Literature of the Vedic period of India
Verdict period is the period in the Hindu history where the Vedas, which the oldest scripture of Hinduism was composed. Verdict period is uncertain, though it is estimated to be the period around 1500BC to 600 B.C. verdict period is considered as the dawn of civilization in the world, and it is considered to be the real period of transformation of man from Prakrit and Sanskrit. Vedic period covers the development and the rise of civilization and the Aryan culture.
The literature of Vedic period is one the most ancient in the world. Literature of the Vedic period covers the following four Vedas; these are Yajur Veda, Rig Veda, Sama Veda and Atharva Veda. The four Vedas is classified into four sections namely, Samhitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads. Upanishads are a representative of the culmination of Vedic thought; it is the final section of the Vedic literature. This literature was unwritten for a long time, but it was passed from one generation to another by word of mouth. After several centuries, it was put in written form. The Vedic literature is one of the oldest forms of information, and a reliable one on civilization. The following are the brief explanation of four sources of Vedic literature.
Four Vedas of Vedic period
Rig Veda. This is the oldest of all forms of ancient literature. This are ten books with 1020 hymns dedicated to God and recited at all Hindu households.
Sama Veda. This borrows a lot of hymns from Rig Veda, and it is in the form of music. The hymns place a lot of focus on the soma sacrifice.
Yajur Veda. This literature has a lot of hymns that touch on sacrifices. It explains on the knowledge acquired by the Aryans on sacrifice.
Artharva Veda. This literature has three hymns on Gnana (knowledge), Karma (Deeds) and Upasana (Invocation).
Rig-Veda and the Laws of Manu
The Vedic period is the period when human culture was presented as one of the indispensable contribution. Upanishads are the group of texts which include philosophical and religious interpretations of Vedic rites and myths. It is during the Vedic age that Indian states referred as the mahaajanapadas took shape. Consequently, it is during the Vedic period that the Chaturvarnya, a system of social learning came to the fore.
Vedas is responsible for the reconstruction of the Vedic period. The oldest of the Vedas is the Rig Veda, and it had its own importance. The Sama Veda has a lot of verses extracted from Rig Veda. The hymns in Rig Veda were used in the sacrifice of Soma. The laws of Manu comprised of 2684 couplets that were arranged into 12 chapters. Laws of Manu are considered to be the ancient law books. These laws of Manu form the basis of court of law in India jurisprudence under the Hindu law. The laws of Manu differentiate Varna from Jatis. Laws of Manu were composed in the period 200 BC and 200AD by Bhrigu, a sage. The laws of Manu were complied between 200 and 400 CE, and these laws demonstrated the efforts of Brahmin to restrict legal independence for women.
Religion and inequality in India
The relationship between religion and economic inequality in India is because of caste system. The caste system determines the economic fortunes of an individual and inter-religious and inter-caste system differentiates earnings of Indians and hence can stall economic growth. Religion has been sued to disadvantage women.
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Satirical Huckleberry Finn
Thesis and Introductory Paragraph
Well thought-out as Mark Twain work of genius, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is recited by Huck Finn who forges his own downfall to run away from his horrendous father. Jointly with Jim, Huck crafts his way downward to the Mississippi river using a raft. While on the purposeless journey, Jim and Huck gets caught up with succession of distinct characters including the feuding Shepherdson and Granger ford families. Later on Jim and Huck gets caught up with deceptive Tom Sawyer. In Huckleberry Finn, Twain satirizes the following themes: Romanticism, the moral fiber of Tom Sawyer is used to symbolize scores of weak points that Twain saw in the Romantic analysis of life. Religion, Twain has used the litany of false notion of Huck and Jim to satirize religion. Greed has been satirized in the novel when pap goes ahead to grab Huck’s wealth; moreover there is satire when Twain pokes excitement at civilization. Additionally satire is seen throughout the idea of family feuds.
Twain derides romantic literature in the novel. At the start of their journey along the Mississippi river, Jim and Huck comes across a wrecked steamboat called the Walter Scott. At some stage in the Grangerford incident, Twain stridently condemns romantic ideals by use grudge between the Shepherdsons and Grangerfords (Twain 147). Twain illustrates the threat that is intrinsic in Romantic courtliness when Buck, Huck’s new friend is savagely murdered for the reason that feud existed but the basis cannot be remembered by anybody. Towards the end of the novel, the exploratory morals of Romanticism are being satirized when Tom Sawyer comes back and he wants to create adventurous game of releasing Jim.
Tom is just about to be killed and Jim is lynched all because of the actions of Tom. We can understand that Tom has been exceedingly selfish due to the fact that he knows that Jim is free. Tom does not seem to care that he is interfering with man’s life as he only wants to adventure. By unfolding the Walter Scott has wrecked and the return of Tom Sawyer for his adventure, Twain implies that romantic ethics are also dysfunctional and wrecked in the society.
Huck queries the structured religion whilst living with Miss Watson and the widow. The issue re-emerges all the way through in the novel and it reaches climax when Huck evaluates how religion backs up the subhuman handling of his friend. Religion has turned out to be the main victim of Twain satire in the all novel. This satire may not be more perceptible than when the widow of Douglas who was Huck’s guardian preaches to him about Moses. Huck was not thinking much about the talk. Moses was not even kinfolk to her, in addition he was of no use to anybody since he was gone and yet the widow of Douglas bothered too much about him (Twain 5). Huck tries to avoid religion for the reason that more than a few characters have diverse and conflicting elucidations of destiny. He believes that those giving to religious beliefs can be duped with no trouble. Twain uses Huck to put on view his opposition on the blind faith that the civilized society is placing towards religion. What is more, Twain uses Huck to show that most religious characters serve as sculpts of hypocrites.
All over the novel, Twain satirizes greed in the civilized society. We can see in the novel when Huck’s Pap returns with the main aim of grabbing the wealth of Huck. Furthermore, we can see the Dolphin and the Duke consign more than a few frauds with the sole purpose of becoming rich. While on the Mississippi, Huck and Jim come across a boat full of thieves. Twain shows in the course of Sawyer’s gang the way the society raises greed. Tom sates We are highwaymen. We stop stages and carriages on the road with masks on, and kill the people and take their watches and money (Twain 13). Twain uses satire to tell out that rich people do not always make the best choices and it is wealth that causes more problems than people needs.
There is a huge deal of satire just by the way Huck portrays civilization. From the start of the novel, Huck has a preference on nature over towns. Moreover, he prefers the Native American Territory over phelp’s farm. What is more, Huck has a preference on river over towns along the river and woods over the windows home. As Huck and Jim travels down the river, the civilized place brings chaos, complications, and conflict of their peaceful journey. The prospect of the two floating down the river contains sensory language and flamboyant imagery in the Novel (Twain 149). This observes the idea of taking pleasure in the undemanding gratification of life. Huck wonders at human brutality towards one another as the Duke and Dolphin becomes tarred. The two comes across numerous slaughtered people right through their adventures. Twain articulates his opinion by saying that it was unpleasant seeing human beings become cruel to one another. He shows that criminals and crooks are not the only ones that can be cruel. The crowd that regards themselves as civilized and oppose any cruel act commits the act.
Mark Twain has used Adventures of Huckleberry Finn to see the sights of the abundant problems facing American society. Huck is continuously under pressure to be conventional to the civilized society. Jim is an escapee slave who goes with Huck and he looks for freedom from the world that has been disallowing him for long time. Twain uses satire to make obvious that the society is adopting things that are not good. Twain is using the matter of slavery has his objective. Satire is a crucial tool that Twain uses lay bare all the problems that the society faces.
Shepherdsons and Grangerfords are two of a kind of feuding families. It is not clear to anyone about what they are fighting for. The young Buck Shepardson respect the Shepardsons making it well-known that they are without doubt not cowards despite the fact that he wants to kill them (Twain 147). This feud is said to mold one fastidious feud. The fictional feud and the real feud bear a resemblance to each other. The fictional feud is satirical as it takes the goings-on of the real feud making them seem pointless. Twain uses these families feud to remark the foolishness of the human nature. Through the use of satire, Twain shares his beliefs about human nature.
Twain turned out the normal adventure down the river to become exploration problems facing a civilized society. Due to the sparkling way that Twain interlocks satire into his novel, the message gotten in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn will be kept in mind ceaselessly.
Twain, Mark. The adventures of Huckleberry Finn. New York: Forgotten Books, 1885. Print.
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Policy communities and networks as an academic perspective focused on explanation and description of linkages between policy domains and the associational states while policy communities and networks as a public management approach focused on consultations and partnerships between governments and other non-governmental stake holders such as the public and private sector, non-governmental organizations, and social movements in decision making processes concerning policy formulation (Pal, 2010).
The former provides a theoretical development in policy formulation literature that have taken place in history following widespread democratization and the rise of non-governmental organizations and civil right movements that have sought inclusion of more stakeholders in public policy formulation. The literature provides a framework of reference which should be integrated in policy formulation procedures by any government. The latter realm which is public strategic management approach to partnerships and consultation lays an emphasis on effective implementation of the proposed strategies in literature to ensure that consultation and partnerships between government and other stake-holders leads to formulation of popular public policies (Pal, 2010).
