The radical changes that affect teachers’ roles are moving to learner-centered constructivist approaches and developing new tools for educational purposes. The radical changes require teachers to be careful on their learning objectives, the content to be covered in class, the strategies to be adopted, the technology and other related tools to be used to enhance the instruction process.
Teachers’ knowledge of ICT influence their decisions on the classroom practices and the instruction media adopted to enhance learning. The factors considered include content and technological pedagogical knowledge. For a successful integration of technology, teachers should have the basic skills of using technology in the process of instruction. Moreover, they should be in a position to integrate both hardware and software into the process of offering instruction.
Literature indicates that for successful integration of technology into the teaching process, teachers should be able to choose the particular technological tools or media that can effectively support the curricular goals in question. Come up with a specific strategy on how technology can be helpful to students and help them meet their goals in learning. Moreover, the use of technology should be applicable in different phases of learning that includes exploration, analysis and production, thus, making it a proficient tool that can be used to solve practical problems out the classroom context. Finally, the selected technology should be able to deal with issues, solve problems related to their professional practice and growth.
Teachers’ beliefs and attitudes towards the adoption and use of ICT is an important factor that determines whether they will integrate it in the process of teaching or not. Individual beliefs are shaped by prior experience just like for teachers whose beliefs in the need for and effectiveness of ICT integration in the teaching process is influenced by their experience as pupils. Teachers’ beliefs are also influenced by their professional experiences, becoming stable and resistant to change as they settle into their teaching practice.
The sample size of the study was 157 elementary school teachers who were selected through the process of random sampling from the eastern part of turkey. 15 teachers were not able to participate in the study because of workload. Moreover, 17 teachers could not fill in the questionnaire and participate in the study.
The data in the research was collected through primary sources and questionnaires were used as the source of information from the selected sample. Two questionnaires were used to collect data that was considered to be conclusive for the study. The questionnaires were developed and translated into Turkish with the first part designed to collect demographic information and the other part to assess teachers’ knowledge of ICT. In addition, the questionnaire will assess teachers’ use of ICT as an instruction instrument, their attitude towards the use of computers and their self confidence for the efficiency of technology in teaching. The second questionnaire was developed by Tezci to assess internet attitude scale for teachers. The factors looked into include opportunities of internet, change in education and effects of technology use in people’s daily life’s.
45 references were used in the paper. They are:
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�T�e�z�c�i�,� �E�.� �(�2�0�1�0�)�.� �S�1n�1f� �ö�r�e�t�m�e�n�l�e�r�i�n�i�n� �e�i�t�i�m�d�e� �B�I�T� �k�u�l�l�a�n�1m�1n�a� �i�l�i�_k�i�n� �ö�z�g�ü�v�e�n� �d�ü�z�e�y�l�e�r�i�.� �E�-�J�o�u�r�n�a�l� �o�f� �N�e�w� �W�o�r�l�d� �S�c�i�e�n�c�e�s� �A�c�a�d�e�m�y�,� �5�(�3�)�,� �9�8�1�-�9�9�2�.�
�T�o�n�d�e�u�r�,� �J�.�,� �v�a�n� �B�r�a�a�k�,� �J�.�,� �&� �V�a�l�c�k�e�,� �M�.� �(�2007). Towards a typology of computer use in primary education. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 23, 197206.
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According to the study, ICT usage among teachers with traditional beliefs was lower as compared to usage among teachers with constructivist beliefs. Teachers are more knowledgeable in hardware applications as compared to software applications; they search for information to be used in tutorials from the internet but are very reluctant to use computers in the teaching process. Teachers with traditional beliefs felt confident when searching for information through the internet but were not confident enough to help students and colleagues to design website applications. For constructivists, computer courses taken, frequent computer ����������������������������������!��*��}��������q ��| �� �� �� �� ��¢ ��ü ��
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Reading Research Literature #2
Type your answers to the following questions using complete sentences and correct grammar, spelling and syntax. Click Save as and save the file with your last name and assignment, e.g.,N_RRL2_Smith Submit to the Reading Research Literature #2 basket in the Dropbox. The guidelines and grading rubric for this assignment may be found in Doc .
