Since time immemorial it has been observed that the kinds of dressing that people of different parts of the world adorn in are determined by their traditions as well as religion or beliefs. In the Kuwaiti culture men and women have a particular kind of dressing as dictated by the Islamic religion and cultural beliefs that have gone down through generations. However, with time, western or hybrid kinds of dressing have become very popular and, due to fashion trends, is offering stiff competition to the more traditional dressing such as Hijab and Abaya. This research seeks to focus on the women and young ladies and how their form of dressing is used to prejudge and conclude on the nature of their characters in order to answer the question of how Kuwaiti women are being judged on the basis of clothing.
Despite the existence of freedom of choice as pertains to the dressing a woman or lady decides to put on in public, it has been known over time that eighty percent of the Kuwaiti society judges a lady through what she wears. Those who wear the contemporary kinds of fashionable clothing are regarded as not being self respecting while those who put on the Hijab and the Abaya are considered self respecting, dignified ladies who are worthy of becoming good wives. Thus, there is a disparity in terms respect and marriage opportunities. The best rationale therefore for undertaking the research is to study and observe the underlying factors into this to ascertain whether indeed the females of the country are judged of the basis of dressing.
Since this is an ethnographic issue under study, the approach should gear towards the qualitative methods of data collection in the design of observational research. As such, this will involve the observation, note taking and conduction of interviews on appropriate groups (Kothari, 23). The choice of the people to be observed and asked questions involves choosing the people who play a huge role in this process; the ladies (either married or unmarried), women (who have married or unmarried sons), married or unmarried men. The way to do the survey should be through face to face interaction in the interviewing process as this will allow for asking as many follow up questions as possible while also observing the attitude and gestures of the interviewee (Kothari, 39). Furthermore, since this should bring a picture of how the whole society views this topic, it should include adults of all ages.
To perform the study systematically, it is prudent that each of the sample population should be divided into subsets: married and unmarried ladies; women with married and unmarried sons; married and not yet married men. These subsets should be asked questions that gear towards the answering of the research question. For instance, the unmarried ladies in the urban centers can also be divided into those who put on Abaya and Hijab and those who do not. The ones who wear it can be asked the main reason they put them on; whether they like or enjoy being in them. On the other hand, the unmarried ladies should be asked why they do not wear them and whether this has contributed to their inability to be married. The men, both married and unmarried, can also be asked their opinion on women who put on Abaya and Hijab in comparison to the ones who don’t. Older women with unmarried sons should be able to provide information on the basis what kind of woman they would prefer for their sons while the ones with married sons can provide information on the criteria they used to choose wives for their sons on the basis of dressing.
An analysis of these and more data from the sample populations, the subsets and the specific subsets will be invaluable in the process of answering the research question as well as the establishment of the overall attitudes of the Kuwaiti society as pertains to judging the character of ladies and women based on their choice of dressing since the results will be based on qualitative data from observational research on an ethnographic study (Kothari, 98).
Kothari, C R. Research Methodology: Methods & Techniques. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd, 2005. Print.
Reflection on the Concept of Attribute
Attribute is used to refer to the character of a person. It is a combination of behaviors and attitudes adopted by an individual. By having an insight into the attribute of a person, be it a child or an adult, one can to a great extent predict how their lives will be in the near or distant future. Interaction between people especially relationships depend on their attributes to determine whether they succeed or fail. A person’s attribute is ingrained in him or her from an early age. It may come about as a result of genetic inheritance or through one’s upbringing.
When getting into a relationship with someone, be it in business, friendship or romantically, it is good to have an idea of what their attribute is. Should one find the attribute of the partner unappealing, they should terminate the relationship. The trouble with knowing a person’s attribute is that it is not easily noticeable or apparent. Psychologists therefore advise one to try to find or deliberately create situations most likely to elicit the traits one would want to see in action. The six important traits that give an idea in regards to a person’s attribute are: intelligence, sociability, capacity for intimacy, happiness, drive and goodness.
Give an example of how a better understanding of one of these six clues could lead to making better decisions about the people we decide to have any type of relationship with.