The two diverse realms converge on the quality of the policy outcomes. They both share an agreement that cooperation between non-profit organizations, private sectors, public sector, and the government in policy making process ensures a wholesome process in which the interest of all the stakeholders are well represented. While the academic perspective concentrated on describing various actors in public policy formulation process and evaluation of the implications of their relationships in an organization, the public management approach focused on the integrative management of the association of the actors in an organization in policy formulation processes. They both agree that the quality of the policy outcome depends on the level of interaction between the actors (Pal, 2010).
The second area of convergence of the two approaches to policy communities and networks is the role of the government in policy making process. According to the tenets of the two approaches, modern policy making process can no longer be directed by the government while the public representatives play a supplementary role. Public interest groups, social movements, and global association systems should share equal representations with the government in public policy making process. The role of the network is to provide a mutual interdependence among all stakeholders to ensure that no one actor, including the government, dominates the policy formulation process. The role of the government should be to use its instruments and powers to foster effective partnership between the public and private sector in the process.
A good example that applies to the above areas of convergence of the two realms of policy communities and networks in governance monitoring; this is seen in the rise of many global organizations that carry out research on governance indicators and use them to rate the countries in question on a global scale on various parameters. Examples of such organization are; Freedom House’s Freedom in the World’, Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), World Bank’s Country Policy and Institutions Assessments (CPIAs), World Bank Institute’s KKZ’ indicators, and International Country Risk Guide (ICRG) (Buduru & Pal, 2010, p. 512).
These organizations involve public and private sectors, social movements, and non-governmental organizations in the research which the outcome is used to rate corruption, poverty, government bureaucracies, transparency, and democracy. The outcomes are basically academic because they are only used to represent the integrative opinion of various stakeholders in a country. However, because global funding institutions such as World Bank and International Monetary Fund, IMF, uses these indices in determining the objectivity of lending, the affected countries often strive to integrate the findings, which represent all stake holders, in policy making to ensure that they receive a favorable rating and lending terms by lenders) (Buduru & Pal, 2010, p. 513-514). In this case, such international organizations act as global agora where the views of various actors are represented in formulating the policies of a country as represented in by participants (Stone, 2008, p.3).
According to my answer, the new role of the government in policy making process is to play a supervisory role of strategic governance. In this capacity, the government is expected to use its powers and instruments to foster effective partnership and consultation between it and other non-governmental stakeholders in policy formulation. Relating to strategic governance, my answer proposes that the government should use its immense resources and machineries to instill the spirit of cooperation among the network actors. In the event of uncertainties in the coalition about the outcomes of policy formulation process, and instability due to divergent interests of the actors, the government, as a supervisor, should address the differences and inseminate clear communication on the essence of forging a common purpose in the process (Pal, 2010).
In conclusion, the analysis of the given literature on policy communities and networks indicate that there has been a shift from the traditional policy formulation model in which the government solely formulated and enforced policies on the people to a more inclusive modern model in which a partnership and consultation between the government and the private/ public sectors are integrated in policy making process. These changes have been aimed at ensuring that the beneficiaries of the policy (the public) as widely involved in policy formulation. This realm is consistent with public management approach which seeks to implement network partnership and consultation in policy making process.
Buduru, B., & Pal, L. A. (2010). The globalized state: Measuring and monitoring governance. European Journal of Cultural Studies 13(4), 512-530.
Pal, L. A. (2010). Beyond Policy Analysis:Public Issue Management in Turbulent Times, 4th Edition. Toronto: ITP Nelson.
Stone, D. L. (2008). Global Public Policy, Transnational Policy Communities and their Networks. Policy Studies Organization, 1-37.
Public Policy 4
Advancing Scientific Knowledge, Implications, and Contributions
The background for this study features the implications, contributions, and scientific knowledge value that it promises. The study focuses on an aspect that has previously suffered inadequate attention in psychology: identification of the essential dimensions of emotional intelligence in employee productivity. Previous literature and studies have identified emotional intelligence, in general terms, as essential and valuable for performance in group settings, such as among workplace employees. There has, nevertheless, been inadequate explanation or articulation of the value of specific emotional intelligence dimensions for employee performances in workplaces, in ways that make planning and prioritization possible (Shields, 2007, p. 179-185; Benson, 2009, p. 39-44).
This is the aspect that this study purposes to address: it aims to extend prior research in the psychology of workplace productivity by establishing the value of specific emotional intelligence dimensions – self awareness, the handling of emotions, empathy and compassion, motivation, and social skills – in employee performances. The study shall advance the scientific knowledge base by providing concepts and facilitating an understanding of the value of individual emotional intelligence dimensions in workplace productivity among employees. It shall also contribute to this base by offering a foundation for further research on this subject.
The study’s foundation in psychology as a field involves the fact that the subjects of investigation in the study – self awareness, the handling of emotions, empathy and compassion, motivation, and social skills – constitute fundamental subject matter in psychology. Psychology involves the analysis and scientific investigation of mental functioning, behavior structures and processes, and their cause and effect dimensions. In the context of this study, emotional intelligence involves the ability by an individual to possess details or exhibit awareness about the feelings, thoughts, desires, and preferences of his/her self and others in a workplace setting, in relation to the setting’s features, methods, and environment (Coon & Mitterer, 2008, p. 12-18, 22-28; Shields, 2007, p. 179-185).
Psychology’s study of mental behavior, functions, and their causes and implications relates to this study as the investigation shall feature the same subject matter, albeit within the boundaries of the workplace.
The study’s theoretical implications shall involve description and portrayal of the respondents’ lived experiences. This shall be the result of an analysis and comparative dissection of the accounts of participants concerning the value of emotional intelligence dimensions in employees’ workplace performances, in the study process. Since the investigation shall feature the analysis of multiple respondents and several representative workplace settings, the theoretical implication shall also involve depiction of a cultural phenomenon in the society of the investigated workplace settings.
\Such a cultural phenomenon shall concern the prevalence of particular mind-sets, feelings, and outlooks/attitudes towards the value of specific emotional intelligence dimensions in employees’ workplace performances. To the extent that the studied workplace settings are representative of the society, the study’s theoretical implications shall describe a prevalent cultural phenomenon in its environment (Boieje, 2009, p. 19-25, 58-64, 149-155). This study’s practical implications apply for managerial authorities in workplaces, in that the investigation’s results shall help to identify the essential dimensions of emotional intelligence, among self awareness, emotions’ handling, empathy and compassion, motivation, and social skills, for high employee performance. The study stands to assist workplace authorities by contributing basic knowledge/information for use in identifying the aspects of emotional intelligence infrastructure and strategies to prioritize in investment. This shall be vital for the improvement and optimization of an efficient social environment for workplace success, using scarce resources (Shields, 2007, p. 179-185; Benson, 2009, p. 39-44).
This benefit aligns with the workplace objective of achieving the highest and best practical results relative to objectives and using scarce resources. The study also promises improvements in the understanding of psychology through gains in knowledge on both the individual aspects and the whole field and branch of emotional intelligence (Coon & Mitterer, 2008, p. 12-29). This is because of the close relationship, in subject matter and content, between emotional intelligence and psychology.
Benson, J. (2009). The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Managers’ Use of Specific Directive and Supportive Behaviors. ProQuest Resources, Ann Arbor, USA
Boieje, H. (2009). Analysis in Qualitative Research. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, USA
Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. (2008). Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior. Cengage Learning, Stamford, USA
Shields, J. (2007). Managing Employee Performance and Reward: Concepts, Practices, and Strategies. Cambridge University Press, London, UK
Advancing Scientific Knowledge, Implications, and Contributions 4
Modern World Literature
Traditional culture points to human activities such as religion, moral standards, and society. This has been conserved, learned, and passed on in communities for an extended time. The theme of marriage has been elaborated in the two pieces of literature. Marriage is a customary that is viewed differently by individuals depending on where they come from. Traditionally, marriages were prearranged by parents. It was the responsibility of a father to make sure that his son marries whom they would choose for him. This means that sons had no choice other than to follow their fathers’ advice and respect their wishes at all time. In the piece Marriage is a private affair Nnaemeka father arranges a marriage for him so that when he returns from the city he marries.
Modernity is being embraced in the society. While in the city, Nnaemeka meets with Nene and the two falls in love. They belong to two difference tribes and it was a taboo for the two tribes to intermarry but as a result of modernity, the two are ready to marry and break the tradition. Traditional cultures did not allow Christian women to talk, leave alone pursuing teaching careers. Nene has gone against all odds and she is a teacher by profession. Nene is teaching at a Girls school in the city (Achebe 24). In the piece Nectar in the Sieve Ruku and Nathan arranged marriage for their only daughter Ira at the age of fourteen. Modernization dawns and Ira finally leaves the village. Ira is not able to conceive a fact that forces her husband to send her to the village. When she comes back, effects of modernization were already felt in the village and she is able to use fertility drugs.
Characters in the two pieces of literature are affected by modernization. This is so because some people have embraced modernization while others are against it. Nnaemeka had gone to the city and he becomes radically urbanized. He does not respect the wishes of his father. He marries a girl that comes from another tribe and rejects the one that was chosen by his father as per the tradition. Nnaemeka faces the wrath of hungry villagers but this does not stop him from doing what he likes most; marrying Nene. Nnaemeka’s father is negatively affected by modernization. The old man signifies a typical traditional conservatist. He goes ahead to arrange a marriage for his son and when he turns it down, he feels disrespected. He promises not to support his son in whichever way. When his son informs him of his plans to spend the holiday at home with them, he does not accept. Towards the end of the story, we see him resigned to lose the fight. He thinks deeply upon receiving the letter that his grandchildren wanted to see him.
