Why it is Important to Exercise and Eat Healthy to Live a Happy Life
Living a lifestyle whose aim is the ultimate wellness of any individual is important. Practices such as care for one’s health through regular exercises and a well-balanced diet help enhance happiness. Studies reveal that if an expectant mother undergoes stress, and engages in heavy drinking of alcohol or smoking of tobacco, the child may have devastating effects such as long life disability and other learning problem. The main objective of this paper is to conduct a study on the contributions of regular exercises and eating healthy to a happy life.
Importance of regular exercise and eating healthy foods
Regular workout is essential in controlling excess weight gain and maintaining a consistent weight loss. When one engages in any physical activity, he or she burns calories. The more intense the physical activity gets, the more calories this individual burns. There is need therefore for people to set aside a lot of time to reap from the benefits of weight loss. In as much as there is need to engage in intense physical activities; there are alternative ways through which any individual can lose weight gradually. These ways include taking the stairways rather than the elevator. One can also engage in household errands. The maintenance of ideal weight minimizes the risk of life long diseases such as diabetes (Mayo Clinic Staff para 1).
Other than exercising, eating healthy foods also contributes to weight loss, which is an essential ingredient towards an individual’s happiness. In circumstances where one is not overweight, studies have revealed that a healthy diet can help maintain his or her current weight and minimize the chances of gaining weight as he or she ages. Healthy foods generally have lower concentration of calories and a higher concentration of nutrients than other types of food (Schuna para 2).
Living a disease free life is one way of living a happy life. Regular physical exercises prevent heart diseases and the possibility of a high blood pressure. Despite of the weight of any individual, engaging in physical activities stimulates the concentration of high intensity lipoprotein, which is categorized among good cholesterols, which facilitate the reduction in the concentration of unhealthy triglycerides. A decrease of these unhealthy substances ensures a smooth flow of blood in the body hence decreasing a risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Furthermore, studies have revealed that engaging in regular exercises can help in the prevention of a wide range of health related problems and concerns such as stroke, depression, certain types of cancers and arthritis (Mayo Clinic Staff para 2 ). To ensure a disease free and a happy life, it is important for any individual to identify the types of food that are best placed to provide the necessary nutrients and vitamins. According to the US department of Health and Human Services, a healthy diet that protects the body from any form of illness comprises fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low fat dairy products and lean meat. Other than eating these foods, one must also minimize the consumption of salt, sugar, cholesterol and saturated fats. When individuals maintain this form of lifestyle then they reduce the risk of contracting life-threatening diseases. A disease free life means a happy and anxiety free life (Schuna para 1).
Regular exercises also provide the necessary emotional lift a workout at a gym or even a simple walk can be of great assistance. This is because these physical activities stimulate a variety of brain chemicals that arouse the body and leaves one feeling happy about their appearance. Through regular exercises, one boosts their personal confidence and individual self-esteem. Exercising goes beyond physical activities. Time taken exercising is in itself a vacation from work and any other to do list. One way by which an individual can exercise the brain is through meditation. Keeping appointment with the gym is a way by which one demonstrates that he or she is in control of the body. Once this is accomplished, an individual feel happy and proud of their lifestyle (Saroyan 1-2). A healthy lifestyle is not just defined by the deficiency of illnesses and diseases. It involves a multifaceted combination of an individual’s psychological, emotive and social health factors. This form of wellbeing shares a great connection with a happy life and the necessary satisfaction in life (Schuna para 3).
A healthy lifestyle according to emerging studies from neuroscientists and nutritionists show that by alternating the food an individual eats, he or she is able to stabilize his or her mood boosting the brain’s health. This way of eating the happiness diet includes the consumption of foods that are rich in vitamins, minerals and omega 3 fatty acids. These foods have a direct link with the areas of the brain that that enhance the ability to be happy. The first area is that which enhances the capacity to focus, think, plan and remember. These are foods for thought. The second type of food is for emotional regulation. These foods enhance good mood. The final type of food gives the brain a sense of ability and power through the control of anxiety and fatigue. These are energy giving foods. The happiness diet enhances mental well-being and maintains an individual’s happy mood (Graham & Ramsay para 1-3).
