Social work and human services
Social work is a profession in which the trained social workers work together with people living in a given community to help them deal with daily life issues. Social workers are expected to be knowledgeable in different areas of the study and provide their services ethically to the people. Social work helps in solving a variety of problems that affect individuals in a society directly or indirectly. It provides intervention methods for situations such as depression, grief, drug addiction, and behavioral changes among others.
Diversity in Social Work
Social work is a diverse field and needs to be conducted with care. Human beings are also diverse in nature, and thus have different and diverse attention when seeking social work services. The five main categories of diversity in social work include social differences, ethical orientations, cultural practices, spiritual believes and practices and age differences (Kirst – Ashman, 2010). A social worker must therefore conduct his or her services within these categories. This is because people come from different social backgrounds in which different social and ethical issues are practiced. These same individual have different religious practice and observe varied cultural values and practices. Considering all these diversities, it important to observe that a society is made up of people with different ages. As such, when such people seek social work services, the social worker must possess the right knowledge for dealing with a particular situation.
It is important for a social work professional to have knowledge of diversity in her area of duty. This enables the social worker to view herself as a learner. This is because the social worker encounters different people from diverse areas of life. These people also have different experiences and would want to be assisted in a particular way. As such, the social worker will have to learn how to handle such a client to their satisfaction. It is important to note that it could be the social worker’s first time to handle such a case (Kirst Ashman, 2010). Therefore, the social worker needs to understand human diversity issues and learn to deal with them accordingly.
The knowledge of human diversity also enables the social worker to engage with the people she/he works with as well as those she will work with in future properly. The people a social worker engages with simply refers to and includes the client he/she encounters during his/her social work practice sessions. Having diversity knowledge about these people enables the social worker to provide quality services to such clients (Zastrow & Kirst Ashman, 2012). Diversity knowledge makes it possible for the social work professional to understand each individual client and his or her needs fully. This knowledge as well enables the social worker to be able the creation of a good understanding between her and the client.
The social worker acquires the ability to come up with resources that are needed for each client in order to solve the problems effectively. A social worker needs to have diversity knowledge to be able to handle different clients from a wider context. Diversity knowledge equips the social worker with the understanding of how to assist clients in dealing with varied problems. As it said before, clients vary and have varied problems; the social worker needs to have diversity knowledge to be able to help the clients (Zastrow & Kirst Ashman, 2012).
The Importance of Differences in Shaping Life Experiences
Every nation of the world comprises of people with different cultural origins. Research has shown that many people go through different cultural experiences that shapes their life experiences (Kirst Ashman, 2012 ). Different cultures bring about different cultural expectations. These expectations vary from one community to the next and from one race to the next. Social work theory has shown that the life encounters that one receives as a child has major impacts on their life experiences as they grow up into adulthood. It is worth noting that cultural expectations and differences shape a person’s life in different ways.
This is because the values and structure found in any given culture can work to hinder, promote, alienate, marginalize or create privileges and power in a person’s life. This is true especially in countries such as United States where there are different races of people living together (Diller, 2011 ). In that perspective, a social worker is expected to recognize how cultural differences influence the life experiences of their informant (clients). They then become capable of recognizing and communicating their understanding of the importance of difference in shaping life experiences. Differences are also based on other factors such as age, language, sex, religion among other factors found in the social environment. A social worker will be able to recognize such differences by first accessing the background of her clients. This is because the background of an individual gives a large amount of information based on issues such as previous life experiences.
The background information also informs the social worker on other factors such as religious view, believes, cultural norms, sexual orientation as well as age. The social worker is then able to communicate her knowledge based on this information. The social work professional may use such information to shape life experiences of the clients. For example, the social workers will be able to deliver services to these clients based on their backgrounds and cultural beliefs (Diller, 201). Through this research, the social worker will be able to know that some clients will want to be handled in a given way. For example, some clients will expect the social worker to offer her services without violating their cultural and human right. Some clients will expect every service delivery to inclined with their religious believes. The social worker cannot be able to communicate and recognize such understanding without proper background information.
With the adequate information, the social worker is also able to assess and examine the life experiences that the clients have had since childhood. The social worker can then find out how these experiences have shaped the client’s life and what impact these experiences have brought in the client’s life. For example, due to life experiences that people go through in their social environment, some clients would not want to receive help from social workers who do not confess the same region. While on the contrary some clients would not mind being helped by social workers with different cultural and religious backgrounds (Kirst Ashman, 2012). Cultural differences can also cause hindrances in service provision. This is especially so in cases where the social worker and the client have different cultural beliefs and practices. The social worker is expected to be able to recognize these differences to be able to do an exemplary job in her service delivery.
Self-awareness in Social Work
Social worker usually meets clients from different backgrounds during their social work practice. To be able to serve their clients well, social workers need to gain self-awareness. Self-awareness is defined as being in a state where one if able to treat all their clients with dignity and respects while at the same time avoiding biases and other prejudices (Turner, 2005). When a social worker gain adequate and constantly increasing self-awareness it facilitates her ability to eliminate the pressure of personal biases and values in working with varied groups of clients. Self-awareness enables the social worker to know how their own behavior and actions affect the outcome of the social work practice session. Thus the social worker is aware that is hey become biased towards the client, the client might walk out of the practice without getting the necessary help.
As such, the social worker will also be able to eliminate prejudices help by most people against client from different races, religion and community. Self-awareness knowledge leads the social worker to appreciate the diversity of her clients (Larrison. 2009). This knowledge also aid social worker in doing away with unwanted behaviors during social work sessions. For example, apart from doing away with biases, the social worker is able to categorically ignore stereotypes and other beliefs that people hold towards clients based on their sexual orientations, religion and age. Thus, the social worker becomes competent in her service provision and does not allow external factors to affect her work. She is able to effectively treat clients as unique human beings without being distracted by other factors (Turner, 2005).