Nene was also affected modernization although in a positive way. Traditionally, women were supposed to be silent but Nene is a teacher. She is able to convince Nnaemeka and she stands by him when he faces repulsion from his family. Nene is determined to change Nnaemeka’s father. Ruku is also affected by modernization. She finds herself in a world that she cannot withstand because of modernization. She breaks background boundaries and gives her sons the permission to work at the tannery.
Achebe, Chinua. Marriage is a Private Affair. Web 22 May 2013
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2.3 Early Stages or Mature Technology
Deepak, Young and Nicholas argued that, licensing is a crucial mechanism among innovators and marketers seeking to advance their technologies, knowledge as well as transfer of either among organizations. Therefore, expansion in licensing tends to transform or alter organizational structures through vertical disintegration. Licensing in the early stages can therefore impact agreement structures based on the relations specified during licensing. The most vital structural option in licensing is the exclusivity or the lack of it in an agreement. Exclusive licenses refer to a situation where the licensor is permitted to associate with a single commercialization partner. This translates to the licensor being restricted from working with other organizations and firms, or from specific geographic market sections as well as products (2010, p. 160).
Jennifer and Charles provided an analysis on various licensing cases handled by the Supreme Court with regard to patents as intellectual properties. Although they focused on biotechnology industries, they acknowledged that once patents and licenses expire, firms and organizations are suddenly faced with negative impacts, mainly the fall of company stock shares. Consequently, firm revenues reduce and competition for the particular company products within their range of production stiffens. They therefore stated that, licenses are legal contracts in form of property granting firms and organizations contractual rights (2008, p. 1).
Deepak, Youngjun and Nicholas stated that, there are a number of technologies that are licensed during their early creation and development stages. They are therefore licensed before they are assessed, analyzed and confirmed that they can successfully be applied. The authors based on Anand and Khanna writings defined these licenses as ex ante license (2010, p. 163).
Due to their early endorsements, the authors declared that these ex ante licenses provide a set of issues and challenges to the parties involved in the licensing processes. They supported their sentiments based on the facts that, the early and initial stages in technology licensing are based on various uncertainties. These uncertainties can therefore result to license transactional challenges with regard to commitments towards a particular licensor’s technology. The authors further declared perceived risks during the initial and early stages in technology licensing as higher. This translates to reduced willingness among licensees in taking part in a nonexclusive license.
They also highlighted on the existence of long tradition links towards uncertain yet potential contractual and opportunism hazards witnessed in a technology licensing transaction. Therefore, uncertainties during the early stages in technology licensing can also be inherited in other stages. They can therefore result in challenging contracting of full potential contingencies experienced in later stages further leading to the licensee being exposed to larger opportunism among licensors. Therefore, during the early stages in technology licensing, there is an urgent need to receive support and encouragement from licensors in order to record a commercial achievement (2010, p. 164).
While handling a case between MercExchange, LLC versus eBay Inc., the Supreme Court argued that, licensing should consider including clauses. For example, a probability of licensing rights infringement and loss of validity and enforceability, a nonbinding arbitration clause should be included in the agreement during the early stages of licensing. The court argued that, through such a clause, validity of the license improves while rendering it impossible to increase license fees especially in a lawsuit, thus, protecting the licensee. They concluded that, in the near future courts might possess regulatory power and authority in the early stages of licensing. This is because they might be able to determine which imposing terms ought to be applied, thus, strengthening the original concept of licensing especially with regard to patent systems (2008, p. 4).
Traditional literature posits that, licensing was expected to be employed mostly when extracting the remaining value from a mature technology. This further proves that, some technologies are licensed at an embryonic stage (Anand & Khanna, 2000, p. 104). Therefore, potential applications are likely to succeed if the technologies are more uncertain (Eric & Robert, 2010, p. 594). In addition, it has been proven that the uncertainty inherent in early stages lead licensees to prefer exclusive licensing. Therefore, both early stage technology and mutual technology are currently licensed. However, Deepak, Young and Nicholas had argued that, the generation and evaluation of hypotheses on the impact of technology diffusion in terms of licensing at the product level is lacking (2010, p. 164)
In 2003, Emily and Jillian discussed how the World Trade Organization voted unanimously agreeing to license patent medicines among nations that lacked the required manufacturing abilities. However, in 2008, a dispute erupted when a number of WTO members failed to adopt the agreed regulations and legislations. As a result, rather than granting export licenses to the numerous countries affected, they offered only one exporting license (2008, p. 143). Guy and Richard conversely discussed various licensing agreements between a licensee and licensor. Their paper offered solutions that aimed at developing professionalism in an industry where licensing negotiations compromised delivery of affordable medicines due to licensing and service delivery disputes (2007, p. 183). A regulatory guide was published in 2013 explaining what ought to be done in order to settle licensing disputes while respecting and upholding ASIC’s regulations. The corporation Act 2001 states that, if an individual holds a license or sells unlicensed products, in order to sort this dispute, a system should be formed (CC, 2013. p.1).
Zela conversely authored the three requirements when settling or mediating in licensing disputes. She acknowledged that, disputes especially with regard to IP property rights have recently been on the rise. Consequently, lawyers seek a fast resolution procedure in order to reduce their clients’ litigation costs and the amount of time spent. She attributed this to the fact that, very few licensing disputes proceed to be heard in a court trial as majority of them are settled through a licensing agreement (2013, p. 1).
In order to ensure that disputes are settled in a low risk, cost effective and efficient procedure while maintaining a high rate of success, the mediators should be experienced and skilled. Therefore, disputes should be settled in the most fast, effective and efficient manner in order to conserve and maintain existing commercial relations. She thus argued that, a dispute mediator ought to introduce the right skilled and experienced people in the mediation procedure. She recommended for all decision makers in a dispute to attend the mediation process, as their presence is sufficient and authoritative.
Zela also suggested that, before dispute resolution commences, possible, legal, acceptable and legitimate business resolutions to both the opponent and the client should be considered. This is because options offered, if relevant to their needs can encourage both parties to reconsider their views. She pointed out that, licensing disputes are involved among people who have an existing business relationship. Besides setting such disputes through money payments, the parties can also resort to signing an agreement that they shall conduct commercial activities as a team in the future.
Thus, both parties do not lose but rather benefit (2013, p. 1). Her third recommendation was that, parties should never leave the resolution table before highlighting the points they agree on. They should agree on who will author a settlement contract and when it ought to be sent to either party. Therefore, they should always sign a legally binding document as an agreement that the decisions made were sensible as well as litigated.
The termination of a license occurs when a holder is involved in harmful, illegal and/or illegitimate activities violating the agreement terms in the licensing contract (Mooi, & Ghosh, 2010, p. 107). Gray focused on licensing regulations within Australia with regard to liquor licensing. He stated that, these licenses contain imposed conditions and amended acts that the indigenous societies in the country have resulted in exploitation. These licenses prohibit some remote areas in rural Australian localities from selling alcohol past the stipulated time.
The licenses also prohibit alcohol traders from stocking alcoholic beverages beyond the recommended amount (2000, p. 1470). Michael, Henk and Amir conversely discussed how pharmaceutical companies are out licensing each other in their attempt to supply medicines in poverty stricken countries such as India and African States. In order to successfully carry out their missions, they require gaining legal rights, paying royalty rates, respecting enforcement mechanisms, and ensuring that their interests do not conflict. With regard to supplying products between a licensor and a licensee, there are terms and conditions applied as guidelines among concerned parties (2003, p. 341).
Terminations occur when a license holder fails to follow these guidelines. For example, while supplying products, the license should clearly indicate the place where products will be delivered to, the order period a firm has to wait before delivery date, the quantity size and the minimum pack size runs. These conditions have resulted in heated debates among parties regulated under licensing contracts with these regulations. However, should they be violated, the licensor and licensee fail to come to an understanding or either of the parties fail to honor their licensing agreement and obligations, the licensing contract is terminated. Therefore, a termination of license is the process through which licensing parties opt to end their agreement rather than await for the stipulated term to end (Guy & Richard, 2007. p. 184).
During technology licensing, various approaches are applied based on their different and diverse particulars such as business opportunities, institutions adopting the licensed technology and their specific inventions among others. However, there are some technologies that share some core values which are recognized during transfer agreements. In 2006, a dean from Stanford University declared that, specific technology licenses ought to be unique, offering unlimited solutions with regard to cookie-cutter challenges, addressing business needs, values, concepts and agreements. Failure to achieve and uphold these requirements, there would be challenges such as penalties in license technologies. The dean’s sentiments were mainly based within institutional levels under the belief that, these penalties and challenges can affect society as well as public interests and benefits (Arthur, 2007, p. 1).
Broscheid and Teske authored the crucial importance in upholding licensing regulations, policies and designs. They focused on medical practitioners who are regulated through the American States license. They discussed the two most vital normative justifications comprising the medical licensure.
They argued that, the first normative justifications with regard to medical services ought to be regulated. This is mainly due to the fact that patients tend to choose cheap services they perceive as more affordable thus easily accessible. Such patients do this by disregarding the fact that, they expose themselves to various medical risks commonly associated with cheap medical services (2003, p. 445).