Having a better understanding of a person’s capacity for intimacy can go a long way in assisting one in making better decision about whether to get into a relationship with that individual or not. This is especially important when choosing a spouse, as that is the person that one is bound to spend most of his/her life with. A person capable of intimacy has to be willing to trust another and this is of great importance in any relationship. Their ability to trust makes them trustworthy in return, since one can never give what they don’t already have. A person having trust issues is to be avoided at all costs since they are unreliable. Intimate individuals are more likely to exhibit commitment and keep their word. Also, having a capacity for intimacy makes a person a better listener which is a boost for communication, a vital component of relationships. Good listening skills are also associated with high levels of intelligence. This trait is dependent on how an individual’s childhood was, that is, their relationship with first person that cared for them. Asking one’s partner about their childhood and where they grew up can help in gauging their capacity for intimacy.
Explain the difference and/or similarities between SELF-EFFICACY & SELF-WORTH
Self-efficacy is a personal belief in one’s ability to perform various tasks or face situations and develops as one learns new skills continuously. Self-worth on the other hand is a person’s opinion of their value, not based on what they have or can do, but out of the mere fact that they are human. The higher the value that one puts on self, the higher their self-worth and this translates to more satisfaction and happiness. The major difference between self-efficacy and self-worth is that the former is conditional, that is, dependent on one’s ability while the latter is unconditional. Their similarity majorly lies in the fact that having high levels of both leads to a happier and more satisfying life.
Narrative research is defined as the study of how different persons experience the world around them. This study entails a methodology whereby the researcher allows the persons to narrate the stories of their lives. To this end, the researcher and participant form a close relationship. An appropriate scenario where this type of research can be used is the study of how high school teachers deal with students who have drug problems. Forming close relationships with these teachers will make them more comfortable to narrate their experiences when dealing with such students.
Ethnographic research is defined as the study of cultural patterns and points of view of participants while in their natural settings. The main aim of this type of research is to analyze, describe as well as interpret the culture of a given group, over a certain time period, in terms of its shared beliefs, language and behavior. An appropriate scenario where this study can be used is the examination of factors that affect drug use amongst adolescents in high school. In this case, the school will be their natural setting.
Case study research is defined as a qualitative research approach whereby a researcher focuses on how a bounded system (such as a classroom, individual teachers, school, group of schools having similar demographics etc) reacts or was affected by an event. The researcher may want to seek responses to questions such as; what happened? How did it happen? Why did it happen? etc. An appropriate scenario: How do Central Office principals, personnel, teachers and other staff cope with multiple innovations?
Differences, Advantages and Disadvantages of these three Research Techniques
This mainly focuses on the life experiences of an individual. As a result, the researcher reconstructs life stories of participants, mostly in a chronological manner through a process called restorying. The context and place of the story is also considered. In addition, the question “what happens next” is the main motivation for the researcher. During the preparation of the final text, the researcher normally collaborates with his/her subjects.
In collecting data, a researcher uses various techniques such as examination of oral history, artifacts, storytelling, biographical and autobiographical writing, photographs and memory boxes. To collect all these data, the researcher and subject must build a close relationship. This is a significant advantage as it enables researchers and subjects to relate more closely, ensuring that the subject gives truthful information. However, it is subjective in the sense that the subjects have a say on what is to be written in the final text.
While narrative research focuses on an individual, ethnographic research focuses on a group of individuals. Here, the researcher collects data through real time interactions with the group, via his/her field experiences and through interviews. In many cases, the researcher studies only one social phenomenon within a historical and social context of the setting. In the same breath, the researcher’s aim is not to critique the phenomenon; rather, his/her main aim is to try and interpret it so that the subjects are not misunderstood.
Some of the advantages of this type of research are that it is objective, the researcher has no motivation to criticize the practices of the subjects, it focuses on one aspect only and it contextualizes the setting during interpretation. However, due to time constraints, it is usually not exhaustive. Findings of ethnographic research are dependent on what was observed during the data collection period. Therefore, if the study period was short, the findings would be inaccurate.
Case Study Research
Case study research can focus on either an individual or groups of individuals. This makes it different from the already discussed types of research. In addition, this type of research is not interested in examining the demographics of participants; rather, it is focused on analyzing how they reacted, or how they were affected, or their opinions about a particular event. Unlike the two researchers, case study research is done to find answers to pertinent issues. In this case also, forming close relationships with participants is not necessary.
Advantages of a conducting case study research are that it is objective, analytical and tries to look for solutions to social issues. This ensures that it adds onto the existing body of knowledge. However, since the subjects and researchers do not necessarily form close relationships, the data collection process can be cumbersome.
