Five Percent Rap
Rap music came into the scene in 1979 after Disco jockeys (DJs) started showcasing their style in mixing music in nightclubs. The DJs could mix the music using two or more gadgets and therefore moved from one gadget to another to give the crowd a blend of flavor. The DJs later introduced words of their own in the music to direct the crowd or instruct the crowd to dance to a certain tune. As the responsibilities of the DJs grew, the Masters of Ceremonies (MCs) were introduced in dance halls. MCs assumed the responsibilities of talking to the crowd when the music was playing. As a result, Rap was born. Musicians in the early 1980s used the platform of Rap to pass their message.
The rappers distinguished themselves as teachers of the society through the same. Among the groups that took to rap as the best music for them is Five Percent group. Five Percent Nation is a group formed in 1964 by Clarence 13X. The group broke away from Islam citing lack of deeper teachings in Islam. The founder of the group believes that 10% of wise people in the world have chosen to hide the truth from uninformed 85%. As a result, the five percent remaining, which is the group in focus, have resolved to teach the truth.
The Five Percent’s way of life and music was based on the teachings of Clarence 13X. He taught his members 120 lessons about their nature as Gods. He claimed that human beings were like God and therefore, were Gods. Clarence further taught women followers that they were like the planet earth. He argues that it is from the planet earth in which God produces life meaning that women are instruments for producing children and are therefore, like the planet earth. Clarence further taught supreme mathematics where numbers have a divine connection. The teachings of the Five Percent form the basis of their rap music. The supreme mathematics and alphabet involves assigning some meanings to the Latin alphabet and their corresponding numerals. This means that a certain phrase in Five Percent’s rap conveys a deeper meaning.
In early 1980s, the Five Percent Nation’s teaching was boosted by the rise of the hip hop music. The group adopted a rap style in hip hop and used the same to spread their teachings. Since hip hop was championing for the rights of Blacks, Five Percent Nation took the same opportunity to champion for the position of the Blacks. The group claimed that Blacks were Gods and has the potential to transform themselves by believing in the power within them. Hip hop MCs such as Wu-Tung clan, Eric B, and Big Daddy Kane among many infused teachings and symbolisms of five percent in their lyrics and videos. The rap conscious era of 1990s saw five percent nation gain ground through their rap.
Five Percent’s rap employs supreme alphabet to come up with their rhymes. The technique of five percent’s lyrics manipulates the acronyms, acrostics, and backronyms to create a rhyme with a deep meaning. The lyrics further utilize symbols such as moon, star, and sun to create rhymes and bring out deeper meaning. The teachings of the group, which has been propagated through their rap styled music, has been criticized and even banned for promoting violence and criminal activities. Although the group owes most of its practices to Islamic culture, it does not acknowledge religion. Rap music in the context of Five Percent Nation is a means of propagating heavy message from a hidden culture that can be dangerous and at times informative.
Baroque Art: Comparison of Diego Velazquez and Rembrandt
The Baroque is an artistic style period that was characterized heavily by application of motion combined with clear and easily interpreted detail to produce artistic work. The art produced during this time included music, dance, literature, architecture, sculpture, and painting. The Baroque art form started in Rome and spread to other parts of Europe. The Roman Catholic Church was very influential in the success of the Baroque art style. The role of the Church was driven by the fact that faced with opposition from the Protestant Reformation, the Church wanted to use art to teach religious themes to the masses in an emotional outlook. Art was commissioned by the Church to communication religious sentiments in an emotional and direct approach. Another entity that was critical in the development of Baroque art was the aristocracy, which employed Baroque art as a way of make an impression on visitors. The aristocracy also used Baroque art as a means of showing visitors that they had control, power, and were triumphant. This led to the construction of Baroque palaces in the vicinities of court entrances, reception rooms, and grand staircases with increased opulence. There are many renowned Baroque artists. This paper will compare the works of two renowned Baroque artists; Diego Velazquez and Rembrandt.
Diego Velazquez and Rembrandt
Diego Velazquez was a renowned Spanish painter. He was the head artist in the court of King Philip IV. He is recognized as one of the most renowned painters during the Spanish Golden Age. His work characterized by being an individualistic artist of the contemporary Baroque art and he was famed for his portrait paintings. His lines of works include scores of the royal family, commoners, and influential European figures. His most famous work is Las Meninas, which was completed in the year 1656. His works would later be of profound influence on the impressionists and realist painters of the first quarter of 19th century. His noted for being a role model figure to Edouard Manet. From that time on, many modern renowned artists such Francis Bacon, Salvador Dali, and Pablo Picasso have paid tribute to Velazquez through the recreation of numerous of his works.
Rembrandt Rijn was a Dutch etcher and painter. He is renowned as one of the most influential painters and printmakers in Europe. He is also considered the most important painter in the Dutch history. His contribution to art came to prominence when the Netherlands was enjoying great cultural achievement and wealth. This period is commonly referred to as the Dutch Golden Age, a time when Dutch Golden Age painting was very innovative and prolific in the European society. However, it is critical to note that the Dutch art was not as antithetical as the Baroque style in numerous ways. However, Rembrandt enjoyed great success with his art works. Rembrandt enjoyed great success as a youthful painter of portraits. However, his prime years were marred by various tragedies and financial hardships. This did not have any negative effect on his works which continued to maintain their popularity. His reputation has remained high even though marred by his tragedies. His self-portraits have been recognized intimate and unique biography through which Rembrandt weighed himself with complete sincerity and utmost absence of vanity.
Velazquez and Rembrandt were influential artists during their times. They both were active during the 1600s and had distinct art work styles. During their lifetime, they were both known for their expression of love for artwork. Rembrandt was made famous for his self-portraits, which were used for self-survey. Velazquez was renowned for his portraits of royalties. However, the two have been noted for their inclination towards religion in their art works. However, despite the two artists’ similarities, they also had some extraordinary differences in their works.
Velazquez and Rembrandt are known to have painted distinctively. Their styles were unmistakable, precise, and exact. Rembrandt distinctiveness was from his habit of sketching his paintings with all his impressions. Rembrandt is known for his predominant use of reed pen, quill, black chalk, and red chalk ink. However, some works have been reported to have been done using washes and brush. His etchings were created to be romantic and extremely realistic pictures, in which he primarily used oils. Yellow and red colors were particularly used in his military images. The landscapes were very romantic and real. In his landscapes, he predominantly applied drawings and etchings, which had the effect of creating a landscape that was real. However, as he grew in his profession, he adopted other techniques that were very influential in complimenting his mastery in painting. For instance, he is known to have used heavy impasto, broken color’s passages, and bold strokes. The heavy impastos were applied using a palette knife. Rembrandt is also known to have combined brushwork with pen strokes.
