Drunk Driving and How it Affects Society
The automobile is the main mode of transportation for people globally. The society each day depends on automobiles to transport them to and from various places. They provide people with ease of transportation and a large degree of personal freedom. Automobiles are usually safe to operate, but if a driver tries to operate the vehicle when he or she is drunk, the outcome is often deadly. According to Murray and Lopez (1996), driving involves a range of skills that can vary continually. A driver ought to maintain: attentiveness and the ability to react swiftly to hazards: have the skills to judge the distance and the speed: and see clearly. Certain drinking patterns can weaken a variety of the skills crucial for carefully driving a motor vehicle as well as raise crash risk. Driving which entails consumption of alcohol, that is, impaired driving is at times referred to as driving while impaired, or driving under the influence, or drunk driving. Though the terminology might vary, there is a general conformity that driving under the influence is the top primary causes of road traffic fatalities.
Blood alcohol concentration refers to the quantity of liquor to blood in one’s body. An individual’s blood alcohol concentration is determined by one’s rate of drinking as well as by the body’s absorption, supply, and alcohol metabolisation. When a person consumes alcohol, it passes from the tummy and intestines. The bloodstream then absorbs the alcohol. While it is circulating in the bloodstream, the alcohol dispenses itself uniformly all over in the body’s tissues and fluids.
According to Elisabeth (2013), it is very possible to gaugethe alcohol level of any person by testing the vapor in the breath, blood, urine, or saliva due to the fact that alcohol dispenses itself all through body fluids. a few seconds after the consumption of alcohol, the alcohol gets in contact with the liver. The liver then initiates the breaking down, or metabolizing of the alcohol. Any blood alcohol concentration measurement therefore reveals a person’s rate of drinking and in addition to that, his or her metabolism rate. The Blood alcohol concentration level in ones body escalates when an individual ingests more drinks before earlier metabolization of the earlier drinks. This is because the body of a human being absorbs alcohol faster than it metabolises alcohol (ICAP 1995).
The factors that influence an individual’s blood alcohol concentration when and after he or she is drinking a certain amount of alcohol include: gender, age, combining medications with alcohol and driving and whether food is consumed in the company of the alcoholic drinks. Even though individual rates can be different, on average, a one hundred and seventy pound man who consumes in an hour, four drinks when hungry, or a one hundred and thirty five pound woman who consumes three drinks in similar situations, would attain a zero point zero eight percent of blood alcohol concentration (NHTSA 2003).
Traffic deaths amongst the children and elderly people are less probable to be associated with alcohol than traffic deaths amongst young along with middle aged adults. Many young drivers are at elevated risk for taking part in traffic crashes the elderly drivers. The causes differ and include a general liking for risk-taking behavior for example speeding, the tendency to overrate their driving abilities, and the inadequate driving skills of young drivers (Ralph and Michael 2013). Moreover, young drivers who drink are to be expected to indulge in heavy and splurge drinking more than older drivers.
Certain medications combined with alcohol amplify crash risk. Tranquilizers and Sedatives alone can impair an individual’s driving skills and when combined with alcohol can impair them even more. For instance, a low dose of Flurazepam, which is a sedative-hypnotic approved for the curing insomnia, alone can mess up the ability of a driver to steer a vehicle (Murray 1996). The effect of this medication can be compounded with even a small dose of alcohol consumed the next morning. Other medications, for example codeine, prescribed to take care of fairly severe pain can also impair driving skills. Such medications’ unfavorable effects on driving skills are worsened when combined with alcohol, as are the effects of some most certain cardiovascular medications, antihistamines, some antipsychotic medications, and antidepressants.
Globally, usually men are more prone than women to be mixed up in alcohol associated fatal crashes. In 2002, seventy eight percent of people, comprisingof the drivers, pedestrians and passengers, murdered in alcoholrelated crashes were male. Fortysix percent of these male traffic deaths are associated with excessive consumption of alcohol, as compared to the twenty-nine percent of traffic deaths by the female. Research has shown that women metabolize alcohol in a different way from men, causing women to attain higher blood alcohol concentration at the same doses.
There are many consequences of drunk driving such as occurrence fatal accidents, hassling legalities, low self esteem and causing harm to others. One of the major consequences of driving drunk is an accident that can attest to be fatal. As soon as a person has had alcohol in his or her nervous system is suppressed by the alcohol, thus his reaction time is reduced to a great extent. As a result, the drunken person is not capable of controlling his or her vehicle, leading to a serious car crash. Some grave penalties are, once an individual is caught, his or her license is marked for the aforementioned crime. Attending various hassling court proceedings and legalities so as to get one’s license renewed becomes part of an individual’s activity. This can majorly affect the person’s name moreover cast a bad spell on his life as a professional. Several states have made it compulsory for the wrongdoer to get a formal Driving under the Influence education and clear a test to acquire back their licenses. Drivers who are arraigned with repeated driving under the Influence convictions must serve jail time and their civil rights, for instance, the right to vote may be taken away. Furthermore, the offender may be required to pay enormous fines (Public Health Service 2000)
Another person who has to bear the consequences, without any reason, is the pedestrian. Once a person is drunk, he or she loses control of their automobile, thus, they might end up knocking down a passer-by. The pedestrian may end up being hurt and can even pass away without being at fault. Hence, a drunk driver not only puts his or her own life in danger but also puts other people’s lives at risk as well. The emotional consequences of driving when drunk are that the drunk driver’s self-esteem might hit a low. Once he causes an accident, his family and friends, as well as the person himself may not be capable of trusting oneself again (Lopez 1996).
Public Health Service. (2000). Alcohol Alert: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and
Alcoholism, 31. Retrieved from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa31.htm
Elisabeth, E. (2013). Alcohol Use and Drunk Driving: The Modifying Effect of Impulsivity, 74.
Retrieved from http://www.jsad.com/jsad/article/Alcohol_Use_and_Drunk_Driving The_Modifying_Effect_of_Impulsivity/4779.html
International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP).(1995). Drinking and Driving, 15. Retrieved
Ralph, H. & Michael, W. (2013). Epidemiology and Consequences of Drinking and Driving, 12.
Retrieved from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh27-1/63-78.htm
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).(2003) Traffic Safety Facts 2002:
. Alcohol., 809606.Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation
Murray, C. J., & Lopez, A. D. (1996). The global burden of disease. Boston, MA: Harvard
School of Public Health.
DRUNK DRIVING AND HOW IT AFFECTS SOCIETY 2
Running head: DRUNK DRIVING AND HOW IT AFFECTS SOCIETY 1
Banning Smoking in all Public Places
A smoking boycott is an open strategy that incorporates health regulations and criminal laws that restrict smoking in workspaces and certain open places. There are differing meanings of smoking utilized in this enactment. The strict meaning characterize smoking as being the inward breath of any substance of tobacco while the loosest characterize smoking as holding any lit item of tobacco (Institute of Medicine 2012).
Currently, several countries have enacted a number of legislations that disallow individuals from smoking in all public locations to protect non-smokers who are prone to the negative effects of smoke. Non-smokers stand to have their health damaged by suffering from cancer and other illnesses. The laws focus only on protecting non-smokers, but fail to consider that tobacco results in dependency syndrome among its users. However, people across the globe continue to smoke despite the existence of numerous restrictions regarding tobacco use and their awareness of the harmful and poisonous effect of tobacco to their health.
Undoubtedly, many people advocate for banning cigarette smoking in public areas; however, there are those who oppose and support the idea (Haneline & Meeker 2011). Proponents of the idea argue that there is need to ban smoking in public places because of the risks it subjects the public to. They claim that second hand smoke is a hazard to non-smokers who are indirectly coerced into smoking. Taking America as an example, a fifth of all deaths are linked to tobacco smoking. Tobacco smoke leads to death because it damages lungs which are very essential in human respiration. In addition to causing cancer, it leads increased cases of asthma attacks. This may shorten the lives of the affected individuals. Second hand smoking also results in middle ear infection and instant death disorder.
There are numerous explanations why smoking boycott began, however the greater part of these have medicinal roots. Research has demonstrated used smoke is practically as destructive as smoking of and in itself. The impacts of used smoke are moderately the same as the real smoking. Lung infection, coronary illness, asthma and bronchitis are normal. The individuals who live in the same houses with individuals who smoke have higher danger of advancing lung disease than the individuals who do not live with smoking individuals (Institute of Medicine 2012). Numerous see it as out of line that others need to endure the impacts of used smoke when they are not fit to make the choice for introduction to it. Non-smokers who work with smokers encounter a high increment in the rate of lung cancer. Thus, the laborer has no decision yet to face presentation to the used smoke. However, Smoking bans uproot these dangers for numerous individuals. The institute of National Cancer and National Institutes of Human Health underpin smoking bans due to the facts of used smoke.
Additionally Smoking bans are infringed because they enhance air quality in hotels, restaurants and different foundations. For example, in the capital city of America, it is currently unlawful to smoke in all cordiality venues. Considers by the Center for Disease Control have demonstrated the quality of air in the US capital city foundations to be much higher than in New Jersey where they legalize smoking. Studies have likewise indicated workers are laid open to fewer poisons in territories where smoking is prohibitive in the work environment. For instance, in Norway, tests demonstrated a reduction in the level of nicotine of both nonsmokers and smoker when smoking boycotts were instituted in the working environment (Haneline & Meeker 2011).
In spite of the constructive impacts on air quality and health, numerous individuals are still contradicted to smoking bans. More often than not, individuals who contradict smoking bans view this law as a sample of the legislature meddling in individuals’ lives. They take a gander at the consequences for smokers, rather than on non-smokers who are affected by used smoke. Different experts accentuate the privileges of the property manager and draw differentiations between open places, for example government structures, and exclusive organizations, for example restaurants and stores (Haneline & Meeker 2011).
A few analysts of smoking bans accept that banning smoking in the work environment might cause smokers to move their smoking somewhere else. In place of smoking inside, specialists might start smoking out in the open parks and uncovering another set of individuals to their used smoke. Some have even contended that neighborhood bans on smoking can build DUI fatalities. The individuals who wish to light a cigar would be constrained to push further away. Smokers may as well stop smoking openly puts because it influences nature’s domain, grown-ups and kids’ health. In fact, Tobacco is among the main explanations for deaths on the planet. Smoking damages almost each organ of an individual’s body, making numerous ailments and influencing the wellbeing of smokers overall.
Breathing used smoke for nonsmokers has hurtful impacts on the cardiovascular frameworks that can build the danger for heart ambush. For instance, In America, as per the Centers for Disease [prevention and control], used smoke presentation makes many passing every twelve-months among grown-up nonsmokers because of lung cancer and coronary illness (Great 2005).
Kids are especially at danger since their insusceptible frameworks are not totally improved. Smokers might as well remember that, and they might as well attempt to abstain from smoking when kids are around. For instance, smokers ought not to be permitted to smoke in parks. Nevertheless, Parks should be a safe place for youngsters to play, but not a spot where they might be presented to get diseased simply because smokers like to fulfill their propensity publicly (Haneline & Meeker 2011).
As discussed above, it is evident that smoking results in addiction and numerous health issues. However, some people argue that it is within individuals’ rights, and they are free to choose whether to smoke or not. In this regard, the law protects such people from governments infringing on their rights and freedom. Even though smoking is perceived as a destructive habit and need to be banned, there are also other destructive habits such as gambling and drinking, which have not gained much attention from governments. For instance, in Colorado, Marijuana is legalized for recreational purposes, but tobacco smoking in public places is not allowed. Proponents also argue that banning tobacco smoking in public will have a significant economic impact on businesses. The closure of tobacco manufacturing industries will lead to loss of employment (Institute of Medicine 2012).
It is within the rights and freedom for an individual to act in a particular way including the decision to smoke tobacco. Despite the fact that a sound solution to health issues is provided through banning tobacco smoking in all public places, the most preferable method is taxing. Taxing will not infringe on the rights and freedoms of the smoker, but will increase tax receipts for smokers.
Surely, there is no danger free degree of exposure to used smoke; even a concise introduction could be hurtful to health. Differentiating nonsmokers from smokers, ventilating structures and cleaning the atmosphere do not kill used smoke presentation. Smokers ought not to be permitted to smoke publicly (Haneline & Meeker 2011).
Great Britain. (2005). Smoking in public places: First report of Session 2005-06. London: Stationery Office.