Definition of Terms
This is the use of several methods, data sources and data collection strategies with the purpose of getting a more compact and complete picture of the issue under study. This technique also helps in crosschecking information.
– This is a process whereby a researcher gathers information and stories, analyzes them to find the key elements
of the story and then rewrite it in a chronological sequence.
– This is a part
icipant who has little or no engagement in the activities happening in the ethnographic setting.
Heuristic- This is a type of case study that is used to
find answers to general issues
from single cases
. This is
through the study of a particular setting or case and, through induction or building block technique, identification of new variables, causal mechanisms, paths or hypotheses that w
ill build on the original case to find an interpretation that is generalizable to a general, mu
h larger case.
First Article Summary: Perceptions of Personnel at Selected Texas Community Colleges Regarding the Impact of Technology on Their Libraries by Sharon Kenan
Purpose of Study
Technology has permeated many facets of our lives, including the education system. It has also significantly affected the functioning, running and structures of school libraries. This case study research was aimed at examining the impact of technology on the organizational structure, physical structure, budget, services, personnel, education mission, collections and allocation of human resources in selected Texas community colleges. To achieve this, the researcher spent time in the selected libraries observing various activities and personnel, interviewing library personnel and going through library documents she could find. The overriding research question was: In what way has the adoption of technology by selected Texas Community Colleges libraries changed the library and the responsibilities of people working in the library?
Rephrased Research Sub-questions:
How has the implementation of technology affected the physical structure of libraries?
How has the implementation of technology affected the organizational structure of libraries?
How has the implementation of technology affected the services offered by libraries?
How has the implementation of technology affected the
of libraries to
meet its institution’s education mission?
How has the implementation of technology affected the operational budgets and capital of libraries?
How has the implementation of technology affected personnel working in libraries?
How has the implementation of technology affected human resource allocation in libraries?
How has the implementation of technology affected the collections of libraries?
Method for Collecting and Analyzing Data
This study followed the case study research design. Libraries of four selected Texas Community Colleges act as the bounded system while the event whose impact is to be examined is technology. Kenan conducted this study by herself. Before collecting data, she sought permission from relevant authorities to contact as many institutions as possible. When this was granted, she called on library directors to participate in the study by allowing her to visit their respective libraries, observe their functioning, conduct interviews on the director and four other personnel working in the library, gather public documents associated with technological impact on that particular library. In total, four highest ranked community colleges libraries (in terms of technology) were examined (Kenan, 2012).
Data was collected using one on one interviews with library and non-library personnel, on-site field notes from observations and public documents available at the libraries or reliable institutional websites. Data from the Texas Academic Library Survey was used to validly rank the level of technology at Texas Community Colleges libraries. To make sure that the data gathered was accurate, the researcher sent them to the four library doctors to approve or disprove them. Three of them concurred with the findings while the fourth one never replied. Through this information, was able to come up with tables of college demographics, technology items and budget data. From the observations and interviews, she was able to come up with the effects of technology on the library systems of the surveyed colleges. However, the tool that she used to analyze the data so that to come up with these findings is not mentioned (Kenan, 2012).
Results and Conclusion
Kenan found out that all the four college libraries have been affected by technology in one way or another in all the eight study areas. For instance, the organizational relations between IT and the libraries have changed considerably due to the technology adoption. However, the reporting structure in all the four colleges had more or less remained the same. Structural changes have seen the adoption of online databases in place of print subscriptions to databases. Moreover, all libraries have modern hardware and software that have made it possible for students to access multiple forms of technology. She also found that two of the colleges have instituted chat references that answer student questions in instant messaging format. Some have adopted the use of social media (Kenan, 2012).
Findings indicate that capital expenditures in all the four libraries have been limited despite the adoption. This has complicated funding of technology platforms. In addition, it has affected all aspects of colleges’ operational budgets. Technology implementation has also affected employees in libraries. For instance, qualifications for employment have changed, their responsibilities have evolved and their relationships with IT personnel have been much closer than before. However, budget constraints have meant that some employees lose their jobs since they have become redundant, a situation occasioned by extensive technology adoption. The researcher concludes that even with the advent of technology, the library still remains an important facet of the education system. This is supported by her interviewees’ perceptions that their libraries are playing a significant role in the achievement of the institution’s education mission. Therefore, colleges should be encouraged to make their libraries even more effective. She suggests that adoption of extensive technology is key to achieving the effectiveness (Kenan, 2012).