Velazquez on the other hand is considered to be one of the perfect symbols of the Spanish Baroque. His emphasis changed from renaissance characteristics of mathematical perspective and bright light. This was in line with the requirements of Baroque art, which favored the essence of humanity in arts through portrayal of how things should be viewed by people. Baroque also demanded that shadow of objects should be incorporated in works of art, as this is how the naked eye of a person should view a shadow. This effect was one of the masterpieces of Velazquez. Velazquez is also a well-qualified Italian realist, a quality that was derived from his training with Pacheco as his apprentice. Some of his works later works seems to have veered towards the naturalist take on matters, a notable example being The Epiphany (1619), where he recreates a famous scene with members of his family rather than the traditional recreation using images of Jesus and Mary. His was also heavily influenced by the great masters of Venice, which became apparent in his color use. This is well documented in his works such as Surrender of Breda (1635).
One of the factors that can be used to contrast between Rembrandt and Velazquez is their self-portrait. This is very critical in drawing the differences between the two famous artists. Rembrandt was recognized as being very fond of his self-portraits. His collection of self-portraits ranging from 1629 to 1670 portrays a man who has gone through many changes. The self portraits range from a thin young man to a sturdy man within a forty years period. His self-portraits have been identified as having been approached with no presence of vanity, but contained 100% sincerity. This can be said to portray the character traits of Rembrandt as being a man who did not posses any form of vanity even in his depictions of what was going on in the society during that time. It has been verified that Rembrandt applied self-portraiture to honestly track his talent and appearance. However, self-portraits also offered the artist an opportunity of tracking down his inner concerns and turmoil.
One the other hand, Velazquez applied his portraiture in a different way. One of his most notable self-portraits is Maids of Honor, which was applied by the artist to elevate the status of the painters. This was achieved through using self-portraits to promote the status of painters from mere menial stature of manual laborers to people who were of higher status. Velazquez may be seen as an artist who used his masterly of painting to be included in the higher classes of the society. For example, his Maids of Honor has been recognized as a piece of work that had the primary objective of enabling him to be admitted to the Knights of Santiago. This piece of work was considered successful because he was admitted to the Knights of Santiago. He later painted the cross of the order onto the court chamberlain outfit that he had initially painted himself in.
Although the two artists had different approaches to art, their influence on arts has continued to be felt even today. Both artists had a masterly of painting various portraits, which have enabled the portraits to be studied to compare and contrast them. During their time, Baroque was the trend in art. These artists have played a critical role in ensuring that the trend continued to be very influential in the art field even in the future art fields.
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Different kinds and types of music are played and listened to by many from across the world. Certain types of music are associated by certain people depending on some factors. The factors could be the location on the globe or even the surrounding environment. The availability of music in different types done by different persons is a driving factor towards sharing music. Sharing is done mostly through live concerts by performing artists or groups of artists, in and sometimes out of their country. In this way, people learn and appreciate music done by people of different cultures.
The concert lasted for two days but I only managed to attend the second day, that is, on a Sunday afternoon from 12:30p.m to 4:30pm in the month May at Phoenix. Apart from the music performance, ethnic food and drinks were made available for anyone who was willing to purchase. By buying either the ethnic food or refreshments that were available, one would have contributed towards a donation as well as settling his or her curiosity about certain traditional foods and refreshments. The event was named Sacred Worship.
Mathis performed kora solos.The solos were African so rich of the African culture and one could tell by everyone’s reaction that they were totally new to the People of the United States of America. This made the concert even more live and interesting.At some point during the concert, a middle aged man joined one of the performers on stage and danced to the music.
Some of the most outstanding features of the concert were its uniqueness in as much as the musical instruments used are concerned. During one of the performances, no musical instrument was used at all but the message was clearly communicated to the audience. One of the ways in which the group used to avoid the use of the rather common musical instrument was by the use of rhythmic voicing patterns. There was variation in terms of the pitch and tone by each of the members. Some used deep voices; others employed the use of soprano and alto resulting in a very ear-catching sound. I heard two pieces of this type of performance and both were breathtaking.
Since the concert was spiritual, the artists who performed were believers from the church. The main reason for limiting the concert to this particular genre of music was it was a religious activity aimed at worshipping. Musical instruments were also used in another performance for example clap sticks. The audience was moved by the performance prompting the artists to perform much better.
The live concert drew the attention of different kinds of persons and they all enjoyed. The audience was composed of both blacks and whites who felt so much at home from their reactions. They clearly understood what live performances entailed, for example, the use of non-verbal expressions, and body movement among others to draw the attention of the audience.
The fact that the performance touched on the African culture was intriguing. It appreciated the cultural diversity of human beings. The appreciation of different cultures from different parts of world showed that human beings are equal and one, regardless of their geographical location. It was a thanksgiving celebration that was attended by many people, and the intended goal of giving thanks to God in the form of praise and worship was achieved.
Marketing plan for Maximum Music Stores
This marketing plan details the process a retail music store called Maximum Music Store’ will use to market audio and video music CDs in London, England. The plan targets a youthful market segment in London, which is more than a million in size. The study identified that about 41% of more than $17 billion expenditure of this population segment is channeled in the entertainment industry, whereby products from music stores are top priorities.
There are several dealers in the Music Industry, but they are not as close as possible to the customers and thus students waste more than an hour locating a music store. At the same time, the dealer’s prices are slightly a dollar or more above the ideal market prices. In addition, there are no provisions for reselling used Music DVDs, CDs. Buying used music, and reselling it ensures conservation of environment among other benefits. This marketing plan seeks to fill these gaps. The company targets its sales to be $115265 at break-even point. However, if it maintains the sales at $81,000 per month as projected, the company will break even during the third month
The music retail industry is a tricky venture, but at the same time profitable, if a proper marketing plan is used. A marketing plan provides directions for any business venture intending to introduce a product on the market. For the case of a Music business, a proper marketing plan provides direction for effective exploitation of the available market. This marketing plan details the process a retail music store called Maximum Music Store’ will use to effectively market audio and video music CDs in London, England. The music industry is affected by various factors, both external and internal as analyzed in this section.