Haneline, M. T., & Meeker, W. C. (2011). Introduction to public health for chiropractors. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Institute of Medicine (U.S.). (2012). Scientific standards for studies on modified risk tobacco products. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
BANNING SMOKING IN ALL PUBLIC PLACES. 2
Running Head: BANNING SMOKING IN ALL PUBLIC PLACES. 1
Human Rights and Health: Health Impacts of Climate Change
Changeof Climate has recorded severe impact to public health in the country. Critically, many people in the nation have not realized the dangers posed by such changes in climate. The most susceptible persons have been the children, the elderly, and even the communities stricken by poverty lifestyle. Most of the leading global public health organizations have concluded that climate change is one of the detrimental circumstances that pose a big threat to human lifestyle, health and general well-being. Moreover, climate change can be a source of entry of pathogens and other germs in to the bodies of individuals in different communities. In addition, during solar radiation emissions, the landmasses heat and expand causing tides and thus floods.
Question 1: Direct Health Impacts: Changing Patterns of Disease & Mortality
Changes due to seasons have caused a great threat to public health than effects cigarette smoking. Increased of greenhouse gases in the space has subsequently caused global warming, which is accompanied with a more intense heat radiation. As a result, variation in temperature has intensely increased air pollution has also gone up among others. The climatic changes have greatly increased chances of patients acquiring more infections and thus many diseases. It has been realized that may illnesses like asthma and COPD, including other severe lung diseases.
Most physicians have a significant role in handling climate change in general in the manner they handled tobacco, through communicating how climate change is a serious, but remediable, hazard to their sick patients.
Basically, health entails physical, communal and mental welfare since a healthy population is a principal objective of sustainable growth development in the nation. The manner in which human beings are predisposed to climate change is by means of the changing weather patterns. For instant, penetrating and frequent extreme events and indirectly going though changes in water and infrastructure in general.
The rising and falling sea levels and progressively severe weather patterns are chances that may destroy homes, health facilities and other crucial services in the nation. Greater than fifty percent of the world’s total populace lives within sixty kilometers of the sea level. Many people may be enforced to relocate from their homes, which in turn intensify the risk of a variety of health special effects, from mental complaints to transmissible diseases.
Reports concerning outbreak of flood-associated infections of leptospirosis have shown that health risks are too high. The scattering and spread of schistosomiasis may be influenced by climatic factors. This is because the water-borne parasitic disease is transmitted by marine snails as middle hosts. The nation of Brazil has an extended length of the dry season and human populace density formed part of the most significant factors limiting schistosomiasis spreading and profusion.
Most water-borne diseases are robustly influenced by climatic conditions, the insects which transmit infections, and other poikilothermic animals. Alternations in climatic factors and those serve to change their geographic range. For instance, change of climate is predictable to broaden meaningfully the region of China in which the snail-borne disease outbreak of schistosomiasis occurs.
Diseases like Malaria are strongly predisposed by changes in climate. Specifically, malaria is transmitted by Female Anopheles mosquitoes that have served as source of death to about one million people every year. A majority casualties are African children mpost of whom are still aged below five years. Many strategies and separate choices have the possible factors of minimizing greenhouse gas releases and produce main health co-profits. For instance, encouraging the safe use of public transportation network systems and active drive like cycling and walking minimizes the pollution rates. These have served as substitutes to using reserved vehicles and could possibly reduce carbon dioxide emissions and increase health.
Occupational health and offering environmental protection methods can be equally strengthening. The lessening of environmental pollution due to green expertise may also increase the feature and worth of the labor environment. Contrariwise, certain procedures that recover the work environment, like encapsulation techniques, automatization methods, and replacement of dangerous materials, would also progress the environmental enactment of the initiative. For instance, changing vehicles in underground mines from one form of energy to another like fossil fuels to electricity may be relevant. It also includes low-emission biofuels and fuel cells may increase the quality of the air and level of productivity. Considerable worker health co-profits may be fashioned by improved and impartial access to electricity. This energy which is in form of electricity is normally produced from natural sources of energy that can be renewed, as well as from other clean sources such as solar, water and wind energy. Electricity consents for increased brightness of workplaces, resulting to immensely ergonomic gains in luxury, health care services and productivity levels.
Question 2: Indirect Health Impacts: Changing Patterns of Water
Most climate change associated modifications in rainfall, surface runoff water obtainability and water worth could affect the load of water- connected diseases. Water-connected diseases can be categorized by means of spread, thus differentiating between water-borne and water-lapped diseases majorly caused by lack of proper hygienic conditions.
Some four focal attentions are supposed to be taken into considerations when evaluating the relationship between health impacts and revelation to changes in rainfall, accessibility of clean water, and quality of the rains. Moreover, associations between water accessibility, family access to better water supply and the health afflictions comes as a result of diarrheal diseases. The role of extreme rainfall is normally to control an intense rainfall or severe drought in simplifying and combating the effects of water-borne outbreaks of diseases (Confalonieri et al 395).
More than two billion persons live in the dry areas of the world and suffer excessively from undernourishment, high rates of infant mortality and diseases associated with dirty or scarce water supply. An inconsequential and untold amount of this burden can be accredited to climate inconsistency or climate excesses. The overall impact of water scarcity on food supply and availability and malnourishment leads to poor health conditions. However, the impact of rainfall on outbreaks of mosquito-borne and rodent- borne disease also contribute to diseases outbreaks and finally deaths occur.
High prevalent of childhood mortality rates have been realized as a result of diarrhea in low-income countries. This has majorly occurred in sub-Saharan Africa and it still stands tall despite developments in care and the usage of oral rehydration therapy amongst the patients. Many children may endure the acute disease but may ultimately die as a result of insistent diarrhea or malnourishment. The children in poor rural and urban slum expanses are at high risk of diarrheal disease mortality and indisposition. Some studies have revealed that broadcast of enteric pathogens is higher throughout the rainy seasons. Drainage and storm water controlling is significant in low-revenue urban societies, as blocked drains are one of the causes of alleviated disease spread.
Extreme changes in climate results to both physical and decision-making stresses on water supply organizations, even though well-accomplished public water supply systems ought to be able to cope with climate immoderations. Discounts in rain lead to low river flows, minimizing seepage dilution and resulting to amplified pathogen loading processes. As a result, tis could represent an advanced encounter to water-treatment systems. In the course of the dry summers, low movements of rivers were realized in the Netherlands that occasioned in deceptive changes in water worth.
Even though there is an indication that the bimodal periodic form of cholera outbreak in Bangladesh, the nation is associated with sea-outward temperatures in the Bay of Bengal and with cyclical plankton lavishness. However, this is a likely environmental tank of the cholera pathogen germs. In many nations, cholera transmission is principally related to poor sanitation and improper hygiene. The adverse effects of sea-surface temperatures in cholera spread have been most researched in the Bay of Bengal (Confalonieri et al 402).
Question 3: Indirect impacts: Food Insecurity
The food price calamity that occurred in the year 2008 has occasioned the re-advent of considerations regarding international food security and its consequence on forecasts for having the accomplishment of the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG). This was predominantly aimed at ending poverty and hunger. Covering a number of shorter-term activates important prospectus to volatile food prices, the longer-term negative impacts of climate change need to be taken very seriously (Ludi 4).
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) cautions that the development in human growth realized over the last decade may be decelerated or rather upturned by climate change. This follows the emergence of new threats that may harm water and food security. In addition, agricultural productivity, access, and food nutrition contributes to the sustenance of public health. The impressions of climate change sea level rise, famines, heat surfs, floods and precipitation dissimilarity. In projection, this would drive an additional six hundred million people to malnourishment and trebble the individuals facing water scarcity by the year 2070.
Agriculture makes the pillar of most African markets and forms the principal supplier to Gross Domestic Product. This forms one of the biggest providers of foreign exchange to the nation, accounting for about forty percent of the continent’s foreign currency incomes. Moreover, it forms part of the main producer of savings and tax revenues to the civil government. Furthermore, about two-thirds of industrial value-added is dependent on agricultural raw materials for their manufacturing processes. As a result, agriculture remains critical for pro-poor economic development in most African countries. In actual figures, rural areas can support about seventy to eighty percent of the total population, considering the entire populaces (Ludi 7). Over and above in any other sector, developments in agricultural productivity have the capability of increasing rural profits and procuring power for large groups of people to emancipate them from poverty stricken lifestyle.
Food security can be better defined as a condition or situation where all people times have physical, communal and financial access to satisfactory lifestyle. It mainly concerns the consumption of safe and nourishing food that measures up to their nutritional needs. It also takes care of the food preferences for a lively and in the glowing lifetime. Food security is broadly demarcated as whether food is obtainable, but even though the economic and non-economic possessions at the expense of the population. This becomes sufficient enough to allow everybody entrance to use satisfactory measures and potentials of food. All scopes of food security are probable to be impacted by climate change. Several changes to sales, marketing and trade flows help in policy making to safeguard on the food production. Water-connected adaptation plans will also distress the livestock farming, as a sub-sector of the economy.
Adaptation plans include better-quality rotation of pastures, alteration of times of grazing plans, shifting animal species and breeds periodically, incorporation of the crop and livestock systems, among others. In addition, the use of modified forage crops, and provisions of satisfactory water supplies also contributes to the adaptation process. Land operators and rural societies already adapt separately their land administration practices to a many political, economic, social, ecological and climatic variations. On the basis of professed or real changes in climate, they will endure to do so for the development of the sectors of economy
A number of adaptation opportunities available in agriculture experience a dilemma in production. Cumulative water obtainability and growing the dependability of water in agriculture forms one of the favored options to increase productivity. Nonetheless, because of the foretold climate change, arid and tropical areas that would importantly gain advantage from improved irrigation measures. This may in turn see water availability changing gradually and spatially and precipitation not only deteriorating, but also existing like a more erratic and unfavorably disseminated growing season. Lastly, the irrigation in the long term may ultimately not be a feasible option (Ludi 7).
Question 4: Food and Water Insecurity: Technological Responses
Ensuring the right and guarantee to get proper food necessitates that the chances that either to feed someone directly from prolific land or other natural raw materials, or to buy food. This means that when ensuring that food is available, accessible and enough to feed the target populace without any inadequacies. Availability also means that there must be sufficient food available in the market to meet the demands of the consumers. However, accessibility of resources requires both physical and economic access to be considered. The physical accessibility of resources means that food ought to be available to all people, including the physically vulnerable such as inderprivileged children, older people or persons with physical impairments.
Adequacy of resources necessitates that food filfls dietary needs to satisfaction. This makes food be safe for human consumption, free of poisonous chemical substances and acceptable by culture. Relative participation of food-insecure groups in the design and implementation of the stratrgies that mainly influence them is also a key perspective of the correct to food (Ludi 9).
Abundance anf availability of an issue at the household phase, and hunger today is majorly attributable to poverty. This has caused an increasing amount of the incomes of the poorest being the best way to combat it.
Cross-country associations normally show that Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth emanatimg in agriculture sector is at least twice as profuctive in reducing poverty as GDP growth starting with the outside agriculture. However, certain types of investments are more effective as compared to others in accomplishing that important objective. The multiplier effects are relatively higher when growth is caused by higher returns for smallholders, causimg a higher demand for goods and services from local retailers and other service-providers. Whenever large estates upsurges their tax, most of it is spent on imported farm tools an equipment and very little of the total benefits gets to the hands of local retailers.
The event of floods is also accumulative in regularity and concentration. Floods pollute freshwater deliveries from the sources, intensify the risk of water-borne infections, and fashion breeding places for disease-carrying vectors like mosquitoes. However, they also cause drowning and physical harms, damage families and disturb the source of health and health care services. Enough evidence has been availed to affirm that diseases communicated by rodents occasionally increase throughout heavy precipitation and massive flooding due to the altered forms of getting into contact with human and pathogenic rodent.
The stand and decision taken by the Non Goverrntal Organizations and other global organisations in an aim to support traditional agriculture based technological developments. As a result of these advancements in technologies, the World Health Organization (WHO) will be unable to deliver the food for the fast growing population of the continent of Africa. However, human suffering due to poor health conditions and scarcity of food within that continent is majorly facilitated by the Western culture. Besides the cultural lifestyle, their cultutal attitudes also facilitated the to counter the technological inventions. At least, today we have realized the benefits of applying technology in feeding the entire population of the whole world (Ludi 11).
Today, International Agencies are mandated to immediately gove a quick report to the USAID body. In its capacity, the local USAID mission receives governments directives making inquories about the Genetically Modified (GM) content of food shipments. The agency promises to take action that has been understood by African officials. This is mainly to be presented by the sanctions of various dimension extending the terms and conditions of lending money by the global multilateral agencies. The main examples of multilateral agencies include the World Bank and IMF.
Bernstein, Aaron & Mary Rice. Lungs in a Warming World. Chest journal on Climate Change and Respiratory Health 143 (2013): 1455-1459.
Confalonieri et al. Human health. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 27 (2009) 391-431.
Ludi, Eva. Climate Change, water and food security. Rugby: Practical Action Publishing, 2009.