During social work, social workers normally have power and control the session, they lead the clients into finding solutions to their problems. Constantly gaining self-awareness knowledge enables the social worker to exercise her powers and authority rightfully without negatively affecting the client. The social worker also becomes enlightened and acquires a changed attitude towards her clients during the practice. Through the continuous gain of self-awareness knowledge, the social worker as well developed a positively changed attitude (Larrison. 2009). Through the changed attitude, the social worker is able to know that different clients might want to be handled differently. They are capable of recognizing the fact that people from a given prejudiced community are different and have many positive qualities about them.
Social workers are also able to acquire other knowledge and be aware of other situations around them. They become more ethical in delivering their services to their clients. They become well informed on different groups of clients based on their backgrounds and other factors. Self-awareness knowledge enables the social worker to effectively plan their social work session. They know the expectations required from them by both clients and the community. The social workers also show a desire to learn about others and about themselves (Larrison. 2009). They are able to extract the required information based on the people she is dealing with. The social worker as well acquires the knowledge required for her to deliver her services effectively. Working with diverse people needs a substantial amount of knowledge on one’s self as well.
Diller, J. (2011). Cultural Diversity. A Primer for the Human Services. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning
Kirst Ashman, K. (2010). Human Behavior in the Macro Social Environment: An Empowerment Approach to Understanding Communities, Organizations, and Groups. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning
Kirst Ashman, K. (2012). Brooks/Cole Empowerment Series: Introduction to Social Work & Social Welfare: Critical Thinking Perspectives, 4th ed. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning
Larrison, T. (2009). Capturing the Space In-between: Understanding the Relevance of Professional “use of Self” for Social Work Education Through Hermeneutic Phenomenology. Urbana, Illinois: ProQuest
Turner, F. (2005). Encyclopedia of Canadian Social Work. Ontario, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press
Zastrow, C. & Kirst Ashman, K. (2012). Understanding Human Behavior in the Social Environment. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning
SOCIAL WORK AND HUMAN SERVICES 4
Running head: SOCIAL WORK AND HUMAN SERVICES 1
Service to humanity is one of the greatest drives to human development and existence. In achieving the end of delivering services meant to enrich the overall good of humanity several nongovernmental organizations have come up to facilitate activities geared at realizing a healthy community (Betsill, & Corell, 2007). These organizations in the local community include:
Community Empowerment Youth Group
The World Inspiration Network
Team and Action Development organization and
Rivers of Life Circle
These organizations stands for different thing but with a major purpose of ensuring that human health and the general well being of the locals are realized. The mission statement for the Community Empowerment Youth Group is Working with community members to ascertain that there is health awareness of the opportunistic diseases. In this, we endeavor to see a healthy and an empower community. The World Inspirational Network is also a local organization which works with other international organizations to ensure that the locals are exposed to the current world affairs in terms of economic development and social empowerment. Their mission statement states that We seek to mould a generation that is self sustained and globally competitive individuals.
The Team and Action Development organization seek to develop and attitude of togetherness among people. Their mission statement and purpose is to create a sense of brotherhood among people. They endeavor to mould an ethical society where people’s activities are of the common good of the society. Finally, Rivers of life circle is an organization which gives food to the underprivileged, build houses to the homeless, and they school needy children. This organization transforms the face of the community.
In contributing to a better society, I would gladly volunteer to work with the World Inspiration Network. Through this organization, I would contribute in giving insight to the community on how they can improve their life by positive change of thought. Positive mind change inspiration is the preferred action that I would take because it is through mental change that the life of an individual changes (Rutherford, 2003). This thought is aligned to the mission of Walden whose primary purpose is to transform the society to the greater good.
Betsill, M. M., & Corell, E. (2007). NGO diplomacy: The influence of nongovernmental organizations in international environmental negotiations. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Rutherford, K. R. (2003). Reframing the agenda: The impact of NGO and middle power cooperation in international security policy. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Praeger.
Running Head: HUMAN LIFE CONCERN
Importance of social policies for protecting children’s well-being
Social policies entail the understanding of social relations essential for human wellbeing and the systems by which such comfort can be possible. Social policies that relate to children are about issues that affect the kind of life that they can live. Social policies are essential in the promotion of children’s wellbeing by addressing causal factors thereby providing the necessary supportive and preventive measures that enable negligent and high-risk parents to fulfill their parenting roles (Gaudin, et al, 1993).
Social policies for instance Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) provided financial assistance to single mothers living in absolute poverty. Youngsters in these families were at high possibility of neglect. However, such assistance averted child neglect since mothers of young children received financial assistance, subsidized housing cost and food supplements (Gaudin, et al, 1993). Social policies also enhance children wellbeing since they initiate programs that are essential in enabling parents become self-supporting as their children enter school. These programs ensure income supplements, health benefits for the working poor, which is necessary to bridge the gap between the minimum wage incomes and meet the basic needs of children in these families (Gaudin, et al, 1993).
Factors affecting policy-making process
Cultural factors; this is attributed to the importance and the causes of social policy problems. It results from the responsibility for the problems and the societal obligation to assist those in need (Child Development Institute Parenting Today, 2013).
Economic factors encompass government control of the resources for instance tax revenues, corporate benefits, government budgetary priorities (Child Development Institute Parenting Today, 2013).
Institutional factors which include government’s administrative capabilities to develop and implement social policies and maintain a balance between the federal government and the states (Child Development Institute Parenting Today, 2013).
Legal factors influence policy-making process since the constitutional provisions through the judiciary create and reshape old social policies.
