Running Head: Employee Motivation
Part 1: Discussion Assignment
I will be investigating the issue of employee motivation in my final project. Lack of motivation is one the challenges that I have observed in my organization. When the level of employee motivation is low, the levels of employee performance and productivity are low as well. This affects the employees in terms of job satisfaction and the organization in terms of lower performance levels. When employees in an organization perform below their optimum levels, the organization’s profitability is affected. This is because the organization incurs the same amount of labor costs for lower levels of output. A downward trend in the performance of an organization has a negative effect on its competitiveness in the market or industry. The organization may result in laying down some its employees especially those whose performance is affected by lack of motivation. The organization will incur additional costs of hiring and training new employees. Employees with low motivation levels may affect the performance of other employees in the organization.
The proposed study will investigate the specific causes of low motivation levels among the employees. Such factors vary across individuals and organizations. Thus, the study will indicate the causes that are specific to the employees in my organization. In addition, the study will indicate the mechanisms that the management of the organization can utilize to enhance the level of employee motivation. The proposed study will involve participants from the management teams, supervisors, and employees. The employees will be drawn from all levels in the corporate structure. Data will be collected from the participants using questionnaires. Interviews and discussions will also be conducted with the representatives of the management team and the supervisors. Qualitative and quantitative research approaches will be utilized in the proposed study. The collected data will be analyzed and the results presented to all the individuals in the organization. The study will involve willing participants and will be conduct in an ethical manner.
The expected results of this study will help the management of the organization to understand the opinion of the employees on employee motivation. The management team will also understand the causes of low motivation among the employees and the management’s contribution to this problem. The results of the study consist of possible solutions to the problem of employee motivation. The outlined solutions and recommendations by the participants will help the management in designing effective strategies of employee motivation. If the management implements the recommended strategies, the level of employee motivation will improve. Consequently, the downward trend in employee and organizational performance will be reversed.
The utilization of the study results by the management will improve the organization’s profitability. The relationship between the employees and their superiors will improve as well. The implementation of the recommended solutions will raise the morale and job satisfaction levels among the employees. Consequently, the organization will save on additional costs of hiring new employees because the labor turnover will be low. The results of this study will benefit other organizations as well in improving employee motivation. The success of this study may encourage other individuals to investigate other issues in the organization and offer viable solutions. The findings of the study will add value to the prevailing body of knowledge on employee motivation. The intended readers of my proposal include my supervisor and the management of the organization.
Letter of Transmittal
17th November 2011
Subject: Research Proposal on Employee Motivation
I hereby submit to you the proposed study on employee motivation to be conducted in your organization. The main purpose of the study is to investigate the causes of the notable low motivation levels among the employees. The proposed study will also investigate the possible solutions to this problem. The study will involve representative from the management team, the supervisors, and the employees. The study will add value to the organization and the employees as well.
I hope that this proposal will qualify for your approval
Employee motivation has an influence on the productivity of employees and is a challenge to many human resource managers. The proposed study will investigate the causes of the low motivation among the employees in my organization. The study will also investigate the strategies that the management can utilize to enhance employee motivation. The study will involve representatives from the management team, supervisors, and employees. Both quantitative and qualitative research approaches will be adopted in the study. Data collection will be done using questionnaires, interviews, and discussions. The expected results will give the management team a better understanding of employee motivation and enable them to design effective strategies of improving employee motivation.
One of the major challenges that human resource managers face is keeping their employees motivated. Motivation can be defined as the forces that raise a person’s enthusiasm and cause them to pursue a certain course persistently. The driving forces can be from within the individual or from external sources. Employee motivation has an effect on the level of productivity, which in turn affects an organization’s performance. This means that the management of an organization can increase the organization’s overall performance by investing in the motivation of their employees. Motivation is personal and the factors that led to higher levels of employee motivation vary across employees. This poses a challenge to the managers in identifying the motivational factors for each employee (Daft & Marcic, 2010). Lack of employee motivation is a major challenge in my organization and this has affected the level of the organization’s performance. Thus, I propose an investigation into causes of low employee motivation and the methods through which the management of the organization can motivate the employees. The factors vary across organization and thus carrying an internal investigation will help in identifying the specific factors that affect the organization.
1.1 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the proposed study is to overcome the employee motivation challenge in my organization. The study will investigate the causes of low employee motivation in the organization. In addition, the study will provide the management with viable solutions of how they can raise the level of employee motivation. The identified causes and solutions can be adopted by other organizations to improve employee motivation. If the study is conducted successfully, other studies may be carried out in the organization to provide solutions to different issues in future.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The level of employee motivation in my organization is low and this has an effect on the performance of the employees. The performance levels have dropped in the recent past. The downward trend in employee performance has been the topic of discussion in most of the weekly meetings but the situation is yet to improve. Apart from the low performance levels, absenteeism levels have increased as well. Many employees are taking days off from work for minor reasons. The supervisors have also raised complains that a significant number of employees are coming late and the requests to leave work early have increased as well.
During the weekly meetings, employees have been raising concerns that their efforts are not rewarded or recognized effectively. The managers have also noted that employees are passive when requested to participate in decision-making processes. The organizational behavior in the organization has changed with many instances of employees breaking rules and behaving in an unethical manner. Some employees have ignored the existing code of ethics. The discussions in the office especially during break times are full of complaints from employees. Many of the complaints revolve around the management of the organization. The change in the behavior of employees indicates lack of motivation among the employees. Lack of motivation is not only affecting the performance of the employees and the organization but also the relationship between the managers and the employees. Many of the office meetings are full of complaints with both parties complaining about the nature of relations. The employees complain of lack of recognition while the managers complain of lack of respect from their subordinates.
As indicated earlier, managers face a challenge when designing motivational packages for their employees because the motivational factors vary across employees. Apart from investigating the factors that contribute to low employees motivation, there is need to analyze the ways in which managers can motivate the employees. If the problem of lack of employee motivation remains unsolved, the organization’s level of performance will continue to decline. The organization’s profitability levels will be affected since the same labor costs are incurred for lower levels of output. A lower level of performance will affect the firm’s competitiveness in the market.
2.0 Literature Review
Hess, Orthmann, and LaDue (2011) indicate that internal and external factors contribute to the motivation of employees. By analyzing the causes of lack of motivation among employees, managers can develop effective motivation strategies. Overworking and long working hours reduces the motivation of employees especially when employees are not paid for the extra working hours. When the task assigned to an employee is overwhelming, the employee may lose the morale to work. However, boredom can also lead to low motivation levels. When a task is monotonous, the employee may lose their morale as well. Sometimes companies are forced to downsize to remain in business. Downsizing may improve an organization’s profitability but the process has a negative effect on the morale of the employees that remain.
The working conditions in an organization affect the motivation of the employees. If the conditions are poor, the employees will not be motivated to work. The nature of relations between employees and their managers or supervisors influence employee motivation as well. Harsh treatment of employees leads to low motivation levels. Employers are expected to treat all the employees with equality and fairness. In most countries, the principle of equal employment opportunities is a legal requirement. However, some employers do not follow this principle especially when deciding on promotions. The employees who do not quality for such promotions lose their enthusiasm to work. Frustrations in the work place can also discourage employees from putting extra efforts in their tasks (Hess, Orthmann, & LaDue, 2011).
Lack of employee motivation can be solved by adjusting the external factors. One of the major sources of employee motivation is attractive compensation packages. Compensation includes rewards and recognition for any extra efforts or outstanding performance by employees. Although money is not the only source of employee motivation, its contribution is significant. Satisfactory salaries, bonuses, insurance covers, allowances and retirement plans play a significant role in employee motivation. Employers can also improve the working conditions for their employees. For instance, the employers can change the working hours and the nature of tasks assigned to the employers based on their skills and qualifications. A healthy and attractive work place boosts the morale of the employees (Hess, Orthmann, & LaDue, 2011).
Employment security motivates employees. Giving employees equal opportunities to promotions and any other open opportunities improves their security in their positions. Some of the compensation packages such as insurance and retirement schemes help in meeting the employees’ employment security needs. Another way of improving employee motivation is creating open forums where employees can bond and air their grievances to their superiors. Employee training programs and career development opportunities motivate employees and assure them of employment security. Companies are likely to retain the trained employees instead of recruiting new staff. Training equips the employees with better skills to do their job. Thus, their work is simplified and meeting their goals and objectives becomes easier. Consequently, their level of job satisfaction is enhanced (Hess, Orthmann, & LaDue, 2011).
Hess, Orthmann, and LaDue continue to indicate that some of the sources of employee motivation are internal. Employers can motivate their employees by helping them cultivate the internal motivational factors. For instance, an employee is motivated by achieving their goals in their position. Thus, employer should set realistic and specific goals for their employees. The employer’s expectations from their employees should be realistic as well. The employers should not only set goals but also provide the employees with the necessary resources to meet those goals. The goals should be communicated to the employees effectively. Employees should be rewarded and recognized for achieving their goals. Encouragement is also a source of motivation for the employees. Other sources of employee motivation include job rotation, enlargement, and enrichment. Showing concern for employees’ personal needs motivates them as well (Hess, Orthmann, & LaDue, 2011).
The proposed research will investigate the causes of low employee motivation in the organization and the possible solutions. Both qualitative and quantitative research approaches will be utilized. Qualitative research involves a study of research objects in their natural environment. This kind of research involves an extensive exploration of phenomena and is descriptive in nature. The qualitative research method is flexible relative to quantitative research. The responses from the participants can help the researcher to develop the subsequent questions in the discussion. Thus, the research can collect information beyond the predicted responses. The data collection methods in qualitative research can be adjusted to suit the participants or the research topic.
Some of the data collection methods in qualitative research include interviews, discussion, case studies, and recording observations among others (Ott & Longnecker, 2008). The qualitative research approach will help in collecting all the observations from the participants on employee motivation. Qualitative research is flexible and thus the research can get all the relevant data from the participants. To this extent, in-depth interviews and discussions with the supervisors and the managers will be conducted. Some of the questions posed to the participants will be open ended so that more information is collected on the topic.
Quantitative research methods use scientific approaches to explain phenomena and make predictions on behavior. These methods concentrate on measurable data. Quantitative research assumes that independent variables can be used to explain the behavior of dependent variables. However, both the independent and dependent variables must be quantifiable. The independent variables represent the influences while the dependent variables represent the outcomes. Surveys, experiments, and questionnaires are some of the common quantitative data collection methods (Ott & Longnecker, 2008). Quantitative research will be used to collect numeric responses from the participants. In the proposed research, the factors that influence employee motivation in the organization will be the independent variables while employee motivation is the dependent variable.
Quantitative research will help in determining the most common responses from the participants and the importance attached to each factor. Predetermined factors that have an effect on employee motivation will be included in the research questions and the participants will indicate whether the factors apply to their case. The predetermined factors will be in line with the theories of employee motivation and findings of past research. Thus, some of the questions in the discussions and on the questionnaires will be closed-ended. Quantitative research will enable the researcher to test the hypothesis and make conclusions on the research topic.
3.1 Population and Sampling
The target population in a study or research represents the objects that constitute the research objectives. The target population forms the main purpose for carrying out a study or investigation. The findings of the research will benefit or influence the target population directly. A sample is a proportion of the target population and its characteristics represent the characteristics of the entire population. Sampling involves selecting members from the target population that will participate in the investigation or study. The responses provided by the sample in the study will represent the views of the entire population. Therefore, the methods used to select the sample influence the conclusions made on the population. If the methods are accurate and unbiased, the resultant sample will be a correct representation of the population (Ott & Longnecker, 2008).