Quarantine involves restraining human beings that have contracted a disease from contacting other people until the threat of spreading the disease is eliminated. This kind of separation may involve those who have already contracted a disease and those who are at a high risk of contracting the disease. Quarantine dates back to the ancients when ships were restrained from entering into ports with a high threat of an epidemic disease. Quarantine was practiced in the 20th century but in the 21st century, it became a public health issue. Public health authorities began to embrace quarantines as an effective way of protecting the health of citizens. Quarantine laws have been established and developed in many states as a way of controlling communicable diseases. Some of the issues that have been raised concerning quarantine laws include respecting the rights of individuals. Restricting movement for any individual interferes with his or her personal rights (Riegelman, 2009, p. 74; Scutchfield &Keck, 2003, p. 73)
The contentions between individual’s rights and the need to control the spread of diseases may restrict the use of quarantine in future as a public health strategy. The introduction of antibiotics and immunization against diseases reduced the use of quarantine as a public health measure. This is because antibiotics could cure some diseases that required quarantines and immunization enabled individuals to develop resistance against the diseases as well. However, the measure was still in use for carriers of recalcitrant tuberculosis especially for alcoholics and the homeless. The homeless are at a greater risk of contracting and spreading airborne diseases such as tuberculosis. Government policies were later developed to restrict the isolation of individuals. Consequently, there was increased spread of diseases from disease carriers to health care providers and the public as well (Scutchfield &Keck, 2003, p. 73). This paper examines tuberculosis quarantine to determine if it is an effective method of controlling the spread of the disease. The paper will also outline some measures through which governments and public health authorities can implement quarantines more effectively.
Quarantines for patients suffering from tuberculosis began in the 19th century but the sanitariums isolated patients on voluntary basis. Individuals had freedom to choose whether to be admitted in the sanitariums or remain at home. Sometimes pressure from the community and family members forced tuberculosis patients to seek admission in sanitariums. Some communities excommunicated any person suffering from a disease that was highly communicable and incurable. Tuberculosis quarantine laws existed and were implemented occasionally to allow the quarantine of carriers of tuberculosis and other communicable diseases such as typhoid. The current laws clarify the rights of individuals that quality for compulsory quarantine. Such individuals have due-process rights. A state must prove that isolation is necessary for persons suffering from tuberculosis or those at a high risk of contracting tuberculosis. Patients have a right to be heard by an independent decision maker concerning their opinion on the intended isolation and the state must prove that individuals are a threat to others. Courts maintain that quarantine should be the last option of improving public health (Riegelman, 2009, p. 74).
The government should not rely on involuntary detention of patients to control the spread of any disease. However, restricting the use of quarantines to control the spread of a disease could have adverse effects in country. The restrictions on isolating disease carriers in the 20th century led to increased spread of communicable diseases including tuberculosis. The advances in the manufacture of drugs that could treat communicable diseases contributed to reduced quarantines. Drugs to cure tuberculosis were developed as well and this reduced its popularity as a deadly disease. However, tuberculosis re-emerged in the early 1990s and this kind of tuberculosis was drug-resistant. This re-emergence put public health agencies at task. The agencies were facing an incurable disease without any legal powers to control it through quarantines. The powers had been abolished in the 1980s and thus the public health authorities had no power to isolate tuberculosis patients from their families and communities (Scutchfield & Keck, 2003, p. 73).
Public health authorities had to negotiate with legislators to restore their legal powers to implement isolation of disease carriers. Some legislators heeded to their call and many states restored the legal authority of public health agencies to isolate individuals that are considered as a threat to public health. However, some states were unwilling to restore such laws but instead added more hurdles to isolation of individuals. Such decisions by state governments limit public health authorities in their efforts to control communicable diseases (Scutchfield &Keck, 2003, p. 73). An epidemic is shaped by different impulses, which include avoiding the ill persons, negotiations among experts on how to deal with the contagious disease, and the complex economic, political, and social issues that follow.
These issues will either guide a community on how to deal with the epidemic or obstruct the community from dealing with the disease. Ethnicity and community perceptions of individuals that develop control measures determine how a community deals with a contagious disease.
In many cases, communities respond to contagious diseases by isolation and quarantine of the infected individuals as they search for the cure. Quarantines grew in popularity with international trade that forced individuals to travel from one country to another. They were used to restrict individuals travelling some epidemic areas from entering into other countries. Quarantines have different meanings to individuals and society. As a result, their introduction raises numerous social, religious, ethical, and political issues in a country. Any attempts to amend quarantine laws to allow isolation of individuals are followed by sharp criticism from different social groups. Sometimes social groups and experts resist quarantine if they do not consider the outbreak of a disease to be catastrophic (Fidler, Gostin, & Markel, 2007, p. 616).
One of the arguments against quarantine is that individuals lose economically during the detention period. Individuals cannot engage in any meaningful economic activities in a sanitarium. They may also face stigma from the community because the community is aware of their disease. Another shortcoming of quarantines is that individuals’ bodily integrity is compromised as they are expected to take in compulsory treatment during detention. To avoid these negative effects, state and federal governments have established laws that govern quarantine and isolation. An individual is only allowed to go through quarantine if they are suffering from or have been exposed to an infectious disease. The detention of such an individual should be in a safe and habitable environment. In addition, there should be any form of discrimination of individuals. The implementation of quarantine laws should apply to all infected individuals (Fidler, Gostin, & Markel, 2007, p. 622).
The Effectiveness of Tuberculosis Quarantine
Runzheimer and Larsen (2010, p.105) indicate that quarantines are effective strategies of controlling contagious diseases. These strategies have used been successfully in the 1940s and in the 1990s to control the spread of tuberculosis. In New York, 200 tuberculosis patients were isolated in the 1990s as a way of controlling the spread of the prevailing drug-resistant tuberculosis. The authors argue that strategies of implementing quarantines determine their effectiveness in controlling contagious diseases. Public health authorities must consider the how contagious and treatable a disease is before making decisions of implementing quarantines. Such decisions should also be based on how easy or hard it is to diagnose the disease. Quarantine may lead to stigmatization of patients if its not wrong implementation strategies are used. Consequently, individual may refuse to seek treatment when sick to avoid isolation.
Quarantines must be conducted in an equitable and fair manner to be effective. Such an approach ensures that quarantined patients remain anonymous and the public cannot easily point out tuberculosis patients. Quarantines should only be used in case emergencies. Tuberculosis quarantines have been useful before in different states to control the contagious form of tuberculosis. One major challenge in using such quarantines is differentiating patients with contagious tuberculosis from those with non-contagious tuberculosis. The transmission of tuberculosis to health care providers is still a serious problem. This is because the healthy individuals contract the type of tuberculosis that is impossible to cure while their patients recover. Richards and Rathbun (1999, p. 320) suggest that this problem can only be eliminated by isolating patients suffering from infectious tuberculosis.
Quarantines are effective for drug-sensitive tuberculosis that lasts for short periods. However, this method of controlling tuberculosis spread is inappropriate for drug-resistant tuberculosis patients. Such quarantines have to last up to the end of the patient’s life to be effective. Isolation for a lifetime is stigmatizing and unethical as it interferes with the patient’s rights. Richards and Rathbun (1999, p. 320) argue that the greatest problem with quarantines is not violation of rights but logistics of implementing the quarantine. Public health authorities face the challenge of establishing sanitariums of hosting infected patients. Patients will not agree easily to their homes to live in such seclusion. In addition, many hospitals are unwilling to admit patients with isolation requirements. This means that even when quarantine is necessary and legal, public health authorities may not implement it especially when a disease is wide spread.
Fidler, Gostin, and Markel (2007, p. 616) critically examine the use isolation and quarantine to curb drug-resistant tuberculosis. The authors indicate that implementing quarantine powers in a country have a positive impact of dealing with a specific outbreak or the spread of a disease in a certain region. However, implementing such powers result in ethical and legal issues towards public health authorities and governments that support quarantines. Public debates on ethical principles behind quarantines reflect the social and political attitudes towards this method of controlling tuberculosis. Quarantines involve imposing public authority on individuals. This creates tensions between protecting public health and respect the dignity of individuals.
Gensini, Yacoub, and Conti (2004, p. 257) argue that despite the ethical, social, and political issues associated with quarantines, they are an effective way of dealing with epidemics. Public health authorities can achieve their goal of controlling a disease by implementing the correct quarantine procedures. Such procedures should be tailored to fit the specific conditions in a geographical region and the characteristics of the disease in question. Tuberculosis is easily spread from one person to another. Quarantines restrict patients from spreading it to uninfected people until the medical practitioners avert the risk.
Day et al. (2006, p. 479) examined the conditions under which quarantines are useful in controlling infectious diseases. The authors argue that isolation is more acceptable in society compared to quarantines. However, isolation does not always control the spread on an emerging infectious disease. In some cases, the disease reproduction occurs even with isolations measures in place. When the disease reproduction number is large in spite of isolation measures, quarantines become the best and most appropriate way of controlling such a disease. Even with the large reproduction number, public health authorities must proof that the proportion of infections that an infected person can spread can be controlled through quarantine. Another condition under which quarantine can be used is when the probability of placing an asymptomatic infected person into quarantine before developing symptoms is large. This means that the health officials must proof that they have the capacity to identify asymptomatic individuals in the community and place them in quarantines before they develop symptoms of the infectious disease.
Identifying asymptomatic infected persons maybe be a challenge to public health authorities especially when an infectious disease is spreading very fast. In this case, the authorities will focus their efforts on treating the patients. Thus, the public health authorities are likely to place patients in quarantines after they have developed all the symptoms of the infectious disease. Day et al. (2006, p. 479) continue to indicate that for quarantine to be effective in controlling an infectious disease, public health official must ensure that quarantine protocol is observed throughout. Consequently, the number of infections that are generated by individuals in quarantine will be small. This implies that if quarantine procedures are not carefully observed, a large number of infections will be generated in quarantines. This will create more challenges for public health officials and constrain the resource available to deal with an emerging infectious disease.
Quarantines can be used to improve the effectiveness of isolation measures for symptomatic individuals. This is because all the asymptomatic individuals are identified and placed in quarantine. Public health officials can then isolate symptomatic persons. However, using quarantine to enhance isolation is only effective if public health official have the capacity to identity and place asymptomatic persons in quarantine before they develop the symptoms of a disease. If there is a delay in identifying asymptomatic persons, more individuals will require isolation. Delays in isolation could in turn reduce its effectiveness as a control measure for infectious diseases. One way that public health officials can enhance the effectiveness of quarantines is to eliminate asymptomatic infected persons from quarantines. Such individuals can be instructed to report any symptoms that may arise to a hospital. They can then be isolated when symptoms manifest. This initiative will ensure that resources available are utilized to treat infected and symptomatic individuals only (Day et al., 2006, p. 479).
Day et al. (2006, p. 479) indicate that the asymptomatic period influences the effectiveness of quarantines as a control measure. If the asymptomatic period is too long, then the quarantine period will be long as well. Long quarantine periods are difficult to implement especially if the number of infected individuals is large. Reis (n. d., p.3) analyses the global severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003 where quarantines were part of the control measures. In Ontario alone, tens of thousands were quarantined including high school students. Health workers were instructed to travel from home to work directly with no contact with the public. The health workers had to separate from their family members as well.
During this outbreak, quarantines were implemented in different parts of the world. In some countries, quarantines were voluntary and the public was willing to comply with the quarantine measures. However, in some regions such as Hong Kong and Singapore, quarantines were mandatory. Singapore monitored the movements of peoples through surveillance cameras and other monitoring devices. China punished individuals that breached quarantine orders. Some faced penalties while some were imprisoned (Reis n. d., p.3). Stockman and Parashar (2004, p. 1) conclude that quarantines and isolations during this SARS epidemic proved to be an effective measure of controlling its spread from one regions to another. Although the measures disrupted individuals’ lives and their daily operations, governments managed to contain the spread SARS through quarantines. If quarantines worked to control a global epidemic, then countries can use the same measure to control an internal outbreak of an infectious disease such as tuberculosis. However, the government must be directly involved to ensure that quarantine orders and procedures are followed.
Governments and public health officials can learn several lessons on quarantines from the 2003 SARS epidemic. Any quarantine implemented in a country must be guided by ethics to be effective. An ethical approach to quarantines will ensure that public health authorities balance between their interest to protect the health of citizens and community interests in protecting the liberty of infected individuals.
For quarantines to be effective, public health officials must develop clearly defined goals and purpose of implementing the control measure. The health officials should then analyze the effectiveness of quarantines in meeting those goals (Reis n. d., p.4). This implies that if public health authorities intend to control the spread of an infectious disease like tuberculosis, they must analyze the current situation and define their goals. The goals in this case would include separating the infected individuals from the healthy population. The next step would be analyzing the effectiveness of quarantines in meeting those goals. This is because quarantines are not always the ideal method of controlling an infectious disease. Sometimes isolation is preferred to quarantine due to the social and ethical issues associated with quarantines.