Name:[replace this text with your name] The following questions pertain to:Sanford, J., Townsend-Rocchicciolli,J.,Horigan, A., &Hall, P. (2011). A process of decision making by caregivers of family members with heart failure.Research & Theory for Nursing Practice, 25(1), 55-70.
Describe the population for this study.
The population used for this study is qualitative in nature as it involves the use of five caregivers whose interview was in form of four stages in the classification of heart failure. The information about the population was collected in relation to the caregiver’s gender, living arrangements, employment status, marital status, income, and the relationship to patients with heart failure.
How was the sample selected? What are the strengths and weaknesses of this sampling strategy?the sample was selected non-randomly.
The strengths for this sample selection is that, the individuals selected are known to the patients and the sample is concerned about the welfare of the patients. The weaknesses are, the individuals might shy off from giving the exact situation of the patient’s illness for fear of family embarrassment. The patient might also be unwilling to share the information about his illness.
Were the subjects in this study vulnerable? Were there any risks for them as the result of participation in the research study?
The subjects chosen for this research were vulnerable and they feared that, from their participation in the research, it would violate their honesty to their patients. This is because, they thought revealing the status of their patients was not a good thing to do.
Are there any HIPAA concerns that are evident in this study?
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act concerns are not evident in this study as the research is only concerned in coming up with ways that would improve the decisions made by caregivers in relation to patients suffering from heartfailure.
What methods were put in place to ensure that the subjects were giving true informed consent?
The questions that were used were unstructured open-ended questions which were organized privately in the caregivers’ homes, library and places of employment.
What was the setting for the study?
The setting was the caregivers’s homes, librariy and palces of employment.
Was the sample adequate for the research design that was selected?
The sample was adequate for the qualitative research design as the population included caregivers who are related to the patients suffering from heart failure.
The following questions pertain to: Schwarz, K., Mion, P., Hudock, D., &Litman, G. (2008). Telemonitoring of heart failure patients and their caregivers: A pilot randomized controlled study. Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing, 23(1), 18-26.
Describe the population for this study.
The population used is quantitative as an equal number of individuals is used in form of two groups to represent the usual caregivers and the EHM caregivers.
How was the sample selected? What are the strengths and weaknesses of this sampling strategy?
The sample was selected randomly. The strengths for this sampling stategy is that, the individual used in the research represent all the caregivers to patients with HF regardless of family relation hence, providing a wide variety of ideas. The weakness is that, both groups may fall short of convenience, in terms of perfect timing for the collection of data.
Were the subjects in this study vulnerable? Were there any risks for them as the result of participation in the research study?
The subjects in this study were not vulnerable as they included relatives and nurses, and for the other group, they had the EHM which was electronically controlled.
Are there any HIPAA concerns that are evident in this study?
The concerns of HIPAA are evident in this study, because the aim of the research is to consider the use of the EHM which might require the support from HIPAA.
What methods were put in place to ensure that the subjects were giving true informed consent?
The two groups are taken through interviews and basing on the fact that, the caregivers varied in relations to the patients, they did not have any conflict of intrest and the other group was electronically controlled through the use of the EHM.
What was the setting for the study?
The setting for the study was in a tertiary hospital in Northeastern Ohio.
Was the sample adequate for the research design that was selected?
The sample was adequate basing on the fact that, the aim was to compare the two samples amd arrive at a conclusion. The conclusion was to ascertain if the use of EHM reduced the costs of caregiving, the rates of hospitalization for patients with heart failure and the rate of depression for the patients. The study was also meant to determine if the use EHM system increased the mastery of the home caregivers and the quality of care given to the patients with HF.