Regular exercises and eating of healthy foods also increase energy. When one engages in such a regular activity, he boosts the muscle strength and endurance. These exercises deliver sufficient oxygen and nutrients to the bodily tissues, which also helps the cardiovascular system to operate in an active and healthy manner. When the heart and lungs operate efficiently, one has more energy to engage in numerous activities with minimal chances of fatigue. An active body means an active brain and a happy life (Saroyan 2) (Mayo Clinic Staff para 2-3). According to a study by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, a combination of regular exercises and eating of healthy foods helps one feel more alert and aware about themselves and their surroundings. Happiness in life is realizable when the body functions at its best. This can be made possible when there is sufficient supply of nutrients and vitamins to every tissue in the body (Schuna para 3)
Regular exercises and eating of healthy foods are essential in leading a happy life. Exercise has been confirmed to reduce the risk of depression, lifelong illnesses and boosts metabolism. An individual who engages in regular exercises feels more awake. As he or she increase confidence and self-esteem, he enhances the chances of happiness. There is need for individuals to focus on the consumption of food that will quicken metabolism and maintain body energy. This is because unhealthy foods may result in life threatening illnesses such as cancer and obesity among other diseases. However, the consumption to healthy foods is vital for a diseases and stress free life hence important to the radiation of joy.
Graham, T & Ramsay, D. The Happiness Diet. Para 1-3. Retrieved on Nov 26, 2013 from
Mayo Clinic Staff, Exercise: 7 Benefits of Regular Physical Activity. Mayo Clinic, Fitness, para
1-4. Retrieved on Nov 26, 2013 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/exercise/HQ01676
Schuna, C. Importance of Exercising and Eating Healthy. Live strong Foundation, para 1-5,
2010. Retrieved on Nov 26, 2013 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/107269-importance-exercise-eating/
Saroyan, C. An Exercise in Happiness. Pp. 1-2. Retrieved on Nov 26, 2013 from
Genetically Modified Food
The production of genetically modified foods has been a controversial issue in the world. Many people, organizations, and governments have been against it, while others have embraced the production of such foods. Most of the people have little understanding of genetically modified organism and foods, which are often portrayed as dangerous to human health. The production of genetically modified food is widespread across the world and has been beneficial in several ways. This paper, therefore, seeks to explore the purpose of human-made genetic recombination in food, and evaluate whether taking such food risks the health and safety of humans. This paper also provides a list of foods resulting from genetic recombination, and explains the types of regulations that govern the production and consumption of these foods.
Genetically modified food is a food product derived in wholly or partly from Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) such as crop plants, animals, and microbes. The GMOs are plants or animals whose genetic makeup has been altered by scientists through the introduction of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from living organisms, bacteria or viruses belonging to different species with the aim of getting the desired trait such as resistance to drought.
Artificial genetic recombination in foods has resulted out of necessity due to increasing challenges facing the world production of food. One of these challenges was the increase in pests and diseases that negatively affected agricultural production across the world, thus, threatening global food security. Therefore, scientists had to come up with a long-term solution to reduce the vulnerability of crops and animals to pests and diseases with the aim of promoting global food production. The solution to this was altering the genes of these plants and animals with the DNA from different species that have high resistance to pests and diseases. The result of this scientific process was the production of plants and animals that are resistance to a variety of pests and diseases, which had been affecting agricultural production. Genetically modified foods are, therefore, safe from a variety of destructive pests and diseases, thus, require less pesticides and herbicides that are generally expensive.
The majority of the staple foods do not provide sufficient amounts of a nutrient that is essential in preventing malnutrition. Genetic recombination in food has become the best solution to malnutrition as it allows introduction of required vitamins, minerals and other important nutrients that are critical in preventing nutritional deficiencies, especially in developing countries (Bouis, 2007, p. 79-81). The nutritional value of genetically modified foods is, therefore, higher compared to the natural. Genetic recombination of foods has facilitated production of plants and animals that can withstand weather extremes. Global warming and climate change have caused and worsened drought situations in various parts of the world, thus affecting agricultural production adversely. Drought resistance crops and plants have been produced through genetic recombination, and their improved performance has led to increased productivity that is essential in ensuring affected populations are food secure. Foods with longer shelf life that taste better have been produced through genetic recombination of foods. This has reduced the wastage of foods due to spoilage. Genetic recombination has made it possible to produce foods with medicinal values. This has helped improve the health of many people, as they are able to boost their immune system without actually going to the hospital for medical checkups. World food supply has been increased to feed the ever-increasing world population through genetic recombination that has enabled the production of high yielding crops and fast growing animals (Borlaug, 2000, p. 487-490). Genetically modified have enabled the world to attain a relatively safe state of food security that could not have been attained by natural foods.