The next thing that public health officials should consider before implementing quarantines is the impact of the measure on the infected individuals. Public health officials must identify the burdens that quarantines place on individuals and their families. Quarantines limit an individual’s freedom to move and are associated with psychosocial burdens. Quarantined individuals are separated from the outside world and their livelihood is affected as well. Such individuals deserve appropriate compensation for being restricted from earning their livelihood. These and other burdens must be considered before deciding on quarantine as the best way of dealing with a communicable disease. For instance, quarantines may be inappropriate when the number of infected people is large and the government does not have enough financial resources to compensate the quarantined individuals (Reis n. d., p.4).
Public health officials should also consider whether it is possible to minimize the burdens that quarantines place on individuals. If restrictions are minimized, quarantines are likely to withstand any legal challenges that may lead cause them to be abolished. Thus, public health officials should weigh the restrictions to reduce burdens on individuals and at the same time maintain the efficacy of quarantines. Minimizing the burdens on individuals would also reduce ethical issues raised by communities on rights of individuals and encourage infected individuals to participate in quarantines voluntarily. Discrimination during quarantines is a major source of opposition and criticism to their future implementations. Communities have witnessed discrimination in the past when specific groups face unjustified isolation. In the past, quarantines have been implemented unfairly on the basis of fear and prejudice. This has resulted in contentions including legal procedures in an attempt to stop public health officials from implementing quarantines (Reis n. d., p.4).
Public health officials must ensure that quarantines are fairly implemented and free from discrimination. This means that although quarantines might be the only appropriate way of controlling a communicable disease like tuberculosis, communities can manage to restrict public health officials from implementing them if they are discriminatory. Infected individuals have a right to defend themselves in court and avoid quarantine. If discrimination is involved, communities and individuals will have a stronger case against public health authorities. Quarantine is only effective and necessary if its benefits are more than the burdens placed on quarantined individuals. Such analysis of benefits and burdens must be conducted prior to implementing quarantines (Reis n. d., p.4).
Bensimon (2007, p. 44) argues that decisions on whether to implement quarantines to control an infectious disease cannot be based on scientific notions of effectiveness alone. Scientific measures do not capture all the uncertainties associated with quarantines. Decision on quarantines should be evidence-based. Evidence-based decisions on quarantines will ensure that quarantines are justifiable and the process of their implementation is well planned. Democracy in society demands that health officials look beyond scientific justifications of quarantines and provide evidence that such a measure will be effective in controlling the spread over a disease. In history, public health authorities have implementing restrictive measures without giving the public any information or evidence on the effectiveness of such measures. Consequently, individuals and communities have challenged such decisions in court and in some cases proposed quarantines are proved to be unjustifiable.
Bensimon (2007, p. 44) indicates that public health officials should take into account preferences of individuals, commitment to cultural values and ethics, and nontechnical aspects of quarantines when making decisions on the implementation. Past experiences of communities and individuals should guide health workers when making quarantine related decisions. For instance, if individuals and communities have had bad experiences with quarantines in the past, they are likely to be unwilling to voluntarily participate in future quarantines. Forcing such individuals to participate in quarantines could discourage people from seeking treatment even when the symptoms of an infectious disease are evident. Consequently, the implemented quarantine will not be effective in controlling the spread of a disease. If the evidence used to make quarantine decisions indicates that past quarantines were conducted in a fair and ethical manner, individuals will cooperate with health officials when implementing quarantines.
Bensimon’s point of view implies that public health authorities must provide evidence that quarantines are effective in controlling a disease and that they will conduct proposed quarantines ethically. This may be a challenge in regions or countries that have never implemented such restrictive measures before. For instance, if a country faces a tuberculosis outbreak for the first time, public health officials in that country might not have evidence that quarantines will help in reducing its spread. However, where there is no past evidence to back up quarantines decisions for a certain disease, the effectiveness of using this measure on controlling another disease can be used as evidence. Public health officials can also demonstrate their preparedness to handle quarantines effectively to encourage the public to support their decisions. Bensimon’s point of view also implies that how public health officials conduct quarantines today will determine the possibility of using the same measure to control future disease outbreaks. The experiences of individuals and communities in current quarantines will influence support and compliance with quarantine orders in future.
Quarantines are effective in controlling the spread of a communicable disease such as tuberculosis. However, the effectiveness of quarantines in controlling such a disease largely depends on the implementation strategies adopted by public health officials. Public health officials should consider the existing quarantine laws in a state. Such laws vary across state and specify the procedures that should be used when conducting quarantines. In most cases health public authorities are obliged to justify their use of quarantine. Infected individuals have rights to resist quarantine measures and thus, public health officials should consider such rights when designing quarantine procedures (Riegelman, 2009, p. 74). Public health should consider the characteristics of a disease when deciding on strategies of implementing quarantines. For instance, they should consider how easy or hard it is to diagnose and treat the disease as well as how fast the disease spreads (Runzheimer & Larsen, 2010, p.105).
With the current medical technology and expertise, tuberculosis is easy to diagnose. However, the disease spreads fast and the drug-resistant tuberculosis is hard to contain. In such cases, strict restrictive measures are required to control its spread. Quarantines should only be used in cases of emergence and should be conducted in a fair and equitable manner. This means that there should be no discrimination when implementing quarantines. Quarantines should be used when disease reproduction number is large and when isolation is ineffective. Outlined quarantine procedures should be followed throughout the quarantine process. The involvement of the government is important in ensuring that individuals comply with quarantine orders (Day et al., 2006, p. 479; Reis n. d., p.4).
Quarantine implementation strategies must be guided by ethics. Some of the factors that public health official should consider before implementing quarantines include goals and purpose of a control measure and the effectiveness of quarantines in meeting those goals. The health officials must also consider the burdens on individuals and how such burdens can be reduced. The benefits of quarantine should higher than the resultant burdens on individuals. Decisions on implementing quarantine to control tuberculosis should be evidence-based (Reis n. d., p.4; Bensimon, 2007, p. 44).
Quarantines involve restraining individuals infected with a contagious disease or those who are at high risk of contracting the disease from interacting with other people. This method of controlling contagious diseases has been used since the 20th century. Individuals can voluntarily participate in quarantines or public health authorities can impose quarantine orders on individuals. Quarantines raise social, economic and ethical issues in society. This is because they involve contentions between protecting public health and protecting the rights of infected individuals. Quarantines have been used in many countries to control the spread of tuberculosis. They are appropriate for the drug-sensitive form of tuberculosis. The introduction of drugs and immunization reduced the use of quarantines in controlling tuberculosis. However, public health officials began to use quarantines with the emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis in the 1990s.
The implementation strategies of quarantines influence their effectiveness in controlling the spread of tuberculosis. The implementation strategies should be fair, equitable and free from any form of discrimination. Public health officials should develop quarantine procedures based on the current situation of a communicable disease. The health official should also consider the impact of quarantines on individuals and how such impact can be reduced. Quarantined individuals are separated from the outside world and lose their daily livelihood. Their freedom of movement is violated as well. Quarantine procedures should result in larger benefits to individuals and communities relative to the burdens placed on individuals. Quarantines should only be used in cases of emergence and with evidence that they are the most appropriate way of controlling the spread on an emerging communicable disease. Evidence from the 2003 global SARS indicates that quarantines and isolation are effective in controlling infectious diseases if the correct implementation strategies are adopted.
Bensimon, C, M. (2007). Evidence and Effectiveness in Decision-making for Quarantine. American Journal of Public Health, 97(1), 44-48
Day, T., Park, A., Madras, N., Gumel, A., & Wu, J. (2006). When is Quarantine a Useful Control Strategy for Emerging Infectious Diseases? American Journal of Epidemiology, 163(5), 479-485
Fidler, D, P., Gostin, L, O., & Markel, H. (2007). Through the Quarantine Looking Glass: Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Public Health Governance, Law, and Ethics. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 35(4), 616-628
Gensini, G, F., Yacoub, M, H., & Conti, A, A. (2004). The Concept of Quarantine in History: From Plague to SARS. Journal of Infection, 49, 257-261
Richards, E, P., Rathbun, K, C. Medical Care Law. Sudbury: Jones & Barlett Learning
Riegelman, R, K. (2009). Public Health 101: Healthy People-Healthy Populations. Sudbury: Jones & Barlett Learning
Ries, N, M. (n.d.). Public Health Law and Ethics: Lessons from SARS and Quarantine. Health Law Review, 13(1), 3-6
Runzheimer, J., & Larsen, L. (2010). Medical Ethics for Dummies. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons
Scutchfield, D, F., & Keck, C, W. (2003). Principles of Public Health Practice. Connecticut: Cengage Learning
Stockman, L, J., & Parashar, U, D. (2004). Review of Epidemiology of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Business Briefing: Clinical Virology & Infectious Disease, 1-6
Most important government department to the public
Public health is central to productive individuals who are in a position to engage in national building. There are many services rendered to the public through the various government departments but health takes center stage in improving the livelihood of the citizens. The department in charge of public health prevents recurrence of health problems by formulating and implementing educational policies and programs, administering health services to various communities, regulating the health systems besides conducting further research on numerous public health risks and providing sustainable solutions to such risks
Increased diseases in the public domain cause most households to channel their incomes to hospital bills and this serves to lower the public’s standards of living. With a sick population, a country reports a reduced gross domestic product and this reduces the levels of growth in a country. The public health department averts issues of poor sanitation, promotes better services in the hospitality industry and sets policies that strengthen the overall public health industry. The public is concerned with better services from the hospitals and other industries within the public sector. Insurance schemes have been introduced with the help of governments for purposes of protecting the public against illnesses. These schemes have been helpful to many households, as they have improved the standards of living for the insured and the wider public.
Provision of better service using limited resources
The first step would be conducting a meeting with the community members and looking at the critical areas. All the problems and needs of the community would be written down and immediate analysis undertaken. Through deliberations, priorities would be given to the areas that are unanimously voted by the community members. The budget for the entire projects would be assessed against the problems at hand.
The most important projects would be allocated higher budgets compared to least important areas. However, some of the projects shall be undertaken in phases depending with the inflow of resources. For some projects, the community shall be requested to contribute in a bid to realize the objectives of such projects. Partnerships, government grants and donor funding would be considered for the most important areas of concern for purposes of ensuring that better services are provided to the community. Continuous appraisal of the services shall be undertaken until all the needs have been tackled comprehensively.
Volunteer services from the community
Volunteers are imperative for a healthy society. Donation of one’s time and effort helps to provide admissible changes in a community. Getting volunteers is a herculean task that involves considerable time of formulating goals and missions besides explaining the same to potential volunteer. The first step is planning. This involves finding the right places and activities to be carried out by the volunteers.
After effectively planning for the activities to be conducted, selection of volunteers is undertaken. The selection process should be centered on the passion and discipline as exhibited by the potential volunteers. Once successful volunteers have been selected, they should be provided with full information on their areas of operation. These volunteers are going to be selected equally for purposes of promoting gender equality as well as recognizing the diversity of the communities. Volunteers shall be sourced from all parts of the community in a bid to capture their diversity that plays a central role in enhancing the objectives of the volunteer services.
Crucial in the process of volunteering is that all volunteers shall be recognized through various forums like special celebrations, gifts, media coverage and annual events. Through these forums, volunteers shall be rewarded with certificates and cash bonuses. Through surprises and allowances, many of the community members shall be encouraged to participate in the volunteer exercises. Once the volunteers have been recruited in the government departments, motivational strategies shall be utilized to keep their passion and aspirations of volunteering alive at all times. These strategies shall incorporate recognition ceremonies, organize volunteer of the mouth programs, offering trips and extending cash to the volunteers. Continuous appraisal shall be conducted with the aim of ensuring that all volunteers are satisfied with the outcome of the various projects. In addition, these volunteers shall be encouraged to contribute in the form of opinions on how to better participate in public services.
Is home rule a power issue or an issue of good governance?
Home rule is the existence of full control of a specified community with the view to enhancing good governance. However, one may view it as a power issue in circumstances where elected officials exercise too much power over those established. Overall, home rule serves to enhance coordination of activities with a community by establishing the problems in such communities and adequately addressing the challenges. Elected officials should not use home rule as a political weapon to disorient political rivals. Rather, it should be used to augment the needs of a society towards realizing better communities. Communities are well versed with their own predicaments better relative to the elected officials. However, elected leaders must lead communities by using their positions to provide solutions to communal problems.