The target population in this study consists of the employees, supervisors and managers in my organization. The managers that deal with the employees directly are five and only three of them will participate in the study. There are five departments in the organization and each has at least three supervisors. For this study, one supervisor from each department will participate in the study. The organization has over 150 employees in all the departments. Ten representatives from each department will be selected to participate in the study. The representatives from each department will be selected based on their level in the organizational structure and the duration of their employment in the organization. This way all categories of employees will be represents by the selected sample. However, the employees that participate in the study will do so willingly.
3.2 Instrumentation and Data Collection
Research instruments refer to the channels used to collect data or information from the participants. The instruments will vary based on the nature of the study and the research objects (Ott & Longnecker, 2008). In the proposed study, questionnaires will be used to collect information from the participants. The questionnaires will contain open ended and closed ended questions relating to employee motivation. The employees will fill printed questionnaires and will be not required to indicate their personal details on the questionnaires. Thus, the employees can give their honest responses without the fear of being victimized by their superiors. The participating managers and supervisors will have the freedom to choose between printed questionnaires and soft copies. The soft copies will be sent through the participants personal email addresses.
The participants will fill the questionnaires at the same time. This means that the printed questionnaires and the soft copies will be submitted to the researcher at the same time. The questionnaires sent via emails will be printed at the end of the exercise. In-depth interviews and discussions will only be conducted with the participating managers and supervisors. Involving all the participants in the discussions may disrupt the operations of the organization. Thus, the discussions and interviews will be limited to the supervisors and managers. However, the questions raised in the discussions will be covered in the questionnaires as well.
3.2.1 Validity and Reliability
The reliability of the research instruments refers to their consistency when taking the measurements of the phenomena under study. Reliable research instruments should give the same measurements in a subsequent study under the same conditions and for the same research objects. If two research instruments are used to measure the same phenomena, the results should be similar. Validity refers to the weight or the strength of the conclusions made in a study. The validity of the research instruments indicates whether the instruments measured the correct phenomena or variable. For the research instruments to be valid, they must first meet the reliability requirement (Ott & Longnecker, 2008). In the proposed study, the questionnaires used will be documented. The soft copies will be printed for record keeping and verification. Thus, a similar study can be conducted on the same participants to verify the results of the study. The sampling and data collection processes will be recorded as well. The participants will be encouraged to give their honest responses in the questionnaires, interviews, and discussions.
3.3 Research Ethics
Any research conducted should address the ethical issues that may arise from the participants and any other concerned parties. By the addressing the research ethical issues, the researcher is able to protect the rights of the participants. The proposed study is sensitive in that if the ethical issues are not addressed prior to the study, the relations between the employees and the managers may worsen. For this reason, the research must protect the interests of all the participants. The researcher must give the correct results of the data collected from the participants. The researcher will avail the results of the study to all the participants and collect their feedback on the results. This feedback will help in determining whether the conclusions made on the research topic represent the responses of the participants.
In the proposed study, the participants will be assured of confidentiality in all the activities. The participants will be informed of the study in advance after the approval from the organization’s management. As indicated earlier, only the willing employees will be required to participate in the study. The participants will be allowed to withdraw from the survey at any point and discussions about the questions in the questionnaires will not be allowed during the study. The personal details of the employees will not be required at any point in the study. The questionnaires will be handed directly to the researchers including the questionnaires sent via email. The discussions, interviews, and filling of questionnaires will be conducted in the most convenient environments for the participants. The responses of the employees in the questionnaires will not be included in the discussions and interviews with the managers and supervisors.
3.4 Data Analysis
Data analysis involves organizing the collected data to draw conclusion on the topic of the study. The data is organized in a way that other users can comprehend and draw their own conclusions as well. The methods utilized in data analysis are influenced by form of the raw data. Data analysis indicates the trends of the responses from the participants and the number of responses in each category of the pre-determined responses. Once the data is analyzed, it can be represented in form of diagrams such as charts or graphs (Ott & Longnecker, 2008). In the proposed study, the collected quantitative data will be entered into excel spreadsheets for analysis. The excel spreadsheets will be used for the responses to the closed-ended questions.
The qualitative data will be analyzed as well and all the responses in the open-ended questions recorded. The qualitative data includes the notes taken by the researcher during the discussions and the interviews. Through data analysis, all the causes of low employee motivation will be recorded and the suggested methods of solving the problem. The representation of the quantitative data will be in figures and diagrams while the qualitative data will be in narrations. The organization of the data will be guided by the purpose and objectives of the proposed study. Therefore, the causes and solutions will be analyzed separately. Any other issues raised by the participants will be recorded as well.
One of the expectations of this study is that the responses from the participants will in line with literature on employee motivation. Although the importance attached to each variable may differ across the participants, they variables will be similar to those identified by past researchers. Including the employees in the study will help in collecting the correct information on employee motivation since the issues affects the employees directly. The participants in the study will represent all levels of the organizations structure and the categories of employees in the organization. Therefore, the responses will represent a comprehensive coverage of all the issues of employee motivation in the organization. The interviews and discussions with the managers will help in analyzing their attitude and contribution to the level of employee motivation in the organization.
The assurance of confidentiality will help in ensuring that employees provide their honest opinions. Therefore, the researchers can rely on their responses to make conclusions on employee motivation in the organization. An element of trust between the researcher and the participants is already in existence since the researcher is an employee in the organization. Thus, the participants are likely to give the correct feedback. In addition, the employees are aware that the findings of the research will beneficial to them if the recommended solutions would be implemented. Thus, they will be willing to participate and be involved in providing viable solutions. The management of the organization is expected to support the study since the organization will benefit from higher levels of employee performance. A higher level of employee motivation will increase the level of employee performance in the organization.
The raw data collected will be easy to analyze and draw conclusions. All the responses will be included in the analysis to ensure validity and reliability is observed. The responses from the participants may vary based on their level in the organization structure and their duration of employment in the organization. The results of the study will be communicated to all the employees and the management of the organization including those who did not participate in the study. The feedback on the results will also be communicated to all the individuals. The results of the proposed study will help the management of the organization in understanding the specific causes of the prevailing low employee motivation level. Thus, the management can design specific strategies of dealing with each of the outlined causes. In addition, the results will provide the management with specific strategies, which according to the employees will help in raising their level of motivation.
Thus, the management will have a variety of solutions to choose from to improve employee motivation levels. Communicating the results to the employees will help them in determining the expected response from the management team. The employees will also understand the approach of the managers to employee motivation. If the management incorporates the results of the study in the decision making processes, the level of employee motivation will improve in the organization.
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations
Employee motivation influences the performance of employees in their assigned tasks. Consequently, the performance and profitability of the organization is affected as well. The level of employee motivation is low in my organization as indicated by the change in organizational behavior. Lack of motivation among the employees has resulted in a downward trend in employee performance. The relationship between the employees and their superiors has been affected. The proposed study will investigate the specific causes of lack of motivation among the employees and the possible solutions to the problem.
The study will include representatives of the employees, supervisors and managers. Quantitative and qualitative research methods will be utilized to collect information from the participants. The main methods of data collection in the proposed study include questionnaires, interviews, and discussions. The collected data will be analyzed and the results presented to the employees and the management team. The research process will be conducted in an ethical manner. The results of the study will help the management in developing effective strategies of enhancing employee motivation in the organization. Thus, the management team should consider the results of the proposed study in the decision- making processes. The results can also be utilized by other organizations to enhance the level of employee motivation.
Daft, R, L., & Marcic, D. (2010). Understanding Management. Connecticut: Cengage Learning
Hess, K, M., Orthmann, C, H., & LaDue, S, E. (2011). Management and Supervision in Law Enforcement. Connecticut: Cengage Learning
Ott, L., & Longnecker, M. (2008). An Introduction to Statistical Methods and Data Analysis. Connecticut: Cengage Learning
Employee Motivation 8
Research Proposal on Nesma Holdings
Nesma is a private limited company located in Saudi Arabia and is an investment and business consultancy firm. The company has branches or outlets in China, Egypt, United Arabs Emirate, Turkey, United States of America and the United Kingdom. The company is faced with a major challenge of uncertainty in the global market. The frequent economic fluctuations in most of the countries of operation of the company are majorly challenging the company’s activities. For instance, in a situation where a country like Egypt has experienced serious economic change may give the company a great company in determining the perfect advice to give to their clients concerning the right investment. Therefore, the main problem facing the company is the changes in the global economies (Kauffman 12).
The Research Question: How will the company manage its employees during market changes?
In cases of market changes in the respective countries of operations, the company has been faced with a great challenge on how to manage the company’s employees as majority seem to be not conversant on the right advice to give to the clients. Market changes may either be positive or to the negative side. For this factor, the company needs to be prepared to face them and the employee should also be equipped with the appropriate knowledge to handle the changes. It has been noted that most of the employees do not have the necessary skills to cope with the changing economic status in the various countries.
Due to this factor, the company at most of the time has been forced to fire some of them bringing a downward performance to the company. In addition, when the company loses some of the employees, there comes another challenge of acquiring or hiring new staff. It due to this problem that I got motivated to research on the right way through which the company should handle its employees or rather staff during the times of economic recessions and boom in the respective countries. Therefore, the company should strategize on a proper way to deal with this change in order to ensure its sustainability as well as profitability (Nesma.com).
The best approach to deal with this problem once and for all is to first establish a training centre for the employees. This should be put in every country of operation to keep on training the employees on the different trends in the economic so as to ensure that they offer quality services to the clients they attend to. Also, the training center would be used in training of new employees joining the company to ensure provision of quality services. In addition, the company may also adopt a culture of exchanging or transferring the employees in the areas with greater demands. In this case, the company would be expected to move the expertise in the areas or countries where the demand for their services is high and by so doing the company will be performing to the expectations of the client as well as meeting the goals and objectives of the company (Kennedy, Lucy 02).
The aim of this research proposal is to outline how Nesma Holdings, a privately held company based in Saudi Arabia, can better manage its employees during market changes. The reality of volatility within markets is not only restricted to Saudi Arabia alone, but is rather witnessed ubiquitously across the globe. As such, several scholars have delved into this topic and provided varying approaches to the issue. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to describe some of the ideas postulated by a few of the aforementioned scholars in the form of a literature analysis. Much of the focus will be in Saudi Arabia, but as mentioned earlier, other markets also present similar conditions.
Change management is an activity, which aims at bringing out the best results after a successful change process. This activity involves appropriate decisions and plans to effect change in an organization. That is why the management or various leaders make use of strategies and management to achieve, or implement the intended change in an organization. This process constitutes of unique aims, culture, and objectives, although ambitions may differ to achieve the desired change in the organization. It involves examining, and carrying out keen evaluations on choices to choose correct pathways for the development of the organization. Every organization should often make changes in order to incorporate the change within the daily practice or works, to maximize their profits, maintain good relations within the firm internally, and externally, and achieve the organization’s goals and vision.
The topic of change management is of particular interest to organizational leaders and scholars alike. In the field of human resource management, change management also becomes significant as it recognizes the need for organizational managers to accept that a company’s workforce, being one of its most valuable assets, is also subject to risks and uncertainties. This is especially in comparison with the company’s other real assets. According to Bhattacharyaa and Wrightb (933), a company’s workforce is also subject to the same risks and uncertainties as its other real assets. As such, there needs to be effectual measures employed within the organization to manage these risks and uncertainties for enhanced performance.
Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM)
One such approach is the strategic human resource management (SHRM) model. According to this model, the needs of employees must always inform the approach of managers as they endeavor to motivate their workforce to perform better and boost their productivity. This means that all possible means of boosting an employee’s motivation, as primarily outlined by Abraham Maslow, must be used in this regard. This includes participative leadership whereby managers must make their employees feel part and parcel of their organization’s operations. Similarly, managers can ensure that they provide their employees with pay scales commensurate with their respective tasks within the organization.