Politics can favor or disfavor the establishment of any business. Since the political climate is volatile, any business establishment has to be on the lookout for any changes and adjust accordingly. For Maximum Music store, the political environment favors its establishment because the current legislations favor the growth and promotion of the music industry. According to Pinkerton and Dodds (2009), England has a relatively stable political climate, and thus, the Maximum Music Store will thrive effectively.
Microeconomics factors in England favor the establishment of the music store. Students are given a loan that incorporates some extra money for entertainment. At the same time, the hospitality industry provides part time employment for most students, implying that students have access to resources, and thus, can spend some money on entertainment (Keightley, 2004).
The social factors centers on cultural and demographic aspects in the music industry. Inside the institutions in London, most of the population is youthful, which is the target of this plan. The young population aged between 16 and 35 spend about 40% of their earnings on entertainment, and thus, they are the target of this plan (Sloane, Gunasekara, & Wilson, 2013).
The technology in the Music industry is on the steady rise. Since the introduction of Mp3 gadgets, music industry has been revolutionized. Most people prefer music on Mp3s because they are durable and can carry more than 100 songs. The current development in the industry has seen the introduction of digital recording. In this case, music production is becoming cheaper and this favors the Maximum Music Store (Keightley, 2004). The organization has an opportunity of adjusting its technology of recording to keep up with the pace of technology in the music industry.
Porter’s Five Forces Applied to the Business
There are various competitive forces applied to the industry. They include power of supplier, buyers’ powers, competitive rivalry, threat of new entry, and threats of substitution.
Threats of new entry
Presence of free music downloads on the Internets is the biggest threat to the survival of the business. However, the number of free music downloads is limited and most of the sites require one to subscribe.
Threats of substitution
The only substitutes for this product are live events held every weekend whereby most of the songs are sung during the live shows and recorded. However, this serves as a marketing event for the benefit of the organization.
Students have a limited budget and thus they are concerned with prices. At the same time, music is not a basic need and thus they may do away with it if it is costly. As a result, Maximum Music Stores will use price reduction strategy to attract them.
Suppliers of Music are many. There are over 5000 artists competing for a limited market. This means suppliers have little bargaining power.
According to Spartan press (2013), there are several music dealers on the streets of London, and the main dealer is Warner Bros Music Company. The Warner Bros sale and record music but have no provision for buying and reselling used DVDs and CDs. In addition, they have no provision for one to write his or her music. In addition, they are located at a relatively long distance from campuses. They sell DVDs at $12 each and CDs at $10 each. They have multiple stores and provision for online purchase.
The business will offer varieties of music at a competitive price because of recording technology.
The business will be based within the premises of the customers
Competitive product differentiation
Restricted channels of distribution and thus small market coverage
The business has an opportunity of extending to the market coverage to the entire country and beyond
The business unit can capitalize on moving the markets to public functions, such as church meetings and weddings.
There are chances of venturing into e-commerce because music business can be conducted online effectively.
New players, including the students, are likely to enter into the business, thereby providing high competition.
With the advancement of technology, many people may prefer to download music from the internet, and this is likely to affect the sales.
Researching Market Opportunities and Market Potential
The aim of the Maximum music store is to become the leader in the music retail business in England and Europe at large. However, this depends on a strategic marketing process that may be achieved through consideration of market research. To reach the right market, the company will consider SMART marketing strategies. The company will adhere to the copyright laws in its music deals, as it does not intend to get into trouble with the law.
To effectively venture into the market, the company will carry out a comprehensive marketing research. The research will be carried out in the in top universities in London, specifically in Uxbridge, West London. This part of the city has several universities and the largest one is Brunel University that has a student population of more than 20,000 ( Brunel University, 2013). The research will investigate the taste of Music whereby it will explore the type of music, artists, and movies preferred by the students. At the same time, the research will seek to identify strategies used by competitors and ways of countering the competition. The market research will take into considerations primary data obtained through interviews in randomly selected sample population.
Market Segmentation, Product Differentiation, and Positioning
The marketing plan for Maximum Music stores targets the elite section of a youthful population in London. In this case, university students will be targeted. Among the customers, the company will target three categories. In the first place, DVD and CD renters will be segmented. It has been established that most young people do not like storing music CDs and DVDs in their homes (Keightley, 2004).
This is because new forms of music are produced regularly whereas the older ones are phased out. The second segment involves a category of customer who prefers buying and selling used music videos. Maximum Music Stores will ensure students who store used CDs and DVDs they do not like find a market for them. At the same time, the category of people willing to buy used music will obtain them at a cheaper price. The third category is the segment of customers willing to customize their DVDs and CDs. In this case, the Maximum Music Stores will give this segment a chance to record music of their taste. The available services do not give customers such provisions (Sloane, Gunasekara, & Wilson, 2013).
Maximum Music Stores are not common within Uxbridge, West London. The store will advance a number of bands in its neighborhood, giving priority to the upcoming ones, and seeking to develop them. This organization will mostly deal with music done by bands who will be recruited into the organization and develop their productions. This is to appeal to such bands, giving them a special attention to feel appreciated and promoted. This music store is intended to handle several genres of music, including gospel, pop, rhythm and blues, rock, and jazz. The main purpose of this store is to provide products that entertain people within and without the country. To ensure that revenue is increased, the organization will increase its competition rate and create lucrative places with music recorded in Combact Disks, cassette tapes, and vinyl albums. Income will also be generated through videos, merchandising, concert promotions, and distribution. The recorded music will be played through the support of television sets. In the production process, emphasis will be put on aural, visual, and conceptual videos.
The company will position itself in the market as a solution to the problems students face when using and searching for music. In the first place, it will bring products near to the people and thus it will solve the problem of distance. Second, the business will give students to record their own music, or create a custom CD or DVD. Thereafter, the organization will seek to develop the market.
To develop its market, the Maximum Music store will first penetrate the market. Penetration will take into considerations various strategies, such as reduction in prices and competitive product. Thereafter, the company will increase its sales to the acquired customers, strive to convert those who are not customers, and obtain more customers from competitors. The company will further modify its product, depending on the market and technological condition in an effort to maintain its market orientation.