Political factors promote or discourage social policy enactment through the political process. Such enactments or defeat of policies relies on the amount of political consideration given to any such policy (Child Development Institute Parenting Today, 2013).
Role of child development research
Child development research provides parents with tools and information necessary for the understanding of their children who exhibit unique characteristics. Through this research, parents are able to help their children develop into independent human beings as they grow up (Jansson, 1997). This means that child development research shows that while it is a fact that each child has within them particular traits and abilities, the manifestation of such traits highly depend on environmental interactions which eventually determine the people they grow up to become.
Child development research reveals the outcomes of the interactions between children and their surroundings. These interactions always result into learning that encourages the development of a child’s skills and traits. This research also outlines the role of the parent in the provision of support for the child as he gradually develops and removes the support as the child acquires skills and abilities in each developmental stage (Jansson, 1997).
Child development research informs parents on how best to nurture their children. This kind of fostering occurs when parents spend appropriate quality time with their children. The time spent should be fun and enjoyable for parents and their children eventually leading to delighted, healthy and success oriented children (Jansson, 1997).
The ability to learn self-independence among children is also the focus of child development research. This is effected by the fact that the research informs parents on their role in helping children acquire self-discipline and positive character traits (Jansson, 1997).
Child Development Institute Parenting Today. (2013). Retrieved on 25 June 2013 from
Gaudin, J. U.S. Department of Human Health and Human services (1993). Child Neglect: A
Guide for Intervention. 8. Social Policy Implications, retrieved on 25 june 2013 from https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/usermanuals/neglect_93/neglecth.cfm
Jansson, B. S. (1997). The reluctant welfare state: American social welfare policies – past,
Present, and future. Pacific Grove, Calif. [u.a.: Brooks/Cole, 468-470.
Running Header: PSYCHOLOGY 1
Are Humans naturally inclined to Greed, Rebellion, and Evil?
It is true that humans are naturally to greed, rebellion, and evil because of the universal characteristics of self-organization and self-preservation in their egos and self esteem needs. The human ego constitutes the inner force that promotes human inclination towards evil, greed, and rebellion. It involves basic consciousness and valuation of the self and a predisposition to action that promotes the survival of the self and personal identity. This is the root of human pride and tendencies to save and secure the self.
Such nature causes human predisposition to act aggressively and selfishly in social, economic, and other settings, to ascertain personal welfare first, before that of others. Greed, rebellion, and evil are the consequences of such human predisposition in the struggle for personal welfare and security, as a priority. Human nature, based on egos, causes the prioritization of personal wellbeing, promoting humans’ inclination towards greedy, rebellious, and evil behavior for self-preservation and survival (Henley, 2010, p. 5-9, 27-35; Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2009, p. 97-98). An example of this involves my recollection of past involvement in playing with friends, when I felt I deserved to be part of the team all the time, irrespective of whether that meant that some of my friends did not get places on the team.
An outer force that promotes human inclination to greed, rebellion, and evil concerns the demand for social and personal esteem and comfort in social settings. Social esteem avails advantages for the individual that enhance much-desired comfort in life, such as high income, employment, luxury, material happiness, and recognition. Social competition to gain such advantages causes human inclination to act greedily and show evil and rebellious actions against social structures and others to secure social esteem (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2009, p. 131-133). As an example, an individual may commit robbery (rob a bank, etc) so as to gain financial advantages and secure a level of comfort in life that he/she thinks is necessary for the society to afford social esteem.
Henley, A. (2010). Being a Human Being: a Basic Guide for understanding Human Nature. AuthorHouse, Bloomington, USA
Zastrow, C., & Kirst-Ashman, K. (2009). Understanding Human Behavior and the Social Environment. Cengage Learning, Stamford, USA
Are humans naturally inclined to Greed, Rebellion, and Evil? 1
The change process
Human services is a broad field involving a wide range of activities including case management, community support, community outreach, child care, counseling on alcoholism and drug addiction, social work assistance, life skills counseling as well as gerontology assistance among others. Human service workers offer a wide range of services which can either be directly or indirectly oriented towards the client and these are aimed at providing preventive or remedial solutions to problems while maintaining a long-term commitment to promote an all round improvement of the quality of life (Joshua 12).
Human services and client motivation
According to Joshua (32) while human service workers may engage in a wide range of activities aimed at providing desirable solutions affecting a community’s population, they may need to engage in psychiatric and rehabilitation counseling activities with the aim of intervening into a crisis affecting their clients. Basically, human service workers need to find ways of motivating their clients to open up and participate in these sessions in order to provide effective skills that would help them to master everyday situations and address them accordingly. Human service workers can thus motivate their clients to share their experiences in order to help them address these problems. They can show sympathy by sharing their experiences which would make the client feel that they are being understood (Joshua 43).
This positive motivation can help the client feel that what they are going through is normal and they can overcome it. Human service workers can also render a positive motivation to clients by helping them identify gaps prevailing between their current situations and what they desire in their lives. Rendering positive motivation is significant as this will not only help the client to open up and actively participate in the counseling session but they will also be motivated to take positive actions in addressing their situations (Joshua 46). A human service worker can for example help a client experiencing troubled marriage to identify the gap between the current situation of his marital life and how he can make it better by promoting good relationship with his partner which can result to a happy marriage.
It is thus evident that human service worker can positively motivate their clients by showing them empathy and helping them to identify gaps prevailing between their current situations and their desired life.
Human Behavior in the Social Work Environment
The case of Carla Washburn explains the life situation of a 76 year old widow who lives alone in a small town. Carla’s family members are all deceased and she lives alone. This depicts that she is quite lonely and depressed. The environment that Carla is living in is surrounded by various environments including the church, the county department of public health, Johnson’s family, Jackson’s family school, library among other services. Though all these services are available, she feels lonely. Carla attends the same church as Loretta (her sister) and she visits her quite often.