Managing Extraneous Incidences of Change
Despite the foregoing extensive treatise on the benefits and effectiveness of employee motivation as a fundamental tool of strategic change management within volatile markets, not all changes emanating from the market are related internally to an organization’s workforce. For instance, market volatility might be due to harsh economic times that result from one crisis or another as well as a recession or a depression. These vagaries of the economic environment affect the markets within which they occur. As such, managers are forced to employ effective change management strategies to cope with the downturns, especially as far as their employees are concerned.
According to Capelli (17), managers tend to employ austerity measures to deal with downturns within their respective markets and this directly affects their employees. These measures include the reduction of wages and, more commonly, downsizing their workforce. The latter is much more effective in times of economic crises as it ensures that the most critical operations of an organization are still operational while minimizing the aggregate costs associated with running the business. In essence, this technique of strategic human resource management aims at tackling extraneous sources of change other than those which result from the employees themselves. In conclusion, therefore, there are several approaches to managing employees during times of market change. Nevertheless, all these approaches are aimed at managing change factors that can either be internal or external to an organization. This is because an organization’s whole environment is basically characterized by both external and internal sources of risk and uncertainties, which can be dealt with from the foregoing two distinct perspectives.
Synthesis of Motivation Theories
With regard to the aforementioned integral part of managing employees during market change, employers must understand the motivation techniques available to them. This also applies to Nesma Holdings. The following is a substantive chronicle of extant motivation theories that can guide management at Nesma Holdings in managing their employees during times of market changes:
Need Theories of Motivation: Needs are ubiquitous across the human population and generally refer to specific deficiencies which have the capacity to elicit certain behaviors among people. There are various categories of motivation theories under the umbrella of this needs approach. The most common one is that advanced by Abraham Maslow. Maslow postulated that every person has asset of needs that he or she regards as crucial, whether expressly or otherwise, with the ultimate goal of self-actualization (Dubrin 375). As such, it would be wise for the management at Nesma Holdings to ensure that their employees feel amply satisfied with their respective jobs in accordance to their various needs. Among these fundamental needs are the needs for security and esteem, which can be meet effectively using appropriate human resource management strategies.
Equity Theory of Motivation: According to Dwivedula, Ravikiran and Bredillet (160), this theory is founded on the premise that employees within an organization do not only evaluate their remuneration with regard to their contribution but also with regard to what other people are getting. This means that competition within an industry might force a company such as Nesma Holdings to reevaluate their payment packages to curb employee turnover.
Job Design: This particular theory of motivation provides a rather simple outlook of the job itself and how it can serve as a factor in the motivation of an employee (Oldham and Hackman 465). For instance, if a job is regarded by an employee as tedious, monotonous and/or boring, then that particular employee might be less willing to proceed with it and would be looking for other opportunities within the industry.
Two-factor theory: This theory suggests there are two specific factors that affect motivation in two different ways. The factors are hygiene and motivators.
Hygiene factors: the theory comments that there are several factors, which create dissatisfaction especially, when the concerned people view them as inadequate or unfair. For this reason, the difference in perception will affect motivation. When the individuals feel the factors are unfair or inadequate, then they will lose motivation.
Motivators: these factors are invaluable and they include achievement, recognition, responsibility and personal growth. Contrary to the hygiene factors that determine dissatisfaction, the motivators determine an individual’s satisfaction.
Incentive and Goal theory: This Incentive theory of motivation suggests that workers in an organization tend to work devotedly, with commitment in order to achieve the organization’s set goals, for a reward placed by the organization. Organizations that place rewards or incentives increase their employee’s motivation. The theory bases its argument on the guidelines of reinforcement. The expected result is usually money, and the theory has a correlation with the economic theories whereby man always aims to get money. The Goal theory is another motivational theory. Unlike the incentive theory, it suggests that the motivation and performance in an organization must always be high if the management has goals they aim to achieve. However, it also comments that the set goals should be challenging, but acceptable, and where the results reflect on the performance.
Theory of scientific management: This theory of motivation says that many of the workers, or employees commit more to their work depending on the amount of money they are paid. Therefore, their motivation to give better performance solely depends on the pay they receive. In addition, it suggests that the employees will not at any time enjoy the work they do, and will not perform as expected unless when given rewards of monetary forms. Therefore, organizations should not pay workers according to the work they do, rather, they should concentrate on motivating them in order to produce more.
Theory X and Theory Y: These two theories have a relation to the motivation of employees and the management. In this theory, employees have two categories, theory X employees represent the employees who do not like working and dislike responsibilities. In this category, motivation comes in form of rules, and punishments because they are reluctant to perform their duties. In theory Y, the employees they enjoy putting more effort in their work when they have some power in the working place. For these workers, the organization should provide opportunities for the employees to take on responsibility and show their creativity as one way of motivating them.
Expectancy Theory: This is a largely broad theory of motivation which states that people are more likely to be motivated into action if whatever action they are engaging in will result in a desired set of outcomes (Boone and Kurtz 306). Several scholars, most notably Vroom, Porter and Lawler, have written extensively on the theory. Companies such as Nesma Holdings would therefore be well-advised to ensure that their employees find their respective jobs as producing desired results.
Since Nesma was established in 1979 in Saudi Arabia, Jeddah city. It has grown through the creation of partnerships, joint project and subsidiary companies. Today, Nesma holding company maintain a growing portfolio of companies across different sectors, for example : Information & Communication Technology, Oil & Gas, Travel, Hospitality & Tourism, Industrial & Manufacturing Projects, Support Services & Supplies.
Nesma is a privately owned Saudi Arabian company and the head office in Jeddah and branch offices in all major cities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Also, it is widespread in China, Turkey, Egypt, the United Kingdom, the United Arab Emirates and the United States of America. This is based on good and capable leadership the company has implemented over the years. Nesma has created partnerships, subsidiary companies, and joint ventures. This has increased the company’s market base as well as profitability
As an organization, Nesma business wholeness and world-class standards of quality offer businesses and consumers alike, extraordinary services and product.
With over 35,000 employees across the various companies, Nesma Holding Company understands the value of its employees. The company understands that overcoming competition and remaining competitive remains on the productivity of the employees. On-the-job training opportunities and self-enrichment programs contribute to the professional success of the employees.
Nesma Holding Company manages employees through training to keep the employees in line with the demands of the new changes. Training is the process of imparting employee with new skills. The company ensures that the training facilitates learning and it is not just imposed training by ensuring what is learnt is applicable to the company’s operations. The company values the importance of employees’ positive attitude towards training by enhancing motivation. In this way, they embrace the changes and contribute towards changing the company’s operations for the better by becoming more creative and productive. Motivation is also essential as it enables the recognition of the employees who adapt and sacrifice in order to align themselves with the new market changes. Nesma aims at aligning the employees with the aims of the company, and this requires concerted efforts to achieve, such as carrying out joint projects (Zawya, 2013)
The company understands that employees take time to adapt to new changes; therefore, the change process is allowed enough time and is driven through different mechanisms of reward and motivation such as rewarding outstanding performance .
My experience in Nesma Holding Company is two years to work with Human resources and I have found Nesma Company made many courses training for the employees and had contract with a professional lecturer to come in the company and provided a plenty of courses for managers position in last 5 years ago, because it became widespread in different sectors and different majors in companies.
However, most of the employees and managers did not respond for training courses or go to training center. The issue was Nesma Holding company loss some important role that to influence the employees to challenge them taking training courses. Other problem Nesma put system that any training classes for the
employees must start after work hours a day. So, it is impossible that Nesma Company order performance of employees by this way.
The main important standard Nesma Company dose provide or give to the employees to respond and effect them is putting the motivation and support it with arrange planning. For instance , If we are opining training courses for the employees in the time work hours a day that will be push them to increase the performance work and it break the routine . The importance of employees’ positive attitude towards training by enhancing motivation. In this way, they embrace the changes and contribute towards changing the company’s operations for the better by becoming more creative and productive. Motivation is also essential as it enables the recognition of the employees who adapt and sacrifice in order to align themselves with the new market changes. Nesma aims at aligning the employees with the aims of the company, and this requires concerted efforts to achieve, such as carrying out joint projects (Zawya, 2013).
Training is a good option for Nesma Company. Training is easy for Nesma to take advantage of the elements in the work. Also, allows the company to reduce the cost of external training and enable them to select appropriate areas for current and future needs. In contrast, increasing productivity and profitability means the company’s ability to increase employment and wages, which means higher salaries increased social capacity to purchase and consumption.
In terms of vision, which sees the need to enable workforce through training and development.Nesma Company in 2008 initiated the establishment of a center for training and development to offer courses in specific requirements as well as in Interpersonal skills, management, marketing, English, his conversion to Islam in the workplace, ethics and values. Moreover, Nesma Company give these courses for Nesma employees and other Companies without fees. (Training Brochure, NTC_3_2013, Page 12)
there was achieved of 24 young women successfully completed their training during a graduation ceremony held at Nesma Training Center (NTC) in Jeddah on Wednesday, February 20, 2013.Sponsored by Al-Jazirah Bank and taught by Nesma Embroidery Center (NEC), the embroidery and sewing program provides training in design, equipment operation and sewing.( Nesma Embroidery)
The main consideration in the literary analysis is on change management and how motivation comes into play, which as has been indicated, particularly interests the leadership in organizations like Nesma. Over time, Nesma has had to create partnerships, do joint projects as well as acquire subsidiary companies. In such circumstances, there are significant changes to the workforce of Nesma, and therefore, it must matter to the managers in the organization that there are considerable risks and uncertainties.
Currently, Nesma has stretched its impact across different industries and sectors, and the risks and uncertainties facing the workforce have to be looked at in relation to the workforce. Bhattacharya and Wright (2005) indicate that there has to be effectual measures that need to be employed to the organization so that it can manage risks as well as its uncertainties for the sake of enhancing performance (Oldham & Hackman, 2010). Nesma has been especially particular about this, for while it has its head offices in Jeddah, it has established a network of branches and offices in most cities across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It has stretched its reach overseas as well, measures that have seen the company increase in its market base and profitability.
Changing markets require that the management understand what motivation techniques would be of most service for Nesma. Currently, the company has well over 35,000 employees in its multiple companies. Basically, Nesma has always been driven by the principle of business wholeness as well as world-class standards of quality for which they aim to offer the businesses and the consumer the best possible products and services (Dwivedula & Bredillet, 2010). For that to be maintained, the various motivational theories have to be applied in the approach in which the employees are dealt with. The desired end result is Nesma should overcome their competition and remain competitive with increased employee productivity. Since Nesma has tens of thousands of employees, the important question shall be how the on-the-job employee training opportunities and other self-enrichment programs will contribute towards the professional success of all employees.
Nesma’s application of the needs theory has been founded on the premise of their managing of employees, where they endeavor to keep the employees in line as the new market changes place different demands (DuBrin, 2011). This matters because is no so doing Nesma is dealing with a human population that may have specific deficiencies that could have capacity for the eliciting of certain behaviors among the people. Equally, the employees at Nesma evaluate their remunerations with comparison to that of others (Bhattacharya & Wright, 2005). This is in line with the equity theory in motivation where Nesma Company has clearly taken note of the fact that their employees will adapt to the new changes rather slowly. For that reason, to effect any substantial change, they have allowed for the change process to take enough time and be driven by a number of mechanisms for reward and motivation, especially when it comes to outstanding performances.
Finally, the reason why job design matters is because at Nesma, there is effective outlook of the jobs offered, and the manner in which the same can be served as motivation for the employee. The testimonial provided is proof that such is a possibility, and that the jobs that are offered as Nesma are designed in a manner that takes to heart the best interests of the employee (DuBrin, 2011). However, there is also the expectancy theory, a theory of motivation that states that people will be aggravated to act when they know that their endeavor will have positive and desired outcomes. The only problem at Nesma is that the response to training is quite limited.
RECOMMENDATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES
Recommendation #1: (short term) urgently stop the frequent hiring and firing of company employees and focus on employee retention.
Do what you undertake well to the extent that they will need to see it repeatedly and bring their acquaintances
In the current highly aggressive labor market, extensive evidence exists suggesting that organizations irrespective of their technological advances, size, market focus, and several other factors are facing serious retention challenges or issues.
Nesma Holdings is not an exemption given the already developed culture by the company to frequently fire and subsequently hire new employees owing to reason that most of the employees are ill trained or lack the necessary skills to serve clients during various economic challenges in the market. Whenever the company loses a number of the employees, there always comes another problem of hiring new staff, an indication of the employee retention challenge. According to Ramlall (2004) employee motivation has an effect on employee retention in an organization and retention results to commitment, which is extremely valuable for the performance of the company.
The recommendation to urgently stop the hiring and firing of employees is pegged on the need or requirement for the company/firm to focus on its employee retention programs. On average each company loss about $1million with every ten professional and managerial employees who get fired or leave the company or organization (Ramlall, 2004). Employee turnover accounts for one the largest costs of different types of companies yet the most unknown one with a majority of firms.
This strategy to stop the constant hiring and subsequent firing of employees and focus on employee retention will be implemented through the following strategies:
Rank Nesma Holdings employees in three distinct categories, which comprise of the best, the middle, and the lowest performers. The major aim of ranking the employees is to retain the top managers, design and retain the middle performers subsequently turning them into the top or near top performers if attainable, and potentially or probably replace the lowest performers.
Design an internal agreement on measures to be used when calculating the costs of employee turnover. This will mainly the undertaken by the human resource manager and encouraged to consider all employee costs.
Report the costs of employee turnover that the company is incurring to the top management on an annual, quarterly, and monthly basis. This will see the organization stop the frequent firing and focus on employee retention.
Recommendation #2 (short term) inducts the employees immediately after recruitment (employee induction)
Despite commitment being fundamental to the performance of an organization, it is never a panacea
Every organization always undertakes employee induction as the first activity upon the completion of employee recruitment process. The first step towards an organization gaining the commitment of employees is always employee induction. The process is always aimed at introducing the organization and the job to the recruit and also introducing the recruit to the organization. Employee induction also involves the training and orientation of the employee in the culture of the organization, and showing how the recruit is interdependent to everyone else found within the organization.
When undertaken properly, this process usually yields commitment to the organization by the employee thus helping reduce employee turn over rate. While there may not be present a legal requirement for the company to conduct an induction, most firms that ignore this process usually run the danger of the new employees not fitting in the company thus being fired or leave the company. This recommendation is a short term strategy that can help Nesma Holdings to handle its employees in the midst of challenges in the market. The recommendation will be implemented using the following strategies:
Planning to start the induction early by using the interviews of the new recruits as a minimum induction to provide the recruits the idea of the standards expected in the company
Ensure that details regarding the company’s ambitions and the company culture are provided in an undoubted manner
Making the induction challenging by ensuring that the recruits or inductees are involved in the induction process
Making sure that the induction process is not boring, but fun to give the inductees the true picture about the organization.
Recommendations #4 (mid term) introduce employee motivation plans or strategies to encourage employee performance and employee innovation.
Insanity is best defined continuously doing the similar things and anticipating different results” Motivation constitutes the force that initiates, directs, and also maintains a goal-oriented behaviors within an organization. The organizational support theory suggests that in order to meet the socioeconomic needs and determine the readiness of the organization to reward increased work effort, employees usually develop world or global beliefs regarding the level at which the company values or upholds their well-being (Eisenberger, Stinglhamber, and Vandenberghe, 2002).
Need motivation theories try to pinpoint the internal factors that actually energize the behavior of employees to either work and be innovative or not. Taking the Maslow hierarchy of Needs theory, highest level of needs, which is self actualization, encourages creativity, an aspect that seems to be missing in most of the Nesma Holdings employees (Miner, 2005). The recommendation to introduce and sustain a number of employee motivation plans or strategies will benefit the Company in a number of ways among them making employee retention better and encouraging creativity in employees, an essential part of ensuring that employees perform in the dwindling investment market. This recommendation is informed by a number of research works that have suggested a direct link between employee motivation and creativity or innovation (Gagne and Deci, 2005; Codwallader ET all, 2010; and Zhang and Bartol, 2010). This recommendation will be implemented following the strategies outlined below:
The human resource department to come up with or design a plan to reward individuals performing well
Introduce different motivational drivers given that some individuals, as opposed to others are driven by the need to achieve and not public recognition
The human resource department to design a proper work design that ensures that employees have a work/life balance with none infringing on the other
Use rewards and thank you’ as motivational techniques by the top management and supervisors (WERC, 1999).
Introduce attractive compensation and employee benefits packages to motivate employees to work hard and become innovative.
Recommendation #3 (long term) offer an extensive training to the employees (long term strategy)
Constant training makes one perfect
Every organization understands perfectly well the reason as to why it needs to keep training its employees. Success in every organization usually implies the provision of quality work and excellent customer service. This implies keeping up with the current technology and staying in front of the competitors. In order to undertake that, the company needs to have skilled staffs that are full of ideas, understand their job, and the priorities of the company thus the need for quality training (Gonzalez, 2008). Everyone always needs to improve his/her skills and thus creating the need or requirement for a company/firm to have an extensive employee training program.
At the Nesma Holdings, It has been eminent that most of the employees do not have the necessary skills to cope with the changing economic status in the various countries. Thus, as a consequence of this factor, the company at most of the time has been forced to fire some of the employees and bring new ones resulting in a downward performance to the company. An extensive employee training program forms a long term recommendation that the company needs to adopt in order to improve its performance and competitive advantage. Research has shown that employee training plays a fundamental role in increasing job satisfaction (Chiang, Back, and Deborah, 2008). The strategies that will be followed in implementing this recommendation comprises of the following:
Establishing a training center for the employees. The training center needs to be located in every country of operation to ensure that the training of employees on the dissimilar trends in the economic market is continuous
Constantly transfer employees to the company branches that are performing well. Transferring employees to the best performing branches will ensure that the employees are exposed to the different and challenging cases involved in the market fluctuations.
Ensuring that the training offered is of an elevated standard. To ensure that the firm/company presents quality services to the clients the training center needs to uphold high training standards and encourage employee innovation
A number of recommendations and strategies of implementation have been suggested in this research to ensure Nesma Holdings gets a solution to its constant problem of handling employees. The research recommended the immediate abolishment of the constant firing of employees and a focus on employee retention, a need to develop an employee motivation plan, designing an extensive training program, for employees, and placing more focus on employee induction
As an organizational development consultant, the success of the organization is dependent or based on the skills and quality of employees that a company employs in terms of skill and thus the need for the company to invest more in employee retention.
Kauffman, Mitchell. Five Challenges Facing Business Owners and Professionals. FinancialPlanning Association, 2011. Web. Retrieved from http://www.fpanet.org/ToolsResources/ArticlesBooksChecklists/Articles/Employment/Top5FinancialChallengesFacingBusinessOwners/Nesma Holding Companies.
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Zawya. (2013). Nesma Holding Company Limited. Retrieved May 24, 2013, from http://www.zawya.com/company/profile/849292/
NESMA_Training_Brochure_3_2013, Page 7.
NESMA_Training_Brochure_3_2013, Page 12.
Nesma Embroidery Center Graduates First Class of Trainees.
Bhattacharyaa, Mousumi and Wrightb, Patrick M. Managing human assets in an uncertain world: applying real options theory to HRM. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 16.6 (2005): 929-948. Web. 1 June 2013.
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Running head: Research Proposal on Nesma Holdings
Research Proposal on: Dayton Most Metro Event Calendar Improvement
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
33 N. Main St.Dayton, OH 45402
RE: Dayton Most Metro Event Calendar Improvement
Attached please find the proposal on how to design and implement a system for gathering event information for the local website. Dayton Most Metro (DMM) is an online regional magazine that features the community’s largest event calendar. Since its establishment in 2008 as part of the Dayton Create program, the mission of the organization has been to ensure that it emerges best event resource and planning calendar in the region. With over 3000 event listings on an average time period, the events can be self-submitted by groups, or entered by DMM. Other items featured include articles on Dining, Music, Theater, Active Living, Arts & Entertainment and community events provided by over 30 volunteer bloggers.
This proposal development has been prompted by the need to live up to DMM’s reputation as Dayton’s Most Comprehensive Community Calendar, thus the need to ensure that we keep current with upcoming events. There is need to ensure that all festivals, fundraisers and other community programs continue to submit their events on DMM’s calendar. Creating awareness to organizations on how they can schedule their events several years in advance is one of the key targets of the events calendar improvement.
The major objectives include reaching out to special event directors, marketing and PR professionals to find out; their whereabouts on DMM, if they have entered events on our calendar, if they know they can schedule future events on our calendar and finally whether they can provide an easy to understand set of instructions for new users.
This proposal thus outlines the major project management details, divided in various categories. The introduction gives an overview of background information, purpose and scope of the project, the discussion section highlights the budget, timeline, resources and the various deliverables as expected. The conclusion section summarizes the findings and gives possible recommendations. It is my sincere hope that this provides all the required details. We would be glad to address any further concerns in this regard. We are looking forward towards the proposal acceptance to enable the actual implementation of the outlined activities.
Thanks in anticipation
Project Manager Name
Since its establishment in 2008 as part of the Dayton Create program, the mission of the organization has been to ensure that it emerges best event resource and planning calendar in the region. With over 3000 event listings on an average time period, the events can be self-submitted by groups, or entered by DMM. Other items featured include articles on Dining, Music, Theater, Active Living, Arts & Entertainment and community events provided by over 30 volunteer bloggers.
This proposal development has been prompted by the need to live up to DMM’s reputation as Dayton’s Most Comprehensive Community Calendar, thus the need to ensure that we keep current with upcoming events. There is need to ensure that all festivals, fundraisers and other community programs continue to submit their events on DMM’s calendar. Creating awareness to organizations on how they can schedule their events several years in advance is one of the key targets of the events calendar improvement.
The major objectives include reaching out to special event directors, marketing and PR professionals to find out; their whereabouts on DMM, if they have entered events on our calendar, if they know they can schedule future events on our calendar and finally whether they can provide an easy to understand set of instructions for new users.
The recent years have seen the advancement in information and technology due to the dynamic development of the world web product consumers are equally becoming literate and opting for speed and accuracy when looking for product information. Events are not an exemption as they are also a form of products. With the development of global events, organizing companies have developed a paradigm shift to the use of online calendars to provide all the necessary information in advance to potential clients. Most organizations have also admitted to finding online events calendars worthwhile.
DMM is looking to reach out to special event directors, marketing and PR professionals to find out the following information;
In order to live up to our reputation as Dayton’s Most Comprehensive Community Calendar, we need to make sure that we keep current with upcoming events. We need to make sure we have all festivals, fundraisers and other community programs continue to submit their events on our calendar. We’d like to make sure organizations know that they can schedule them several years in advance and if they recur at regular intervals they can take advantage of our recurring event feature.
DMM is an online regional magazine that features the community’s largest event calendar. Established in 2008 as part of the Dayton Create program, our mission is to be the best event resource and planning calendar in the region. At any given time we average over 3000 event listings. Events can be self-submitted by groups, or entered by DMM. We also feature articles on Dining, Music, Theater, Active Living, Arts & Entertainment and community events provided by over 30 volunteer bloggers.