The company will diversify to guarantee its sustenance. It will form joint ventures with leading companies, such as Sony, to venture into new ventures, such as recycling of used DVDs and CDs from customers. This will ensure that the company diversifies its revenue base.
Statement of Marketing Strategy and Goals
According to the study done by Keightley (2004), students in tertiary institutions spend about $16 billions every year on shopping in local retail stores in London. About 41% of this expenditure is channeled in the Entertainment industry. In the recent survey done by Butler (2012), it was established that spending behaviors among the students has not changed considerably in the last decade because they still hold entertainment high on their spending priorities. As a result, most of them spend their money on movies, music CDs and DVDs. Another study by Sloane, Gunasekara, and Wilson (2013) identified that students in England waste a considerable time in locating a retail music store. About an hour is spent on walking on the street to identify a music store. This marketing plan seeks to seal these gaps by giving students an opportunity to purchase music while on campus.
Listeners and audience are the chief customers of maximum music stores. The most targeted people are the young as well as mature adults coming from the colleges and universities that border the store. In the marketing process, every department has to execute its part and estimate the total costs used in every step. The marketing plan will consist of the release publication, means of obtaining radio airtime, methods of ensuring the retailers are motivated, as well as all suppliers. The management will plan how distribution of complete albums and digital tracks will take place. It will also plan how the public at large will be motivated to purchase videos and music from the stores. To get access to our customers, a market framework will be considered in accordance with the structure and style of the organization.
At the time of commencing the business, prices will be low to attract many customers and they will be adjusted accordingly as time goes by. After sale services will also be employed to ensure that, a customer comes again. To regular customers, discount will be given to attract them and even to attract others through them. For the sake of the confidence of customers and revenue addition, contemporary ways of selling tickets will be initiated.
Place, Physical Distribution, or Location Strategy
The Maximum Music Stores will be situated in Uxbridge, West London. Its products will be sold to students belonging to universities and colleges that are near. There is a category of local customers of music, which has been neglected, and the Maximum Music Stores seek to meet the needs of such people. Music products of this industry will avail a compound shopping center for music to satisfy the needs of all customers. At the same time, the needs of upcoming musicians will be dealt with in this organization. To increase the sales rate, awareness will be created by use of televisions and billboards targeting the attention of students in universities and colleges. In addition, customers will be attended to with utmost care to ensure that their needs are fully satisfied. Customers will also provide calendars, as well as brochures describing the industry’s location and services with contacts on them for easy access.
To make sure that the public is aware of the organization’s new release, radio stations will be used to play the music. Individual promoters will also be sought to offer assistance in ensuring that the music is played for a longer duration. An in-house job will also be available within the organization to maintain the track of music. Artists will be required to visit different places to gain exposure as well as inventions and innovations to better the business. These artists will also be required to seek sponsorships for funding and receiving equipments to reach a wider range of customers.
The media will be incorporated to help advertise the music and the places it can be located. At public events, such as public performances, local DJs shall be used to advertise the music. In addition, an online music store for the company will be created with a special site for promotion. Live bands will also be played regularly in the neighboring institutions and this will involve sponsorships and concerts. In the process of playing the live bands, free copies of Compact Disks and cassettes will be distributed to the audience.
The industry will also enter into alliances with other websites of music in the country. Selling will also be done online and through the same, more artists will be recruited into the organization. Collaborations with other leading music organizations will also be done to promote production and expansion. A coalition of music stores that are independent within the country will be formed and a program for private sales will be created to ensure that independent artists are productive. Through this, it will be easy to distribute products to national and regional stores. Video broadcasts, as well as recorded music will be the most rewarding tools of promotion.
Projections of Sales, Costs, and Profits
The project is projected to incur the following costs:
Startup costDescriptionCostComputer2 computers @ $1000$ 2000PromotionFirst six months promotional budget$ 10000RentFor the first one year$12,000Infrastructures Equipping the stores $5000MiscellaneousFor any other use $5000Total start up cost$37000
Variable CostDescription Cost Electricity @month WagesFor three employees at start @1000 per months$3000Stock Used DVDs and CDs @$2 for 3000 units per months $3000StockNew DVDs @7 for 3000 pieces per months $21000New CDs @$5 for 3000 pieces $15000Cost incurred for printing music to the customers for the first 3000 customers per month @$4$12000Miscellaneous$1000$1000Total$55,000
Sales Description CostDVDs@$10 for 3000 per month 30,000CDs and Mp3s@$8 for 3000 per month24,000Used DVDs@$5 for 3000 per month 15000Used CDs and MP3s@$4 for 3000 per month 12000Total$81000
The financial projection shown above, works on the assumption that the business will get about 3000 customers per month, for each product category. The pricing has been put on the minimal. At the same time, since there are more that a million target customers, the projection of 3000 customers per month can be seen has the minimal target and thus the business target is achievable.
From the analysis, total cost is $92000 whereas the total income income for the first one month is $81000.
Gross margin % = (Sale price – variable costs) / sales price
Sales at the breakeven point = fixed costs / gross margin %
37000/0.321 = $115264.8
This means that to break even, the company should target its sales to be $115265. However, if it maintains the sales at $81,000 per month, the company will break even during the third month. As stated, the price was set at minimum and thus the break-even point will be achieved in a minimum time.
Summary and Conclusion
The marketing plan developed in this paper has assumed a relatively stable business conditions in the music business. At the same time, the business has made assumptions about the production cost. There are some hidden costs in the Music industry, which must be factored into the marketing plan. At the same time, there is need for aggressive marketing strategies for the company to realize its dream. The market segment selected will require the company to diversify in other activities because university students normally go on a long holiday, and thus little or no sales may be realized during this period. Nevertheless, the future is bright for Maximum Music Stores based on this market plan.
Brunel University. (2013). About Brunel University. Retrieved July 5, 2013, from Brunel University: http://www.brunel.ac.uk/about
Butler, J. (2012). What do students spend their money on? Retrieved July 05, 2013, from Save the Student: http://www.savethestudent.org/money/student-budgeting/what-do-students-spend-their-money-on.html
Keightley, K. (2004). Long play: adult-oriented popular music and the temporal logics of the post-war sound recording industry in the UK. Media, Culture & Society , 26 (3), 375-391.