As a social worker, the goal is to help Loretta re-establish their relationship with Carla through focusing on the church as through this they would have moiré time together. William and Luera Jackson are busy taking care of their children but could use the services of Carla since she has the experience of raising a grandson.
Carla has various shortcomings including being diabetic, she once fell off the ladder, she has depression, her income is in meager, she lives alone and host her son as well as her grandson. The problems that Carla may be facing include health care problems, financial problems, the senior activities and the advocacy for the elderly.
Some of the biophysical issues that Carla is facing include her isolation from friends that are making her to be quite lonely, desperate and make her feel isolated. The absence of family members or other people who may help her cheer up may lead to Carla contemplating committing suicide. Carla is also diabetic and this is adding up to her depression. Both physical and environmental factors have led to her deteriorating state of health. The physiological issues that I would attend to would include seeing to it that she has people who live close to her so that she may feel loved and worthy.
With no family member, and facing serious economic and health implications, Carla is sure of having psychological problems. She is indeed in a serious state of depression that she alone cannot remove herself from it. She is psychologically tortured because his son and wife were killed in a car accident and she was left with their grandson to take care of. After her son grew up and went to Iraq, Carla was informed that her grandson was killed in Iraq. The isolation that Carla ids facing and the grief of loss indicates why Carla is desperate and depressed.
The social factors that Carla is facing include the loss that she had undergone of losing her child and grandson. This has resulted in her opting to grow apart from the community and her friends. She is both physically and mentally tortured because of the situations she is undergoing as well as the high crime rate within her neighborhood. The community has a new priest who knows nothing about Carla
Though Carla is not to be too religious, speaking with the new priest may give her the needed hope to keep her going and to recollect her. The church priest ought to make contacts with some people like Carla who might help as volunteers and this might contribute to her being positive. At the same time, Carla needs social interactions and this includes taking part in the kids program to help them alleviate crime in the community. The Jacksons family on the other hand since they cannot stay at home all day to take care of their little ones may employ the services of Carla who is at home all the time and this would help her in cultivating a sense of togetherness and she may be relieved of her depression. She could also be used to take the Jacksons children to school and take them back home. The office area of the agency could be used to offer services to the elderly so that they may not have to go to a nursing home but live in their own homes.
They should also be able to deal with the problem that Carla has of diabetes and other supportive services like those of bereavement services. The intervention that Carla would need therefore in such a context is both the Medicare and the Medicaid services. The neighbors ought to form a watch group to take care of the rising crime that threatens the community as well as Carla. The community may be suffering from high unemployment rates and the state and the county management should intervene so that children do not drop out of school to engage in crime. This would therefore call for a sustainable and competence culture in the community. Finally finding out what Carla likes would help her find something else to live for. At the same time helping Carla integrate back with the community would be vital in helping her gain social interaction that is vital for helping Carla achieve an active lifestyle.
Some of the limitations of using the above means would include the fact that Carla may be too depressed to accept the community. She could therefore be taken to a mental institution where she could be treated of other ailments. At the same time the neighbors may not be willing to integrate are back to the society. This would affect her psychologically and emotionally. Other limitations include the fact that the priest would not be too keen to accommodate Carla in volunteer work.
National Association of Social Workers versus National Organization for Human Services
Professional workers carry out a number of functions to develop their mission of helping people and while carrying the functions, they are faced with ethical dilemmas. Code of ethics is there to act as a guide to the professionals while resolving such ethical dilemmas (Sims, 1994, p. 1). National Association of Social Workers (NASW) and National Organization for Human Services (NOHS) are some of the professional organizations that provide ethical standards to its professions. These ethical standards have some objectives to execute. It aims to inform professionals on sound ethical conduct, which can assist them to develop their responsiveness and elucidate their values when handling the challenges of the profession.
The standards also aim to offer a mechanism for professional responsibility. Professionals are compelled to oversee their personal conducts and hearten ethical conduct of fellow professionals. In addition, standard ethics in professional organizations act as catalyst for enhancing practices. There are usually discrepancies between the two organizations’ code of ethics due to differing values and means of mitigating the preeminent solutions. The paper will compare and contrast code of ethics for NASW and NOHS.
NASW code of ethics
The principal task of the social work profession is to improve human welfare and help people to meet up their basic human needs especially those who are oppressed, defenseless, and living in utter poverty. Social professionals work in a field that encompasses secondary relationships. These relationships entail legitimate interactions that are inadvertent and not planned but can lead to ethical ramifications. For social work professionals, code of ethics is indispensable. They are required to follow certain rules of conduct while relating to coworkers, clients, and other people that they interact. Without a code of ethics, social workers find it hard to take their work as a profession. The standard ethics help social workers to establish an appropriate course of action when faced with a certain situation (Reichert, 2006, p. 120).
NASW code of ethics contains a section that covers up the administration procedures of the organization. The ethics advocates for passable program resources and equitable administration of resources. Additionally, the ethics recognizes ethical principles that act as a guide to the professionals. In essence, NASW code of ethics supports the acuity that ethical decision-making is a course of action. The code makes it an obligatory for workers to be organized in order to put off unlawful and incompetent practices of social work. Social workers are directed by the code of ethics to work on maintaining high standards of practice.
The code of ethics calls for social workers to put in professional knowledge and time with actions that encourages respect for competence, integrity, and values for the profession. The ethics discourage any sexual relationship between social worker and client. Additionally, NASW code of ethics encourages activities such research, teaching, legislative testimony, consultations, and participation in their professional organizations that is deemed essential for the continuation of the organization (Woodside & McClam, 2011, p. 268).