This calendar improvement initiative will only aim at working with the special event directors, marketing and PR professionals to find out the required information. It will only focus on details of events that upcoming and exclude data on the already held or past organizational events, due to the need to avert cases of overcrowding information on the site.
Phase 1: Research-The initial stage will involve both desk and field research to identify the modern trends in online events management and calendar design/improvement methods. This will also highlight the various client needs and existing gaps to be filled. Potential clients will also be identified. An analysis will also be done on how competitors are operating in the industry to identify the existing strategies. The team to work on this project will also be identified at this level.
Phase 2: Conceptual Design Development- This will involve developing the actual project implementation tools to be used, in line with the desired outcomes and objectives.
Phase 3: Design Selection and Analysis- the most appropriate design to be used will be selected in line with the identified needs.
Benefits and Feasibility of the Project
Getting companies to advertise their events online is the way to go in the modern times in line with advanced technologies. Through this project, DMM is providing a viable platform for companies to advertise their upcoming events online. Various research have in the past indicated that over 70% of Americans have access to the internet and is the first place they check to get details that help in their decision making process on whether to attend and evaluate the financial implications to be incurred. Getting events online also demonstrates the organizations’ commitment to their clients through delivery of timely information. DMM being one of the largest online event management companies, these companies are guaranteed of an already loyal audience that will definitely get their message out.
These will be evaluated based on the number of site visits. Users will be asked to give feedback on whether they receive appropriate reminders of upcoming events that are of their interest. The availability of a centralized system online will also be a point of evaluation for majority of the respondents to gauge their most preferred features that should appear on the sites. The design function will also analyze on any further details of the events that clients would want featured to further enhance their online interactivity and advance planning of the events.
The success of the project will be evaluated based on:
User satisfaction on the links on the website
The ease of accessing information
The feedback on information relevance
Project Consultants Deliverables
By the end of this project, the following should have been generated;
Feedback on our calendar
Feedback on the ease of using the website
Feedback on the suggested improvements and appropriateness of categories.
Project Client Deliverables
It is also expected that the client will do the following;
Facilitate the timely signing of contracts to facilitate a smooth operation of project implementation.
Provide of the necessary support like issuing the letters of introduction and disbursement of funds to the project consultants on a timely basis.
Keep in touch via the agreed channels of communication for provision of timely feedback (within 48 hours).
Funding of additional travel and other reimbursable costs arising from request.
Julisa Rowe (Project Coordinator and lead consultant)-She will lead and oversee all project activities and ensure coordination with all project staff, respondents and the client. She will develop the project protocol, obtain the necessary ethical clearance and research permit; manage the project in a way that is consistent with the project protocol; ensure the effectiveness of the team members; take the lead role in the data analysis and report writing and present research findings of the proposal to the client.
McNeal Jonathan (Research Manager)-He will organize all team meetings, prepare the agendas of the meeting, prepare contact and progress reports and ensure that project procedures agreed to are adhered. He will work closely with the Field Manager to ensure that the field operations run smoothly.
Alisa Cooper (Events Planning and Resource mobilization Manager) – will be responsible for desk research on the trends in events marketing and management online. She will also review project tools developed to ensure that they are responsive to the objectives.
Trevor Morgan (Field operations manager) – He will coordinate the data collection process and will be charged with planning and overall supervision of all the field process.
Arnold Skeel (Information Technology Manager) He will coordinate the data capture online and the process of updating company information in line with the data provided by the client officials.
Melissa Anderson (Editor): She will proof-read and edit the project reports to ensure that they are free of grammatical errors.
This project will need:
Appropriate technological facilities
Communication tools and channels
Transport facilities to field visits
Goal 1: To increase the number of new users to 20AimPerformance IndicatorActivity1To increase the number of clientsIncreased number of PR professionals and managers joining our online calendar management sitesReaching out and explaining the benefits to potential organizations to join DMM online communityGoal 2: To get feedback on the site events schedules and management 1To get feedback from clients on the DMM website usageResponses from clients that can enable change management for company business enhancement Interviews with clients
Meetings with the potential organizations
Gant Chart (Attached in Excel Sheet separately )
Summative and formative evaluation
An initial formative evaluation will be conducted to analyze how previous companies have successfully advertised or incorporated their calendar events online using the DMM sites. This will be to highlight the best practices and identify the areas that need to be improved. It will also form the baseline analysis that will be used for benchmarking in the whole implementation process. The summative evaluation of the project is scheduled when the project is completed. The monitoring and evaluation will aim to answer the following issues of concern: whether the initial objectives were achieved, and if so, to what extent?, Whether there were any changes in the objectives set by DMM along the implementation process, whether the objectives helped in attracting new companies and the most/least effective approaches that were used.
The initiative of getting more companies on board and the already existing users to give feedback on the site layout and more links is worthwhile. Organizations joining the online event advertising and management will gain more publicity and increase their efficiency. Our team will put in place measures that will enable risk management that are likely to occur in the event of project research and implementation. Nonetheless, this nature of in initiative has very minimal potential risks. The experienced team of managers and staff will work to deliver the desired goals that will eventually be of benefit to the company.
Insert Surname Here 4
Research proposal on the hemp market
Business description and vision
The company is committed to delivery of fresh quality products to its consumers at very affordable prices while ensuring the utilization of its resources in the optimum ways to enhance production and conserve the environment
To be one of the leading hemp companies both locally, regionally and nationally though maximization of business opportunities available to the company while rendering the core values of efficiency, reliability and affordability to customers, clients, suppliers and other business associates.
Business goals and objectives
The goals of the business will be to ensure a sustainable development program geared towards the following core objectives:
Providing reliable products and services to all our clients
Participating in the environmental conservation programs for a sustainable environment
Making food and farm products available and affordable within the region and beyond
Brief history of the business
The hemp company is a business that has so far only existed in the mind of the founder Kenneth Williams, who nevertheless has very defined strategy to get the business on the ground and see it grow to be one of the leading hemp companies within the region. Driven by his determination to start and run a company from a tender age, Williams has stopped at nothing to see his dream come true in the proposed hemp company. His drive is further boosted by the desire to give back to the society by sharing his accumulated knowledge and research on health and therapy.
The company has a plan of supplying conventional and organic hemp in bulk to the manufacturing industries as well as the food and baking industries. In addition, the major focus of the company is in distribution of the hemp products as an independent industry in retail shops and at wholesale level.
Definition of the market
The business industry
The industry deals in supply of both conventional and organic hemp as mentioned above which is the essential requirements in the manufacturing factories for foods, and also directly takes its hemp products to the consumer market with its own brand that comes with very many unique features including high level of taste and a classic brand.
Currently it is striving towards achieving a place in the larger market fighting behind larger market holders like Yorkshire Hemp among others, which stand out both as examples and future rivals.
Critical needs of the market
The United States markets for certain components of hemp especially fiber products such as textiles and composites and paper have a very marginal market and small demand. Similarly, there is a very low demand for the seed products such as the ones used in food production or that are crushed to extract oil. These reasons are mostly encouraged because of the uncertainty in terms of the longterm goals for the hemp products as well as little research on the hemp itself which is supposed to determine the economic viability of the plant.
Marketing and sales strategy
The market that is targeted by this company is mostly the suppliers of hemp and food products and processing companies as well as consumers who shop in retail and wholesale shops. The channel of distribution is monopolistic competition as there exist other smaller scale hemp companies, which provide stiff competition in the limited market for this company, and they produce nearly similar goods, products, and services in the market. In addition, the market structure has a fair number of distributors as well as the fewer entry points in the market.
Finally, the market is going to have a pricing that suits the organizations purchasing capability as well as the purchasing power of the retail customers.
Budget for Securing Cost of Implementing Health Information Technology
The real cause of autism has not been established despite the extensive research work both in medical and academically field. Autism is a condition that has affected the brain of many people in the world. Over the year’s scientist have worked tirelessly for finding the cause of ASD but in vain. However, they have managed to relate autism with both genetics and environment (Office of Communications and Public Liaison, 2013). Further researches have identified that some genes related to this condition. From these studies, it has been established that the condition is a result of:
Disruption of normal brain development early in fetal development caused by defects in genes that control brain growth and that regulate how brain cells communicate with each other, possibly due to the influence of environmental factors on gene function. (Office of Communications and Public Liaison, 2013)
Through numerous reserches and medical libray data, it will be possible to unearth the already studied causes and resons, instilling the needed reliability and authensity of the reserch.
To support the thesis, this paper will depend on the periodicals as background materials. These materials will come from different sources and databases that they are related with the above field of study.
Many studies have been carried out on autism and how it affects the brain, with many having different results. This explanatory literature review will concentrate on some of the effects caused by autism on the human brain. Collected and accessed in this research proposal is the consistent data, which will provide the needed literature. The literature will seek insight into how autism affects the brain and the reasons of the said hormones that play part in affecting the brain. Particularly the research will help understand the exact parts of the brain that are largely affected by autism, and the extent to which the brain is affected.
The aim of this literature review will be to acknowledge the needed effort for more research work and accommodate all the results both scientific and academic that has been conducted on this work. The review will identify both hormonal and physical long-term effects of the brain of the autistic individuals. From the many researches conducted on autism, it is evident that it does not affect no more than those parts of the brain responsible for the control of social interaction, communication, and reasoning but instead, autism affects the entire brain (Vinci & Charlton, 2005).
Some of these models used in study of autism have not been effective in producing the much-needed evidence; instead, most have settled on an over-interpretation of substantiation for heritability, and have unsuccessfully covered the multiple features of the long-term affect of brain on autism (Jeffrey, 2012). Within the proposed research, the researcher will try to unearth the long-term affect on the brain of autism. It is evident that Autism research precedences have been fashioned by the underlying models (Martha & Teri, 2006). Even though recent estimates propose there are hundreds of genes liable for the contribution to ASD risk (Jeffrey, 2012; Christopher & Eric, 2008). Jeffery (2012) is of the opinion that it is imoportant to consider the next decisive step, which is to is to find out how the known risk factors impact brain structure, function, and contribute to disorder heterogeneity.
The purpose of this research will be to help in determining how the brain is affect by autism and the role of both the hormones in affecting the brain. Specially, the study will depend on already done work both academically and medically. Through this awareness, the society and medical field will be able to acknowledge long-term effect of autism on brain.
This research is aimed at addressing the issue of how the brain is affected by autism in regards to today’s nature of the topic in medical, academic, and societal level. The study will attempt to establish some verifiable and comprehensive answers on the topic.
How does autism affect the brain
What part of the brain are commonly affected by autism
How and to what extent is the brain affected by autism
From the literature review, it is evident there are long-term effects of autism on the brain. At the same time, factoring in the already conducted research work is important since it is not clear what the effects of autism are on the human brain. Thus, the research proposes a comprehensive research to be conducted on this matter due to the immediate need associated with issues related to autism.
This brings the need for more result to be conducted to understand the essential areas in how the brain is affected with autism. These research questions will help in shedding some light on the said topic that has elicited a lot of debate in the society with some citing the lack of the real causes of autism to the researchers’ inability of taking advantage of research skills. The study will help in gaining insight on the matters concerning autism thus, shedding more light on the academic and medical perspective. Hypothesis
The purpose of the study is to understand the essential areas of how the brain is affected with autism. This research will help shed some light on the said topic that has elicited a lot of debate in the society, with some citing the lack of the real cause of autism to the researchers’ inability of taking advantage of research skills. The hypothesis in this study will help in gaining insight on the matters concerning autism, shedding light on the academic and medical perspective.
