy of the recent number of financial reporting scandals in such firms as Enron, Parmalat, Worldcom, etc. culminating into several decisions of imposing some alterations in accountability by the institutions and governmental agencies. Such decisions have aimed at fostering changes towards to facilitate accountability on auditors as well as organizations issuing the financial reports as a means of reducing fraud’s possibility. Mandatory auditor rotation has been suggested as one of the key measures of reducing fraud possibility, implying that a maximum restriction is set for an auditor’s tenure with an organization in order to conserve the autonomy of the auditor as well as possibly raise the confidence of investors in the financial reports.
Subsequent to the 2002 Sarbanes-Oxley Act, GAO (Government Accounting Office) conducted a survey to examine the mandatory auditor rotation issue. The body (GAO) reached a unanimous conclusion that there lacks a vivid requirement for a compulsory rotation rule for audit firms. However, the body did not refute the argument that such a prerequisite may rise to be an appropriate future rule, once the audit quality impacts resulting from Sarbanes-Oxley Act turns out to be apparent (GAO, 2003). Furthemore, GAO and some other regulatory institutions and bodies such as the NYSE (New York Stock Exchange), the Public Trust Commission, as well as the TIAA-CREF and Private Enterprise, called for an essential audit firm’s periodical change on a voluntary foundation for the enhancement of the quality of audit. Thus, the likelihood of such a proposal championing the imposition of mandatory rotation of audit firm to be tabled again cannot be termed trivial (DeFond & Francis, 2005).
Since the quality of audit remains indirectly observable, scholars have applied a number of indicators in measuring the same. Some of the studies measure the quality of audit in terms of reporting or audit failure grounded on the inspiration that the quality of audit is inversely connected to the failures of reporting or audit (Francis, 2004). In the early auditor-client relationship years, auditors have more likelihood of issuing clean audit reports before a bankruptcy filing (Geiger & Raghunandan, 2002). Carcello and Nagy (2004) argue that accounting fraud has more likelihood of occuring within the early tenure years (three years and below) in comparison to a medium tenure of audit (four through eight years). However, the scholars lacked support for their hypothesis that the fraudulent financial reports have more likelihood of occuring over lengthy tenure of audit. Some other studies have used the quality of earnings as a substitute for the quality of audit. As such, the implicit supposition is that high quality of audit entails high quality of earnings.
Johnson et al (2002) conducted a study to examine whether the tenure of audit-firm is interrelated so some financial reporting quality indicators. The scholars used the unexpected accruals’ absolute value and current accruals’ persistence as surrogates for the quality of financial reporting and found out that the short tenures of audit are closely interrelated with financial reports of lower quality. However, they lacked sufficient evidence for reducing the quality of financial reporting for lengthy tenures of audit. Another study by Myers et al (2003) investigated the link between earnings quality and auditor tenure. This study employed the magnitude and dispersion of raw as well as current accruals and absolute abnormal accruals as surrogates for the quality of earning. Their conclusions deduce that the quality of higher earnings is interrelated with relatively longer tenures of audit. As such, their results could be summed up to mean that the auditors of longer-tenure seem to place more constraints upon extreme decisions of management in the auditing of earnings under research environment.
In a recent study, a positive relationship was documented between the auditor-client relationship length and conservatism level in reported earnings (Jenkins & Velury, 2008). Specifically, these scholars established a rise in the level of conservatism between the short-term and medium term tenure, which avoids declining over lenghty tenure hence the conclusion that a mandatory rule of auditor rotation might have adverse impacts in earnings conservatism terms. In culmination, most of the accessible audit quality and audit tenure literature support the notion that the quality of audit, in a voluntary setting of auditor replacement, happens to be relatively lower in early years of engagement with the empirical evidence regarding the long-term tenure impacts on the quality of audit providing equivocal outcomes.
According to Ghosh and Moon (2005), the audit tenure influences upon the quality of an audit under a compulsory setting of auditor rotation, which may vary from the ones observed in voluntary replacement environments. Due to the auditors’ motivations and perceptions, a number of variations could crop up. Under mandatory regimes of auditor rotation, auditors understand in advance the specific date for termination of their current tenures. Such awareness could influence the incentives of their audit performing operations. An anlytical model was developed to illustrate a finite and well-known auditing engagement period by the auditor facilitate the diminishing of the planned quality of audit over time (Elitzur & Falk, 1996). As such, it becomes easier for prediction that the quantity of the effort of audit will reach the lowest level over the tenure-closing period. Actually, the independent auditors’ aim is making best use of their net payoff for the entire period of engagement.