NOHS code of ethics
NOHS consist of members from childcare, mental health, and gerontology disciplines that provide human services to people in dire need of the services. Human services are defined as services that give attention to the improvement and maintenance mental and of the physical health of individuals or communities in a society. Human service professionals stick to a code of ethics that explicate their goals, roles, and values while working with all forms of organizations. Workers in this profession work with clients who have needs that are not met or those who experience some sort of discrimination in the society. Professionals in this field are regularly faced with ethical dilemmas. Such dilemmas normally deal with responsibilities of practitioners. It also deals with conducts that are regarded as either ethically right or wrong (Burger, 2013, p. 239).
The code of ethics for NOHS comprises of a series of values, which covers extensive approved and prohibited acts and responsibilities of human service professionals. The ethics talks about workers ethical responsibilities to the colleagues, clients, and the employing organization. It also talks about workers ethical responsibilities to the society. The most important values of workers in the human service profession are respect for people, client autonomy, valuing the individual’s abilities to change, and providing individuals with the chance to apprehend their potential. NOHS ethics also include respect for diversity and readiness to pass on professional skills to others, client empowerment, and in the quest of providing individuals with adequate resources to meet up their fundamental needs. Additionally, NOHS code of ethics does not advocate for sexual relationships between workers and clients (Neukrug, 2011, p. 10).
NASW code of ethics does not give set of rules, which can stipulate the manner in which social workers should act in every situation they encounter. In addition, the code of ethics does not indicate the values, standards, and principles that are crucial and ought to prevail over others in the event of a conflict. The code of ethics for NOHS has gone through numerous revisions in order to fit in the ever-changing values in the society. The revisions are also aimed at allowing the ethics to adapt to the changing value of the organization. NOHS ethics take precedence on autonomy unlike NASW principles that may allow social workers to restrict the right of self-determination of the client when action can cause severe and pending risk in the profession. NASW code of ethics limits social workers to provide services just in the context of professional relations based on legally binding consent. NOHS ethics allows human service professionals to go into a professional – client relationship with groups, families, individuals, or communities without legally binding consent. Unlike NOHS, which only bares sexual relationship with clients, NASW ethics does not allow social workers to engage in social activities with relatives or individuals that clients maintains a close relationship with when there is risk of exploitation.
Code of ethics usually binds members of an organization that support it. NASW and NOHS have professionals who work in the field of human or social services. The code of ethics of NASW and NOHS encourages professionals to understand the limit and extent of their professional comprehension and offer services that are only within their skill base. The two organizations have code of ethics that looks for suitable supervision to help in making decisions where ethical dilemmas are involved. The ethical codes in NASW and NOHS support cooperation amongst the interrelated disciplines to advance professional growth in a number of fields within its jurisdiction (they promote continuous development of professionals). Professionals in the organizations are encouraged by the code of ethics to back up research activities and promote educational advancement.
Ethics in the two organizations requires workers to act with truthfulness, integrity, and honesty in everything they do as the representatives of the organizations. Similarly, ethics in the two organizations promote a working environment that values fairness and respect for all. The professional code of ethics in NASW and NOHS that offer support to its workers when faced with conflicts while attending to individuals (they offer support in the complex ethical decision-making process). Ethical codes adopted by two of the professional organizations are based on the belief that professions can policy themselves. The code of ethics in the two organizations is a statement regarding the maturity and professional identity of the professions. In essence, NASW and NOHS code of ethics offers protection to clients and it does not allow workers to have sexual relations with clients (Neukrug, 2011, p. 10)
Code of ethics is indispensable ethical documents for professionals who assist people in need of help. NASW and NOHS standards set out the best principles that guide professionals while helping others. The ethics also offers an organized manner of approaching ethical dilemmas that might arise in the profession. Practical application of code of ethics is often difficult. The issues faced by professionals in the two organizations calls for proper understanding of the ethics and educated interpretation to real-life situations. Code of ethics makes it mandatory for professionals to respect colleagues and keep away from negative critics. The code also requires them to uphold high standards of work practices irrespective of circumstances that may come up. Essentially, the codes of ethics at NASW and NOHS require professionals in the organizations to augment the general welfare of the society and guarantee every individual equal access to essential services.
Reichert, E. (2006). Understanding human rights: An exercise book. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Woodside, M., & McClam, T. (2011). An introduction to human services. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.
Sims, R. R. (1994). Ethics and organizational decision-making: A call for renewal. Westport, Conn: Quorum Books.
Burger, W. (2013). Human services in contemporary America. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
Neukrug, E. (2011). Counseling theory and practice. Australia: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
CODE OF ETHICS 2
Running Head: CODE OF ETHICS 1
Burnout in Human Services Profession
Professional burnout is an unbearable mental condition caused by continuous work stress (Edelwich, & Brodsky, 1980). This result in emotional fatigue, poor interpersonal relationships, work inefficiency and increased discontent. It takes place when professionals are under pressure and fails to achieve regular demands. As the pressure piles up, human service professionals start to loose stimulation as caregivers.
Burnout is caused by several factors; perfectionists and those who never declines for somebody else to assist them tend to take numerous duties at once (Edelwich, & Brodsky, 1980). These kinds of individuals struggle to deliver an excellent service despite the cost, even though costs are higher than anticipated. Another factor is the difference in employees’ anticipation and job description. An employee may suffer burnout when they do not share organizational objectives and goals. The individual may possibly have a sentiment of indifference. Extreme workloads and hostile work atmosphere regularly cause psychological and physical fatigue; this persistent exhaustion results to burnout (Taormina, & Law, 2000). According to statistics, after three minute somebody in European Union dies from burnout or other illness related to work. In yearly basis, the number is estimated to be 142,000.