Second Article Summary: Closing the Gaps: Perceptions of Financial Aid Needs in Community Colleges by Virginia Murillo
Purpose of Study
The objective of this ethnographic research was to discover the points of view of eight financial directors with regards to financial aid needs of Texas Community Colleges within the Closing the Gaps context. The researcher believes that the data she collected would be useful in creating a political agenda which will lead to the creation of practices that foster feasible financial aid policies and frameworks as well as support resource needs of financial aid directors. The overriding research question for this study is: What are the acuities of eight financial aid directors with regards to the needs of Texas Community Colleges within the Closing the Gaps context? (Murillo, 2004)
Method of Collecting and Analyzing Data
This ethnographic study used three methods during the data collection process. These are one– on-one interviews with the seasoned eight financial aid directors, participant observations in their respective campus setting and examination of pertinent documents. The researcher purposefully chose the eight to match the large, urban and rural dynamics of Texas Community Colleges. The personalized interviews lasted between two and three hours and were conducted at the directors’ respective campuses. This setting allowed the researcher to consider the perceptions and dynamics unique to their respective campuses. In the same breath, the researcher was not overly interested in the directors’ responses; rather, she was interested in only their personal perceptions. To achieve this, she observed them immediately before, during and after the interviews (Murillo, 2004).
During the multiple–hours observations of the directors, the researcher paid special attention to the respective physical environment, social and human environment, specific activities, language use, non verbal communication and informal interactions. The researcher used these observations to either contradict or confirm their interview responses and data from pertinent documents. To make the research more objective, Murillo analyzed pertinent documents such as the enrollment projections report, school fact sheets (published by the Texas Guaranteed Student Loan Corporation in Austin), the 2003 Closing the Gaps progress report (regularly published by THECB) and mandatory individual institutional reports (Murillo, 2004).
During the data analysis, the researcher used the Miles and Huberman steps for qualitative data analysis. This analysis follows six main steps as follows:
Coding of notes from interviews, observations and documents.
Provision of personal reflections, interpretations and comments
Sorting of materials to identify identical themes, sequences and patterns.
Reviewing of the processes and patterns and crosschecking them against document reviews and observations.
Elaboration of cons
Formation of theories or constructs to
highlight consistent themes that reflect participant perceptions
Results and Conclusions
From the responses, the researcher identified five main themes. These are as follows:
There is a disconnect between actual practice and financial aid policy (there’s a disparity between laws regulating aid programs and their implementation).
There was a noteworthy nonexistence of financial aid strategies (there are no strategies to increase funding for qualified low income students).
There are deficiencies in Texas B-On Time Loan Program and TEXAS Grant (although the program was created to augment aid funding, state policymakers
came up with another loan program that is already heavily dependent on student loans, indicating policy
There are unfunded mandates (The Closing the Gaps initiative neglects needed resources at Texas Community Colleges financial aid offices, it ignores the annual increase in the number of students applying for financial aid).
There is an illusionary access for students that need aid desperately (in the past decade, financial policies have been geared towards serving middle income families as opposed to low income families).
In general, the researcher believes that there is a bleak future for Texas Community Colleges aid funding if there are no significant changes in funding policies. She has the following recommendations for policy makers: they should make aid to students from low income families the main purpose of student financial aid resources; they must redirect resources set aside for tax credits to financial aid programs; Texas should invest more in financial aid programs; they must create a financial aid system whereby students do not rely heavily on educational loans; lastly, they must improve in how they involve financial aid profession during policy development. She also recommends that financial aid administrators should embrace modern technology so as to increase efficiency, optimize packaging and offering of financial aid to needy students. In addition, they should also act outside the realm of financial aid office. Finally, for campus administrators, she recommends that they should establish effectual HR capacities for their respective financial aid offices (Murillo, 2004).
Kenan, S. K. (2012). Perceptions of Personnel at Selected Texas Community Colleges Regarding the Impact of Technology on Their Libraries. Educational Administration: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research. Paper 87.
Murillo, V. (2004). Closing the Gaps: Perceptions of Financial Aid Needs in Community Colleges. Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of The University of Texas at Austin.