Most of the foods that contain genes resulting from artificial genetic recombination are safe for human consumption. This is because most of the DNA used in altering the genes of the host to attain the desired attribute comes from a variety of natural plant and animal species that humans often consume. The dangers are however that altering the genes contained in most foods have the potential of causing undesired consequences such as potential toxicity, especially when the scientific process of gene alteration is not guided by ethical principles (Uzogara, 2000, p. 185). Scientists often insert a marker gene that assists them in determining whether they have succeeded in introducing a new gene into the host DNA. A marker gene for resistance to particular antibiotics may accidentally enter the food chain and eventually end up in humans where it can compromise the immune system (Uzogara, 2000, p. 185). It can reduce the effectiveness of antibiotics and increase the risks of contracting human infectious diseases. Examples of foods that result from genetic recombination include corn, milk, zucchini, yellow squash, soy, canola oil, tomatoes, papayas, cottonseed oil and potatoes.
There are two types of regulations governing genetically modified foods. The first regulation of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) states that companies may consult FDA at least 120 days prior to releasing genetically modified foods into the market. The regulation, however, does not require companies to place labels on the packaging of genetically modified products, but prohibits providing false ingredient information on genetically modified food products. The second regulation gives FDA the authority to remove a genetically modified food from the market if it is proven harmful for human consumption. It is important to note that FDA treats genetically modified foods as ordinary foods, thus, considering them as generally safe unless they look distinctively different from their whole counterparts.
Borlaug, N. E. (2000). Ending world hunger. The promise of biotechnology and the threat of antiscience zealotry. Plant Physiology, 124(2), 487-490.
Bouis, H. E. (2007). The potential of genetically modified food crops to improve human nutrition in developing countries 1. Journal of Development Studies,43(1), 79-96.
Uzogara, S. G. (2000). The impact of genetic modification of human foods in the 21st century: A review. Biotechnology Advances, 18(3), 179-206.
GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD 4
Running head: GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD 1
Stephen Stansfeld and his colleagues are the authors of the academic journal about the issue of food from the surroundings and their effects on adolescent’s diet in London schools. The title of their journal is “Does the Local Food Environment around Schools Affect Diet, Longitudinal Associations in Adolescents Attending Secondary Schools in East London, which was published in the year 2013. The thesis for the journal suggested that the foods sold near the school compounds in London may affect the diet of the school children especially those going through their adolescence phase. The authors used peer reviewed sources, such as books, journals, periodicals and websites to support their work.
The argument in this journal article is logical because it follows a chronological sequence. The authors start by outlining the abstract, which gives an overview and background of the study. Then the methods used in the study are explained in grand details. The outcomes of the study done in the participant schools in London are then explained and they created a reasonable connection to the methods and the thesis of the work. The authors then conclude their work, connecting the thesis to the outcomes and by giving their stance on the issue of foods sold around school environments and their effects on school children. Key words in the study are well explained and the sources well cited.
The argument is convincing because the journal describes all the methods that were used to conduct the study. The authors have also used reliable references to support their work and the results are well elucidated. The authors concluded by stating that there were effects of foods sold outside the school compound on the diet of the adolescence students. This directly related to the thesis because their hypothesis turns out to bring positive results. However, the authors indicated that the effects may be small on the adolescent students (Stephen 8). The authors used Modern Language Association citation style for the study. They cited all the sources listed and included a work cited page for the bibliography.