Broscheid and Teske argued that, highly competent, skilled and experienced medical practitioners are therefore likely to be out crowded by lowly skilled and poor qualified medical competitors in the near future. They therefore argued that, paying no attention to these licensing normative arguments will support the medical market is to fail. If the licensing approaches utilized in the medical field are not improved so as qualified, skilled, experienced and well trained medical staff that are also affordable to people from all income groups are not promoted, the medical field will fail to achieve its core values and principles. They stated that, improving the licensing stages will support and encourage the medical fields to improve, grow and develop. Meanwhile, the values, principles, qualities, ethics, ideologies and doctrines when delivering medical services will increases, costs reduce and participation of low quality, unskilled and ill experienced medical competitors will consequently reduce (2003, p. 445).
Based on these revelations, they recommended that, restrictions should be implemented in the medical field. This translates to penalizing all practitioners holding medical licenses yet offering compromising services and revoking licenses from uneducated medical practitioners (2003, p. 447). Therefore, penalties are imposed on license holders as a precaution. This is because holders found guilty of offering, supplying and/or manufacturing low quality, sub standardized goods and services harmful to the consumers should be eliminated from the industry. With regard to medical licenses awarded to quacks within the healthcare sector, they ought to be terminated and the practitioners penalized. This is because, they increase medical costs while risking their patient’s health conditions.
Sougata and Uday considered licensing strategies between an outsider and insider patent holder. They acknowledged that, lack of a license among insider patentees and offering royalties to outsider patentees encourages innovation. Licensing of patents is mainly within industries as they act as a source of revenue to innovators from the patent holders. With globalization, technology advancement and transfer among firms, licensing has resulted in stiff competition (2004, p. 214).
Royalty licensing permits firms to exchange technologies. It regulates these transfers so as to ensure that, based on the quantity of technology produced; the buying firm should be capable of paying an equivalent amount. However, while concluding their research findings, they stated that in order to reduce competition among patent holders, one license holder should either be restricted from engaging in technological activities or denied a license (2004, p. 217).
Scrivens and Skelton while focusing on licensing among organizations in the healthcare sector discussed restricted licensing models. They defined restricted licensing models as a minimal service provision to identified needs and wants under controlled capacities (2008, p. 300). A restricted licensing model allows trading activities legitimately in order to sustain a commercial entity while ensuring that, the licensing contract regulator restricts or limits the qualities, scope and complying rules. Therefore, licensing restrictions can be experienced in planning, monitoring and building of a commercial entity. Nancy offers types of restriction provisions contained in a software license. They include restriction against software transfer and software uses. She asserts that, restrictions are part of the contract or agreement during licensing as they ensure the license rights are neither violated nor infringed (2008, p. 1144). Dean (2012, p. 20) argued that, licensing is a process that takes countless man-hours to execute. Therefore, it should be a procedure implemented in the commercial community as a motivation of protecting various stakeholders (Somaya, Kim & Vonortas, 2010, p.
159). Thus, without these restrictions, some intellectual property can be violated, stolen, infringed or involved in tussle among firms over ownership rights. Levmore argues that, noncompliance, penalties and restrictions during licensing are an indication that, there are recurring issues in a legal system (1999, p. 737). Deepak, Young and Nicholas conversely described an exclusive license as one allowing the holder in engaging on commercial activities with a single partner. Therefore, it restricts the holder from associating with other firms, producing and supplying products other than those stipulated in the license and selling within restricted market areas (2010, p. 160).Sample LiteraturReferences
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Running head: LICENSING 1
The Impact That Being a Foster Parent Has On Their Biological Children
Forster youths have experienced trauma of different kinds, which could manifest in unsavory and unwelcoming ways. The government, through social services provides an intervention solution, which mostly add up to foster care for these victims. Forster parents intend to provide these children with a secure environment, but how secure is this environment to the biological child/children of that family? Intensive studies have been carried out on the foster child and parents, but a huge gap has been left on the literature regarding the biological child/children of the foster parents (Younes & Harp, 2007). Children brought up in families where the parents become foster parents to other children experience both direct and indirect effects of the situation. These effects may be both positive and negative to these children (Watson & Jones, 2002).
The children’s expectations of their parents may be a little or greatly altered depending on too many factors such as age, gender and relationship with parents and other siblings among others (Farineau et al., 2013). There are positive outcomes that arise in biological children of foster parents from these experiences. Due to the interaction with these foster youths in the care of their homes, such as knowing of their past situations, like neglect and abuse, many of these children result into pursuing social services careers in their youths to extend their aid to these helpless children (Watson & Jones, 2002). They get inspiration from observing how these foster children need a family, love to make it in life and seek careers more related to altruism and humanitarianism. These inspirations are extended beyond an individual level to other people they interact with in schools and other social gatherings.
They experience great joy when they watch foster children in their families achieve success in areas of development and learning and respond by becoming ardent protectors and supporters of these foster youths (Höjer, 2007).
Children are likely to focus more on the strengths of others, rather than their limitations. Children having high levels of empathy accept other people’s diversity. This can be a very positive impact on the foster family because the children may be supportive enough to help the foster youth in the family by accepting their differences (Watson & Jones 2002). With regard to the parent’s teachings and attitudes, biological children may be more sensitive to foster children’s feelings, therefore, maintain a heightened sense of justice towards them. However, there are negative impacts on biological children of foster parents, most especially they may not positively impact on them as young children, but develop as they mature into young adults (Sanchirico & Jablonka, 2000).
The biological children to the foster parents may develop unrealistic expectations for the new’ child/children in the family, which may result to misunderstandings between them and parents (Simmel, 2007). This may even affect the relationships these individuals have on each other and lead to emotional effects on both the adopted and biological children (Vanderfaeillie et al., 2012). Being a foster youth in care may be challenging because of the initial life expectations that may be affected by joining the foster family. This has affected many foster youths in care and has slightly altered their emotional and behavioral stability. In some cases, these children have resulted in drugs and other undesirable behaviors (Watson & Jones 2002).
When foster children are brought into the family, children’s birth order in the family is most likely to change. This affects the biological children because parents may change in the way they distribute their attention to the children in the family henceforth (Barber, James et al., 2003). For instance, in families that the last born child received much attention than the other siblings, this may change when a much younger child is brought in the family unit. This has been a major effect on the biological children of parents who foster other children, generating feelings of less love’ to these children from their parents. Sometimes the family faces challenges and the parents struggle their way out to meet emotional, psychological and other needs for the children in the family (Nelson et al., 2013). In the process, biological children are troubled with grief and sadness, and even anger they see their parents go through when the family struggles. These emotions may develop to unhealthy resolutions such as the rivalry between the biological children and the foster children (Watson & Jones, 2002).
Biological children may be faced with challenges of warding off intrusive questions concerning the new members in their family (Lamb, 2012). They may have difficulties trying to explain to their fellow schoolmates and friends who the new’ child in their family is; hence, find it disturbing. The level of maturity may also contribute to how these children relate to each other with friendlier relationships portrayed at younger ages unlike at the adolescent phase. Biological kids may be trapped off-guard by the profundity of their depressing feelings and reactions to the foster youths in the family (Berger et al., 2009). These negative feelings affect the children’s general performances and may directly or indirectly affect the relationships within the family level and outside the family setting. These negative feelings may make the biological children feel as if their parents have started loving them less compared to the situation of things before the new’ member joined the family. They may feel like they have become invisible as more attention and energy of the parents is focused at the newest member(s) of the family (Barber, James et al., 2003).
The Establishment and Evolution of Formalized Care for Youth Who’ve Experienced Abuse, Neglect, Or Abandonment in America
The evolution of foster care for children who have experienced abuse, neglect and/or abandonment begun in the Old Testament and the Talmud (Phillips, 2010). According to these references, the children were placed in the hands of other guardians because they were dependent on them with regard to a duty under the law. In addition, the history of foster parenting can be traced back to the early church, where the congregation contributed to pay worthy widows’ who took the responsibility of taking care of these children (Bailkin, 2013)..
Prior to the American Civil War, however, children who fell under this fate were sold and bought as chattel. During the shipping of the indentured children from England to America, many of them succumbed to various afflictions due to overcrowding and poor sanitation (Baker, 2007). Later, a few laws from the British Poor Law were used with regard to the treatment of the indentured children (Dudley, 2013). Just prior to the 18th century, movements were formed to challenge the indentured system and the success of these movements lead to the first foster care in America Private Orphan Asylum,’ in Georgia (Bailkin, 2013).
Seven years following the American Revolutionary war, America made a milestone in coming up with a public orphanage in South Carolina. Most of the funding for these facilities were privately contributed and heavily relied on religious charities and mainly took white children under ten years. The English Poor Law developed, and at the same time regulated the operations family foster care in America. By 1562, children could be placed into homes for foster care, and many of these indenturing children persisted into the first decade of that century. The first child to be placed in a foster home in America was Benjamin Eaton, in 1636, less than three decades after Jamestown colony was founded (Bailkin, 2013).
The issue of children who needed foster care continued receiving attention and by 1838, the Pennsylvania court came up with the EX PARTE CROUSE, which focused on decent treatment of these children. The Crouse stated that children have requirements and not privileges and that the administration should ensure that children are provided with protection, care and education. In 1953, Charles Loring Brace founded New York Children’s Aid Society (NYCAS) (Charles Loring Brace, 2013). He launched the Orphan Train Movement that sought to remove children who were orphaned, abandoned and maltreated, out of the streets of America. These children were later sent to foster homes across America via train (Jalongo, 2010).