The scenario above is well captured in the term, good government. Home rule is a process of good governance but checks and balances should be set to avert misuse of such powers. Communities should be mandated with the power of controlling their affairs regularly with the help of government officials. Through home rules, the community is able to handle most of its internal problems that are addressed through the home rule charter.
Most often, leaders are reluctant to part with their powers. However, in order to pave way for good governance, power should be distributed among the communities. This way, limited problems shall be encountered in the governance of such communities. Having an official, solitarily or unitarily, dictate the terms and conditions that should govern a community are not considered as governance, as the officials will fail to meet the expectations of the community in terms of service delivery. Home rule is a sign of good governance among the community.
MUNICIPAL GOVERNANCE 2
Running Head: MUNICIPAL GOVERNANCE 1
Suicide and the Rick Factors
Life is a gift that ought to be treasured because one cannot recover it once it is lost. As a result, people value life and the society will make every effort to grant an individual a right to live. Although life is a treasured possession one can get, some people normally find it a burden and go an extra mile to eliminate it through suicide. Suicide is currently considered a public health problem in the United States. People possessing certain risk factors are at a greater potential for suicidal behavior. On the other hand, people possessing certain protective factors are at a lesser risk for suicidal behavior. This paper focuses on suicide and its risk factors.
Risk Factors for Suicide
Suicide is a deliberate act of taking one’s own life. One can chose to take his or her won life because of various reasons that may range from mental issues to a physical situation forcing an individual to commit suicide. This means that one does not just wake up one morning and commit suicide, but he/ she is rather exposed to the tendency to commit suicide, as a result of various risk factors. Risk factors for suicidal tendency can be grouped into three broad categories. They include mental or physical disorders, life events or circumstances, and historic or demographic factors (American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, 2010).
History and Demographic Risk Factors
History and demographic factors exist by the fact that they are things that cannot change. They result from birth or are based on past events. The first risk factor in this category is the history of suicide attempts. Anyone who has ever-attempted suicide is likely to do it again in the near future if proper measures are not taken (Bongar & Stolberg, 2010). The second risk factor is parental history. If the parents have been involved in some of suicidal behaviors, including drug abuse, mental disorder, violence, and divorce among others, the offspring are likely to be involved in suicidal behavior. Age and sex also enhance one’s chances of committing suicide. Women make more attempts than men. However, men are likely to commit suicide than women. People aged 65 and above are likely to commit suicide more than the general population (Bongar & Stolberg, 2010).
Life Events and Circumstances
Some events in life are likely to push an individual to the edge of life. Such an individual is likely to commit suicide in such situations. They include aggressive behavior, agitation, and psychological pain resulting from rejection, defeat, and loss. The person experiencing unfortunate events, such as psychological pain resulting from rejection may not see the need of living. Such view of life may push him or her to the point of committing suicide (Hawton, Casey, Bale, Shepherd, Bergen, & Simkin, 2007).
Physical or Mental Disorders
The American Psychological Association provides a list of mental and physical factors that exposes an individual to suicidal tendencies. The first one is psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, disorders resulting from substance use, and conduct disorder. The second risk factors under this category are dysmorphic disorder of the body. This disorder results from acute anxiety caused by an individual’s excessive concern about perceived defeat or rejection. The third factor is the low self-esteem, which makes an individual to lose confidence in life, thereby loosing the taste for life. In such a situation, the person may commit suicide (American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, 2010).
Predictive Risk Factors for Suicidal Behaviors
There are various pointers to suicide as discussed in the above section. Some of them are predictive if analyzed well. Risk factors falling under the category of history and demographic risk factors are more predictive because one can statistically analyze them. The first one in this case is the patient’s history of suicide. A person who has once attempted suicide is likely to make such attempt again.
The study by Hawton, Casey, Bale, Shepherd, Bergen, and Simkin (2007) indicated that people with a history of suicide attempt are 25% likely to attempt suicide. This risk factor is predictive because one needs to study the past behavior of patients who have attempted suicide. At the same time, risk factors in the category of mental and physical disorders are predictive. Such factors manifest in the physical and behavioral disorders, and thus, can be analyzed statistically. Physical disorders are observable to the victim, and thus, the victim will seek to eliminate such disorders through suicide.
Mental disorders imply that the person is not in the right frame of mind and, therefore, such a person can attempt to remove his/her life. Mental disorders, such as depressions, schizophrenia, and anxiety can be clinically detected and predicted. As a result, suicide attempts resulting from mental and physical disorders can be predicted.
How to Approach a Lethality Assessment
The lethality assessment is the assessment of risk of suicide in an individual. Before assessing a suicide case, a psychologist should be aware of warning signs of suicide. This can be explored from the literature on suicide available online and the risk assessment procedures can be initiated. The first step in risk assessment is to question the victim about any tendency to commit suicide.
A question, such as are you having thoughts of killing yourself? can be asked. The questioning process can be combined with instruments of assessment, such as a pencil and a paper to note down and confirm the intent of suicide. There are requirement forms whereby the psychologist can use to confirm the suicide intent in the victim. The form in essence is the scale of assessment and one needs to ascertain the information derived from the questioning to the scale of assessment. Unfortunately, there is no single assessment scale, and thus, one needs to select one scale from the available ones (Hawton, Casey, Bale, Shepherd, Bergen, & Simkin, 2007).
Generally, lethargy assessment follows a certain pattern. A psychologist needs to have a pencil and a paper to assess the lethality through questions and observation. First, one needs to plan the assessment considering time, method, availably, and location. The plan is based on whether a case is severe, medium, or low. The assessment thereafter begins with the mood. The psychologist assesses if the victim is upset, depressed, or agitated. Thereafter, the psychologist assesses the behaviors of an individual. In this case, the psychologist assesses eating patterns, general health of the body, sleeping patterns, recklessness, isolation tendencies, jokes or talks about death, and possessions. Thereafter, the psychologist assesses the feelings of the victim. Feelings, such as helplessness, worthlessness, restlessness, and suicidal are investigated (Gambotto, 2004).
The next assessment is done on the individual’s use of chemicals. In this case, the pattern of use of alcohol and drugs is investigated. Thereafter, suicidal history is investigated to ascertain the risk. The number and time frame of suicidal attempts are investigated. The next item considered is cases of trauma, such as great loss are investigated. Lastly, the psychiatric cares, both the past and the present if any, are investigated (American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, 2010).
What to Do When Suicidal Cases Have Been Identified
In case the risk assessment in the previous section reveals that the victim is prone to suicide, various steps should be taken. In the first place, the case should be taken seriously. Only about 50% of people can tell about their suicide intention, and thus they should be taken seriously. Thereafter, the psychologist should ask questions. The questions should aim at showing concern and ascertain if the victim is undergoing some professional help. Questioning process should not result in arguments (Bongar & Stolberg, 2010).
The next step is to encourage professional help for the victim. In most cases, people who are considering suicide cases may not seek for professional help, and thus, they should be encouraged to find help. The psychologist can help the victim to locate the best professional help available. Thereafter, the psychologist should take action. The first action involves removing any suicide objects, such as drugs, firearms and sharp objects from the reach of the victim. The next action should involve taking the victim to the hospital. If there are no hospital facilities in the nearby, one should call the hotline for the national suicide prevention lifeline. Finally, the follow-up plan should be made with the victim to ensure that he or she recovers well (Bongar & Stolberg, 2010).
The Relationship between Risk and Protective Factors in Counterbalancing Suicidal Behavior
Protective factors are behaviors an individual develops to resist suicidal attempts. They are both internal and external factors. Internal factors include religious beliefs, tolerance to frustration, and the ability to cope with stress. External factors include social connectedness, positive therapeutic relationships, and responsibility to loved ones. Protective factors help an individual to fight suicidal risk factors. This means that the protective factors balance the risk factors thereby preventing suicidal tendencies. For instance, an individual with a great love for his or her children may fight off suicidal thoughts. Such an individual will be driven by the desire to take care of his/ her loved children and this will prevent chances of him/her committing suicide. However, protective factors are not a cure for suicide risk factors.
Application of the understanding
The fact that protective factors help in suppressing suicidal acts means that they can be a great step in fighting suicide tendencies in an individual. At the same time, protective factors can be used for assessing suicidal risks in an individual. If an individual lacks any of the mentioned protective factors, it means that the person is likely to commit suicide than an individual with protective factors. At the same time, a clinician can use protective factors as a means of designing a setting for fighting suicide tendency. For instance, love for pets and family members are one of the protective tendencies. As a result, a clinician can recommend the creation of such environment. This will imply family members showing great concern and love to a person with suicidal tendency.
Ethical, Legal, Individual and Socio-Cultural Implications of Treating Clients at High Risk of Suicide
When treating an individual at high risk of suicide, there are various legal, ethical, individual, and social, and cultural implications.
All European countries do not consider suicide as a criminal offense. However, Islamic countries consider suicide as an offense. In the US, suicide is not a criminal offense, but it can be associated with various penalties. However, it is an offense to assist an individual to commit suicide (Bennett, Bricklin, Harris, Knapp, VandeCreek, & Younggren, 2007). This implies that a psychiatrist has no legal ground to force his/her client to submission. Instead, the psychiatrist risks legal action from the client’s family if the client commits suicide. This is because it can be alleged that the client was assisted to commit suicide. The psychologist is also governed by various laws that need to be observed during the process of treating the victim. One such legal requirement is the right of informed consent whereby the client’s guardians have the right to information about the treatment method applied to their loved one. This means that the psychiatrist is bound by the law to follow some strict guidelines when treating a client.
The rate of suicidal behaviors differs among various ethnic groups when placed in various contexts through which suicide occurs. This means that suicide rates differ in terms of help-seeking patterns, reactions to suicide behaviors, manifestation of protective factors, and the reaction to suicidal behaviors across various ethnic backgrounds. For instance, a study by Willis, Coombs, Cockerham, and Frison (2001) discovered that Asian Americans and African Americans could not verbalize suicide intent or interpret it as readily as the Whites.
In addition, the study discovered that the church belonging to the Blacks was seen as protective. As a result, members of the Church belonging to the Blacks developed suicide protective factors compared to members belonging to churches of other races. This implies that suicide intervention strategies should take into considerations the social and cultural backgrounds of an individual, which is based on the ethnic background. A psychologist must, therefore, study and understand the social and cultural background of a client before prescribing intervention measures. If possible, a client should be linked to a clinician from the same social cultural background.
Bennett, Bricklin, Harris, Knapp, VandeCreek, and Younggren (2007) argue that providing intervention measures to suicidal patients is becoming challenging for clinicians. Ethical issues arise in the process of administering treatment to suicidal patients thereby causing dangers to both the patients and the psychologists.
Issues have arisen during the application of various strategies, such as risk management techniques and performance competent assessment whereby the strategies applied have not been effective. This means that the psychologist is supposed to put into considerations some ethical measures when dealing with suicidal victims. The clinicians should consider an improved standard of care, and diversity of patients. In addition, the clinicians should ensure that they provide informed consent sufficiently, and perform a competent assessment of suicidal risks effectively (Jobes, Rudd, Overholser, & Joiner Jr., 2008).
Many cultures have central values called collectivism. The degree of collectivism differs from one culture to another, but it generally gives an individual a sense of belonging. Such a sense of belonging may help mitigate social risks, such as suicide. However, within a collective group there are individuals with various preferences and affiliations. As a result, there cannot be a generalized conclusion within a collective group and the clinician should be aware of this. For instance, the study by David, Sherry, Leslie, Jessica, Luis, and Gordon (2009) revealed that Black churches increases suicide protective factors. However, it cannot be generalized that everyone from the Black church is resistant to suicide because the degree of faith varies from one person to another. This means that clinicians should deal with a patient on an individual basis and collectivism should not be emphasized.
American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. (2010). Suicide Facts and figures: National statistics. Retrieved August 12, 2013, from American Foundation for Suicide Prevention: www.afsp.org
Bennett, B., Bricklin, P., Harris, E., Knapp, S., VandeCreek, L., & Younggren, J. (2007). Assessing and managing risk in psychological practice: An individualized approach. Rockville, MD: The Trust Press.
Bongar, B., & Stolberg, R. (2010). Risk Management with the Suicidal Patient. Retrieved August 12, 2013, from National Register of Health Service Psychologists: http://www.e-psychologist.org/index.iml?mdl=exam/show_article.mdl&Material_ID=100
David, B. G., Sherry, D. M., Leslie, B. W., Jessica, L. M., Luis, H. Z., & Gordon, C. N. (2009). Cultural Considerations in Adolescent Suicide Prevention and Psychosocial Treatment. Am Psychol, 63 (1), 1431.
Gambotto, A. (2004). The Eclipse: A Memoir of Suicide. Sydney, Australia: Broken Ankle Books.