Sloane, K., Gunasekara, I., & Wilson, N. (2013). A content analysis of the portrayal of alcohol in televised music videos in New Zealand: Changes over time. Drug & Alcohol Review , 32 (1), 47-52.
Spartan press. (2013). Music Dealers in London. Retrieved July 5, 2013, from Spartan press: http://www.spartanpress.co.uk/musicdealers.php?area=London
MARKETING PLAN 5
Running head: MARKETING PLAN
Classification, Types and Effects of Music on Mood
Music is actually an art that has been there for such a long period in almost all the parts of the world. The difference in music is the fact that different people prefer different types of music for various reasons which may at times include the community or rather the cultural environment in which such persons have grown up in. Music can be purely instrumental or purely vocal and it can be a combination of both the vocals and the instruments. The combination of both usually creates such a beautiful and emotional expression that appeals to many persons in one way or the other.
In many cases, the culture of the people from whom a certain type of music emerges determines the kind of instruments and vocals used. The rhythm of such music is therefore created as a result of the combination of the different vocals used accompanied by the sounds brought in by the musical instruments played to make it complete. The combination is not usually done in just an ordinary way but is usually done in such a way that the final product creates harmony. For there exist differences in the various aspects that constitute a certain final output of music,it can be successfully classified into various categories. A good and straightforward way is by identification of the similar musical patterns from the many different patterns that exist. It is also not as easy to identify the similar patterns, as it will entail various stages. These stages include, independent feature extractors are used to preprocessing of the audio content into feature vectors, which are in turn classified into place basing on algorithm. Another way to achieve the same is by inertia ratio maximization.
Most of the genres of music have a history of their origin and consequent development into what they are today. These types include the following; alternative music which may take the form of college rock, Goth rock, hard rock, indie rock, punk among others. Blues are also another type and may be grouped into such sub-types as country blues, electric blues, delta blues, Chicago blues, and contemporary blues among others. Anime, Children music, Country music, classical music, dance music, Rap music, Pop music, Jazz, Latin music, soul music, reggae music and opera music are other well distinct types of music listened to by many people from across the world.
As a result of the difference in the types of music,different people have different tastes and preferences of the kind of music that they enjoy most to listen to.This translates into the moods which music can create in such persons. Listening to a certain type of music can alter the mood of that person in one way or another.The moods are actually dependent on how such persons’ brain receives and interprets it. By it being detected by the brain, it implies that it will actually have an influence on the balance of hormones in the body thus determining the mood. This is because the balance or the imbalance of the hormones present in the body determines the moods of animals and in particular human beings.
The changes in the levels of these hormones will in turn influence the psychology of such persons as observed in the changes in the heart beat, blood pulse volume, breathing rate together with otherendoctrodermal activities.
In conclusion, people choose to listen to their different choices of music due to the moods often taken as the feelings elicited by such types of music. The psychological self together with the brain chemistry is altered resulting to various moods being exhibited through the character behavior of such individual at that time. The quality aspects that determine the type of the music formed is based on keys created, rhythm and mode, which determine the harmony. For the ability to alter the moods of those who listen to the different types of music music is used to achieve, different purposes for example communication and entertainment purposes.
Evolution of blues
Blues have developed from choral music and spoken customs of slaves brought from West parts of Africa and country blacks into a diversity of ways and subgenres that are varied throughout the United States. Although blues, may be perceived as a melodic fashion based mutually on European vocal constitution and the African tradition, changed into the interplay of tone and guitar, its structure itself does not resemble melodic styles West African and the influences. During 1800s, southern parts were homes to many bluesmen who helped improved this music industry. Early bands had the following features: guitars, banjos, stringed basses and fiddles. Son House, Blind Lemon Jefferson,
As the industry grew, performers for example Bo Carter, Blind Lemon Jefferson, and Jimmie Rodgers became famous in African American society. Bassist and composer Willie Dickson composed and came up with standard songs of that era, which includes: Hoochie Coochie Man, I Just Want to Make Love to You , Wang Dang Doodle and Back Door Man.Also Muddy Waters came up with the first success entitled I Can’t Be Satisfied. The other songs are Big Bill Blues, Starvation, Too Many Drivers, Keep Your Hands Off Her and Key to the Highway.
Psychedelia is a music method stimulated by the resonances of psychedelic folk and psychedelic pitch, although applied to pop music situation. Psychedelic has a number of characteristics: exotic instrumentation, complex song arrangements, modal melodies and many others. Its origin is traced from folk and rock songs of the 1960s, mostly the work of Yardbirds, Greatful Beatles. Because psychedelia did emerge as a typical and marketable force it influenced pop music. Psychedelia is characterized by a figment of the imaginations, distortions of sensitivity and consciousness, and at times psychotic-like actions.Hallucinogens inspires musicians and influences their daily lives in a number of ways. The songs stimulated by this are: After Bathing at Baxters, Sounds of 13th Floor Elevators, Roller Coaster, Dark Star, Are You Experienced and Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds
Ten-year arc of the Beatles’ existence
The Beatles started as a pop collection in the 60’s and continued throughout the psychedelic period before its members separated because of differences to pursue personal careers. The Beatles was a popular association in the year 1962 but was not classified as a pop group. In their first appearance in U.S they were seen as conservative because of their long hair.
Before the psychedelic period, the Beatles started testing on their music and indicating that they were a different teenybopper grouping settling with a calculated formula consisting of subtle and radical changes inspired by LSD. The most famous part of the album, however was Tomorrow Never Knows and the beginning of the song, “turn off your mind, relax, and float downstream…” which was drawn from the Psychedelic Experience book. This was later followed by hits, Strawberry Fields, Forever and Penny Lane and were the best produced albums in 1967 and inspiration to many. Because of LSD initials many believed its composition to be under drug influence.
Hardly any groups ever had the achievement, creatively and economically as The Beatles, but following Sgt Pepper, they would undergo another abrupt change. In the year1967, The Beatles, did admitted to have been using drugs and hopes to find reality and the importance in life. The other specific songs are: A Change Is Gonna Come, Blowin’ in the Wind, Say It Loud – I’m Black and I’m Proud,Blonde on Blonde and Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds
The Term Funk (funky) as it applies to the Music Industry
Funk is a distinctive variety of music that developed in the 1960s in the United States. It originated from the soul custom though it integrated a beat that was more pronounced that had influences from rock and R&B. The unique feature of funk music is the melodic bass line. The bass line is at the forefront in this music and the melody is downplayed. A single chord was used mostly throughout the song. In funk music, the bass is at the centerpiece of the funky songs, a feature that distinguishes it from other forms of music. It accentuates on the rhythm making it more danceable compared to blues and R&B.