Current Policies Related To Child Welfare Practices
For the last two decades, family foster care designed to provide temporary protection and nurturing for the foster youths facing maltreatment, have had challenges for millions of foster and biological children. Intense focus has been directed to this critical service on its limited ability to achieve its intended outcomes than on its success (Groza, et al., 2011). Because of these concerns, many questions have been raised concerning family foster care leading to devaluation of the service and drastic reduction in its use (Rae et al., 2010). Currently, adoption is affected by many factors ranging from economic, social and politics, which have also affected the number of children being, placed in foster homes, the biological children of the foster parents as well as the foster parents, leading to introduction of policies (Petit & Curtis, 1997). Many issues have arisen with regard to this service, which has ignited the motives behind establishing policies over the matter.
The Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997
This policy-heightened interest to the plight of children suffering in foster care and advocated for such children to be adopted out of foster care (Kaplan et al., 2009). The policy priorities include increased parent recruitment and retention, flexible funding for states’ federal foster care dollars, performance-based measures for family courts and educational assistance for older foster children (Administration on Children, Youth, and Families, 1998).
The Multiethnic Placement Act of 1994 (MEPA)
Mandates that children should not be deprived of foster or adoptive placements based on race. It also calls for better efforts on the agencies, to train foster parent applicants who have common racial/ethnic backgrounds in an attempt to reduce widespread race concerns in the foster care structures (Brooks et al., 1999).
The Family Preservation and Family Support Program
This policy advocated for reunification of children with their families, citing that foster care was being used in situations where children could just remain at home (Al et al., 2012). This resulted in the creation of models dubbed family centered or family based approaches, which evaluated the needs of the children in the context of their families (Administration on Children, Youth, and Families, 1998).
The Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980
This law required child welfare agencies to make reasonable efforts to keep families together and in case of foster care by the children, they should also make reasonable effort to reunite them with their families. It also called for alternative permanency outcomes for the children in foster care who could not be reunited with their families, by placing them with relatives and option for adoption (Buckles, 2013).
Requirements and Criteria That One Must Meet Before Becoming Eligible for State Licensure and Approval to Become a Foster Parent
To become eligible for fostering a child, some requirements and criteria outlined by the laws of the United States must be followed. Those positioned in foster homes are subject to the State laws and regulations that dictate the operations of those home facilities (Rhodes et al., 2006). According to the United States Laws on foster care, for a person to qualify as a foster parent, he/she must meet the prospective abilities set by the law, and must have the ability to address the child’s health and safety. To evaluate a parents eligibility to become a foster parent, one is asked questions regarding experience in raising children, approach to child discipline, experience with issues of child abuse and neglect, awareness of significance of providing a safe environment to a child, and impact of foster parenting to other family members especially biological children and interest in being part of the permanency plan (Crea et al., 2007).
According to the Law, non-relative homes are certified and relative homes approved according to similar requirement standards. The parents to be foster parents must be above the age of twenty one years, and every member of the family in that home must be in good health conditions, both physically and mentally (Rhodes et al., 2006). These family members should be free of any communicable diseases. However, physical handicap of the foster parents or the family members is considered only if it poses challenges of affecting the foster child adjustment to the family.
Therefore, once approved or certified, written reports of complete physical examinations must be submitted upon agency worker or the foster parent. Employment issues are also put into consideration, where working outside the home must be permitted, unless when only one of the parents is working. The reason this raises concern is because being out of home to work may affect the care and child’s supervision, which in return can affect the relationship between the foster care child and the biological children (Crea et al., 2007).
Marital status of the parent applying to be a foster care parent can only be a concern if the agency feels it can affect the parent’s ability to provide adequate care to foster children (Whitmore, 1991). If the marital status of the foster parent changes, it should be accounted for to the authorized agencies in legal documents. The endorsement certificates affirming change of marital status may be rescinded and new ones issued for the best interest of the child (Rhodes et al., 2006). The authorized agencies for foster children also require evidence concerning the moral character of the applicants. This requires the applicant to provide three references who attest to the applicant’s mature judgement, experience with child relations, and ability to manage their financial resources by signing or through individual interviews. The agency also seeks to find out the ability of the applicant to become a foster parent and explores their motivation behind their willingness (Crea et al., 2007).
For relative-home foster parent’s applicants, they can only qualify if a relationship within the second or third degree of parent exists. These can be grandparents of the child, great grandparents, aunts and uncles, first cousins etc., as long as they fall in second or third degree family relations. All applicants and any family member of 18 years and above should fill a form over child abuse maltreatment. For instance, those applicants from New York State, file this report with the State Central Register of Child Abuse and Maltreatment (SCR) (Rhodes et al., 2006).
This law requires all applicant and family members who stayed in other states five years before the application to obtain such information from the previous residency. Criminal history record check is also carried out for these individuals in the respective state Division of Criminal Justice Services (DCJS) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to ensure the foster child is in a safe environment. When the application form is completed and received, and all the above requirements addressed, foster parent orientation takes place. These applicants are trained on how to meet the child’s needs, how to manage their behavior and prevent abuse and neglect. They are also advised on how to meet the agency’s expectations (Rhodes et al., 2006).
Effective Parenting Techniques That Could Assist Current and Future Foster Parents In Meeting the Needs of Their Biological Children
Understanding that every child is an individual can set a clear foot for foster parents in understanding how to handle their foster and biological children, and respecting their differences. It is important for these parents to be creative and knowledgeable on how to relate to their children.
They should provide their children with a supportive environment and tools to improve the capabilities of both their children and foster youths in the family. Emotional control can be important to avoid situations leading to patience testing against that of the child. Discipline and setting good morals are a good foundation to raise children. When this is done, the situations of the temptations of bribing the child are avoided (Kremer et al., 2010).
Teaching accountability and responsibility to children helps them to grow empowered and focus on their set goals. This can be instilled with appropriate rewards and consequences for their actions. Family rules should be established and implemented to guide children morals and values. This will not only increase respect between foster and biological children, but also extended to other people in the community. Parents should set routine and structure on how they want to bring up their children. This is important because it will dictate the way to follow for the children. Good communication is the core of a healthy relationship between the family members and towards other people in the society (Mah & Johnston 2012).
Experiences of Youth in Foster Care: To Explore If the Biological Children within the Home Had Any Impact on Their Experiences or Perceptions
Being a foster child in a new home presents the child with a new environment, experiences and relations. Biological children directly influence the experiences and perception of the foster children in their homes. This is because these children interact with each other mostly and are likely to affect each other’s decisions and perceptions of life. People have distinguished approaches to doing things, when foster children join these families, they are presented with new expectations of the family and they learn most of them from the biological children. If the biological children are raised with strong character, they are likely to positively influence the foster children. However, undesirable behavior such as rebelliousness, substance abuse and violence can be passed to the foster child after long interactions (White et al., 2008).
Administration on Children, Youth, and Families. (1998). Memo containing program instruction regarding the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997. Washington, DC: Author
Al, C. W., Stams, G. M., Bek, M. S., Damen, E. M., Asscher, J. J., & van der Laan, P. H. (2012). A meta-analysis of intensive family preservation programs: Placement prevention and improvement of family functioning. Children & Youth Services Review, 34(8), 1472-1479. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.04.002
Bailkin, J. (2013). Fostering Independence. History Today, 63(8), 21-26.
Baker, A. L. (2007). Fostering Stories: Why Caseworkers, Foster Parents, and Foster Children Should Read Stories About Being in Foster Care. American Journal Of Family Therapy, 35(2), 151-165. doi:10.1080/01926180600698459
Barber, James G.; Delfabbro, Paul H. (2003). Children in Foster Care. New York: Routledge via Questia. pp. 34.
Berger, L. M., Bruch, S. K., Johnson, E. I., James, S., & Rubin, D. (2009). Estimating the Impact of Out-of-Home Placement on Child Well-Being: Approaching the Problem of Selection Bias. Child Development, 80(6), 1856-1876. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01372.x
Brooks, D., Barth, R. P., Bussiere, A., & Patterson, G. (1999). Adoption and Race: Implementing the Multiethnic Placement Act and the Interethnic Adoption Provisions. Social Work, 44(2), 167-178.
Buckles, K. S. (2013). Adoption Subsidies and Placement Outcomes for Children in Foster Care. Journal Of Human Resources, 48(3), 596-627.
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Crea, T. M., Barth, R. P., & Chintapalli, L. K. (2007). Home Study Methods for Evaluating Prospective Resource Families: History, Current Challenges, and Promising Approaches. Child Welfare, 86(2), 141-159.
Dudley, T. I. (2013). Bearing Injustice: Foster Care, Pregnancy Prevention, and the Law. Berkeley Journal Of Gender, Law & Justice, 28(1), 77-115.