Social workers are advised to start the day with a meditation for a few minutes and read an inspirational thing (Taormina, & Law, 2000,). They should sleep well and do routine exercises, proper understanding of the job description and planning of job tasks efficiently. Social workers should allocate time for fun and take a break on computers. The insight gained after the study on burnout is that, behavior change is paramount and should be focused on preventing burnout. Proper understanding of the job description before entry in the human service profession should the first major consideration.
Edelwich, J., & Brodsky, A. (1980). Burn-out: Stages of disillusionment in the helping professions (Vol. 255). New York: Human Sciences Press.
Taormina, R. J., & Law, C. M. (2000). Approaches to preventing burnout: the effects of personal stress management and organizational socialization. Journal of Nursing Management, 8(2), 89-99.
PROFESSIONAL BURNOUT 2
Running head: PROFESSIONAL BURNOUT 1
How Exposure to Neighborhood Crime and Violence impacts on Coping and Health Behaviors
Social conditions have direct implications on the general wellbeing of an individual. Humans are social beings who interact with their peers as well as the environment within which they live. Harmonic social conditions provide a favorable environment for sustainable growth and development. Conversely, violent conditions impact on the entire welfare of all humans. In particular, exposure to such conditions affects the health of respective individuals adversely. In this context, exposure constitutes being a victim or and witness to crime or violence. It is against this background that this paper provides an explicit review of how exposure to neighborhood crime and violence affects the coping and health behaviors of an individual. Further, it underscores the relationship between health behaviors and coping.
As indicated earlier, neighborhood conditions have direct impacts on the wellbeing of an individual. They influence the behavior and affect the health of individuals living therein. In their consultative review, Ellen, Mijanovich and Dillan (2001) assert that adolescents living in violent neighborhoods exhibit defiant and oppositional behaviors. Distressed individuals harbor negative emotions towards their surroundings. This explains why they are more likely to engage in socially deviant acts. While in such psychological conditions, the affected individuals also find it difficult to cope with stressful conditions. In this regard, they are unlikely to respond positively to further crime. When faced with a challenging scenario, they resort to violence in a bid to resolve the issue.
Generally, individuals who are frequently exposed to violence and crime perceive these conditions as normal. Psychological studies ascertain that they become insensitive and assume violent tendencies (Kirk & Hardy, 2012). Such persons consider crime and violence to be normal’. Thus, they develop behavioral problems and experience difficulties with socialization. This is usually attributable to their aggressive and violent behaviors. In the long run, they experience social discrimination. This has detrimental effects on their coping capacities. It is because they lose social ties that are imperative for sustainable living. Resultant isolation prevents them from getting help when they are faced with a problem. In extreme cases, they get imprisoned as a result of engaging in violent acts. This further exacerbates their situation and undermines their coping capacity.
In most cases, criminal behavior is characterized by a harmful degree of violence. Victims of crime and violence suffer physical injuries and mental problems. In his research, Wildeman (2012) asserts that domestic violence affects the health of expectant mothers in different ways. In particular, it exposes them to trauma that has direct negative effects on the health of the unborn child. In severe instances, victims of this violence experience miscarriages. Again, the resultant trauma, stress, and depression affect their health. The injuries that they suffer have lasting effects on their ability to function normally. Also worth appreciating are the legal implications of crime and violence. Ideally, violent criminals get imprisoned after facing the law. This has immense psychological impacts on the individuals, family, and society at large. Families of these individuals suffer detrimental impacts especially if the persons were bread winners. Racial studies affirm that affected minority populations suffer the most because of relative discrimination that they experience at the work place (Rose & Clear, 1998)
Repeated exposure to violence leads to psychological strain too. In their research, Browning, Kathleen and Iveniuk (2013) indicate that both single and multiple exposures to crime and violence lead to post traumatic stress disorder. Characteristic symptoms range from irritability and flashbacks to detachment feelings or isolation, aggression, and anxiety. The youths who are exposed to such conditions experience distressing feelings of depression. In some circumstances, affected individuals become suicidal and exhibit a wide range of behavioral disorders such as aggression.
From a psychological point of view, exposure to violent conditions culminates in stress. In children, Kirk and Hardy (2012) found out that exposure to warfare leads to stressful conditions. This is particularly due to the fact that children are vulnerable to stressful conditions. Their coping strategies are limited and therefore, they are susceptible to relative mental harm. Specific mental problems that affected children suffer from include sleep disturbances, fear, anxiety, and depression amongst others. Reportedly, mothers who are exposed to violence during pregnancy give birth to underweight children (Kawachi, Kennedy & Wilkinson, 1999). Compared to their counterparts who live harmonic environments, these mothers often resort to abuse of noxious substances in an effort to respond to the violence they are exposed to.
It cannot be disputed that violent neighborhoods are socially isolating and life threatening. Living in such conditions leads to anxiety, feelings of anger, and depression (Ross, 2000; Taylor & Repetti, 1997). Persons residing in dangerous neighborhoods treat their neighbors suspiciously. From a theoretical point of view, such individuals experience feelings of powerlessness and insecurity. Put differently, they consider themselves incapable of protecting their own welfare. The inherent lack of control enhances depression and anxiety.
Relationship between Health Behaviors and Coping
The fact that a complete state of wellness is essential for effective functioning cannot be disputed. Healthy individuals tend to be more productive than their unhealthy counterparts. In their study, Wakefield and Wildeman (2011) indicated that healthy individuals are more economically productive than the unhealthy individuals. This implies that they are able to sustain themselves when faced with economically related challenges. Their levels of income are higher and as such, they can address more complex problems than the unhealthy individuals. From this point of view, good health cushions individuals against the negative economic and social problems.