Due to failure in audit, there exists a clear and positive correlation between the levels of expected losses with the quantity of planned effort of audit. With the engagement being finite and the date of the audit contract’s termination being well spelt out, the current expected losses’ value, due to the failure of audit, declines over time (Cameran, Prencipe & Trombetta, 2007). The decline also includes both audit quality and effort in terms of planned levels.
Due to the dim hopes of contract renewal towards the termination of the contract tenure, rational auditors have more likelihood of reducing their efforts of audit, particularly when the termination date of their contract approaches. In real sense, such an argument vividly contradicts the goal of imposition of a compulsory rule of audit rotation. However, the model of Elitzur and Falk (1996) has assumed a finite game hence lack of losses regarding reputation and/or occurrence of future penalty due to the possibility of a failure in audit. Incorporation of a penalty within such a perspective may lead into significant impacts upon the future of the auditor’s payoffs from the other (and even potential) clients. Furthermore, their perspective has ignored the auditor’s learning process, which could result into increment in the ability of detecting the auditee’s material misstatements within the financial statements. Carcello and Nagy (2004) state that in any multiperiod setting, improvement in the quality of audit could be achieved over time courtesy of the process of learning. Such improvement is independent of the prevalence of a finite period of engagement.
An alternative perspective hints that audit quality deterioration over time could also be as a result of the auditor being less independent from client firm due to such factors as a closer bond with the managers, which potentially raises the collusion risk. The proponents of the move of introducing a compulsory rotation rule in auditing have typically employed such an argument in supporting their position (Kaplan, 2004). In case such an argument could be accepted, then the mandatory rotation technique would be an effective remedy as opposed to reason of deterioration of the quality of audit overtime. Therefore, the financial reports’ users would fancy the compulsory rotation of auditors over voluntary rotation of auditors (Cameran, Prencipe & Trombetta, 2007). As such, the impacts of audit quality due to auditor tenure, from a theoretical perspective, in a setting of mandatory rotation of auditors are highly controversial.
In conclusion, the requirement for mandatory auditor rotation has not augured so well among the business practitioners and professionals due to various reasons as discussed within the paper. In fact, even GAO reached a unanimous conclusion that there lacks a vivid requirement for a compulsory rotation rule for audit firms. The move for the mandatory auditor rotation is genuine, as the national governments must step in to prevent the disolvency of some highly rated firms as it happened with Enron and others. The move is in good faith and the government cannot be condemned for the same. However, the rotation technique may not meet the expected audit quality due to the factors discussed above. For instance, the increased turnover’ of auditors could led to inconsistency in results as well as depreciation in quality. Moreover, an auditor’s performance is highly affected by the knowledge that his/her contract is coming to an end at a given date. This could lead to laxity at work, as the auditor knows that he/she shall not be accountable to any auditee correspondences once the auditing tenure is over.
Blouin, J., Grein, B. & Rountree, B. (2007). An Analysis of forced auditor change: The case of former Arthur Andersen clients, The Accounting Review, 82 (3): 621650.
Cameran, Prencipe & Trombetta, 2007). Auditor Tenure and Auditor Change: Does Mandatory Auditor Rotation Really Improve Audit Quality? Retrieved on 21 June 2012 from, http://www.fdewb.unimaas.nl/ISAR2009/02_24_Cameran_Prencipe_Trombetta.pdf
Carcello, J.V., & Nagy, A.L. (2004). Audit firm tenure and fraudulent financial reporting, Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory, 23 (2): 5569.
DeFond, M.L., & Francis J. R. (2005). The audit research after SarbanesOxley, Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory, 24 (Supplement): 530.
Elitzur, R., & Falk, H. (1996). Planned audit quality, Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 15 (3): 247269.
Francis, J.R. (2004). What do we know about audit quality? The British Accounting Review, 36 (4): 345368.
Geiger, M.A. & Raghunandan, K. (2002). Auditor tenure and audit reporting failures, Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory, 21 (1): 6778.
Ghosh, A. & Moon, D. (2005). Auditor tenure and perceptions of audit quality, The Accounting Review, 80: 585612.