Farineau, H. M., Stevenson Wojciak, A., & Mcwey, L. M. (2013). You matter to me: important relationships and self-esteem of adolescents in foster care. Child & Family Social Work, 18(2), 129-138. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2206.2011.00808.x
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EFFECTS OF FOSTER CARE ON BIOLOGICAL CHILDREN OF FOSTER PARENTS 9
Running head: FOSTER CARE 1
Comparison Essay of Oedipus and Hamlet
Oedipus and Hamlet are famous characters in literature who are exceptional from the way they act, their conflicts, strengths and weaknesses. The plots of the stories revolve around them making the reader to be more involved in their actions. Their fathers had disagreements and choices that affected the characters leading them to their destruction. Although Hamlet and Oedipus bear some similarities, they also have clear differences. In their royal positions, they both relate differently with the people.
Hamlet is the heir to the throne of Denmark, while Oedipus is the king of Thebes in Sophocles. Both of them are royals, they are in ruling families. Hamlet faces the results of the conflict between his brother and his father. Old hamlet is killed by his own brother because of the greed for the throne of Denmark. Young hamlet mourns deeply over the loss of his father and the way he would handle the marriage of his mother to the uncle who killed his father in cold blood. He struggles to kill his uncle Claudia on finding out that he was the father’s murderer. He loved his father so much that knowing his killer is alive filled him with rage and anger. The only mission he lives to accomplish, so that his father can be proud of him. In the end, he gets the revenge he sought and kills his uncle destroying the castle. The death of Claudius comes with his own death.
Oedipus on the other hand did not know his father or have a relationship with him because of the prediction that claimed that he would slay his father and marry his own mother. When Oedipus was born, he was sent to be killed by his father to prevent the prophecy from coming true. However, the shepherd who was sent to kill him sold him to a barren queen and king. When he heard about the prophecy, he fled the land to Thebes fearing that he could hurt his parents. Without knowing the truth, the prophecy is fulfilled as he kills Lauis and marries Jocasta. Because of the decisions of his father to let him be killed when he was born, Oedipus leaves to Thebes where he marries his mother after killing King Lauis. The news makes him hate himself and he leaves the city in destruction. They are similar because they both suffer and die because of the decisions their fathers had made. The strong influence their fathers had on them destroys them.
Both Oedipus and Hamlet had the role of nobility and possessed tragic flaws that led them to their downfall. They come to self-realization during their downfall. The two reach a point where what was hidden from them is revealed leading them to know the truth. When Oedipus hears Apollo speak about the prophecy, he flees to meet his terrible fate. He only realizes when he finally finds out that he was the killer of the king and his wife was also his mother. He knows that the prophecy had come to pass.
Both Hamlet and Oedipus were incestuous with their own mothers. His mother’s new relationship hurts Hamlet so deeply that he explains the re-marriage as, “O, most wicked speed, to post with such dexterity to incestuous sheets!” (Act 1 scene 2). Hamlet loved his mother so much that he sometimes could not kill Claudius because he saw himself in him being closer to his mother (Sawyer & Desmet 176).
The two characters are tragic heroes whose tragic flaws affect and lead them to their downfall. Thebes suffers because of the pollution that was brought about by Oedipus. He thinks that by finding and avenging the killer of Lauis, he will protect himself or take the place of the king’s son by getting children with Jocasta. He offers to take the place of the king’s son and save Thebes. When the murder of the king is uncovered by, he realizes that the prophecy he ran away from has come to pass because of his tragic flaw of anger and swiftness to action. He realizes that he is the one who had brought suffering to the people of his land (Sophocles & Mulroy).
Hamlet also because of his indecisiveness keeps postponing the murder of his uncle Claudius for killing his father. Although the ghost of his father convinces him, he still has doubts and thinks wastes time because of self-doubt until he is sent to England by the uncle who is the king without carrying out the instructions of his father.
Despite the similar fate they share, the two characters have several different traits. Oedipus as the king acts quickly when called upon by his people. He is swift and confident throughout his reign in Thebes. He is in motion throughout trying to be at the same pace with his destiny. He is a good leader who answers to the needs of his people. During the plague that hit Thebes, he swiftly sent Creon to the oracle at Delphi for advice. He saved Thebes from the curse of the sphinx. Because of the qualities he held, he was respected by his subjects and proclaimed his name, here I am myself-you all know me ,the world knows my fame: I am Oedipus(p 7-8). The tragedy however ends with his name becoming a curse such that when a person mentions it people are filled with fear. Oedipus is regarded by his Aristotle as, someone regarded as extra ordinary rather than typical… (p. 1117). The priest also describes Oedipus as our greatest power in the first scene of Act 1.
Hamlet despite his noble birth has no extra ordinary character. He was just born a prince. His objective was to kill Claudius and take vengeance for the death of his father. He however seems to change his mind in the act three, scene 1 as he says, I will observe his looks, I will tent him to the quick, if I do blench, I know my course. The spirit I have seen may be a devil. This shows that despite the information Hamlet got from the ghost of his father, he still doubted the action he needed to take and was slow to action (Miller 7). Hamlet’s main flaw is inaction, he realizes that the revenge had taken him so long to act when he sees that Fortinbras was willing to risk all he had over a piece of land in a war. He regretted that he could not risk for the sake of his father’s soul. Oedipus is admired and loved by his people for saving them against plagues and mainly the riddle that was posed by Sphinx.
Hamlet has a suicidal personality and hates himself and his fate. He participates and astutely observes his life. He is an enigma who has failed to be understood by several critics. He is familiar with the decay in the Danish society but understands that the social evils need not be blamed only on one person. He is exceedingly coherent and considerate (FEEC). He is drawn to difficult questions and decisions that are hard to answer. Like the wisdom of suicide and the proof of the guilt of his uncle before acting. On the other hand, Oedipus is a proud king who feels he deserves to be respected and is so confident in himself.
Hamlet is depressed and dissatisfied with the state of affairs in Denmark starting from his family. He is disappointed in his mother for accepting to marry his uncle after the death of his father knowing that he was the killer of his father. His words show that he does not trust women. Hamlet thinks about the problems of Denmark in philosophical terms, he spends little time thinking about the security threats that Denmark faces that may lead to its destabilization. Oedipus has his people’s needs at heart. He does his best to know the causes of all misfortunes that befell the people of Thebes until he gets the answers. He also fights to find the killer of Lauis the king even though he later finds out he was the murderer.
Hamlet has a religious and moral reasoning that prevents him from carrying out the will of his father. He is indecisive and often thinks about life after death. He desires to avenge his father’s death in a moral and accepted way. His awareness of the morals is perceptible but it is obvious that it is against murder. At a point, he prays.
He kneels and prays,And now I’ll do it, and so he goes to heaven,And so am I revenged: that would be scanned.He killed my father, and for that, I, his sole son, send him to heaven. Why this is reward, not revenge. Up sword and know thou a more horrid time,When he is drunk, asleep, or in a rage.” (Sophocles and Mulroy).
Hamlet is full of thought but no action, a flaw he manages to overcome in the end when he heard of the honor people uphold on war and revenge. He becomes aware of his wavering and lack of willpower. Contrasting Oedipus, he does not waste time thinking but uses actions to solve the problems he comes across. This quick action caused him to kill his father though unknowingly because he felt scorned. He does not have religious thoughts or morality issues that deter him from acting.
The fate of Oedipus and Hamlet was predetermined. On learning of his destiny, Oedipus leaves Thebes for the good of his people, the people he had served well. Hamlet too realizes that his indecisiveness led him to failing his father. They get to understand their destinies when they are suddenly hit by self-realization and the secrets that were hid are known. This sends the characters down the trail of their ultimate tragic ends. In my opinion, Oedipus was more heroic, loved by the people in Thebes and did a lot for them compared to Hamlet and the Danish people.
Christy Desmet, Robert Sawyer. Shakespeare and Appropriation. Routledge, 2013. Print
Field Enterprises Educational Corporation. Analysis of Hamlet’s Character. The World Book Encyclopedia. Vol. 17. Chicago: 1971. Web. http://www.auburn.edu/~tuckebr/Site/Analysis.html
Miller, Joanne K. William Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Piscataway, NJ: Research & Education Association, 1994. Print.
Sophocles, and David, D. Mulroy. Oedipus Rex. Madison, Wis: The University of Wisconsin Press, 2011. Print.
Insert surname here 5
Chrysler Parts: Speakers and Stereos
Recently, there has been an increased interest of marketing and global logistics researchers on the operations of Chrysler LLC automobile manufacturers. However, very little literature exists that fully examines this company’s operations, which interested groups can rely upon as a reference. To fill the information gap, this white paper seeks to analyze the supply chain of the company against its primary objectives. The aim of the paper is to find out whether the company meets its set objectives and goals using its supply chain in the processing of stereo speakers that is used in all its vehicles. This is based on the knowledge that, while the company operates in USA, with a larger majority of its market being in North America, its stereo and automobile speakers are imported from Mexico because of the reduced operational costs involved.
Chrysler Parts: Speakers and Stereos
Chrysler Limited Liability Company is one of the leading automobile manufacturers in the United Sates, with operations in various parts of the world, including Europe, Mexico, North America and Egypt in Africa. The company has had a long mixed history of failure and success since it began its operations in 1925 under its founder, Walter Chrysler. It was not after being sold to one corporation after the other and nearing total bankruptcy and eventual collapse that the company was revamped by donations from various external players, including the government of the US which contributed up to $8 billion to rescue the company. It was in the same year that the company was renamed to Chrysler Group LLC after which it registered a remarkable improvement in operations. As it is, the company is currently under foreign ownership, with the majority of shares being owned by Fiat of Italy (Reich & Donahue, 2005).