Stephen Stansfeld, et al. “Does the Local Food Environment around Schools Affect Diet? Longitudinal Associations in Adolescents Attending Secondary Schools in East London.” BMC Public Health 13.1 (2013): 1-10. Academic Search Premier. Web. 25 Sept. 2013.
Effects of vegetarianism and strength conditioning
The effectiveness study of a vegetarian diet on strength training was needed to address concerns that this type of diet was inferior to its non-vegetarian counterpart. The study could further establish whether athletes subscribed to a given diet (vegetarian) enjoyed a comparative advantage over their peers on the alternative diet (non-vegetarian) (Ewan, 2002).
The results indicate that at the onset the endurance level of the non-vegetarian is negligibly higher. After three weeks, the vegetarian’s endurance level is shown to drop as that of the non-vegetarian increase. After six weeks, however the non-vegetarian’s level drops as that of the vegetarian increase. This implies that the type of diet indeed affects endurance in athletes and that in the end the difference is not significant. This also means that in competitive sports, those depend on strength and endurance, of the athlete would enjoy undue advantage brought about by their diets.
The results indicate that the vegetarian diet did not have a negative effect on strength. The linear graph however shows higher rates of increase in sprint power in the non-vegetarians. This is attributed to components in the diet that affect sprint capabilities. Intake of meat for example is shown to lead to greater muscle development. This means with respect to physical strength, the non-vegetarians would have an advantage over their vegetarian counterparts (Baguet et al., 2011).
Health benefits of a vegetarian diet have been indicated as well as its usefulness in endurance in addition to the fact that it has no effect on performance. This means it is a logical choice for any athlete who desires good health as well as maintaining their performance levels (Fuhrman & Ferreri, 2010)
The study however had major setbacks. It was necessary to match the foods from each diet in specific ratios that would yield the same energy. Getting the right ratio was reportedly difficult and the non-vegetarians for example took a higher dosage of dietary fibers and lower cholesterol as compared to the non-vegetarians. Secondly, the time duration was limited to six weeks and this was insufficient. It is shown that a study of this magnitude should have a minimum of twelve weeks for effective observation to be realized (Ewan, 2002).
Results from the Campbell study show that non-vegetarians did not grow stronger than the vegetarians did. A significant development in muscles was however observed. A different study which measured the aerobic ability, aerobic endurance and, muscle glycogen concentrations across the two diets showed there was no significant difference. In a related study, Thigh-muscle width, pulmonary function, and cardio-respiratory response were measured in a sample of women on the two different diets. The results indicated no difference (Bluejay, 2013)
Related studies show that vegetarians performed better in cardio-respiratory tests and they had more stamina. A particular study showed that sixty-nine percent of vegetarians in the sample could hold their arms out for longer (30minutes) compared to meat eaters who managed only fifteen minutes. The vegetarians also performed better in knee bends in the same study. In a separate study in which athletes on different diets run over five kilometers, no difference was reported. Other results indicate that vegetarians performed poorly in strength and explosive power tests. The debate concerning this topic continues therefore, there is need for more research that is conclusive (Bluejay, 2013)
Baguet, A., Everaert, I., De Naeyer, H., Reyngoudt, H., Stegen, S., Beeckman, S., & … Derave, W. (2011). Effects of sprint training combined with vegetarian or mixed diet on muscle carnosine content and buffering capacity. European Journal Of Applied Physiology, 111(10), 2571-2580.
Bluejay, M. (2013, Jul). Protein for strength and athletes. Retrieved Nov 30, 2013, from Vegetarian Guide: http://michaelbluejay.com/veg/protein-strength.html
Forbes-Ewan, C. C. (2002). Effect of vegetarian diets on performance in strength sports. Sportscience, volume 6, http://www.sportsci.org/
Fuhrman, J., & Ferreri, D. M. (2010). Fueling the Vegetarian (Vegan) Athlete. Current Sports Medicine Reports (American College of Sports Medicine), 9(4), 233-341.