Government Accounting Office (GAO). (2003). Public Accounting Firms: Required Study on the Potential Effects of Mandatory Audit Firm Rotation, United States General Accounting Office retrieved on 21 June 2012 from, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d04216.pdf
Healey, T.J., & Kim, Y.J. (2003). The benefits of mandatory audit rotation, Regulation, 26(3): 1012.
Jenkins, D.S., & Velury, U. (2008). Does auditor tenure influence the reporting of conservative earnings? Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 27 (2): 115132.
Johnson, V., Khurana, I. K. & Reynolds, J. K. (2002). Audit-firm tenure and the quality of financial reports, Contemporary Accounting Research, 19 (4): 637660.
Kaplan, R. (2004). The mother of all conflicts: auditor and their clients, Illinois public law and legal theory research paper series, 04-13.
Lu, T & Sivaramakrishnan, S. (2010). Does Mandatory Audit Firm Rotation Improve or Impair Corporate Investment Efficiency? Social Science Research Network, 35, 1-14.
Myers, J. N., Myers, L. A. & Omer, T. C. (2003). Exploring the term of the auditorclient relationship and the quality of earnings: A case for mandatory auditor rotation? The Accounting Review, 78 (3): 779800.
Mandatory Auditor Rotation vs Improved Audit Quality 3
Benefits of Decision Support System (DSS)
DSS is a computer based interactive and support system that assists the management of an organization to reach a rational decision by adopting the best option or couple of activities within the organization. DSS is widely used in data storage and retrieval while allowing for traditional access of information through a support modeled for reasoning and building. The importance of DSS in an organization framework of optimal growth involves framing and soling problems as well as modeling in organizations and corporate bodies.
DSS is used n various areas of application which includes planning and management in all business, firms, health care, the military and various areas where organizational management face complex decision situations. Lastly, I would like to bring to you attention that DSS is a utility and a channel through which the organization will extensively utilize knowledge, communication technologies, data and models to identify and solve all existing challenges facing the organization. The following section will explore various benefits of implementing DSS and how it will help the company in its quest to achieve short and long term objectives (Ephraim & Jay, 2001).
Importance of DSS in a company
It should be noted that DSS is specifically designed to improve in the holistic process of decision making process in a company. There are numerous benefits that accrue from the establishment of man-machine relationship in a well coordinated decision support system which includes;
There is a direct access to information which are used by analysts and managers since there is no data intermediary between them and the data. Management and analysts will be able to access all the components of the system and issue simple commands accordingly (Burstein, 2008).
Secondly is the access to the specific information needed and required at any given time. When DSS is implemented, internal data will be incorporated with various useful external data from the industry as well as economic indicators. This provides a wide scope of relevant information that is required by your management team in making key strategic decisions (Ephraim & Jay, 2001).
Thirdly, implementation of DSS will provide an on-the-spot access to various information’s requires at any given point in time. This will save time since it will eliminate delays accessioned by complying, scheduling report and drawing of graphs for interpretations. Hence provide quick result and decision making process is simplified (Burstein, 2008).
Through implementation of DSS, you will be in a position to displace result in the format and manner which you can understand without prior work. Through the use of simple commands, the computer will be instructed to present results in tabular, graphs, charts and any other format preferred by your management team.
Fifth, when the company adopts DSS, it will offer a variety of options to effect a decision since the system allows for comparisons among the options available. The system will allow you apply your own designed model and its relationship which in application to various information indicates all the consequences of available proposed decisions (Ephraim & Jay, 2001).
The sixth advantage for using DSS is that, the company will have freedom from time consuming tasks like computational burdens associated with normal paper work and analysis. DSS will come with a wide range of statistical and programmed tools such as regression, ratios while performing complex and challenging mathematic computations within seconds (Burstein, 2008).
Lastly, when the company adopts DSS systems, the company can shift to new technologies with time sharing computers with friendly interactive systems. The use of sophisticated software will as well be applicable which allows use of simple grammatical words to carry out complex operations for improved efficiency and increased profitability (Burstein, 2008).