This paper proposes to research about the company’s supply chain strategy, with the focus placed on the production of its stereo and speaker systems. It is noteworthy that, since 1987, Chrysler Company has been using the Dynasty series of speakers and stereo. These parts are acquired and assembled from outside the country. Precisely pointing out, they are imported from Dynasty Automobile Sound Systems manufacturers in Mexico, before being installed into the Chrysler vehicles and sold to the American population. Various factors play a role in the manufacture of these products from outside the country, including the low cost of production, free market trade between US and Mexico, as well as the short shipping distance between the two countries (Hill, 2007).
This paper analyzes the supply chain strategy that the company applies in relation to global logistics management. More specifically, the paper will delve deep at three core components of supply chain, which are discussed in three sections. The first section briefly outlines the current supply chain that is in use by the company followed by an analysis of this chain. The third section is a discussion of whether the supply chain supports the business objectives of the company.
The company’s main objective is to create a worldwide phenomenon by expanding its operations in regions in which it does not have branches, or those in which it has minimal impact, including Europe and the Middle East. Another key objective that the company has is to increase its involvement in environmental sustenance programs and community development projects by supporting and engaging in environmental friendly manufacturing procedures and charity programs (Krugman, 2004).
Mexico PEST Analysis
The home country of the suppliers for the speaker and stereo system is Mexico, which is located to the south of the United States of America, in the North America. There are various political factors that affect trade between companies within Mexico and those carrying out international trade between it and other countries. According to .Edward (2013), the factors include government legislations on issues of taxes, labor, environment, trades and tariff rates. The country is currently headed by Pena Nieto, whose presidency is based on democracy and representation. The country is structured in a liberal political framework where foreign direct investments are permissible.
Like the United States and a few other courtiers, Mexico is made up of thirty-one (31) states each of which has its unique constitution. However, all of these states are harmonized and brought together under the federal government, though each state can independently create its laws that govern all legal operations in the land. All of these factors make Mexico an ideal place for Chrysler to base its Speaker and stereo processing supplies before shipping them to the North where they are finally sold (Edward, 2013).
Economically, Krugman (2004) argue that the country has reported an increased amount of debts over the last few years, with public reports revealing that the gap increased from 1% to 1.5% between 2007/8, which translated to approximately one billion dollars. Among other factors, issues such as reduced earnings from oil, lower financial remittance from Mexicans in the Diaspora, reduction in tourists as well as poor credit and investment returns were blamed for the increased debt (Krugman, 2004).
In 2009, the country was hit by an outbreak of flu and increased illegal drug abuse, which saw the economy catapult downwards by nearly 6%. Together with US and Canada, it is a member of OECD and NAFTA. Mexico has a notable number of free trade contracts between it and other nations, from both South America and the rest of the world, including Japan and Guatemala. The modest Mexican economy, compounded with the free trade agreements between it and the US reduces the cost of operations for Chrysler, giving it a cost advantage over manufacturing in the US (.Edward, 2013).
The country boasts of a large group of citizens who fall in the age bracket of between 18 and 65, who can still be considered actively productive since only about 6% of its entire population is over 65 (Krugman, 2004). In the last one and a half decade, there has been a rapid increase in the number of students in the country, forcing the government to formulate means by which it can accommodate its student population. In the recent past, Mexico has been recognized to offer high quality education in its institutions of higher learning.
In terms of health, the country is split into two social divides, with the North being predisposed to better and more efficient healthcare systems than the South. This is because the North is mostly comprised of the elite whereas the South is majorly inhabited by poverty-stricken citizens. This means that, not only does Chrysler speaker manufacturing subsidiary have an advantage regarding cheap labor, but it also has a potential team of high skilled workers, which can be tapped from the emerging fresh college leavers (.Edward, 2013).
Moreover, Mexico had a low rate of unemployment of four percent in comparison to its counterparts like Brazil and others, which registered over eight percent rate. One of the major challenges for Mexico is dealing with illegal immigration, most of which is related to its citizens illegal entry into the US. The government of Mexico has further initialed plans for universal healthcare provision in which Mexicans will not have to pay for minor medical procedures (Krugman, 2004). Apart from increasing the medical efficiency provision to the poor communities, this program will also allow for the country to have a national health standard to all its citizens. The unemployment levels are still high enough to make it possible for the Speaker manufacturer to find labor at a less competitive job market, thereby reducing the cost of employment (Edward, 2013).
Though the country’s technology is poor, there is an increasing growth of technology in Mexico, in partnership with other foreign countries like India as well as private corporations. On the other hand, reports have indicated that the government does not show much support to various sectors of technology, of note being the disregarded biotechnological sector (Krugman, 2004). One of the factors that have facilitated the rapid technological developments is its available and ready labor that is relatively cheap compared to the US. Whereas most developed countries are in charge of processing the detailed components of engineering equipments, assembling of these parts has been sourced to developing nations like Mexico, India and China, among others.
Moreover, there is increased government support for student education, especially for those enrolling into engineering classes, which is another motivating factor for technology development. The future of technology in Mexico is promising, which means that Chrysler can count on having improved sound systems in the near future, though what they are using currently is still of superior quality (Edward, 2013).
Chrysler SWOT Analysis
Some of the most notable strengths of the company include the exceptional performance of the High fleet in the market, with a record of over one million sales per year. Secondly, the Chrysler brand is highly regarded by its target customers in the North, especially for the V 8 Engines and the minivans. In addition, over the past four years, the company’s HR and general management has regained focus, thereby managing to rise from bankruptcy level to profit-making level. Since its inception, one of the greatest strengths of Chrysler has been its captivating automobile sound systems, which have attracted people, especially the market in North America such as US and Canada. All these factors are partly related to the fact that the company imports its high quality Stereo Systems from the Mexican manufacturer at reduced operations cost, thus making it possible to offer competitive prices.
There are three major weaknesses that the company faces, which include lack of complete appreciation for other brands of cars manufactured by the company due to high preference for the high fleets. In addition, the company nearly collapsed because of mismanagement and some of the managers responsible for the previous performance are still retained. This raises questions on the credibility of management thereby soiling the otherwise good name of the new Chrysler team of managers, which may scare away investors. Lastly, the company’s market is continuously getting smaller compared to its size in the previous years, which is attributed to a rapidly growing automobile industry. This growth provides customers with alternate options, thus making the emerging stiff competition a reality, which Chrysler must deal with in the most effective manner (Dyer, 2006).
There are several opportunities that lie in the grasp of the company, as long as it is ready to apply a few adjustments in its management and policy strategy. Firstly, the company has shown that it has the ability to appeal to its customers because of its high quality brands an addition to the lucrative speaker and stereo systems installed in its vehicles. Since most competitors may have brands that, equally, are as impressive as theirs are, then their superb speaker systems give them the distinction of difference. Secondly, the company has shown that, ever since the ownership and management of the company was changed, there have been numerous productive advances. This means that there is a better opportunity for the company to grow in terms of management to a higher level than it is currently (Dyer, 2006).
One of the company’s biggest threats is the fact that it does not manufacture small cars, as it is known to produce only big vehicles unlike most of its rival counterparts like Mercedes Benz. This is seen as a threat because it offers the company a smaller market compared to what it could have otherwise achieved were it not for the narrowed focus of the company, which is limited to the production of larger vehicles.
Another imminent threat is the declining economy of the US, which has exposed the company’s major customers to reduced spending. This has led to the reduction in number of vehicle sales as consumers are now opting for smaller vehicles that utilize minimal fuels, which the company does not manufacture. In addition, apart from the parts that are imported from Mexico, the company has very little other businesses that are internationally based, thus making them confined to a small trading bloc. Finally, over the recent past, there has been a rapid increase in the cost of production of Automobile speakers and stereo, which is bound to impact negatively on Chrysler’s profitability (Levin, 2013).
Chrysler Supply chain
The supply chain of Chrysler is detailed and contains the documentation of all the processes that occur as goods are obtained from the suppliers and utilized in the company. The following section provides a preview of the supply chain of the Chrysler in relation to its speakers and stereos acquired from Dynasty in Mexico. In 2010, the state of California made legal a law, which stipulates that no company shall encourage any transactions that promotes or supports trafficking of workers or slavery (Fitzgerald, 2008). In addition, the Californian courts passed a mandate to the effect that all companies, which participate in business in that jurisdiction, must provide publications that show their operations. In this regard, Chrysler produced papers showing their disclosure and the fact that their operations with Dynasty Stereo and speakers manufacturing company is within the low (Fitzgerald, 2008).
In their supply chain management policy, the company has succinctly stated that they completely do not tolerate any labor abuses, including the use of children or forceful labor in their organization or with their suppliers. In their mandate and ethics code, they have further stated that, as one of the requirements for Dynasty, there must be a deal that the law will be obeyed and that all employees shall be treated with respect to their human value.
The supply chain management at Chrysler also organizes regular review of the status of their suppliers’ working environment, just making sure that there is no abuse of authority to force employees into working under deplorable conditions. Dynasty of Mexico fills routine checkup forms, which show that it sticks to the company supplier’s agreements of enduring ethical work standards are maintained in its organization structure. In fact, the company has also recently proposed a possible use of audited reports in future for assessing this important ethical standard in their suppliers’ organizations (Brown, 2011).