EFFECTS OF VEGETERIANISM AND STRENGTH CONDITIONING 4
Running head: EFFECTS OF VEGETERIANISM AND STRENGTH CONDITIONING 1
Eating disorders are serious and complex physical and emotional addictions. If not treated in time, they can result in physical problems, mood swings, and a possible death (Chiu 18). Eating disorders comprise various conditions that include being obsessed with weight, food, and the appearance of a person to the extent that the daily activities and health of an individual are largely affected. It is true that anxiety can cause an eating disorder. Individuals who experience both eating and anxiety disorders are more likely to develop compulsive rituals interrelated to food, such as binge eating. Such individuals may also be very anxious of checking their body shapes or themselves in the mirror following meals (Walsh and Vinn 94). Evidence also indicates that posttraumatic and social anxiety disorders are popular among individuals who have an eating disorder (Walsh and Vinn 67). Depression has an impact on anorexia, which is a common eating disorder. Research indicates that individuals who are depressed and have an eating disorder are more likely to commit suicide. This is because these individuals do not eat enough food that can help them maintain a healthy weight (Chiu 36). This may also have effects on the treatment of eating behaviors because it is very challenging to offer treatment for eating and anxiety disorders. It is not a guarantee that when one recovers from one disorder, he will also recover from the other. Treatment may entail looking at factors that may underlie depression and find out the necessary skills that can help in handling the stress. Research indicates that combining two treatments can only be effective for panic and anxiety disorder (Walsh and Vinn 102). On the other hand, an eating disorder may force an individual to manage their nutrition and go for counseling, which may also be useful in managing depression.
Chiu, Christina. Eating disorder survivors tell their stories. New York: Rosen Pub. Group, 1998. Print.
Walsh, Timothy and Vinn Cameron. An Eating Disorder. Oxford University Press, 2005. Print.
Based on the client’s profile, the BMI is generated by dividing the weight by the square of the height. This will give a BMI of 23.7
Being an active male at 55 years of age with a 20 % body fat, the client requires fitness methods that are close to his golf sport. The game involves a lot of walking and with the additional weight of the golf bag and iron clubs, a cardiovascular test will provide a good foundation to measure his progress throughout the program. It will also be important to measure his strength since golf requires proper grips, lots of stability and power to control the swings. In addition, a measure of the client’s flexibility through a sit and stretch test should be taken to determine the range of motion so that it remains consistent with the strength and skill to avoid injuries of the spine, shoulders and back. Due to his age, additional tests of his blood pressure will give an indicator on how to modify the training program.
For this client, a 12-week fitness program should involve 3training days a week for the first month with exercises of the arms and chest on Mondays, those of the core and lower body on Wednesdays and those of the back and shoulders on Fridays. In the second month, the client should carry out the exercises for three consecutive from Monday every week without skipping a day like in the first month, skip Thursday and train on Friday while engaging in more cardio stretches and squats. In the final month, the client should train continuously from Monday to Friday.
The client’s diet will only require minor adjustments and he may take supplements if need be. He should take the recommended three meals a day with two small snacks between the meals. He can also take in vitamin supplements daily and fish oil especially for lubrication of joints if he chooses to use supplements.
Two Methods of Weight Loss
Today, people are watchful of their weight; many want to be picture perfect. From children, it is the desire of everyone to be a prince or a princess and slim is a feature in this one. People have the notion that slim and trim people look good. In the US, approximately 650 out of 1000 people suffer from overweight or obesity. In term of healthy, it means they are at a higher risk of suffering life threatening diseases like diabetes, heart related diseases and even cancer. The overweight people are also more likely to suffer from discrimination in their place of work and from the society. Almost all specialists have the same opinion that obesity pandemic is increasing at a higher rate (Densie, p.1).
What are the factors that are contributing to this epidemic? According to nutritionists, the eating habits have changed and its one of the major causes of obesity. Because of this, those suffering from being overweight are struggling to lose weight with some using dangerous methods. So, what can and should one do to avoid being obese or coming out of the epidemic in a safer way? The answer is simple if one follows two methods. This paper analyzes two methods on how one can lose weight: Exercising often and Healthy eating.
There are many reasons or factors that cause obesity including poor dieting, laziness, being preoccupied with career, or the lifestyle of one’s family. All these can cause one to forget or ignore their physical fitness. For one to be able to maintain a healthy body and to have a prolonged life, doing exercises should be a major issue and should be a lifestyle for everyone. Exercises help the body to burn fat and calories by increasing the rate of metabolism. It also helps the body organs to function better and to strengthen muscles. There are various ways of doing exercises. One can walk the family dog outdoor regularly, cycling to school or to the place of work, walking home from the place of work, or going to the gym.