Burstein, F. (2008). Hand Book on Decision Support Systems, Springer
Ephraim, T., & Jay, A. (2001). Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Prentice-Hall
Decision Support System 1
Decision Support Systems
Decision Support Systems (DSS) is a computerized based system with much emphasis on organizational information that’s vital in decision making activities within an organization. DSS serves best in management, planning and operation levels in al aspects of decision making for the better improvement of service delivery to customers and other stakeholders. This system is efficient in a dynamic environment where decisions are not anticipated and may require complex resolutions. DSS are also used in provisions involving data storages and retrievals at the same time maintaining the traditional formats of data access and retrieval functions by utilization of a support model based on building and reasoning components.
Various organizations use DSS in various and diverse capacities including framing, modeling and problem solving in companies and organizations. Application areas where DSS is widely used are management and planning of organizations and businesses, health care sector, military, as well as various areas where management of companies and corporations are challenged with complex decision making. DSS is also categorized as a subsystem that facilitates the extensive use of communication technologies, models, knowledge and data to identify solve all the existing challenges, complete decision responsibilities as well as arrive at rational decisions. A properly DSS design system is intended to facilitate beneficial use of information from combination of raw data, business models and personal knowledge to identify challenges and devise best means of solving them while making best decisions for the company. Daniel Power identified various taxonomies of DSS including data-driven DSS, communication-driven DSS, knowledge-driven DSS, document-driven DSS and model-driven DSS (Robyn, 2008).
Competitive Advantage of DSS to Companies in a changing economy
The most common well sought after notion is that any organization or company with a well maintained inbuilt DSS system using business intelligence tools, data mining tools, business performance management software, data warehousing and quantitative models will gain a competitive advantage. This is achieved while DSS is used in used to improve on profitability level through timely and well informed decision making process. Hence the corporation will gain a competitive advantage through proper data warehousing solution which may not be available to other users in a dynamics market environment. Data warehousing is a vital tool that increases competitive advantage of a firm through increasing the market share the corporation holds by proper analysis of their customer profiles. This is possible and a viable option when the organization has the ability to make complex business decisions based on a well focused as well as fact based analysis. This in turn results to edging out organizations especially in the dynamic global market which fails to invest properly in necessary analytical technologies (Samuel, 2008).
To have a competitive advantage involves possession of better resources, better financial position, advanced skills or any other benefit as a consequence of prior well calculated course of action. This advantage is intended to help an organization achieve favorable results both in short term as well as long term when exploited competitively. For DSS to maintain the competitive advantage for an organization in the long run and the organization to enjoy its benefits, certain condition must be maintained to establish a sustainable competitive advantage. This will be achieved when the long term benefits of implementing such an unique organizational value created strategy while simultaneously is not being implemented by any other potential or current competitor. In addition the strategy should present a market condition where current or potential competitors are unable to duplicate its operations. Hence to have a sustainable competitive advantage in the ever changing competitive market environment requires an organization to perform various unique fact based activities much better than any of their competitors in the market (Judea, 2010).
Finally for a DSS to offer a sustainable competitive advantage in a highly competitive market, it must fulfill basic fundamental qualities and conditions. First the implemented DSS must form a significant capability or strength which the organization will rely on its market operations. Secondly, the DSS in place should be proprietary and unique only to the organization implementing it. Lastly, the DSS implemented should present a market advantage for a sustainable strategy at least for a couple of years to guarantee an adequate return to massive investment injected in implementation (David, Dan & David, 2005).
Input Data required for the DSS
Various data may be required for proper utilization and full benefits of DSS implementation in any organization. Many types of DSSs are built using Extract, transform and load (ETL) tasks mostly associated with model-driven DSS. This software is mostly created for refreshing large volumes of data which is stored from transactions as well as enterprise resource planning. Various data types are used with DSS ranging from simulation, financial and optimization models which are helpful in major organizational decision making processes. For instance, model driven DSS may require small input data of 500 megabyte-5 terabyte data stores.
Time series type of data of one or more variables is also a vital source that is utilized by various taxonomies of DSS (Burstein, 2008). Historical stock market variables and parameters forms other vital sources of databases required for sustainable DSS competitive advantage. Data may also be extracted from maps, digital and video files for various market behaviors and stakeholders. Finally other forms of data required for DSS includes market trends, sales data, and marketing promotions and customers responses to these trends. The analysis of this various form of data helps an organization to analyze market conditions to improve its service deliver and edge out its rivals in an ever changing competitive economy.