This genre of music has simple song structures but the rhythms used are complex. Funk was created to facilitate as intense a groove as possible. Bass and drums are prominent in funk music. The music also incorporates the electric bass guitar and horn section. This type of music greatly influenced disco music in the 1970s and later hip-hop music. It was innovative due to its emphasis on a groove rather than chord progression. Its repetitive nature allowed it to become mainstream in the dance clubs. The songs that were sung in the past years have often been sampled in the common modern hip-hop tracks.
Funk was pioneered by James Brown with his hit single Out Of Sight in 1964. His music stood out because of the emphasis on the downbeat, which was a complete contrast to the soul music that people were used to. The fame of funk music grew with musicians opting to choose the style for their songs. Several jazz musicians of that 1970s began to incorporate funk into their music. The most common musicians of funk music include Stevie wonder, Curtis Mayfield, and James brown.Ways Yes and The Moody Blues bands approached the classical/fusion of two styles in the 1970’s and the difference in their styles.
The Moody blues original performed blues until when they met new members who contributed to the evolution to rock music. They then fused the music with classical music. They used their hit singles like Steal your Heart Away to tour the world. They were the first band to gain fame internationally. They greatly influenced the progressive music scene. Their commitment helped them to be discovered by Tony Secunda, a manager who connected them to a recording deal with The Decca Records label. They later started imitating The Beatles.
They frequently released songs to keep in touch with their fans. They kept changing their style and incorporating more instruments to impress their music fans. The Yes band on the other hand succeeded through the symphonic style of music. They also used cosmic and mystical kind of lyrics and live stage performances .They later adopted more pop rock sounds in their singles like Owner of a Lonely Heart. They changed their members from time to time with new ideas that they incorporated in their music.Major elements of Madonna’s success as a pop icon
Madonna is among the world’s highest earning female entertainers and pop artist. She is among the best-known women in the world.
The main elements for her success as the most famous pop icon are her vision, deep understanding of her audience and the music industry, control of her competencies and weaknesses and consistent implementation of her strategies.
Madonna had a vision to become the best in her field; she did her best in everything she tried out. By 1983, she had ten studio albums under her name. She had also done several world tours and featured in many movies. Her vision was to become a star in the things she did best. It was obvious that she was a star in the entertainment world.
Madonna was totally committed to her work. She took advantage of all opportunities that came along and used them to improve. At the age of twenty-six when she performed at the MTV Awards, it was considered the best performance. It helped increase her popularity among her teenage fans. She has also shown expertise in understanding and transforming the music industry. She has shaped her image in the media and is recognized as a skilled self-publicist.
Anderson .J & Kupp. M. (2007).Madonna-Strategy on the Dance floor. Retrieved from: http://www.esmt.org/fm/13/Madonna_article.pdf
ESSAY QUESTIONS 2
Running head: ESSAY QUESTIONS 1
Stereotypes in Hip Hop and Rap Music and Videos
Hip hop and rap music is considered as a form of music genre and culture that started during the early 1970s mostly among the African American youths in the City of New York. This music genre consists of a form of stylized rhythmic music, which is usually accompanied by rapping, rhythmic singing, and rhyming speech that is often chanted. The early hip hop music culture mainly was intended to create awareness with regards to societal and cultural issues by passing out positive and constructive messages about inclusion, equality, activism, social justice, education and also political consciousness (Tichakunda, 2009).
However, with time, the hip hop and rap music and culture has been transformed significantly as a form of music that amplifies and glorifies improper and intolerable behavior in the society as the lyrics extol brutality, guns, violence, misogyny and offensive sexuality. The commercial exploitation of hip hop and rap music stereotypes results to media violence, which feeds negative images concerning racial ethnicities, predominantly the black youths. Hip-hop and rap music has several stereotypes associated with the music such as violence, drugs and substance abuse, money and misogyny in the society (Dunning & Sherman, 2009).
Hip Hop and Rap Music and Videos
Hip hop and Rap culture came into existence during the early 1970s in Bronx, New York as a movement aimed at expressing the culture of the African Americans and the Latino youth. The hip hop culture was established with the emergence of increased rates of unemployment, withdrawal of government social support and subsequent increase of poverty, crimes and substance abuse. Concurrently, however, energetic youth cultures appeared in nightclubs and public arena where the urban youths stated creating their own pieces of music that were defined by strong and unrelenting beats and chants rather than singing rhyming lyrics. As a result, hip hop and rap emerged as a novel genre of music becoming the foundation stone for the hip hop culture. This genre of music has come to be one of the most imperative and profitable music forces in the popular culture in the international scene and it is widely played and regularly used in adverts over the radios and television (Johnson & Gatto, 2011).
Hip hop and rap music have been used widely as a channel through which African American individuals speak about their problems and challenges as they live in an oppressive and cruel society. However, presently, rap music has been commercialized where most of the lyrics mainly target on issues including money, material wealth and sex. As a result, hip hop and rap music have played a fundamental role in perpetuating gender stereotypes apart from being associated with violence and drugs. According to Dunning and Sherman (2009), hip-hop is regarded as the most popular genre of music in the globe but also as the most sexist type of music. Accordingly, hip hop and rap musical lyrics are widely known for their role in degrading women apart from promoting gender stereotypes.
Hip hop and rap music mainly appeals to the young adolescents and adults and a significant proportion of the African American population who view that they are in an oppressive society. This music genre during its infancy was mainly intended to be a channel through which the marginalized youths in the low economic locations aired their voices in realizing the social, political and economic realities for their lives. Having its roots in poverty and despair, the hip hop culture has been transformed from the marginal form to the present mainstream cultural genre which is widely produced and also promoted music subgenre or the gangsta rap. Gangsta rap music is associated with lyrics and video images glorifying violence, misogyny, money and deep desire for material goods (Tichakunda, 2009). As a result, there are several stereotypes with regards to hip hop and rap music and the related videos that have been developed such as violence, drugs, racism, sexuality and misogyny.