Also, individuals that are psychologically sound enjoy lasting social relationships. In this regard, they have established relationships with family, friends, neighbors, and the entire society. When faced with a problem, they turn to their social networks for help (Boscarino & Adams, 2009). In most instances, they get adequate help in a timely manner. This is unlike socially unsound individuals who are alienated from the society. Lack of this help makes it difficult for them to address the problems that they encounter.
In sum, exposure to violence and neighborhood crime has adverse effects on the mental and physical health of the populations. Psychologically, this exposure culminates in distressing mental conditions. These are characterized by traumatic feelings, depression, anger, stress, strain, social detachment, aggression, behavioral disorders, and social deviance. Physically, exposure to violence has adverse effects on maternal health. The injuries that victims suffer from violent physical assault are disabling. Health fosters social functioning and improves the coping capacity of individuals. Unlike their unhealthy counterparts, healthy individuals are able to address the various challenges that they face. The established social ties cushion them against socio-economic problems that they face.
Boscarino, J. & Adams, R. (2009). PTSD onset and course following the world trade center disaster: Findings and implications for future research. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 44, 887-898.
Browning C,. Kathleen, C. & Iveniuk J. (2013). Crime rates, crime spikes and cardiovascular health in urban population. In B. Sanders, Y. Thomas & Deeds, B. (Eds.). Crime, HIV and health: Intersections of criminal justice and public health concerns (pp. 187-203). New York: Springer
Ellen, I., Mijanovich, T. & Dillman, K. (2001). Neighborhood effects on health: Exploring the links and assessing the evidence. Journal of Urban Affairs, 23 (3-4), 391-408
Kawachi, I., Kennedy, B. & Wilkinson, R. (1999). Crime: Social disorganization and relative deprivation. Social Science & Medicine, 48, 719-731
Kirk, D. & Hardy, M. (2012). The acute and enduring consequences of exposure to violence on youth mental aggression. Justice Quarterly, 1-29.
Rose, D. & Clear, T. (1998). Incarceration, social capital, and crime: Implications for social disorganization theory. Criminology, 36 (3), 441-479.
Ross, C. (2000). Neighborhood disadvantage and adult depression. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 42 (2), 177-187.
Taylor, S. & Repetti, R. (1997). Health Psychology: What is an unhealthy environment and how does it get under the skin? Annual Reviews of Psychology, 48, 411-447
Wakefield, S. & Wildeman, C. (2011). Mass imprisonment and racial disparities in childhood behavioral problems. Criminology & Public Policy, 10 (3), 793-817
Wildeman, C. (2012). Imprisonment and infant mortality. Social Problems, 59 (2), 228-257
Exposure to Neighborhood Crime and Violence 1
Social movements are structures that act to seek and fight for the rights of people, their independence in society or community whether it is mental independence or political independence. For example, in South Africa, social movements fought for the rights of the marginalized people in the community, in Brazil, the existing social movements sought to fight for the rights of Brazilian women to have land rights while in China they fought for citizen’s rights against the local government. There are two types’ directions taken, that arise from structuralists theories where they explain on urban social movements. The two directions includes; macro scale and urban social scales.
Macro scale involves urban reforms and changes acts like a contradicting explanation of global capitalism in a wider structure. In this direction, structuralist’s theories are analyzed and then used to explain equality and social justice queries on a global and national scale (Kelvin, 2004, p. 123).
The second perspective taken is based on urban social scales only. The social reforms are usually the only scales where urban social movements can air their demands and grievances. Urban social movements are based on material requirements and ambitious demands rather than criticism of the set sophisticated policies.
However, the research of social movements is mainly on city scales where human rights are susceptible to violations. The discussion of social movements in South Africa, Brazil and China will be based on the structuralist’s theories as they try to explain on urban studies without depending on globalization. It will mostly focus on the urban planning, literature, urban studies, sociological studies, political science literature, the South African academic works and Brazilian social movements that fought for women’s rights to own land and the urban China grass root movements (Kelvin, 2004, p. 125).
South African migrants had supportive movements and networks that were not publicly organized or controlled. These movements and supportive groups helped to organize forums and groups that were oriented to politics. Thus, many South African observers paid little or no attention to the political conflicts that were considered unimportant and unnecessary. South Africa was and still is a country that is capable of deciding its own destiny despite the citizen’s low income (Kelvin, 2004, p. 131).
Marxists theory argues that, production modes by capitalists, minimizes everything to its monetary value with set up structures being the only ones that matters. Marxist theory thus emphasized on economic and political institutions to create constraints. It also put an emphasis on the citizens’ agencies that were governed by Western democracies as determining factors. The theory also explained how internal contradictions were created from peoples’ relations being based on monetary issues. The working social classes of people were regarded as the only people able to revolutionize the society. Capitalist’s resilience in production modes led to societies being created only based on economic interests disregarding all other aspects of human life. Thus more inequalities were witnessed especially between bourgeoisies and proletariats.
Neo-Marxists school of thought however, did not agree that economic structures were the only aspects that determined and defined life. On the other hand, Modern capitalistic societies have been said to be institutions and organization that are flexible but also complex. They have also contributed to the increasing new goods and services being produced in the society. Production institutions have agreed to positive progressive reforms. These reforms have led to other cultural, bureaucratic and social institutions that are being used to criticize reproductive societies leading to their collapse. However, it was also noted that the only way to sustain modern life was through an existing and continuous production by economic production structures and supportive institutions (Fayong, 2008, p. 233).