Source: (Burstein, 2008)
The above diagram illustrates how raw input data from market research is used in a DSS system to make marketing organizational decisions.
Implementation of DSS system
A competitive advantage would not be achieved by merely designing an effective DSS system for an organization. The most vital part is the implementation which determines the effectiveness of the designed system and its market impact to the growth and profitability of the company. For sustainable competitive advantage to be achieved, DSS should be implemented in an organization through by all relevant users in their desire to solving semi structured challenges through inputs of intuitive personal but professional judgment followed by careful manipulations of data. Hence DSS in place should be design to allow user flexibilities in resolving relevant issues by familiarity and intuition with regard to organizational internal as well as external environment. Lastly for DSS implementation to be effective and sustain a long term competitive advantage, several considerations require to be taken into cognizance. These are the users’ resistance to change, the users of the program perceived task and its complexities, user training as well as champion and lastly the awareness of senior management coupled with their support and dedication to the system implementation (Ephraim & Jay, 2001).
Burstein, F. (2008). Hand Book on Decision Support Systems, Springer
David, E., & Dan, G., & David, M. (2005). Learning Bayesian networks: The combination of knowledge and statistical data. Machine Learning,
Ephraim, T., & Jay, A. (2001). Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Prentice-Hall
Judea, P. (2010). Causality: Models, Reasoning, and Inference. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK
Robyn, M. (2008). Rational Choice in an Uncertain World. Hartcourt Brace Jovanovich, Pub-lishers
Samuel, H. (2008). Intelligent Decision Systems. Addison-Wesley, Reading
Decision Support System 1
Historical institutionalism refers to a comparative approach that is used in the study of economic, social and political aspects of organizations, paying special attention to the behavior patterns and change concepts that have taken place over time. The studies done under historical institutionalism greatly rely on case studies and are mostly concerned with large processes, big structures and huge comparisons. The studies that have been brought forth have contributed greatly to policy making in organizations (Steinmo, 2008, p. 150).
An analysis of historical institutionalism shows that institutions to a very large extent shape the course of politics in terms of incentives and normative values. Institutions, when summed up, are a set of rules that govern social, political and economic behavior. The Science of politics shows that that there are some institutional arrangements that encourage or discourage some types of political behavior. One great example in support of this statement is the failure of Weimar democracy. The failure led to hostility in the post war years and the thought of democracy became one that was difficult to conceptualize in many political institutions. With the passing of each European empire, dictatorship became the order of the day, autocracy and chaos took over leadership, especially in the developing world.
It became next to impossible to build institutions governed with political behavior necessary for democracy to reign. Political analysts argue that the human world, which makes up institutions, is governed by the laws of behavior and action and hence people have the capability to manage, predict and positively change the world in which they live if they so desire. On the other hand, they can destroy it and fill it with irreconcilable chaos if they so wish. An example of this is clearly demonstrated in the discrepancy levels between countries, nations and states in concepts and issues like growth and development and democracy. While some countries wallow in poverty, others enjoy untold prosperity and are still growing. These analysts hence argue that if the mechanisms and processes of politics can be deconstructed into simple, comprehensible issues, it would then be easy to understand the world and make it a better place. Grand theorists like the Marxists, System Theorists, Rational Choice Theorists, Modernization Theorists and Structural functionalists all have a key interest in getting to understand the basic mechanisms and processes that motivate political behavior and changes across history, nations and cultures, which they summarized as The Law of Politics, in search of as they sought to justify that there is a Theory for Everything (Steinmo, 1992, p.3).’
From the above analysis, it is clear that the article on the Arab League’s Decision-making and Arab Integration is brings out the impact that the League has brought on the politics of the Arab States. First, the league exercises democracy as it mediates between member states, has clear responsibilities and had the power of converting mere paperwork into political achievements, unlike states or countries ruled by dictatorship. The article also analyses the League, a political institution, as one that applies rational choice and structural functionalism, where each arm of the League if fully aware of its functions as highlighted in the document. As earlier stated, institutionalism contributes to policy making and this has led the League into coming up with policies like annual meetings in the month of March. The Arab league also has the power to offer political incentives and constructive power, which is a characteristic of historical institutionalism.
Steinmo, S. (2008). What is historical Institutionalism? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Steinmo, S. (1992). Structuring politics: Historical institutionalism in comparative analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Historical Institutionalism 1