How the Media Stereotypes Hip Hop
Several music genres have stereotypes related to these music even though hip hop and rap music has the most stereotypes. A stereotype is a consensus belief with regards to a topic on the basis of what individuals generally assume. The stereotypes may be correct in some cases or incorrect depending on the circumstances and the nature of the message portrayed in the music. For instance, the stereotypes that are generally associated with hip hop and rap music include instances of violence, drugs and substance abuse, money and material wealth and misogyny. Lyrics from these hip hop and rap music contain messages and visual images that propagate most of these stereotypes (Tanner & Wortley, 2009).
Several hip hop artists usually refer to violence in their lyrics and videos by showing violent scenes involving guns, lyrics with violent words and as a result. This often results in violence becoming a stereotype, which is prevalently related to this music genre. Several hip hop and rap artists including B.I.G., Ice-T, Eminem and Tupac Shakur have repeatedly been under fire from the society and government agencies because they have used lyrics in their songs that may promote violence. For instance, B.I.G.’s song Somebody’s Gotta Die has lyrics that promote violence, let gunshots blow Give bullets room to breathe.
In addition, gangster rap music is known to create values and a way of life centered on hate, violence, racism and death. Zhang and Conrad (2010) argue that hip-hop and rap music do not directly promote violence in the society as it is commonly stereotyped. However, this form of music genre is considered as the leading contributor to violence because this music genre influences the youth to lead a lifestyle filled with crime and anger. For instance, youths usually dressed in characteristic sub cultural cloths identified with hip hop and rap music are usually thought to be thugs even though they are not leading such a life (Herd, 2010).
It is usually a common stereotype that most of the hip hop and rap artists are heavy users of illegal drugs as compared to the other artists in other music genres. This is mainly because drugs are mostly mentioned in these drugs such as marijuana and the artists more often confess to have at one time dealt with these drugs. For instance, several lyrics in the hip hop and rap culture usually refer to selling illegal drugs as a means of making the ends meet while in the ghettos and this also involves the active use of these drugs. According to Johnson and Gatto (2011), one of these artists, Dr. Dre in one of his notable song Still D.R.E. mentions marijuana I’m ahead of the game puffing my leafs (marijuana). In addition, 50 Cent in his autobiography movie Getting Rich or Dying Trying talks about his emergence from drug peddling to a rapper.
Hip hop and rap music and videos have been stereotyped to be having a great desire and hunger for money and other material wealth, and these people can do everything in ensuring that they achieve this desire. Artists in virtually all genres of music usually can realize massive commercial success through the sale of their music and as a result enjoy the wealth which comes with the success.
However, most of the hip hop and rap artists are usually known for lavishly celebrating their success and money to the point of exaggerating how rich they are. For instance, most of the rap videos are flooded with images of the rappers showing off numerous stacks of money, driving fancy and expensive cars apart from wearing very expensive jewellery (Herd, 2010). For instance, in the song money isn’t a thing by Jermaine Dupri featuring Jay-Z, the lyrics Ferrari or Jaguar … switching the four lanes screaming money ain’t a thang. As a result, it has been stereotyped that most of the hip hop and rap lyrics recommend being extremely rich and lavishly spending huge sums of money.
Misogyny in terms of the hip hop and rap culture mainly refers to the lyrics and videos that justify the act of exploiting women. Hip hop and rap have significantly influenced the contemporary popular culture by saturating the mass media with musical videos, adverts and radio broadcasts (Tichakunda, 2009). Hip-hop and rap music is considered as the most popular genre of music apart from also being the most sexist in its lyrics and videos.
As a result, hip hop and rap music are widely recognized due to their nature of degrading women and in propagating gender stereotypes and pornography. The gender stereotyping mainly arises from the lyrics and video images that portray women, particularly the African American women, as sexual objects and giving a leeway for their exploitation (Kistler & Lee, 2010). In Alchemist’s song featuring Prodigy, Keeping the heels on the lyrics are sexist and with misogyny acts such as, turn the music on, lights down we going to fuck now in addition, images of several semi-naked women who dance provocatively all-round the leading artists is a common sight in most of these music videos.
How people perceive and imitate hip hop and rap music videos
Hip hop and rap music in the present society is both positively and negatively viewed with respect to the people who listen to it. However, despite its popularity, this music genre is usually scrutinized as having negative influences on the behavior of mostly the youths. Most people who relish hip hop usually imitate these popular artists and memorize their lyrics which become embedded in their minds and this can unconsciously prompt the listener’s actions. Glorification of violence is one of the most apparent impacts of hip hop music among the youths as they idolize these hip hop and rap artists apart from imitating their behavior (Tanner & Wortley, 2009). Hip hop and rap music also is imitated by women who usually dress scantily and use their physical bodies in obtaining material things. However, some of the hip hop and rap artists perpetuating positive messages to the society such as Mos Def who pass across uplifting messages. For instance, Mos Def in his song Sunshine, he promotes godliness and good relationship with people through the lyrics, revolve around God involve niggaz make Mos Def a modern figure.
Hip hop and rap music have several stereotypes associated with the music such as violence, drugs and substance abuse, money and misogyny in the society. It has been stereotyped as a form of music that amplifies and glorifies improper and intolerable behavior in the society as the lyrics extol brutality, guns, violence and offensive sexuality (Herd, 2010). However, some of these stereotypes are not true as other hip hop and rap artists have lyrics that perpetuate positive and beneficial messages to the society. As a result, the society and the media must shift its approach towards how it perceives and stereotypes the hip hop culture because it is not necessarily detrimental to the society as perceived.
Dunning, D. & Sherman, D. (2009). Stereotypes and tacit inference. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 459471.
Herd, D. (2010). Changing images of violence in Rap music lyrics. Journal of Public Health Policy, 30 (4), 395-406.
Johnson, J. & Gatto, L. (2011). Violent Attitudes and Deferred Academic Aspirations: Deleterious Effects of Exposure to Rap Music. Basic & Applied Social Psychology Journal, 16 (2), 27-41.
Kistler, M. & Lee, M. (2010). Does Exposure to Sexual Hip-Hop Music Videos Influence the Sexual Attitudes of College Students?. Mass Communication & Society, 13 (1), 67-86.
Tanner, J. & Wortley, S. (2009). Listening to Rap: Cultures of Crime, Cultures of Resistance. Journal of Social Forces, 88 (2), 693-722.