N RRL2 Form.docx Revised 8/24/12jw3
How Religion and Science Are Integrated In Psychiatry
Religion and science have a meeting point in psychiatry where they coincide precisely. Although considered as two opposite worlds, religion and science can be integrated in psychiatry to yield desired results. In this study, an attempt has been made to establish how religion and science can be integrated in psychiatry. Using myriads of empirical data from various literatures, the study takes into consideration a body of facts with empirical evidence on the relationship between spirituality and mental disorders. Thereafter, the study establishes the science behind religion and spirituality through consideration of a modified bio-psycho-social model. To demonstrate how the model works, the paper gives a detailed seven-step program that psychiatrists can employ. The paper further mentions spiritual tools psychologists need to execute their duties. Finally, the paper mentions ethical considerations involved in the use of religion and spirituality in counseling before concluding its findings.
How Religion and Science Are Integrated In Psychiatry
Human beings exist on the premises of mental, physical, social, and spiritual values. The three worlds functions in support or at a time in opposition to one another. Human beings are supposed to integrate views from each angle and come up with a balance of the same. One area that stands out from the rest is the spiritual world. This is because most views and facts are based on faith. It is sometimes impossible to back up spiritual claims with scientific equations and findings. Nevertheless, the value of the spiritual world cannot be ignored in psychology. Given that psychology deals with the mentality of a person, its relation and value to religion can be established because religion deals with believes that stems from the mind. For a long time, religion has been sidelined from psychology.
Religion was seen as a primitive, baseless hypothesis that cannot be proved scientifically. Most psychologists were not affiliated to any religion and, therefore, could not attach religious values to their profession. At the same time, religion, especially Christianity was against psychology. The practice was seen as primitive and devoid of Godly principles. Nevertheless, contemporary principles in psychology advocate for integration of religion and science in application of psychological intervention such as in the case of psychiatric counseling. This paper seeks to determine how religion and science are integrated in psychiatry.
Religion and Mental Disorders
The relationship between spirituality and mental disorders is the latest approach in psychology. The relationship is still growing because cautionary measures are being used to approach the issue. There is little information on the harmful effects of religious involvement on the mental health of human beings. On the other hand, there is a growing body of evidence on the benefits of religious involvement on mitigating psychiatric disorders. According to Blach (253), religious dimension of life has unique features that can be integrated in psychiatry. First, spirituality makes life sacred and meaningful. Matthiews (16) asserts that the faith factor in spirituality gives hope to an individual making him or her view life as a journey with a meaning. Second, spirituality can be integrated in psychiatry in forging a relationship between a physician and a patient. Because of the faith factor in religion, the patient is likely to put his or her trust in the psychiatrist if he or she realizes that the psychiatrist is a religious person.
Spirituality can also be integrated in psychiatric counseling during the recovery process. If the mental status of a person is understood in spiritual terms, the person will be more willing to bear the pain during the recovery process. According to the study performed by Lindgren and Coursey (96), majority of psychiatric patients admitted that religious and spirituality was of great help to them. During their study, Lindgren and Coursey (100) interviewed patients who had been subjected to spirituality and religion in their recovery process and discovered that 80% had benefited from the process. At the same time, the research by Lindgren and Coursey discovered that patients with symptoms of mental disorders and lower functionality were highly inclined to the use of religion in their treatment process (103). These patients resorted to religious activities such as singing and praying as part of their copping process.
Another research by Baetz, Larson, Marcoux, Bowen, and Griffin (160) revealed that patients who were inclined to religious activities were likely to cope with their conditions with little stress. These patients engaged in various religious activities including praise and worship, attending summons, and actively listening to the word of God. As a result, they emerged from the process with little or no stress. At the same time, the research by Baetz et al. (163) discovered that patients who actively integrated spirituality in their recovery process emerged out of the hospital faster than expected and with more satisfaction about life. This means that the intervention program incorporating spirituality speeds up the healing process of patients on top of giving them hope of living.