In addition to the policies and proposed auditing of the assessments, the company has also ensured that, since 2009, its Audio products supplier, Dynasty Speakers and Stereo Manufacturers alongside other suppliers have abuse-free orders. This to say that the style of writing and wording in all orders made by Chrysler do not show any signs of child or forced working conditions to workers. Such requirement was sealed between Chrysler and Dynasty when the two signed certificates of compliance with each other (Brenna, 2007).
Chrysler requires that Dynasty provides at least basic training for its workers so that those employees are all aware of their duties as employees and the need for them to ensure that their work environment. This requirement cuts across the board for all companies that supply products to Chrysler as a way of ensuring that the company’s engagement with other companies sticks to the company’s policy of a non-enforced labor and no instance of child labor as well. In addition to making employees more assertive of their individual rights, this move also makes them able to determine the risky behaviors that the supplier organizations might be planning to engage in Brenna, M., (2007).
In line with the above paragraph, the company has also made efforts in its supply chain department to get in touch with interested NGOs with which it could work towards its global mandate. That is, to make sure that all employees around the globe are taught about civil rights and employee rights, including the right of an employee to demand that their work environment is clean and tolerable. This quest makes the company to focus on fulfilling other details of its organizational objective that of providing support to help in community development and environment friendly manufacturing procedures (Brenna, 2007).
Apart from direct involvement with the welfare of the consumers, Chrysler has also invested some of its Supply Chain Management budget to support suppliers’ training. As one of its suppliers, Chrysler invited Dynasty’s management to attend the mandatory training program that it sponsors together with other companies. Such training is especially recommended to Dynasty because this supplier is known to deal with risky manufacturing tools, such as regular interaction with electric power during the design of electronics. Another blatant fact is that every session attended must yield thoughts for the suppliers to pass down their employees regarding latest employment issues (Brenna, M., (2007).
End user requirement
The supply chain has a mandate of ensuring that the end users receive as much minimal costs of products as possible, while at the same time, enjoying the provision of high quality products. Another additional requirement is that views of the consumers are added during the processing of stereos and speakers at Dynasty so that there are no extra costs due to last minute changes in design. Similarly, the supply chain enacted a project dubbed SCORE in which it targeted to save up to $350 million, most of which was to be used in lowering the cost of products for the end consumers. This could be achieved because the company recently announced that, in pursuit of its objective of providing high quality products at a cheaper cost, next year it will offer its latest brands at a cheaper price than the retail price for this year. The proposed reduction is up to 1%, which is a significant reduction in the ever skyrocketing prices of the automobile industry (Brenna, 2007).
Supply management summary
This generally means how the process of purchasing items that a company needs is organized so as to fit within the organizational objectives. The supply management of Chrysler is focused primarily on three important areas, which are highlighted below, that offer a slight difference to the composition of the supply chain. Firstly, the supply management initiates the dialog between the company and suppliers so as to settle contracts, services and final goods. Secondly, the supply management is in charge of the newest technology that the company uses to facilitate the process of purchase of company’s products (Martin, 2006). Finally, this management also controls the type of relationship that the company shall have with its suppliers. In summary, the supply management is responsible for overseeing all operations related to the company and its various suppliers, which include risk evasion and cost savings.
.Edward, G. (2013). A PEST analysis of Mexico. Journal of Supply Management and supply chain, 34(45), 233-254.
Brenna, M. (2007). “Auto Manufacturer Designing Data Pipelines to Suppliers,” Sacramento Bee, McClatchy Newspapers.
Brown, E. (2011). The Push to Streamline Supply Chains, Fortune.
Dyer, J. H. (2006). “How Chrysler Created an American Keiretsu. Harvard Business Review pp. 2-11.
Fitzgerald, K. R. (2008). “Show Suppliers the Money,” Purchasing. pp. 40-47.
Flint, J. (2012). “Rediscovering Chrysler,” Forbes, pp. 83-87.
Hill, C. (2007). International Business: Competing in the Global Marketplace, 2nd edition. Boston, Massachusetts: Richard D. Irwin publishers.
Krugman, P. (2004). The Age of Diminished Expectations. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
Levin, D.P., (2013). Behind the Wheel at Chrysler, The Iacocca Legacy. New York: Harcourt Brace & Company.
Martin, J. (2006). “Are You as Good as You Think You Are?” Fortune, 30 September 1996.
McCormick, J., (2013). Interview with Thomas Stallkamp, Chrysler’s Head of Purchasing, Automotive Sourcing.
Reich, R. B. & Donahue, J.D., (2005).New Deals, The Chrysler Revised and the American System. London: Times Books.
Thomas, Q., (3007). Supplier Cost-Reduction Efforts at Chrysler, Journal of Manufacturing Engineering, pp. 107-108.
CHRYSLER PARTS SPEAKERS AND STEREOS 13
Running head: CHRYSLER PARTS SPEAKERS AND STEREOS 1
Effects of Aging on Cognitive Development
I have heard many strange things about older people so often that it has become increasingly difficult to separate myth from fact. A few of the many common beliefs about aging include older people are preoccupied with dying, disinterested in intimacy and relationships, adamant, and older people are all the same. However, none of these caught much of my attention until I overheard a neighbor advising his friend not to argue with old folks, They are like children. I could not reconcile my thoughts about the idea that older people are like children. Are older people really like children? How do they become like children in the first place? Does aging affect cognitive ability so adversely that older people can be compared with children?
Age-related cognitive decline is fairly documented in psychology research but the field is still developing. However, the degree to which such decline occurs in normal ageing refutes the assertion that older people are children. A recent study by Ballesteros, Mayas & Reales (2013) investigated the impact of aging on memory, executive control and speed of processing in both healthy subjects and subjects with mild cognitive impairment. The researchers found evidence of age related decline in all the cognitive functions measured. However, cognitive decline was more pronounced in individuals with soft cognitive impairment. The study also showed that abnormal aging (as in older people with mild cognitive impairment) increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Furthermore, the study reported that young people performed better than healthy older people in all cognitive functions measured, meaning that age is positively correlated with cognitive decline.
The effects of aging on cognitive development have been reiterated in review studies such as Ren et al. (2013) and Deary et al. (2009). Ren et al. (2012) found that aging negatively affects control processes such as attention, memory and executive functions as well as mental representations. In addition, aging causes structural changes in the brain including the decline in cerebral volume, especially in the frontal, occipital and the temporal lobes. Moderate reductions also occur in the cerebellum and the hippocampus. The gray matter and white matter also decline during aging, which may account for the decline in executive and attention functions.
Apart from the differences in cognitive decline in normal versus pathological aging, variations exist even within normal aging. Individual factors such as genetic makeup, medical conditions, biological process and lifestyle influence the rate and nature of cognitive decline. According to Deary et al. (2009), the presence of so many potential confounding variables in the relationship between aging and cognitive decline render it premature to generalize even the most compelling of findings. Poor replication, small effect sizes and reverse causation represent some issues underlying controversies in this area.
Deary et al. (2009) further pointed out that some cognitive functions such as verbal ability, general knowledge and some arithmetic skills last throughout aging but other functions such as reasoning, certain aspects of memory and executive functions deteriorate. The decline in these mental abilities significantly affects the individual’s ability to accomplish daily activities, live independently and happily. Furthermore, the decline in some mental domains could accelerate the decline in other cognitive domains. For instance, the decline in information processing speed has been linked to the age-related decline all other cognitive domains (Deary et al., 2009).
Despite the lack of clear understanding of the pattern of cognitive ageing, the available literature does not suggest that normal cognitive aging warrants the comparison of older people with children. Only individuals with mental illness show significant loss of cognitive function to the point that they become dysfunctional in many aspects of daily living. For example, older adults suffering from Alzheimer’s disease exhibit not only cognitive dysfunction but also significant behavioral limitations.
According to Deary et al. (2009), one of the main problems researchers encounter when studying cognitive ageing concerns the process of separating normal from pathological ageing due to the overlap of the symptoms of the common risks of cognitive aging such as heritability, diabetes, lifestyle, and education with those of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. According to Deary et al. (2009), more than half of cognitive ability is heritable and increases with age. Cardiovascular conditions and associated abnormalities such as inflammation may also cause cognitive decline by affecting blood flow to the brain.
Several inferences are obtainable from the proof presented. First, most cognitive functions decline with aging but the degree of such decline varies with individual factors such as overall health, genetics and lifestyle. Second, the idea that old people are like children lacks scientific bases because even if researchers concur on the reality of cognitive aging, they do not hint that such decline is significant enough to lower their cognitive ability to that of children. Finally, the wide range of factors mediating the effect of ageing on cognitive ability renders it difficult to separate normal from abnormal cognitive ageing, which means that further research is required before making solid conclusions about this issue.
Ballesteros, S., Mayas J. & Reales J. M. (2013). Cognitive function in normal aging and in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Psicothema 25(1), 18-24.
Deary, I. J., Corley J., Gow A. J., Harris, J. E., HOulihan, L. M., Marioni, R. E., Penke L., Rafnsson S. B. & Starr J. M. (2009). Age-associated cognitive decline. British Medical Bulletin 92, 135-152.
Ren, J., Wu Y. D., Chan J. S. & Yan J. H. (2013). Cognitive aging affects motor performance and learning. Geriatrics Gerontology International 13, 19-27.
AGING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 4
Running head: AGING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 1