For those who do not have time to visit gyms due to their busy career, one can opt to take the stairs up to a couple of floors instead of taking the usual ride in an elevator. This will make one’s body to be active hence a higher rate of metabolism. However, the question arises; are all exercises healthy? Sometimes, exercise can be frustrating if one does not approach it in the right manner. Some of the overweight people who have decided to lose weight do too much in the beginning especially when they visit the gym.
Doing extreme exercises or starting on a high note can be a perilous way of reducing weight and can discourage someone and cause one to quit. The best way to do exercises is going simple for healthier results without forcing the body to lose weight faster. Doing regular exercises goes beyond losing weight loss. It reduces the risk of developing heart diseases and other cardiovascular illnesses as well as osteoporosis. It is a good idea for one to select the type of exercises that one has interest in to minimize any chance of quitting early. When one exercises without taking the appropriate diet, the effectiveness of the exercising routine toward losing weight can be jeopardized greatly.
The road to reducing weight starts by one embracing the fact that having a proper healthier diet is essential and it is important for whoever wishes to lose weight to take a healthy diet to achieve the goal. Eating food that has few or no calories, but have high nutritional value is a faster way to reduce weight. However, what does healthy food intake mean? Eating healthy does not mean that one should reduce the amount of food one takes per day. Instead, it means that one is supposed to take enough food that ensures the body gets what is required for it to carry out its daily activities and functions at an optimum rate. The intake of more vitamins, minerals alongside other vital nutrients helps the digestive system to function properly.
According to the department of health and human services, women can eat as low as 100 calories in a day while men can take 1200 calories for one to reduce weight at a safer rate. If one is able to cut an approximate of 1000 calories daily from the diet, this can be an equivalent of reducing 2 pounds of weight in a week (Gary). One can consult a nutrition specialist for the best practices on how to manage meals and what one should consume. Other than just keeping one’s body in shape, proper diet improves the immune system. Apart from the two ways, there are other ways of reducing weight but some are not recommended and can have side effects in the long run.
Some people who want to lose weight use dangerous methods. For people who need a short cut to losing weight, they use diet pills. Diets pills can be either a diuretic or a stimulant. Diuretics cause the body to lose water, which can be dangerous to the functioning of body organs. The stimulant speeds up the rate of metabolism temporarily. One example is the Maqui-6 Formula that is said to have a high amount of Maqui Berry. Maqui Berry has dominant fat fighting features and it increases the rate of metabolism. It also reduces one’s appetite and fat cell size and number. This is against the healthy way, which discourages pill intake and encourages intake of fruits, vegetables, vitamins, minerals, and fiber. The other dangerous way is starvation or skipping some meals. Skipping meals makes one to feel hungry in that one eats more than enough for the body, which is a catalyst to obesity. Starvation causes headaches, fainting, atrophy of muscles, body weakness, and abdominal anxieties.
In conclusion, diet and exercises are two methods that can effectively help one to reduce weight. Both of them can be beneficial in the management of one’s weight. Reasonable exercises alongside a good nutritious diet, work well when they are incorporated together into a weight reduction program. It is advisable for everyone to use the recommended ways of weight loss. Over straining when doing exercise is not advisable and regular exercises are the best way to go. Exercises and good dietary practices not only help in reducing weight but also keep one’s body healthy and strong. Starvation as way of reducing weight is not a good idea and can lead to increased calorie intake rather than weight reduction. Similarly, the weight reducing pills are not the best way.
Densie, Webb. (n.d). Top Two Ways to Lose Weight. 1-3. Retrieved from.
Gary, Smith L. (n.d). Rapid Weight Loss Diet.
TWO METHODS OF WEIGHT LOSS 6
Running head: TWO METHODS OF WEIGHT LOSS 1
Question (a) Choose either B.R. or P.S. to be your client this week. What would you assess or speculate as a possible provisional (working) diagnosis for your client? Why?