Hawton, K., Casey, D., Bale, E., Shepherd, A., Bergen, H., & Simkin, S. (2007). Deliberate Self-Harm in Oxford. Retrieved August 12, 2013, from University of Oxford Centre for Suicide Research: http://cebmh.warne.ox.ac.uk/csr/monpubs.html
Jobes, D. A., Rudd, M. D., Overholser, J. C., & Joiner Jr., T. E. (2008). Ethical and competent care of suicidal patients: Contemporary challenges, new developments, and considerations for clinical practice. Professional Psychology Research and Practice, 39 (4), 405-413.
Willis, L., Coombs, D., Cockerham, W., & Frison, S. (2001). Ready to die: A postmodern interpretation of the increase of African-American adolescent male suicide. Social Science & Medicine, 202 (55), 907920.
SUICIDE AND THE RICK FACTORS 7
Running head: SUICIDE AND THE RICK FACTORS 1
The Cons of Partnerships between Public and Private Sectors in World Health
Partnerships in world health between public and private sectors involve arrangements of collaboration between governments and private enterprises in the provision of health in society. Such collaboration features a wide variety of structures and arrangements, based on extents of participation, law-related status, governance and managerial approaches, methods and responsibilities in the formation and execution of policy, operation and contributory roles, et cetera.
They may also range from small arrangements, in scale and scope, to large deals or agreements between entities in the two sectors to address or fulfill certain objectives in the delivery of health services, infrastructure, or products in society. Collaborations between private and public sectors in global health occur in view of several objectives (PPH, n.d., para. 1-5). These may include the development or improvement of certain desired products or services in health, execution of certain health measures, the strengthening or enhancement of certain structures or services in health in which societies desire improvements, education of the public on health issues, improvements in health regulation structures or product value, et cetera.
In general, such collaborations occur in societies or in instances where government health services or resources are inadequate or deficient to meet required standards in health for society welfare. In such instances, governments seek input and assistance from private sectors, through collaboration in terms of resources, infrastructure, and investment, to meet such deficiencies and assure required health standards in society. While such collaborations meet these requirements, they also occasion risks and disadvantages in the delivery of health in a society based on differences in operations and objectives between governments and private sectors (PPH, n.d., para. 1-5; Nikolic & Maikisch, 2006, p. 1-4). These disadvantages may include risks of discrimination in the delivery of health services and infrastructure and suitable health structure violations with effects on poor sections in society, due to a preference for profitability over social welfare.
The argument for this paper is that disadvantages in private-public sector collaborations in the delivery of health in the world emerge from interest conflicts between the two, based on the risk of preference for profitability and business rewards over social welfare. The paper’s position is that collaborations between governments and private sectors pose disadvantages for quality, good standards, and value in society health due to a relative switch in such arrangements from non-reward and non-profit objectives towards a search for business returns, advantages/benefits, and rewards. In general, effective health delivery in society is not dependent on its profitability for health providers, which is why the government is the most suitable health service and infrastructure provider as it holds social welfare as the main objective (Nikolic & Maikisch, 2006, p. 1-7; PPH, n.d., para. 1-5).
This paper argues that the inclusion of private sectors in health delivery partnerships with governments among societies institutes the perspective of profitability in such service, serving as the source of disadvantages of such partnerships in global health. Private-public collaboration in health delivery introduces the commercialization of a crucial service for social welfare, opening up the health service to the risks of business and private interests and objectives, and thus threatening social welfare (Nikolic & Maikisch, 2006, p. 1-7; PPH, n.d., para. 1-5). This is due to discriminatory health delivery based on the level of business returns and rewards that are achievable from different sections of society for private partners.
The Cons of Private-Public Partnerships in World Health
Collaborations between public and private sectors in the delivery of global health feature several disadvantages, due to their non-immunity from the private sector interests and objectives of profitability and sustainable business returns. Often, entities in private sectors use a market’s potential to offer returns to invested resources and their sustainability to decide whether to apply their resources. Collaborations between public and private sectors in health delivery are not exceptions of such trends, since private sectors are willing to enter into such arrangements where their participation is worthwhile, in terms of business and profit returns.
A review of several demerits of collaborations between private and public sectors in health delivery bring out this observation. One concern about such collaboration involves the risk of discriminatory behavior against poor sections of society in the delivery of health services and infrastructure by public-private collaborative arrangements. Private entities in such arrangements often have the objective of realizing a significant level of business rewards from their contribution and investment (Dewulf et al, 2012, p. 2-20; Nikolic & Maikisch, 2006, p. 1-7). This objective influences the partnership to find ways of realizing such rewards, through compensation from the government for the private entity’s contributions or obtaining financial or other resource returns from the field of health service delivery.
This factor leads to one or both of two scenarios. First, the government may draw from tax takings in society to reward the private enterprise for its participation/investment. This involves compensation of the private partner in the arrangement by the government from tax-payer income. This option causes the society inconveniences and costs, in terms of lost government investment resources, to improve society welfare. The government uses up resources it could have invested in improvement of social welfare, through developments of education, social programs, other health infrastructure, et cetera, to compensate the private enterprise partner for returns to the partner’s investment and contribution (Hemming, 2006, p. 27-37).
This compensation is necessary for the private enterprise partner to find the arrangement and returns from it sustainable for continued contribution or participation. The second scenario involves the arrangement’s discriminatory offering of health services and infrastructure to sections in society that promise or feature suitable potential for sustainable returns or rewards. The need for compensation and reward for the private enterprise partner in the arrangement influences a trend in such service, where health infrastructure and service is available or on offer among sections of society that promise sustainable returns. Such sections may include rich neighborhoods and economically advanced societies and nations.
Societies with large populations, overcrowded areas, poor societies, congested societies, and societies without effective infrastructure suffer from discrimination in the delivery of health services in private-public arrangements since they are unattractive spots for rewarding and profitable service delivery. This is since such areas and societies require improvements, provision, and investment in basic infrastructure – transport, education, and other fundamental infrastructure – before the delivery of health services if such service is to be effective and productive (Hemming, 2006, p. 27-37). This requirement makes such areas and societies unattractive for service delivery for private-public arrangements in health, since they present costs and additional investment needs in health service delivery.
The delivery of health services in such areas is costly for collaborative health arrangements because of these extra infrastructural costs, and public-private partnerships tend to ignore/avoid service or offer sub-standard services to them to avoid the extra costs and assure profits and rewards/returns from their activities. The arrangements tend to concentrate health delivery efforts in society sections that present low costs, to ascertain a certain level of profit and rewards from the provision of health services and infrastructure. Consequently, undeveloped and poor societies and society sections and classes suffer discrimination in the delivery of health service and infrastructure by such partnerships based on their inability to offer sustainable and attractive rewards for the private partner.
This trend is a disadvantage since discrimination in the delivery of health services/infrastructure based on social affluence violates social welfare, through the promotion of imbalance in service delivery based on social differences. Private-public collaboration in health delivery promotes social welfare differences and development imbalance risks, through discrimination in health service delivery based on business reward and return levels (Hemming, 2006, p. 30-47; Farquharson et al, 2011, p. 44-50).
This is a disadvantage in such arrangements, considering that government health services without partnerships with private sectors offer such services and infrastructure equally and in balance to all sections and parts of society irrespective of potential for rewards, due to the absence of profit objectives in such activity. This problem originates from the interests conflict between private and public sectors in society since while government health systems seek to provide health services to citizens without profit objectives, private sector entities seek business profits from their ventures.
Governments seek the social wellbeing through investment in the necessary infrastructure and services for health without the objective of business rewards, while private enterprises base their investment activities on value returns to the resources they invest (Hemming, 2006, p. 30-47; Farquharson et al, 2011, p. 44-50). This variation in the objectives of the two sides affects the health service and infrastructure delivery structure in a collaborative/partnership arrangement.
Another disadvantage in partnership between private and public enterprises in the delivery of health services involves the risk of erosion of significance of public input, requirements, and determination in the decision processes and execution/management methods. In public service, delivery of health services and infrastructure is dependent on the preferences, requirements, and decisions of the public/citizens through representative systems such as parliament and local authorities. Here, the public influences what health services and infrastructures the government develops and provides, when, where, and in what approach and method. In public-private health service collaborations, however, the interests of the private sector have to be under consideration in any decisions on health products, infrastructure, services, programs, and structures. In effect, the private sector becomes a deserving stakeholder in any such decisions (Dewulf et al, 2012, p. 29-34, 36-42).
Often, the positions and valuations of citizens’ input, influence, preferences, and requirements in health infrastructure, product, and service decision process suffer in terms of influence and contribution towards health policy and action in society. This is since the government, in such partnerships, desires to maintain warm relationships with private partners for financial, infrastructural, resource, and other help in the delivery of health services. The interests of the private sector in the partnership assume greater prominence than the public’s requirements, preferences, and desires in health service. This is a disadvantage since in ideal health service, the public/citizens, being the primary beneficiaries of their government’s health infrastructure and service activities and plans, should be the leading determinants and influence in the public health decision processes (Dewulf et al, 2012, p. 29-34, 36-42). In the public-private arrangement, however, the significance of citizens’ desires and preferences in health delivery reduces as the private sector asserts its influence on the health service.
The private sector’s influence on the government’s health service and plans involve pressure to operate in ways that do not endanger the private sector’s interests, mainly profit and business reward objectives, and that feature little or manageable risk levels, in terms of business rewards. The government, in its health service, does not pay attention to business reward/profit risks: it bases its investment activities on the needs/requirements in society and the social welfare gain that such activity presents. The plans, preferences, and objectives of citizens and the government in public health suffer restraint and inconvenience under the private sector’s insistence on plans, approaches, and activities in health delivery that do not endanger its business objectives, such as branding and business rewards/profits (Dewulf et al, 2012, p. 29-34, 36-42).
This is a disadvantage since private sector pressure for governments to avoid health service ventures and activities that endanger profit objectives in a partnership arrangement impact negatively on balanced development, social equality, and social welfare. Services and infrastructure in health necessary for social welfare, such as care for the aged, disability programs, and health subsidies to benefit poor society sections and areas are prone to negligence, inadequate resource deployment, and sub-standard services in private-public collaborations because they have low profit and business reward potential.
This is a disadvantage in health service as it promotes inconveniences and low quality and standards in public health, in violation of suitable standards in public health, such as equality, service affordability and accessibility for all citizens, and high quality. This disadvantage also originates from the interests conflict between private and public sectors (Dewulf et al, 2012, p. 29-45; Farquharson et al, 2011, p. 33-50). This is so since public health service aims to fulfill citizens’ needs in health without anticipation of business rewards, while the private sector’s objective of earning business benefits causes pressure in a partnership arrangement between the two for activities and approaches in health delivery that do not endanger the potential for profits.
Contractual and regulatory mechanisms and terms are the object of another disadvantage in global health collaboration arrangements between public and private sectors. Issues such as performance assessments, management, leadership, human resources, standards regulation, and service features in public-private arrangements for the delivery of health spur concerns for social welfare.
This is because such collaborations introduce the mechanisms and risks prevalent and common in the private sector. Often, partnerships between public and private sectors in health involve contracts by governments to private enterprises for the provision of services, infrastructure, and products to the public with funding from the government. The justification in this method is that the private sector often enjoys better infrastructure than that available for the government in the offer of such services, thus promoting service efficiency (Dewulf et al, 2012, p. 28-38, 72-68). Such an arrangement, nevertheless, opens up the provision of health services in the society to regulatory and managerial risks based on the private sector’s desires and objectives of obtaining business rewards from their activities. This is because some of the private sector mechanisms and processes in service provision promote risks for social welfare, due to profit and business reward incentives.
One such mechanism/process is the handling of human resources and deployment processes under the contractual terms. Services such as care for the aged, disability health programs, and affordable health services targeting the poor require certain standards in the development and use of human and other resources. The adequate and thus necessary level of human and other resources for suitable provision of such services often exceeds that which private sectors regard as efficient or rational, in terms of costs and business rewards from investment. Regulatory and oversight mechanisms under private-public contractual terms often fail to reinforce the requirement for adequate deployment and use of human and other resources for these health services to society.
Considerable freedom in private-public collaborations in health services for private sectors to provide services in society fails to assure the welfare of such minority needs in society, as private sectors often regard adequate service provision in such activities as inefficient. The private-public arrangement is likely to fail to provide adequate health services for minority or insignificant groups – the disabled, overcrowded societies, and the poor – based on the private sector’s insistence on efficiency (Dewulf et al, 2012, p. 28-38, 72-68).