Structuralism theories argued that, institutions that were economically powerful shaped political and social processes. According to Giddens, institutions and organization were like forces of people that were produced and reproduced in every social life. Structures therefore could not exist without human actions that were the structuring forces. Theses structural forces were created from social groups that were potential reformers and self aware social groups. Thus according to Giddens, social life dominance by structures instead of forces from each moment of human social life, cannot stop people from seeing themselves as bearers of production modes and cultural dopes.
In order to study the group of people in the low income earners brackets, Giddens idea that in modern cities, agency was more powerful and widespread does not apply in this scenario. This was because this class known as marginalized people had actions that did not bear results they hoped or liked, thus, the creation of behaviors that were a pattern of structures compliance emerged. However, should there have been reforms, then the agency structures changed and became tools of analysis. According to Giddens, cities being changed into more social places involved a small number of individuals who led an urban social movement that needed to be identified and understood. Agencies in South Africa such as African National Congress (ANC) challenged the then political processes because the black South Africans were oppressed. Therefore, due to the work of social movements in South Africa, the whole country as a society was reformed (Carmen, 2003, p. 256).
Sandercock in 1998 stated that, mind changes do not occur by ignoring organized political actions that are barriers for the low income earners. These low incomes and social exclusions are subjected to those without privileges of affording shelters like those of high income earners whether it is by gender, race or any discriminating agenda. Structural barriers are therefore imposed on individuals who are considered weak by powerful groups in the society to explain the inequalities and injustices done in modern cities.
Types of structural barriers.
Lefebvre used the everyday experiences and political nature to come up with barriers that were against human beings being success. These barriers were part of the usual human beings activities giving an example with Westlake in South Africa, where to access education, it was a struggle. This meant that their future was not so optimistic due to these conditions. It was therefore a structural barrier where the Cape Town rich residents had easy access to educational institutions than the Westlake residents who were held back not because they neither lacked effort nor because of their ingenuity but because of their economic status. Bureaucratic procedures such as racial controls during apartheid were perceived to be usual, ordinary and normal while in reality it should not have been the case since they constitute to inhumane practices (Kelvin, 2004, p. 133).
Brazilian Social Movements.
Brazil’s social movements arose from women demanding their rights to own land and other properties. They formed three social movement, the landless movement, the rural unions and rural women movement. Brazilian women attained their rights to demand for land from a federal constitution in 1988 which affirmed these rights. It was stated that agrarian reform of land distribution required only the civil rights of either the man or the woman whose title deed would be addressed to. This was according to Article 189 of the Brazilian constitution. However, this law was not fully implemented in the years that followed until twelve years later, when rural social movements were formed.
They sought for women’s rights in the national level to have a joint titling and land adjudication under agrarian reforms. They matched to the capital city with the coordination of Women’s Commission of National Agricultural Worker’s Union; Confederacao Nacional Dos Trabalhadoras Na Agricultura (CONTAG) and Movimento das Mulheres Trabalhadoras Rurais do Noreste (MMTR-NE) among other groups. Women’s land rights recognition was due to two reasons; productionist and empowerment. Productionist was an argument that women land rights needed to be recognized for their bargaining power to be more enhanced in the community and household. It was crucial that women subordination to men be ended for there to be equality between men and women. Therefore, in legal terms, women’s land rights were a by product of the process that sought equality (Carmen, 2003, p. 259).
Effects of social movements in Urban China
In Shanghai China, just like the other two mentioned countries; South Africa and Brazil, social movements were formed by marginalized class of citizens especially low income earners. However, unlike the rest, the middle class were also involved in taking actions of the social movements. Social capital was required to deal with resistance of social movement actions and for their success. The protesting ways of Chinese citizens and state support were also contributory factors.
All protests were well coordinated and funded by activists either through capital or law resources. Social movements in China defended specific interests and promoted grass root democracy of Chinese citizens. For China, in order to challenge local governments’ powers and actions, the social movements sought the support of high ranking authorities. Chinese local government was regarded to violate citizen’s rights and therefore, any actions by social movements were usually directed to the local government rather than the civil societies or the powerful central state. This to them was the only way to ensure Chinese citizen rights and interests were defended and enhanced (Fayong, 2008, p. 235).
In South Africa, political awareness especially by Black South Africans was formed from so many years of racial discrimination and resistance. South African citizens were thus left to be knowledgeable people on their rights and to be mentally independent. Therefore, the challenges social movements in South Africa faced could have brought more success should the national condition in that country have been different.
On the rights of Brazilian women, women who were in power were the main reason for raising their issues. Those who were in rural unions, CONTAG, CUT, MMTR, CNDR and other organizations that came and collaborated also hugely contributed and explained why women had to have land ownership rights. Their success was from the unified efforts of all social movements to end women discrimination in the agrarian reform. However, the legality obtained was that joint titling and land adjudication was optional and not mandatory which meant that, women’s land rights were not implemented fully.
Thus, female beneficiaries of reforms made in 1990 did not increase. Rural social movement’s main priority was to secure women’s land rights while class and gender were considered incompatible by the main social movement that determined the agrarian reform pace on landless movements. The results of Green Neighborhood social movement resistance to social political forces in China enhanced local social capital and governance by reliving associations, making the local decision and other civic processes more democratic and improvement of neighborhood environment.
Carmen, D.D. (2003). Women’s Land Rights and Rural Social Movements in the Brazilian Agrarian Reform, Journal of Agrarian Change, 3(1&2): 257-288
Fayong, S. (2008). Social Capital at Work: The Dynamics and Consequences of Grass root Movements in Urban China, Critical Asian Studies, 40(2): 233-262
Kelvin, D. (2004). New Urban Social Movements in Cape Town and Johannesburg, Urban Forum, 15(2): 123-256
SOCIAL MOVEMENTS 7
Running Head: SOCIAL MOVEMENTS 1