Despite the lack of exact cause of autism, there is enough knowledge on the long term affects of brain on autism although not satisfactorily, thus the need for more research on this topic. This study will aim to unearth the real cause and the effects of autism on the brain. This is because some of these models have not been effective in producing the much-needed evidence; instead, most have settled on an over-interpretation of substantiation for heritability, and have unsuccessfully covered the multiple features of the long-term affect of brain on autism (Jeffrey, 2012). The study is essential to the extent that it will be helpful in providing more insight on the matters concerning autism, thus providing more knowledge on the academic and medical perspective.
Christopher, A. W., & Eric, M. M. (2008). Autism and Brain Development. 1-5.
Jeffrey, D. R. (2012). Autism-Associated Promoter Variant in MET Impacts Functional and Structural Brain Networks. Neuron Article , 1-12.
Martha, R. H., & Teri, A. (2006). Interview with Dr. Martha HerbertAutism: a brain disorder or a diorder that affects the brain? Medical Veritas , 11821194.
Office of Communications and Public Liaison. (2013, May 7). Autism Fact Sheet. Retrieved July 20, 2013, from National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/autism/detail_autism.htm
Vinci, C., & Charlton, C. (2005). apping the brain in autism. A voxel-based MRI study of volumetric differences and intercorrelations in autism. brain , 268-273.
LONG TERM AFFECT ON THE BRAIN OF AUTISM 2
Running head: LONG TERM AFFECT ON THE BRAIN OF AUTISM 1
Research Proposal: The other Side of Food Preservatives
Science and technology today plays part in various food production processes. With globalization and changes in production technologies, consumers’ demand for agricultural products is on the rise with the majority of human population shifting attention to modern types of agricultural products. In the field of agriculture, farmers employ two forms of agricultural production: the traditional means and the modern means. Under traditional means of production, farmers entirely depend on natural climatic factors for production processes.
Under modern farming techniques, the entire agricultural process and procedures used by farmers involve diverse use of various chemicals that tend to pose threat to human life (Khatkar, 2007, p. 219). The use of chemicals in agricultural production has led to high agricultural produce and in one way, households generate high income from such processes. Farmers who engage in agricultural production would want to facilitate the process and make quick cash. The underlying fact is that the majority of people tend to ignore the precursors generated from chemical use in agricultural productions. With specifications, farmers have shifted attention to Genetically Modified form of agricultural production with an aim of increasing output as well as satisfying increasing demand among various consumers globally. In connection, the use of various chemical in production processes has gained prominence (Raso & Heinz, 2006, p. 117).
A report released by FAO (2012) reveals that about 79 percent of farmers worldwide use different chemicals to boost their production processes more especially and in connection to poultry farming and production of certain vegetables like tomatoes and fruits like mangoes. Even though there is a general agreement that the use of industrial chemicals in agricultural production processes have contributed in realizing improvements in production processes, the fact still remains that the health of final consumers is at risk due to the accumulation of such chemicals within their body systems.
With increased food supply, which is high in chemical contents, certain diseases persist among different societies (Raso & Heinz, 2006, p. 117). Cancerous diseases are prevalent among high-class families because of over consumption of chemically produced foods and food products. The long run cost on individuals’ health attests serious probing on the relevance of science and technology in improving human life, something that researchers have not given much consideration.
The Research Question
The possibility of consumers assuming the effect of chemically produced goods as health hazardous gives farmers the opportunity to produce such food products without taking into consideration health consequences. There are high chances that cancer can be whipped out of different societies but only if the entire world population understands the nature and disadvantages, precluding the impacts on producers. From the perspectives, one would wonder, how does the use of chemicals in agricultural production results into development of cancerous cells among various consumers of such products? An investigation over the matter would help provide notable recommendations for making judgment on the best direction to take.
The main aim of this research proposal is to illustrate with providence that indeed, chemically modified agricultural products have led to increase in cases of cancer worldwide with majority of the affected people being the high social class members of the society. Proportionately, over-consumption of certain chemicals, which are hormone generators, would result into multiple growths of body cells and tissues, the sole initiator of cancer development. Through the study, one would be in a position to understand how the use of chemicals in agricultural production would lead to cancer cells build up in case a person constantly consumes such products.
Justification for the Proposed Research
Cases of cancer are of more concern today and affect peoples’ health more than HIV/AIDS. Studies have shown that growth hormones when introduced into cancer cells initiates multiplication and growth of such cells. Different world organization have given support over the view that cancer attack is now common among different groups of people worldwide with a general perception that the change in diet and living styles are the main contributors, a fact that one cannot stand a chance to ignore (Institute of Medicine (U.S.), 1999, p. 201).
Different from what used to happen several years back, today people consume a lot of manufacture foods and food products, which have high contents of industrial chemicals. Use of industrial chemical in food processing or in agricultural farms tend to be health menace and under normal circumstances would lead to health complications if not development of cancer cells. In connection, different organizations have come up strong with mechanisms to eradicate cases of cancer and if possible wipe out the disease from the face of the earth, thus the initiation of certain health training programs (Khatkar, 2007, p. 214).
The truth on the ground is that, even though farmers and food processing industries benefit from chemical production of agricultural food products, the long run cost on health outcomes is still weighing and one has to develop a basis for criticizing such production processes concurrently. The cost of cancer treatment is so high and one may not be in a position to afford the expenses. There is a need is to give a clear outline of how one can live healthy and help reduce the costs involved in various health treatments (World Council on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health & Simopoulos, 2011, p. 344).
In connection to production technologies, various opportunities still exist that one can explore in order to help boost both agricultural productions and industrial processing of agricultural products other than direct use of dangerous chemical in production of food products that people consume directly. There is a need to explore such opportunities and integrate them in various production processes and in a way that would help improve current living conditions. Human health is most important in every aspect of economic development thus the need to provide food substances that will allow continued energy generation and regeneration (Institute of Medicine (U.S.), 1999, p. 209).
Various governments and nongovernmental organizations should be actively involved in developing health policies that would help in realizing that different societies get to understand the reasons why they have to be concerned with the type of food that get into the body system. Such foods should be safe and free from any form of health inflictions. Development of these policies and their executions may not be possible without proofs built through empirically searched evidences. Thus, through proper investigation and generation of ideas through logics and scientific research, there are high chances that different stakeholders would act towards realizing implementation of various healthy living recommendations.
Preliminary Literature Review
Various studies conducted over the relationship between agricultural chemicals and cancer development points majorly to the use of pesticides and radioactive technologies. Laboratory tests reveal that the use of organic pesticides such as DDT and lindane in agricultural production may result in development of cancer cells when one consumes such food products. In connection, different scholars have given their support over the notion that pesticides used in food production cannot initiate cancer development processes. However, the relationship presented from the above unfolding circumstances is that pesticides and other farm chemicals are able to promote the process of cancer development (Watson, 2001, p. 200). Theoretically, studies provide that any exposure to carcinogenic molecules such as pesticide and certain herbicides motivate chances of cancer development process in individuals. According to the report given by World toxicologist to WHO, toxic chemical used in farms either for the purpose of improving quality of the produce or for the purpose of preventing crop pathogens would diffuse into crops and once people consume such crops produce, they stand a chance of developing various health complications of which cancer is included.
Studies conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) reveals that food supplies with pesticide residue amount when consumed form the building blocks for cancer cells. Through experimental research and laboratory investigations, there is an acceptable amount of pesticide that one can consume without experiencing health complications, that is Accepted Daily Intake (ADI) concept of pesticide intake (National Research Council (U.S.), 1961, p. 326). The investigation on ADI led to the finding of the dose that would not result into damaging health effect more specifically to the tumor effect. The conclusion of the research conducted by MAFF built its basis on the notion that, that any detectable residue of farm chemicals in food produce is unacceptable, a method validated by WHO. From the proceedings, pesticide residues have certain connections with organic food products according to MAFF investigations (Lelieveld, 2003, p. 113).
The survey reveals that pesticides can contaminate Organic food if a farmer cultivates a previously contaminated farm, or if the farmer uses unauthorized pesticides in production of food crops, or if contamination by dangerous chemicals occurs during transportation, processing and storage phase. This is just but one proof that the use of certain chemicals in food production or processing would be dangerous as far as the health of an individual is concerned.
Other studies relevant to this study reveal that farmers today use radioactive technologies to store and preserve food substances. The use of radioactive waves in food preservation is health menace. It is possible that radioactive waves can penetrate into tissues and various parts of body cells (Boye & Arcand, 2012, p. 312). Continued exposure to such waves may cause health complications and an individual may end up becoming paralyzed permanently once the cells within the body are dead. In addition, the food substances exposed to radioactive waves are dangerous to health when consumed. About 35 percent of high-class members of the society use microwaves in warming food without understanding the nature and complexities involved (Hutton, 2002, p. 303). Food preservation is one of the leading contributors to hike in cases of cancer worldwide.
Similarly, today farmers use gene mixing to produce a high quality combination of agricultural products. An investigation by the American Chemical Societies revealed that the use of genetically modified means of agricultural production processes would help boost farm output by about 75 percent and within a very short duration of time. Farmers are now shifting their production to genetic modification with a view of improving their output and consequently high returns on sale (American Chemical Society, 1962, p. 243).What people tend to forget is that this process of gene combination uses different chemicals that are highly dangerous to individual health. The general analysis brings us to the conclusion that people are overshadowed by the need to create a notion of improved living standards through consumption of food substances that are rich in industrial chemicals while in real sense they create a base for development of various diseases including cancer.
Statement of the Contribution of the Research to the General Area
Through proper investigation of proponents of technological improvements and consequential impact in the field of agriculture, the study would establish the high correlation that exists between the use of chemicals and various modern means of agricultural production and cancer prevalence. In the final analysis, through provision of convincing evidences, alternative means of production recommended would work towards improving the general health of human life in addition to creating high level of production. Indeed the various industrial stages involved in food processing introduce chemical substances that may appear appealing to food consumers but in the end would prove highly dangerous to health (Lelieveld, 2003, p. 119).
The theoretical application would lie under the concept that agricultural produce under natural climatic conditions are healthier and life supporting than those produced under human generated conditions. The environment may deem fit to support agricultural production, but what we see are people trying to modify their environments to suit production needs even if the result would be health deteriorating. Apart from the use of pesticides in crop production, other agricultural processes have raised eyebrows among different organizations. With improvements in production technologies one can create a microclimate and initiate production processes. Exposure to certain human modified climatic conditions for the purpose of agricultural production may as well lead to cancer diseases. This is another perspective that would be very crucial for the study.
Proposed Research Methodology
The study will be built on both theoretical and experimental accounts. The nature of investigation applied would explicitly give an account of what the situation used to appear before technological and scientific changes in the field of agriculture as well as an account of the expected outcomes in agricultural industries. The investigation will involve the use of both quantitative and qualitative approaches. In quantitative approach, data generalization through face-to-face interaction with respondents would be of interest. The target would be to find the underlying cause of cancer and the reason the disease persists even though various governments and non-governmental organizations have stood firm to ensure a reduction of cancer and its effects. The collected data will be subjected to rigorous observation for the basis of analysis and idea generalization.
In addition, through qualitative analysis, a comparison would be built on the lives of those who consume genetically modified foods with those individuals who consume purely produced agriculture foods under natural climatic conditions. The use of experiments would be of importance in establishing the functional relationship between consumption of genetically modified agricultural products and the health of individuals. A controlled experiment would involve the use two rabbits. One of the rabbits will be fed on those farm products like vegetables that are produce using various farm chemicals while the other rabbit will be fed on non-genetically modified agricultural products.
At the end of the set period, the two rabbits would be tested for cancerous cells and a comparison made. This would form the basis for generalization of distinctive facts to be used in recommendations of healthy food consumption among human beings. In connection to the interest of this study, the independent variable would be the various agricultural products, those genetically modified and those that are non-genetically modified. The dependent variables would be human health. The moderating variable would be the time span required for an individual to start developing cancerous cells after regular consumption of various agricultural products; those produced using chemicals and those that produced under natural climatic settings. Data analysis would involve the use of SPSS in establishing the correlation coefficient between the above-discussed variables.