Adherence to health standards and values is another concern in private-public health service partnerships. Health as a service requires adherence to standards and values such as affordability, equal access for all in society, non-discriminative provision and service based on social class, income, gender, and ability, and affordability for all. In public health service, representative systems such as parliament and local authorities act as controls against inconveniences and violations in health services based on these standards. In public-private collaborative arrangements, however, such control and regulatory systems and mechanisms are absent or less effective.
As a consequence, such partnerships endanger social welfare through possible and uncontrolled violations of these health standards and values. The regulatory mechanism in public-private partnerships, in health, is often less suitable and successful than that in pure public health service in the assurance of affordability, equal access, non-discrimination, and affordability values and standards (Dewulf et al, 2012, p. 28-38, 72-68). The regulatory problem in such partnerships stems from an interests conflict between public and private sectors since the former’s target standard for effective service is social welfare gain, while efficiency for business rewards/profits applies for the latter.
The problems above grow out of differences in the objectives and service foundations for the effectiveness of health service between the private and public sectors in society. While the public sector seeks social welfare and bases its health service on gains for the public, the private sector seeks business rewards/profits in its service (Nikolic & Maikisch, 2006, p. 1-7; PPH, n.d., para. 1-5). This creates an interests conflict that promotes challenges and risks in a partnership between the two sides, in health service delivery.
Disadvantages in collaborations between private and public sectors in the delivery of global health emerge from interest conflicts between the two, based on the risks of preference for profitability and business rewards over social welfare. The inclusion of private sectors in health delivery partnerships with governments among societies institutes the perspective of profitability in such service, serving as the source of disadvantages of such partnerships in health. Private-public collaboration in health delivery introduces the commercialization of a crucial service for social welfare, opening up the health service to the risks of business and private interests and objectives, and thus threatening social welfare.
Risks in collaborations between public and private sectors include discriminative health service provision against poor societies and society sections and classes, and significant erosion of public input and determination in health decision processes. There is also a risk of improper or inadequate regulatory and standards maintenance mechanisms for health welfare in society in such collaboration, due to reduced emphasis on social welfare and increases in reference to efficiency and reduced costs for business rewards/profits.
Dewulf, G., Blanken, A., & Bult-Spiering, M. (2012). Strategic Issues in Public-Private Partnerships. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA
Farquharson, E., De Mastle, C., Yescombe, E., & Encinas, J. (2011). How to engage with the Private Sector in Public-Private Partnerships in emerging Markets. World Bank Publications, Washington, USA
Hemming, R. (2006). Public-Private Partnerships, Government Guarantees, and Fiscal Risk. International Monetary Fund, New York, USA
Nikolic, I., & Maikisch, H. (2006). Public-Private Partnerships and Collaboration in the Health Sector: an Overview with Case Studies from Recent European Experience. Health, Nutrition, and Population, The World Bank, retrieved on July 23, 2012 from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTECAREGTOPHEANUT/Resources/HNPDiscussionSeriesPPPPaper.pdf
Public-Private Partnerships for Health (PPH) (n.d.). World Health Organization Website, retrieved on July 23, 2012 from: http://www.who.int/trade/glossary/story077/en/index.html
The Cons of Partnerships between Public and Private Sectors in World Health 12
Ministry of Health portfolio
As the minister of health, you will be responsible for maintaining and improving the health of all Canadians. As the federal government’s health minister, your responsibility will be to oversee the federal government’s health department and enforcing Public Health Agency of Canada, Canada health act, a law that governs Medicare. Your responsibilities in upholding Canadian’s health will be supported by the health ministerial portfolio supported by health Canada, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Public Health Agency of Canada, the Hazardous Materials Information Review Commission, Assisted Human Reproduction Canada and the Patented Medicine Prices Review Board.
In the face of the rapidly changing technology and the increasingly interconnected world community and market place, Canadian health protection must respond to these changes. As the country faces many other issues, which include demographic changes and stress on the country’s healthcare system, it will become more challenging for your ministry to address these challenges. There are several likely themes that will dominate the complex Canadian policy landscape for this planning period and beyond.
Faced with these challenges, your health portfolio comes in handy to solve the puzzles that continue to face the country now and in future.
The nature of responsibilities for the Minister of Health includes a variety of arm length organizations such as the tribunals, agencies and crown corporations. In such organizations, the legislation vests the powers, duties, and functions directly in deputy head or bodies such as commissions or boards, although as the minister, you will have residual powers, functions and duties. In addition, your relation s with such organizations must respect parameters of legal authorities. Your key responsibilities as the minister for health extend to and include all matters which the parliament has jurisdiction relating to promotion and preservation of the Canadian people.
The roles include promotion and preservation of physical, social and mental wellbeing; protection of Canadian people against risks to health and the spread of diseases; research and investigation into the public’s health, including disease monitoring; establishment and control of safety standards, safety requirements information for the consumer goods as well as information on safety requirements at work place and many others (Government of Canada).
Overview of the Ministerial portfolio
Ministry of health, commonly known as the health Canada, is one of the departments of the Canadian government charged with the responsibilities of maintaining and improving the Canadian national public health (Health Canada). As a minister of health, your ministry’s portfolio is comprised of the health Canada, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Public Health Agency of Canada, the Hazardous Materials Information Review Commission, Assisted Human Reproduction Canada and the Patented Medicine Prices Review Board. The health portfolio is composed of approximately 12,000 full time employees with an annual budget of about $ 3.8 billion (Health Canada).
Institutional components of the ministry of health
The institutional components of the health ministry of Canada link up to form the organizational structure for the ministry of health in Canada. The components are shaped by the various components of the ministry of health. The ministry of health’s portfolio is composed of by health Canada, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Public Health Agency of Canada, the Hazardous Materials Information Review Commission, Assisted Human Reproduction Canada and the Patented Medicine Prices Review Board. Each of the components of the portfolio prepares reports of its own plans and priorities. The ministry offers policy leadership and coordination among its portfolio members as appropriate to ensure a coherent approach in addressing health issues.
Health portfolio organizations chart
Source: Health Canada Report on Plans and Priorities 2008-2009
The ministry has several branches that include Health policy branch, Health products and food branch, First nations and Inuit Health Branch, pest Management Regulatory Agency, Health Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Public Affairs, Consultation and Regions branch, Chief Financial Officer, Audit and Accountability bureau, legal services and corporate services branch.
Health Canada’s Organizational Chart
Source: Health Canada Report on Plans and Priorities 2008-2009
Institutional function, nature of governance and Ministerial relationship
These agencies are designed to balance controls with purpose of encouraging innovation and initiative.
The agencies will support a set of values that include innovation, enhanced authority at frontline, self-regulation, client-centered, and better management of people as well as accountability for results. In other words, the agencies lead to improved quality of services and greater efficiency. Examples of such agencies include Technology Partnerships Canada, Canadian heritage Information network and Training and Development Canada.
In addition, separate agencies, also referred to as Legislated Service Agencies or Departmental corporations, which include the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Statistics Canada, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Canada Customs and Revenue Agencies, form part of the mission driven organizations. This category is established by specific legislation that allows them to manage the organization and delivery of specific services within the federal government.
The agencies will typically perform research, administrative, advisory, supervisory and/or regulatory services of a governmental nature.
Separate agencies are basically similar, with only slight differences from each other. Tor instance, all agencies have a chief executive officer reporting directly to the minister.
All agencies are subject to a ministerial direction.
These institutions enjoy substantial independence in terms of the financials and personnel controls that normally accompany departmental administration.
For any crown corporations, a set of enabling legislation clearly spells out the corporation’s powers, mandate, and objectives.
Crown corporations are accountable to the parliament through the assigned ministers.
The federal government retains the power and influence over crown corporations through: appointment and remuneration of the directors and the CEOs, Issuing directives and regulations and the approval of the corporate plans and budgets.
Government of Canada. “Department of Health Act.” 30 01 2013. Justice Laws Website. 4 02 2013 <http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/H-3.2/page-1.html>.
Health Canada. Health Portfolio. 03 02 2009. 04 02 2013 <http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/minist/portfolio/index-eng.php>.
Insert Surname Here 4
Assisted Human Reproduction
Patented Medicine Prices Review Board
Hazardous Materials Information Review Commission
Canadian Institute of Health Research
Public Health Agency of Canada
Minister of Health
Deputy Minister/ Associate Deputy Minister
Health Products and food branch
Assistant Deputy Minister
Health Policy Branch
Assistant Deputy Minister
Health Environments and Consumer Safety Branch
Assistant Deputy Minister
Pest Management Regulatory Agency
First Nation and Inuit Health Branch
Assistant Deputy Minister
Public affairs, Consultation and Region’s branch
Assistant Deputy Minister
Chief Financial Officer Branch
Chief Financial Officer
Audit and accountability Bureau
Chief Audit Executive
Corporate Service Branch
Assistant Deputy Minister
Senior General Council
Issues in Public Health
The aim of public health is to put the general public in the forefront as their health is concerned. Its aim is to protect and promote health, prevent any illness and injuries that the public may be prone to. When dealing with public health, one identifies the public health issues and problems affecting the society, one then design ways to tackle these issues and then look for means to implement and prevent these issues from occurring again or affecting the society in future. The Public has been faced with health issues and we will discuss these some of these issues under; alcohol abuse, drug abuse and driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs.
Alcohol abuse is derived from the term alcoholism. Alcoholism is a situation where there is an impulsive and uncontrolled use of alcoholic beverages, or the abnormal physical desire to consume alcohol. Alcohol abuse is therefore a sequence of consumption that leads to one’s inability to work or function properly. When a person consumes alcohol, the alcohol acts on nerve cells of the brain and may act as a stimulant in the beginning leading to relaxation, and reduced anxiety. Increased consumption may impair judgment, lower inhibitions and may lead to intoxication.
Contents that are mostly abused include; beer wines and spirits. Alcohol abuse is a trend practiced by many men and women in the world the problem with alcohol abuse is that it brings a lot of negative impacts on the lives of all those who consumes it, may it be men or women. According to the British journal of addiction, women are not supposed to drink alcohol during pregnancy as this may put them at risk during childbirth, criminal behaviours like; homicides, assaults, rapes and burglaries can be attributed to drug and alcohol use (972).
Excess use of alcohol may lead to various disorders like withdrawal effect. This means that when a person becomes an addict, there will be a tendency that one may not be able to sustain the use of alcohol even if they want to stop consuming it. Other factors associated with alcoholism include inability to work effectively, hangovers and addictions, incoherent thoughts, confusions, nausea and vomiting. It is worth noting that consumption of alcohol may lead to stroke, blood pressures, elevation, respiratory depression, liver diseases and can also lead to craving of the substance leading to malnutrition, suppress immune system thus increasing the potential of illness Severe. Alcohol usage may incapacitate and individual and may lead to inability to perform one’s responsibility, injury or even to death.
Drug abuse or substance abuse, is the illegal use of drugs or substances in an amount not approved, supervised or prescribed by a medical professional. Drugs used in the manner they are not intended to amount to drug abuse. When terming a substance as abused, it is the consistency in which it consumed that is put into consideration, than the amount taken. This implies that no matter how small one takes drugs, if it causes problems and discomfort in one’s life, then it is called drug abuse.
Drug abuse also includes the use of habit forming drugs that are likely to lead to addiction, dependence or harm to one’s body system. Drug abuse is a societal problem affecting almost all social and cycles of life. Among the most commonly abused drugs include; marijuana, depressants like Valium and xanax, stimulants, inhalants, hallucinogens and heroin. Reasons why drugs are abused may include peer pressure, personal historical background, mental disorder, abuse or neglect, societal setting among others. Peer pressure occurs when a group of individuals or a person engages in practices that appear like some culture and that a person joining group has to live by the rules of the group to fit in their circles, this leads to the youths sometimes abusing drugs to appease the group members.
The history of families known to be drug abusers also leads to their kins to develop the abuse modes. A society or family where is drugs are abused is likely to bring up a generation of drug abusers. This is because there is always a tendency of the young generation emulating the older generation, and if the older generation abuses drugs, then some of the younger generation may be influenced by the act thus leading to the young generation adapting to drug abuse. To be noted is that mental disorder can lead to drug abuse. If a particular drug is taken and one feels relieved, then there is a likelihood that the person will continue with the abuse so long as they feel stress free. An individual who feels neglected may succumb to drugs as a means of forging companionship as some drugs lead one to sleepiness. In the public health, this is an issue of interest and should be taken with much care. Illegal use of drugs leads to changes in physiological, behavioural and psychological appearances of an individual. This in turn leads to poor performances in school, failure to meet deadlines on activities given, deterioration of one’s health among others issues.
Driving Under The Influence Of Alcohol And Drugs.