Tichakunda, T. (2009). Hip-hop perpetuates stereotypes. Gender and Media Diversity Journal, 1, 22-28.
Zhang, Y. & Conrad, K. (2010). Female Body Image as a Function of Themes in Rap Music Videos: A Content Analysis. Sex Roles, 62 (11), 787-797.
STEREOTYPES IN HIP HOP AND RAP MUSIC AND VIDEOS 2
Running head: STEREOTYPES IN HIP HOP AND RAP MUSIC AND VIDEOS 1
The connection between Jewish Music and Festivals
Music plays an integral part in various religions across the world as it helps believers in worshipping and praising their God/gods. Jewish Music ecosystem exhibits a strong connection between music and festivals apart from worshipping. The Jews have several festivals in a physical year which are often accompanied by music. Notably, the Jewish music ecosystem is also available in other countries. However, it does not have an influence on the festivals in those countries like it has on the festivals in Israel where a large population of the Jews is found. This paper will focus on how festivals fit into the larger contemporary Jewish ecosystem and how it compares to other places, that is, in other countries where Jewish music is experienced.
In Israel, where the Jews are the dominant population, there are several festivals that fit into the larger contemporary Jewish music system. Firstly, there is the Nissan festival. This is a festival where the Israelites celebrate redemption. During the Nissan festival, there is a lot of happiness due to the rains, green leaves, flowers and fruits blossom and there is a lot of wheat and barley in the fields. Besides, during this festival, people are often busy at home doing cleaning and several other activities. This festival often provides a good opportunity for the Jews to sing their Jewish music. This is a clear indication of how the Nissan festival fits into the Jewish music ecosystem.
The other common festival among the Jews is the festival of Pesach. During this festival, the Jews visit their temples in order to enjoy. The festival of Pesach entails offering of sacrifices to God. It is celebrated by families and friends, the poor and the needy that often fill paths walking towards temples with their sacrificial animals. The festival also involves a moment when the Israelites remember how they crossed the Red Sea. They also reflect on how God has protected them since the days of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. The festival of Pesach is often a time of joy and the celebrations are often accompanied by Jewish music in the paths as people walk to the temples. Jewish music is also enjoyed in the temples as people offer their sacrifices to God.
Apart from Israel, the Jews are distributed all over the world. They are found in America, Africa and Europe. There are several temples across the world where the Jewish worship. Nonetheless, the Jewish music sung by the Jews in other countries does not have an influence on the cultures of the people in those nations. For instance, in the US, there are several Jews who sing their music in the streets and in the temples. Evidently, the music has not influenced or affected the cultures of the Americans in any way. Instead, the Americans stick to their music and culture. Furthermore, the Jews are also found in Africa. The Jewish songs are sung in the streets and in temples. Unfortunately, most of the Africans have not adopted the Jewish culture and hence the Jewish music has no influence on the festivals in Africa. Some of the African festivals include the New Year celebrations in South Africa and the Muslim festivals which are common among the Muslims in Northern Africa. In these two celebrations, the presence of the Jews in Africa and the spread of their music have no influence in any way on these festivals.
In conclusion, the Jewish music system has a great influence on the festivals of the Jews in Israel. The festivals such as the Nissan, the festival of Pesach and Shavuot are accompanied by Jewish songs and this is a clear indication of how festivals fit into the larger contemporary Jewish ecosystem. However, the Jewish music has no influence on the festivals of other communities or people in countries where Jewish music is experienced.
Role of Music in Youth Rebellion of the 1960’s
Rock music has in no means been performed for conservative tastes. Nevertheless, it has been admired by musicians and fans from the 1960’s. Music has at all times been an exceptionally greater component of society, regardless of the genre. Through music, particularly rock and protest music, there emerges a sensation of rebellion somewhat worth struggling for. The music of the 1960’s was no exception, and was perhaps the period that exposed this feeling of revolt the most in its music. All genres of music contained a message urging its hearers to take a position, think for themselves, and survive on their own terms. Rebellion is described as opposition to or non-cooperation of any authority, regulation, or belief. The words, the resonance, and the customs that escorted it all relayed a message to people to face administration and those in power, which is precisely what most of the youth did.
The youthful age group was skeptical about everything, for example, power, the government, and corporate America. The meanings that musicians conveyed through not just their words, but personalities persuaded many youths to follow in their guide and get engaged in the ever rising civil rights lobby groups that were going on in this era. Analyzing some of the lyrics, the customs, and the supporters of these rock bands aid us to realize what the period looked like, and the reason it was believed to be so rebellious. Even though the songs during the first period the 1960s mostly depicted the themes of the civil rights groups, it also functioned as a conscientious objector against war. These lyrics assisted to persuade the American community that war only stripped their only resources and lives. For instance, in Bob Dylan’s Blowing in the Wind, he tackles the difficulties the public encounters. He also talks about the civil rights lobby groups, but his messages tend to deal with the anti-war attitude.
The Beatles, at first a famous melody band from the 1960’s, was not only booming for its breathtaking songs and attractive looks, but also due to the cultural touch they had on their listeners through their words and diverse musical reverberations. When The Beatles whispered something, their fans trusted them. Youths started dissenting, staging sit-ins, and rebelling against the war, which majority of the grownups in America considered sacrilegious because many were in total support of the war at this period. Janis Joplin was an unbelievably influential songster with an exceptional voice. For her, there was no importance of wearing appropriately, and being quiet. She trusted in saying precisely what she was thinking and just the way she was feeling, regardless of what it was or who it upset.
In general, the music of the 1960s replicates an age of powerful social divergence superbly. They characterize the rebellious environment, anti-warfare pressure group, and the social rights society. The change from the first half prominence on social rights to the rebellious mood of the youth is imperative to observe because the music during the period impact the current society greatly. The 1960’s have been a motivation in numerous special ways, even in our society at present.
Lawrence, Watson. Affluent youth rebellion in the 1960s. Nevada: Publications Oboulo, 2009.
Warne, Chris. “Music, youth and moral panics in France, 1960 to the present.” Historia Actual Online 11.1 (2009): 51-64.
Watson Lawrence, Affluent youth rebellion in the 1960s (Nevada: Publications Oboulo, 2009), 945-957.
Chris Warne, “Music, youth and moral panics in France, 1960 to the present,” Historia Actual Online 11, no. 1 (2009): 51-64.