Research Plan and Timetable
The time base for the project would run for a period of 9-12 moths give that the experiment would involve the use of rabbits whose maturity age is after one year. From the time a rabbit is born up to its maturity, subjection to food substances rich in chemicals would help establish the required results. Proportionately, given the nature of the research and its importance, highly established facts would help in giving valid proofs under the unfolding circumstances. As to such, the time span within which the research would be conducted is highly critical. Exhibit 1 below would help explain explicitly the activities of the study, which must follow each other in a chronological order. The basis of time schedule and generation of the project plan is to help determine beyond reasonable doubt that indeed, the foods we eat are the main contributors of cancer cells and cancer related diseases. All the activities must be conducted as stipulated within the plan.
Exhibit 1: research execution plan and time schedule
Time Activity/project Description 2-3 WeeksLiterature ReviewClose examination of both empirical articles and theoretical articles over the subject of interest.
Identification of study gaps and a recommendation for further investigation
3-6 MonthsInitial experimentsTwo rabbits exposed to different feeding environments: one on vegetables produce using chemicals and the other on vegetables produced under natural climatic conditions. 1-2 monthsFollow up experimentsThese preliminary experiments would help backup the initial experiment. 1 month Data analysis and reportingThis would involve compiling observations made over the entire period of the study, using the information to create a link to the interest of the study and then presenting the information for possible policy creation.
Living healthy does not entirely involve over-consumption of genetically modified food products or industrially processed food substances. People should understand that science and technology in the field of production has its advantages as well as disadvantages, which a person must consider (Sun, 2005, p. 218). The study would not intend to oppose scientific innovations in the field of agricultural productions but would tend to give reasons why people should be tactical in their engagements in consumptions food substances rich in chemical substances as well as producing food substances rich in chemicals or by the use of any other dangerous means.
in analysis, farmers should show more concern for their lives by limiting the time of exposure to radioactive waves and other dangerous farm chemicals. The recommendations that would follow from the study would help create healthy living within the budget (Sun, 2005, p. 218). That is to say, one is capable of staying healthy without necessarily consuming industrial food substances, which are modified and prone to initiating certain health complications.
American Chemical Society. (1962). Chemicals in modern food and fiber production; a symposium conducted by the American Chemical Society and the Agricultural Research Institute, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, March 21-22, 1962. Washington, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council.
Boye, J. I., & Arcand, Y. (2012). Green technologies in food production and processing. New York, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1587-9.
Hutton, T. (2002). Food chemical composition: dietary significance in food manufacturing. Chipping Campden, Campden & Chorleywood Food Research Association Group.
Institute of Medicine (U.S.). (1999). Enhancing the regulatory decision-making approval process for direct food ingredient technologies workshop summary. Washington, D.C., National Academy Press. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10056989.
Khatkar, B. S. (2007). Food science and technology. Delhi, Daya Publishing House.
Lelieveld, H. (2003). Hygiene in food processing: principles and practice. Cambridge, Woodhead.
National Research Council (U.S.). (1961). The use of chemicals in food production, processing, storage, and distribution.
National Research Council (U.S.). (1961). The use of chemicals in food production, processing, storage, and distribution.
Raso, J., & Heinz, V. (2006). Pulsed electric fields technology for the food industry fundamentals and applications. New York, Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-31122-7.
Sun, D.-W. (2005). Emerging technologies for food processing. Amsterdam, Elsevier Academic Press. http://www.myilibrary.com?id=63796.
Watson, d. (2001). Food chemical safety. Cambridge, England, Woodhead Pub.
World Council on Genetics, Nutrition, and Fitness for Health, & Simopoulos, A. P. (2011). Healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people. Basel, Karger.
Running head: NUTRITION 1
Hypotheses Section of Research Proposal
The following hypotheses shall apply for the research into the culture of substance abuse among adolescents, including its risk factors and the competent methods of addressing it.
1. Peer pressure, parental modeling, thrill-seeking, social anxiety, and the ease of substance availability constitute the principal contributors to substance abuse among adolescents.
2. Effective strategies to prevent and control substance abuse behaviors among adolescents should involve focus on community-based relationships in the parenting/family, social, academic, and peer environments if they are to be sustainable.
3. The government’s responsibility in adolescents substance abuse control strategies should primarily concern the regulatory and oversight role of restricting the availability of substances in the society, through pricing , targeted education, and active policy actions in social environments.
The development of these hypotheses for the study has drawn influence from the observations and conclusions of various studies and investigations in the literature review. Several studies identify peer pressure, parental modeling, thrill seeking, social anxiety, and the ease of substance availability as the critical factors that influence and foster the abuse of substances among adolescents.
Psychologists and behaviorists also identify these factors as the most prominent and common contributors to the trend of substance abuse in teenage, the age group that constitutes the focus of this study (Robertson et al, 2003, p. 6-10). Investigations into the causes and risk factors for adolescents’ substance abuse consistently identify these factors, making the first hypothesis valid in the context of this investigation. T
he literature review and other studies identify an integrated approach that targets the inclusion of all risk factors and contexts as the most effective in addressing the problem. The basis of the second hypothesis, as the literature review concludes, is that action focusing on the risk areas and contexts is necessary to address the origins and practical processes of the problem effectively. The third hypothesis draws influence from the observation that the availability of substances to adolescents, a factor over which the government has a direct responsibility, is a significant contributor to the problem of substance abuse among adolescents (Toumbourou et al, 2007, p. 1399-1401).
A confirmation of the hypotheses in the study would promote a deeper understanding of the problem of adolescent substance abuse and the necessary policies for its control. Such an outcome would entrench the understanding that substance availability and the social lives and objectives of adolescents make up the two critical aspects in the problem of substance abuse within the age-group. The hypotheses’ confirmation would also enhance the view that an active and integrated approach, involving focus on parenting/family, social, academic, and peer environments and the aspects of substance availability and adolescents’ social lives, represents the most competent strategy to address the adolescent substance abuse problem.
The investigation’s independent variables comprise evaluations of peer pressure, parental modeling, thrill-seeking, social anxiety, and the ease of substance availability as the primary risk and contributory factors in adolescent substance abuse. The dependent variables comprise the incidence (rates and levels) of adolescent substance abuse in the chosen population. To operationalize the variables, the research shall identify the prevalence of each variable from valid sources, through interviews and investigations of relevant and valid academic, health, and community sources to establish data on the incidence of each factor.
The study’s main hypothesis is the first one: peer pressure, parental modeling, thrill-seeking, social anxiety, and the ease of substance availability constitute the principal contributors to substance abuse among adolescents. This hypothesis would be subject to rejection if an analysis of the data yields observations that, rather than promoting substance abuse among adolescents, either or all of the risk factors actually discourage the trend. Such a scenario would apply in the observation of a negative relationship between either or all of the risk factors and the trend of adolescent substance abuse. A rejection may also apply if the investigation identifies other factors other than these as the primary contributors to adolescent substance abuse.
Robertson E., Rao, S., & David S. (2003). Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: a Research-based Guide for Parents, Educators and Community Leaders. Brief, National Institute on Drug Abuse (USA), Department of Health and Human Services, retrieved on October 22, 2013 from: http://www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/preventingdruguse.pdf
Toumbourou, J., Stockwell, T., Neighbours, C., Marlatt, G., Sturge, J. & Rehm, J. (2007). Interventions to reduce harm associated with adolescent substance use. The Lancet, 369(9570): 1391-1401)
HYPOTHESES SECTION OF RESEARCH PROPOSAL 3
Running head: HYPOTHESES SECTION OF RESEARCH PROPOSAL 1
Applying Army Discipline by Parents to Improve Family Unit
The proposed research will outline the rationale of using army discipline to improve the family unit. The discipline of the US army will be considered in this research. The proposed research will discuss how army discipline is used in homes and its appropriateness in a family setting. To this extent, various literatures will be analyzed to provide insights and knowledge to the research topic.
Purpose and Rationale of the Research
The purpose of this research is to find out if army research can be used to improve families. Parents have difficulties in choosing the best way to discipline their children and ensure that their homes are functional. Some shy away from harsh discipline arguing that it has negative effects on children in the long term. The findings of this research will provide insights on whether parents should adopt army discipline when raising their children.
1. The first section will consists of an introduction to the research topic and the relevant background information. The research questions, purpose of the study and the paper structure will be defined as well.
2. A critical review of relevant literatures will be outlined
3. A discussion of the findings from the literature review
4. The last section will include conclusions and recommendations
Research Time line
Activity Duration Writing and submitting the prospectus 1 dayDeveloping the research questions 1 dayObtaining and analyzing relevant literatures 1 day Drawing conclusions and recommendations1 day Organizing and formatting the final project 1 day
The use of army discipline in homes has not received much attention from past researchers and thus, literature on this topic is limited. Some of the resources that will be used in this research include:
1. Everson, R, B. (2010). Families under Fire: Systemic Therapy with Military Families. United Kingdom, UK: Taylor & Francis
Everson (2010) examines the challenges faced by military families especially when seeking therapy for family issues. The author examines various approaches to discipline in homes and the impact of a parent’s military service on his or her family. Everson (2010) outlines some of the advantages and shortcomings of military discipline in homes. This book is useful in the proposed research in highlighting the need for military discipline in homes. The book examines various parenting styles and their effect on children’s discipline. This discussion will create a foundation for the proposed research.
2. Johnson. L. (2011). Teaching outside the Box: How to grab your Students by their brains. New Jersey, NJ: John Wiley and Sons
In this book, Johnson (2011) examines how military discipline is used in schools to develop a positive attitude towards discipline in children. Johnson (2011) argues that military discipline has a positive connotation because it allows the army to function in teams effectively. The army discipline develops self-respect and character. Thus, the use of this kind of discipline in children will help them appreciate discipline as a way of building their character and respect for other people. This book will be useful in this research in providing a theoretical background of army discipline in raising children. The book gives insight on what army discipline is and how it can be used when raising children.
3. Waller, I. (2006). Less Law, More Order: The Truth about Reducing Crime. Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group
The author examines the involvement of children in crime and the methods used to reduce crime rates among children. The effectiveness of tough discipline is examined and this helps in predicting whether the same kind of discipline will be effective in homes. Waller (2006) examines whether the high rate of crime by youths results from ineffective disciplinary measures at home and gives insight on whether tougher disciplinary measures by parents can help in reducing crime.
4. Sheff, D. (2008). Beautiful Boy: A father’s Journey through his Son’s addiction. Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Sheff (2008) discusses some of the methods that parents use to discipline their children. The author focuses on drug addiction and approaches of parents in assisting their children to overcome addiction. The use of military style discipline is discussed as well as its effectiveness. The insights from this book will be useful in providing more knowledge on the research topic.
5. Child, B, J. (2000). Boarding School Seasons: American Indian Families, 1900-1940. Nebraska: U of Nebraska Press
In this book, the author examines the use of military form of discipline in boarding schools and comments on its effectiveness. Child (2000) outlines the rationale of using military style of discipline on children. The book is useful in developing the arguments for army discipline in homes.
6. Anglada, T., & Hakala, S. (2008). The Childhood Bipolar Disorder Answer Book: Practical Answers to the Top 300 Questions Parents Ask. Naperville: Sourcebooks, Inc
The bipolar disorder is a challenge in many homes and parents have difficulties in helping their children overcome this disorder. Anglada and Hakala (2008) discuss the use of military-style discipline among other strategies in overcoming the challenge. The discussion outlines some of the practical uses of army discipline in homes and their results in shaping the character of children.