Driving under the influence of alcohol may impair drivers’ sight leading to the driver’s incapability to drive as it may cause injury or fatality. Drunk driving leads to accidents that may end up costing the lives of innocent people as well as the drunkard. The consequences imposed on the drivers under the influence of alcohol includes, payment of heavy fines to the authority, losing one’s license for the rest of one’s life, risks of jail as well as being accused of murder due to caress driving.
It is obvious that there are issues in the public health as far as drug abuse, alcohol abuse and driving while under the influence of alcohol are concerned. Excess consumption of alcohol may be disastrous to the consumer’s life as it may lead to incapability on the effectiveness of an individual, lead to multiple ailments and may lead to inability to stop the habit.
On the other hand, drug abuse may lead to one’s inability to think clearly and may impair ones judgmental capabilities. Such situations can also affect those who drive under the influence of alcohol. Research done shows that there is great need for the society to be educated on the need to stop drug abuse, excessive use of alcohol and driving under the influence of alcohol. The government should put in place measures to prevent abuse of drugs and at the same time put strict measures to discourage driving while under the influence of alcohol, educate its citizens on the effects drug abuse and alcoholism.
Pittman D. J. et al. British Journal of Addiction (1991) 86, 967-975. Print.
Aging and Health
Demographic characteristic changes every second. At the tick of the clock, a new baby is born and an existing person is pushed near to his or her death. In this case, one’s life changes every minute with the subsequent irreversible outcome. One aspect of growth and development is its resultant aging outcome. Aging is an inevitable process. Some people may live up to 100 years and above whereas others may reach 70s as their maximum age.
However, as one starts approaching 55, he or she is in the process of becoming the aged and his or her body characteristics may begin to change. One aspect of aging of big concern is the health of the aged. Some disorders and ailments affect the aged. At the same time, most biological processes in the body are altered with age, such that it becomes almost impossible for the elderly to perform some of the activities they used to perform during their youthful stage. Although the process is irreversible, the health effects can be checked and the elderly can enjoy their lives, even as they approach their death.
How Health Declines With Health
As one ages, his or her health status declines. This concept of aging and health can be illustrated using a scale of 1 to 5 whereby 1 indicates good health and 5 indicates poor health. In such situations, health issues are experienced from as early as the age of 20 whereby one may rank his health on the scale at point 1.75. The concept is illustrated in the diagram below:
Figure 1: How Health Declines With Health (Courtney, 2013)
From the information in the graph, health deteriorates most during the working age and starts at the age of 20. In addition, ageing and health deterioration varies with the type of occupation whereby the top earners are least affected compared to the least earners. The concept of aging and health can be well described using the concept of senescence, whereby ageing can be described as a disease. Senescence is a characteristic of the cells of the body whereby they exhibit limited ability during the process of division.
During the age of about 20 to 35, the cells of the body respond to normal body process well. In this case, the cells of the body divide and assist the body to absorb any stress and at the same time create a homeostatic balance. In such conditions, a person looks and functions in a healthy way, unless he or she is affected by some pathogens from an external source. However, ageing enhances senescence whereby the cells of the body start showing a considerable decline in the process of cell division. A gradual decline in cell division eventually creates more stress in the body whereby the body fails to respond to external stresses. At the same time, a homeostatic imbalance is created in the body thereby increasing the chances of the body to get the disease. Senescence is irreversible, but can be slowed down (Angel & Hogan, 1999).
Health Issues for Ethnic Minority Elders
Although ageing is generally accompanied by deterioration in health, there is a variation in terms of minority elders. In the US, ethnic and racial disparities are exhibited in most quarters, including health. As a result, ageing is affected in different ways when ethnic and racial factors are considered. Minority elders include the Blacks and the Hispanics. Various indicators and researches indicate that the Whites are healthier than the minority groups and this is exhibited in the elderly group. Health indicators, such as mortality rate, self-rated rate, morbidity rate, and functional status does not favor the minority aged. For instance, life expectancy for African-American in 2001 was 72.2 years compared to 77.7 years for the Whites.
At the same time, the death rate in African-American was 32% higher than the death rates for the Whites. In additions, more than 9.0% Hispanic elderly and 15.5% African-Americans reports cases of poor health (Harry, 2006). This means that the elderly minorities are the most disadvantaged in terms of health. As a result, they tend to suffer during aging time.
Elderly minorities normally experience problems in their old age mainly because of economic factors and standards of life. A study by Charles, Reynolds, and Gatz (2001) indicated that the working minority normally experience problems as they increase in age because of the nature of their jobs. The nature of work for the ethnic minority exposes them to various dangers that affect their aging process. The illustration is shown in the diagram below:
Figure 2: Health Issues for Ethnic Minority Elders (Blackman, Kamimoto, & Smith, 2009)
From the diagram, the population in the first quarter experience more cases of health problems during their aging process than the population in the third quarter. The population in the third quarter consists of those in good professions earning good salaries, and majorly consists of the Whites. The first quarter is dominated by the poor working class, who are majorly the minority groups, including the Blacks and Hispanics.
These groups are mainly employed in the manual job industries, including sweat factories. As a result, their bodies are exposed to various forms of stress, which accelerates Senescence processes. This means that the minority elderly groups report many cases of poor health status. In addition, the minority group generally has a low income and cannot find quality treatment for their ageing bodies. Furthermore, this group cannot afford quality leisure activities, such as massage, and gym practices, which are known to boost health and increase the longevity of the person. This generally leads to early death thereby rubberstamping the fact that life expectancy in the minority group is lower than the majority group (Masoro & Austad, 2006). Based on this analysis, it means that the focus should be shifted towards the minority elders to ensure that they achieve good health even during their old age.
Theories of Ageing
The process of ageing can be described well through lenses of various theories. These theories are described below:
The exact role of genetics in ageing is not well established. However, studies done on identical twins indicate that they have almost the same life expectancy than fraternal twins, if the effect of nature is not included. In this case, it means that a gene plays a role in ageing process.
Wear and Tear Theory
This theory proposes that ageing results in wear and tear, just in the same way a moving machine is exposed to wear and tear during their operations. As one exposes the body to vigorous activity, he or she wears the body parts, which may not be replaced on time as one age. This leads to accumulation of damages to the body tissues, which in turn leads to a reduction in the body functioning process.
Pre-Programmed or Apoptosis Genetic Aging Theory
This theory proposes that a body’s cells are designed or programmed to last for a given time depending on the genes. When that time lapses, the body ceases to function.
Free Radical Theory
This theory proposes that there is a gradual accumulation of species with high energy, which damages cellular components gradually. This damage is irreversible.
This is the latest theory being incorporated into ageing. The theory proposes that various genetics and environmental factors combine to cause aging. This theory acknowledges that all factors mentioned in other theories.
The Physiology of Aging
Since the time of birth, human beings have undergone various changes in the body, which affects the way they functions, look, and respond to various situations. As one ages, he or she experiences changes on the outside of the body, the respiratory system, nervous system, musculature, skeletal system, gastrointestinal system, sexual system and general physiological process of the body. Changes in the mentioned system affect all the body process thereby slowing them down as a result of decreased cellular activities. People experience these changes gradually and in different ways depending on various environmental factors and genetic makeup. About 85% of adults are affected chronically with only 25% experiencing mild impairments (Courtney, 2013).
Psychology of Aging
As one ages, his or her personality remains relatively stable. However, the minds are affected in various ways. These can be explained in various ways using various theories:
Stage Theory of Personality
This theory suggests that the aged are psychologically affected by the aging process, such that they withdraw from the society in readiness for death. The process is heightened after retirement whereby one withdraws from the social circle and decides to spend most of the time alone. These adults senses that their death are near and may wish to die while working and thus decides to withdraw from active work and social activities (Harry, 2006).
This theory suggests that human beings are of various character traits. These traits are manifested as neuroticism, openness to experience, extroversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness. Each trait is unique in every individual, and is heightened with age. An individual is born with these traits and learns to live with them, implying that one may learn not to complain. However, as one ages, these traits become distinct and may give the aged a reason to complain (Harry, 2006).
Mood Disorders during Aging
Aging also causes mood disorders and may affect the aged if not dealt with. The first disorder is anxiety whereby the aged reacts to perceived threats. The disorder may become dangerous if it affects the physical and behavioral status of an individual. The anxiety may result from various factors in the old age, threats of attacks, irrational behaviors, and various physical symptoms. According to Masoro and Austad (2006) about 5.1% of the aged in the US are normally affected with chronic anxiety.
Another mood disorder affecting the aged is depressions. Depressions impair the social functioning, and occupational functioning, which may lead to physical illness. The study by Angel and Hogan (1999) indicates that at least 3% of the aged are always depressed as a result of their inability to perform various functions. For instance, some elders may be depressed as a result of reduced sexual functioning activity.
Medical Care and Mental Health Services
Anxiety is treated using various methods. First is through medical treatment, which involves provision of anti-anxiety drugs, prescribed by a doctor. However, psychological intervention is encouraged in most cases as it is very effective. Psychological intervention includes cognitive, behavioral, and psychodynamic therapy. However, no particular treatment has been prescribed for aged people with anxieties, but social help from the family members is desired.
In the case of depressions, antidepressants may be used depending on the directions of the doctor. Any clinical depressions are treated using psychological therapy. Studies indicate that the most effective treatment of depressions is the support of the family, and thus is encouraged (Charles, Reynolds, & Gatz, 2001).
Coping With Change during Aging: Strategies for Success
In the process of aging, different periods are experienced, such as periods of joy and stress. Such periods in an individual’s life call for resilience and healthy ways to counteract these challenges. This enables an individual to enjoy good times to the best, as well as keeping their perspective during tough times. To cope with any changes, one should always focus on things they are grateful. This helps them overcome the challenge of loosing things and people as they grow up and to them life becomes more precious. Expressing and acknowledging one’s feelings is also an important factor to consider as one ages. Burying feeling and emotions causes depression, anger and resentment. One should accept the things that they cannot change in life. This calls for facing one’s limitations with dignity, and having a humor as a dose of health. Hard situations should be looked to as opportunities to make one strong. In case mistakes and poor choices in life, one should learn from them and make corrections. To ensure that one is not overwhelmed by challenges, a daily act of dealing with life challenges should be embraced (Masoro & Austad, 2006).
Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
As one ages, their relationship with food changes along with their body. A balanced diet is very essential to an aging person. Therefore, one should take up more vegetables, whole grains, and high-fiber fruits. They should also ensure that the food they take looks and tastes good to avoid lack of appetite. Dehydration should be avoided because it affects the aging people. They should therefore drink plenty of fluids even when they are not thirsty. These people should not eat alone because their meals will not be enjoyable. They should therefore invite others for dinner to make the meal time a social event. It is also important for the aging people to exercise regularly in an activity, which they find enjoyable. However, they should not involve themselves in strenuous exercise because they are weak but they can begin with slow actions such as walking. The aging should ensure that they sleep well by ensuring that their bedrooms are dark, cool, and quiet. They should also develop a ritual such as playing music or taking a bath to soothe them to bed. Going to bed earlier also helps especially when one feels tired (Courtney, 2013).
The brain of an aging person should be active along with their body. Keeping one’s mind active prevents cases, such as memory problems and cognitive decline. To achieve this, one can try variations on what they know, such as games or puzzles. Engaging in something new each day also jogs one’s mind, as well as seeking to learn something new always (Courtney, 2013).
Future Directions and Recommendations
Joy is a vital ingredient of life and is very essential to the aging people. So in the process of aging, one should be involved in activities that they enjoy. These are activities, such as playing with one’s grandchildren, getting back to one’s neglected hobbies, learning new skills, such as games or instruments, and participating actively in community activities among other activities.
To avoid loneliness, one should always keep in touch with friends and family. He or she should also make new friends in life, as well as ensuring that they do not stay alone at any given time. In the aging process, individuals should also look for support groups, according to their conditions. For instance, those suffering from chronic illnesses should look for people with similar conditions to seek support.
Angel, L., & Hogan, P. (1999). The Demography of Minority Populations. Washington, DC: Gerontological Society of America.
Blackman, K., Kamimoto, A., & Smith, M. (2009). Overview: surveillance for selected public health indicators affecting older adultsUnited States. MMWR Surveillance Summaries , 48 (8), 1 6.
Charles, S., Reynolds, A., & Gatz, M. (2001). Age-related differences and change in positive and negative affect over 23 years”. 80 (1):. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 80 (1), 136151.
Courtney, C. (2013). How Health Declines with Age. Retrieved May 21, 2012, from National Institute on Aging: http://www.nber.org/bah/summer03/w9821.html
Harry, M. (2006). Aging: Concepts and Controversies. California: Pine Forge Press.
Masoro, J., & Austad, N. (2006). Handbook of the Biology of Aging. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
AGING AND HEALTH 12
Running head: AGING AND HEALTH