Answer: I choose to analyze B.R as my client. B.R seem to suffer cormobidity of Eating Disorders EDs, inclduding bulimia nervosa and anorexia narvosa. B.R is preoccupied with diet and body image, as she weighs extremely light for her height and uses make-up to achieve self-esteem. It appears when the client express tendency to eat excess cookies and biscuits; she tries to offset this drive by taking amphetamine-like substances, and achieve the so-called ideal size; thinness. Stricker & Vidiger (2003, p. 118) argues that extreme dieting leads to perfectionism, self-criticism reward dependence in AN-prone individuals, which is the case with B.R. who achieves straight A in her studies. She is preoccupies herself in personal studies in her room while away from school.
Question (b) How would you describe your hypothesis or operating perspective of the biopsychosocial influences in the context of your client. Why?
Answer: The client lives during a time when society overvalues thinness and connects body image to general self-esteem. Her overuse of make-ups attests of her desire to boost self-esteem, as she appears to have low self-esteem given that she does not have close friends or a date. B.R attempts also to offset her self-image deficiency by indulgence in extreme dieting and pathological eating habits, as mentioned.
Particularly, the popular culture that glorifies celebrities with ideally thin bodies appears to influence, adversely B.R., given that she is a freshman and a woman. Women especially regard seriously the perspective of the society concerning ideal person’s body image or conduct. The client seems obsessed of meeting the ideal image of a modern woman, thin and contoured body. She goes to extreme to ensure that she does not put on extra pounds by taking laxatives, and enemas secretly to purge following a meal, characteristic of bulimia nervosa (BN). In addition, she exhibits anorexia nervosa through her tendency to limit her food intake using amphetamine-like substance, and fear of gaining weight (Rosen, Reiter, & Orosan, 1995, p. 78).
Question (c) Any other insights, reactions, or thoughts?
Answer. The role played by parental pressure in eating disorders is often overlooked, and B.R case seems to highlight it adequately. Parental over-control while in itself is insufficient to account for development of ED, might exacerbate dieting from moderate to extreme in weight-conscious teens. Moreover, the adolescent antagonism of parental overprotection might mobilize adversely intrusive overreactions on the side of the parent or guardian. Stricker and Vidiger (2003, p. 188) hypothesize that the teen’s further antagonism would be expressed towards an increasing parental intrussiveness followed by aggressive opposition on the side of the affected adolescent. Importantly, self starvation appears to be employed as a weapon in such context.
Rosen, J. C., Reiter, J., & Orosan, P. (1995). Assessment of Body Image in Eating Disorders with the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination. Behavior Research and Therapy, 33 (1), 77-84.
Stricker, G., & Vidiger, T. A. (2003). Handbook of Psychology, Clinical Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Running head: DB3 1
Food Faddism and Fad Diets
Fad diet is term that is subjective to various diverse definitions across countries and cultures. It’s often used to deride what is mostly considered to be a poor weight loss diet especially in developed countries where obese is a great challenge. However a general definition of fad diet is what is commonly referred to a weight loss diet which gains popularity very quickly and consequently may fall out of favor as quickly as it gained favor (Ohsawa, 2009,p. 6).
An example of fad diet is what is commonly referred as Macrobiotic Diet. Macrobiotic is a Greek work that refers to long life. The founders of the diet believed that by adopting simple diet, it’s the secret to living a health long life. The successful plan of this diet includes ten progressive and restrictive stages. Macrobiotics’ last stage includes intake of rice and water only.
However research of Ohsawa’s version of macrobiotic is highly disputed and discouraged by macrobiotic diet counselors due to its extreme restrictions (Aveline, 2012, p. 11). This version was also disputed by Michio Kushi who expanded further on Ohsawa’s macrobiotic diet in 1978. I once tried this diet for a period of ten weeks and at the end of it, my health status was not changed if not worse as I anticipated and held high optimism on the diet. Therefore it can be concluded that fad diets do not in any way improve the health status of an individual in the long run especially if taken exclusively with all their limitations. This is evident from its deficiencies in vitamin B12, calcium, proteins and magnesium which results to insufficient energy in the body due to low level of protein in the body and other essential nutrients (Kushi & Jack, 1997, p. 24).