The Use of Army Discipline in Families 4
The Illegal Immigration Policy of 2013
The policy issue I have addressed was proposed by the government of Australia to counter the problem of immigration by initiating the illegal immigration policy of 2013. The Prime Minister of Australia Kevin Rudd in July 2013 stated that asylum seekers arriving in Australia by boat/ship would not have the chance of settling in the country as refugees. This issue was identified following a research conducted concerning immigration policies of Australia. One of the articles that I evaluated while studying the immigration policies in Australia was a piece appearing in the Weekly Standard by Barnes tilted A Differential Immigration Mess (Barnes, 2013). The author brought to the fore the history and consequences of the problem of illegal immigration. Thiel (2009) noted that while there was need to initiate illegal immigration measures in Australia, this should not be done in a manner that contravenes legal and moral obligations of the Australian government as outlined in the international refugees laws of 1958, of which Australia is a signatory.
The opposition and the government seemed to have common ground concerning the need to stem out illegal immigration, the only difference being the person most suitable to implement it. Opposition leaders at the time, particularly, Tony Abbott and Scott Morrison reinvigorated the discussion by highlighting the shortcomings of the then prime minister in the initial enactment of illegal immigration policies when he came to power. The current deal can be viewed as a response to the pressure from the electorates, considering the media and public frenzy concerning the problem of illegal immigrants. The then prime minister signed a deal with the Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea to relocate all illegal immigrants arriving in Australia to PNG. In case they are genuine immigrants fleeing from war or hunger, they are to be settled there. Those who have the chance of returning to the countries they came from are to be returned. The measure adopted by the current system of government is manifested by the rollout of Operation Sovereign Borders in late 2013, which totally ignores the PNG solution and only returns the immigrants without vetting them for suitability for refugee status.
Immediately after the elections, the new Prime Minister Tony Abbot got to the ground in cleaning the complicated scenario occasioned by the rush to implement illegal immigrant regulations by the previous government. The result of using the illegal immigration issue as the campaign platform has been manifested by the urgent need to arrive at a lasting solution in the shortest time possible. It is therefore imperative that this letter is addressed to the rightful level of government that came up with this law in the first, and is responsible for its implementation. The federal government is the only one mandated to deal with the problem of illegal immigration in the country. Considering that the issue of illegal immigration was one of the strongest points upon which Tony Abbot managed to win the polls, it is only imperative that the issues arising from his implementation plan be raised directly with his lieutenants on the ground. This is why this letter will be addressed to the national government, and in particular, the minister of immigration, Mr. Scott Morrison.
Scott Morrison has been at the forefront in the fight against illegal immigration. When he was made the minister of immigration, he initiated Operation Sovereign Borders, an illegal refugee roundup and deportation to rid the country of any refugees. The operation is conducted with the help of the Australian navy, and seeks to capture boats carrying illegal immigrants and take them to the processing centre at Nauru. I have noted that these operations are directly under the control of Morrison. However, I have also realized that this solution is an implementation of the legislation initiated by the outgoing regime. Under the circumstances that the current government came into power, with the promise of an overhaul of the illegal immigration immigrations rules and procedures, the government still does not have a policy in place, and uses the skewed version of the previous regime.
Apart from raising my concerns with the minister in charge, I have also forwarded the letter to Senator Sarah Hanson-Young, one of the key critics of this policy issue. I intend to inform her of the failures of the government in protection of basic human rights and dignity. In so doing, they have created conflicts with countries such as Indonesia, especially in the wake of the spying allegations by the fugitive CIA contractor, Edward Snowden. The issue has also brought to question Australia’s commitment to the international laws concerning immigrants. The question this letter addresses is the illegalities surrounding the implementation of the illegal immigration rules of 2013, and the subsequent launch of operation sovereign borders.
Dear Mr. Morrison,
I write to you concerning the issue of illegal immigration policies of 2013 and the subsequent launch of operation sovereign borders. As a political science student, I have researched widely in the fields of immigration laws and practices. Some of the materials I have written have centered on the immigration situation in Australia. I believe that my research will enable you to realize some concerns I have highlighted here, and possibly consider the solutions I have proposed.
Some Measures Contravene International Laws
One of the key challenges that your government promised to address was the issue of illegal immigration. While the population gave you the mandate to implement such policies, let me bring it to your attention the fact that some of the measures being undertaken override the overwhelming mandate of the people, and contravene the international treaties and laws that this government is obliged to observe. The United Nations Convention regarding the status of refugees article 31 states any country should not forcefully return refugees to countries where they will face persecution (Zimmermann, 2010, p 1237).
The government of Indonesia, a country where most of these refugees are returned, has declared that they will be monitoring their borders to ensure that no refugees are returned. This means that these refugees are not welcome in the country. As such, we cannot ascertain with certainty that the illegal immigrants captured and returned to Indonesian waters arrived safely. It is therefore a possibility that the deportation resulted in harm, in contravention to the conventional requirements (Saul, 2013). I have to admit that your role and mandate is to the people of Australia, and majority of Australians are in favor of curbing illegal immigration. However, the government of any country cannot do away with its responsibility to humanity and the protection of human rights, citizen or not.
I have established that most of the people that attempt to come to Australia as illegal immigrants try to do so with the use of old fishing boats. Some of these boats are not in a position to make the journey back. The recent attempts to tow the boats all the way back to Indonesian waters is a risk to the life of these refugees. While the temporary illegal immigrant centre established in Nauru is a step in the right direction, the government needs to dedicate more resources to tackling this challenge. More such facilities should be located on the islands to deter the need to transfer the immigrants immediately they are spotted in Australian waters. They should be kept in these centers, vetted to verify the reasons for asylum seeking, then the genuine ones fleeing from war or hunger be settled in places such as Papua New Guinea, or allowed into Australia as genuine immigrants.
Armed Aggression Not Necessary
The other issue that I have realized emanating from the manner operation sovereign borders is conducted is the declaration by the president that we are at war. I have to admit that fighting illegal immigration is a problem that the country has to commit its military resources to achieve the desired objective. At the same time, these illegal immigrants are brought to the country by a cartel that purchases these boats from fishermen, and then charge those seeking to use them to get to the other side of the ocean.
What I do not agree with is the categorization of this problem as war. In my simplest understanding of war, I have always assumed that war involves tackling armed aggression with an equal or stronger measure of aggression. Aggression in this case is only from the side of the government, against a group that is neither armed, or threatening the peace and stability of the country. It would suffice that the government considers this as a measure to keep the borders safe, rather than terming it as a war. The duty of the country, under the UN refugee charter is to arrest the illegal refugees and have their claim heard and determined in a court of law. In the case when the country is at war with the refugees, are they going to be court marshaled, or held as prisoners of war?
It is prudent that the government reevaluates its approach to tackling the problem if illegal immigration. The necessity to declare war against this category of people is merely a result of public pressure. I would therefore encourage you to take up the matter with the UN high commission for refugees, enable the office to verify the nature of treatment the illegal immigrants are subjected to, and honor them with a hearing before sending them back to where they came from, or settle them in new places. This war is between the government and the people smugglers, and not with illegal immigrants caught in the crossfire. Babar Baloch, a spokesperson of the UNHCR told ABC news that if people are in need, and seek the protection and help from a country, then they must be heard to determine whether they are truly in need (Attard, 2014).
There is Discrimination
The classification of an illegal immigrant is based on the confines of a person who arrives by boat, with or without a visa, and must have come from Indonesia. The UN refugee convention allows people to enter into a country in case they are seeking asylum (Missbach & Sinanu, 2011). The convention further stipulates that entering a country with or without a visa is not treated as an illegal action in the case where the person is seeking asylum. This puts into question the classification of all the refugees arriving be boats to be illegal immigrants. Only those illegal immigrants who arrive by boats are targeted by this crackdown. On the other hand, the measures do not address the thousands of immigrants who arrive in Australia every year by plane, with a visa, and then disappear when it is time to leave. This adverse differential treatment does not augur well with the spirit of equal treatment. All illegal immigrants are the same.
Considering that the largest number of immigrants arriving in Australia come through the airport, I believe that the government should shift focus and introduce stringent visa regulations to curb this threat as well as it is dealing with the issue of boats. This equal treatment will reduce the demonization of the refugees who arrive in boats, and give them a chance to be heard before they are sent back to where they came from.
The assumption that since most asylum seekers arrive in Australian coastal waters from Indonesia does not necessarily imply that they are Indonesians (Buff, 2008). Indonesia is only a transit country as they seek to settle in countries where they will be safe and have better living conditions. Some of these refugees come from Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Lebanon, and Syria. These are countries experiencing internal and external conflicts, and nearly 75% of this number constitutes genuine asylum seekers (Wilsher, 2012). When they are returned to Indonesia, the Indonesian government does not recognize them as their citizens and are not mandated to take them within their borders (Crock & Saul, 2002). In some instances, taking them back is like driving them to prisons, or to their graves.
It is therefore my prayer that It is also your government consider these refugees as humans, and avoid any possibility of violating their basic right to life. I would gladly welcome the opportunity to address debate about these challenges that have been occasioned by the immigration policies of 2013 and your operation sovereign borders, which you are mandated to oversee.
Attard, M. (2014, January 13). TOWING BACK THE TRUTH. The Hoopla. Retrieved January 20, 2014, from http://thehoopla.com.au/refugees-truth-tow-back/
Barnes, F. (2013). A Different Immigration Mess. The Weekly Standard, 19(1), 1-2.
Buff, R. (2008). Immigrant rights in the shadows of citizenship. New York: New York University Press.
Crock, M., & Saul, B. (2002). Future seekers: refugees and the law in Australia. Sydney: Federation Press.
Missbach, A., & Sinanu, F. (2011). Foreign People Smugglers and Their Local Counterparts in Indonesia. Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 30(4), 57-87.
Saul, B. (2013, July 20). Rudd’s PNG plan unlikely to comply with international law. The Conversation. Retrieved January 20, 2014, from http://theconversation.com/rudds-png-plan-unlikely-to-comply-with-international-law-16250
Thiel, M. (2009). The ‘militant democracy’ principle in modern democracies. Farnham, England: Ashgate.
Wilsher, D. (2012). Immigration detention: law, history, politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Zimmermann, A. (2010). The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol: a commentary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
THE ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION POLICY OF 2013 9
Running head: THE ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION POLICY OF 2013 1
Stages of Research Proposal Development
A research proposal is a document put forward by an investigator providing a comprehensive account of a proposed program. This document is mainly purposed to demonstrate that the proposed problem due for investigation is of sufficient significance to call for investigation, and furthermore the planned investigation methodology is suitable, feasible and the expected results will prove to be productive. A research proposal is composed of essentially three basic sections.
This is the first part to be considered in a research proposal writing, the introduction basically addresses three sub-sections.
Statement of the problem- this is sometimes deemed as the most difficult area for beginners, it begins with identification of a general problem and further narrowing down to specific manageable objectives.
Literature review- this involves a logical identification and analysis of other documented works that relate to the chosen topic.
Statement of the hypothesis- this involves giving a provisional explanation of the expected results.
This is the second phase of research proposal writing, the methodology involves an explanation of the technique and procedures to be followed in collection of data. The methodology entails an explanation of the subjects to be used in the investigation, the data collection instruments, the research design, and the procedure to be followed in collecting the data for analysis.
This is the last phase of research proposal writing. At this stage, the researcher states and explains the data analysis technique he or she intends to employ in order to arrive at a conclusion. The researcher should explain in detail the chosen techniques, give reasons why they chose the particular technique and its associated merits and demerits if any.
Research proposal writing is an important process in development of problem solving programs, it basically entails three main parts; introduction, methodology and data analysis.
Research Proposal 1