Aveline, K. (2012). Macrobiotics Dietary Recommendations, New York: NY, Routledge
Kushi, M., & Jack, A. (1997). Macrobiotic Diet, Japan Publications, Inc.
Ohsawa, G. (2009). Macrobiotics: An Invitation to Health and Happiness, George Ohsawa Macrobiotics
Running Head: FAD DIETS 2
Attitudes towards Pizza
The modern-day man loves sophistication not just in the technological field but in all aspects of his life. There is an attraction and value that is placed towards faster and cost-efficient products or services for that matter. What I find striking is the fact that this tendency has encroached on the very basics of life such as feeding habits. It therefore comes as no surprise when pizza is voted as a favorite meal by a majority of individuals. I don’t refute the fact that pizza is delicious, but the reliance on this for our dietary needs comes with repercussions. Although eating pizza comes with its benefits, the negative implications of doing so have far-reaching consequences such that a reduction in pizza consumption is warranted.
It is said that time is money, and that time wasted can never be recovered. This is a phrase that is always used as a justification for the consumption of pizza by many who consider pizza as heaven-sent. True to that, pizza is an example of a fast-food thus can be obtained and consumed in a very short while as the name fast food suggests. That pizza consumption greatly saves on time that would otherwise be spent cooking meals is a fact that is undeniable. All it takes for one to partake in a pizza is to walk in and out of a fast-food restaurant. Compare this to the amount of time required to shop for groceries and food stuff coupled with the time taken to prepare a meal and it becomes rather obvious that pizza eating is preferable.
Not only does pizza-eating save time, but it also requires less effort which makes it an option that is hard to ignore. To add onto this, pizza is available almost everywhere, making it a very convenient choice for many who do not want to go through the trouble of having to drive or walk far for food. Fast food restaurants offering pizza are found almost everywhere in big cities. These more often than not offer take away services, where pizzas are bought on the go. Comparing this with other restaurants that serve less processed cooked food which require that an individual has to park for a while, one cannot be blamed for opting to take pizza. Pizza therefore becomes an option for many who are on transit as it is always available in a very short time making it convenient for travelling. Not forgetting the fact that pizza is very tasty, I find it an uphill task trying to convince the pizza faithful individual otherwise. Never the less, I will make points to justify my stance.
Pizza contains a lot of fat to begin with. Most people while eating pizza have a soda by the side, a drink that contains a lot of sugar. These alone cannot be enough to provide for our dietary needs, but they are the ones that most people rely on. This consequently has an impact on the health of individuals, with risk factors for complications such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease found to be on the increase as a result of high intake of fats and sugars in diets. Excessive weight gain has become a major problem in the current society, a direct consequence of the eating habits that are high in fats and sugars (Swinburn et al., 124)
BMI refers to a calculation that is used to determine whether an individual is overweight or obese. Foods such as the uptake of pizza and soda that contain high fat causes higher BMI in people, causing high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels, hypertension and low HDL cholesterol levels. These further increase risk factors for diseases such as stroke and heart disease (Swinburn et al., 124). These problems in combination have become major causes of morbidity and mortality among populations, hence an obstacle to the realization of the full productivity potential of a people.
The health implications that come with such eating habits as eating of pizza and soda, or any other fast food that contains high fat for that matter, are so devastating that care should be taken so as not to consume a lot of it. I am not in any way implying that pizza and other fast foods should not be eaten at all. Rather, I am making a plea to those of us in the society who are relying on pizza to provide for their dietary needs to take a step back. I agree that fats and sugars form an important part of our meals, but taking them in excess is detrimental to health. Some would argue that there are certain types of pizza that are made from vegetables, hence can be a source of vitamins, minerals and other nutrients usually obtained from vegetables. They however do not contain these nutrients in the same proportions as those found in vegetables, hence cannot in any way substitute for the traditional vegetable meals. Having said that much, I hold the opinion that though loved by many, pizza can be a source of health complications and as such should be eaten sparingly.
Swinburn, et al. Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Excess Weight Gain and Obesity.
Public Health Nutrition 7. 1A(2004): 123-146