Various religious methods of coping up with stress have been identified by several researchers. Pargament (5) in his studies identified that there were positive methods of religious coping for mental health cases. He pointed out that religious copping styles including, seeking support from God through prayers, collaborating with God through faith, seeking support from members of the religious community, and appraising negative situations with religious benevolence were related to positive affects on mental health cases. These copping styles are essential in psychiatry because they help in reducing stress, increasing positive affect, and reducing depression and anxiety.
Incorporating Religion and Spirituality into Psychiatry
Based on the findings discussed above, it means that religion and mental disorders have a relationship that provides a route for intervention process. A mental disorder is a chemical reaction in the brain that affects psychological, socially and spiritual perspective of a person. Depending on the intervention process taken to correct the situation, a person is guided on proper ways of appreciating his social, spiritual, and psychological life to cope with the situation. This means that the value of religion in psychiatric cannot be ignored. Most of The religious practices seeks to instill hope in the life of a person, whether mentally disturbed or in good health.
The person is made to believe that there is hope in life. At the same time, he or she is made aware of the fact that there is an invisible God who is ever willing to help and walk with anyone as along as one believes in Him. In addition, the victim is told to control his or her activities because they affect his or her relationship with God. As a result, the behavior of the person is brought into control through spiritual interventions. The challenge for psychiatrists is to come up with the best framework for integrating religion into psychiatric process to yield the desired results. One way is to use a modified form of bio-psycho-social model. The modification is done so as to include the element of spirituality. This model is discussed below
Modified Bio-Psycho-Social Model
In 1977, Angle (129) came up with a bio-psycho-social model as a concept in clinical research. The model explains how psychological, social, and biological factors interact in a complex manner in health and disease. This model can be extended to include a fourth dimension of religion and spirituality to indicate how spirituality can be integrated in psychiatric intervention process. Religious values and spirituality interacts with biological, social, and psychological dimensions to create biology of religion. This means that a holistic approach to mental health cases ought to include spiritual elements in its psycho, social, and pharmacotherapeutic elements. A modified bio-psycho-social model is illustrated below.
From the model above, it can be seen that religion can be incorporated into psychiatric intervention process to yield positive results based on its dimensions. The integration of religion in the intervention process yields results through social, psycho, and biological dimensions, which are essential for psychiatric counseling cases. The use of this model requires some spiritual tools described below.
Spiritual and Religious Tools for Psychotherapy
Physicians intending to incorporate religion and spirituality in their intervention program ought to have a spiritual and religious toolbox with several tools as outlined below.
Regular meditation has several mental and physical benefits to an individual. These benefits are self acceptance, reducing stress, ability to cope to different situations, relationships, cognition and blood pressure (Andresen 47).
Prayer is a religious way of talking to the sacred Supreme Being. According to Shapiro and Walsh (59), prayer has several psychological benefits including the sense of well- being and meaning, improved psychological functioning, stress reduction, and better coping stamina.
Vocation, Meaning, Purpose and Calling in Life
It is in religion that people get answers to many questions in life. Religious faith and traditions give strategies for finding more meaning, calling and purpose in life. Therefore, spirituality and religion nurtures many to vocation and mission in life.
Acceptance of Self and Others
Religious Psychotherapy helps people cope with what they cannot change and change what they are capable of for the better of their lives. According to Dreher and Plante, (140), serenity prayer can be emphasized for change. The prayer goes God grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change; courage to change the things that I can and wisdom to know the difference (139). This prayer indicates what psychotherapists intend to accomplish.
Ethical Values and Behaviors
Religion and spirituality emphasizes on right living with neighbors and friends. Some religious books such as the bible provide a detailed formula for moral living. Some books of the bible such as books of Leviticus and Deuteronomy provide detailed way moral living. It provides guidance for action to be taken in the event of death, theft, loss of loved ones, lack, and depression among many (Visala 25). Psychologists can use religious ethical values and behaviors as a basis for counseling their clients on right living.
Bibliotherapy refers to use of inspirational books from religious men. According to Norcross (685), people who are fond of reading inspirational books have been found to cope up with some situation in their own. Also, physicians who use religious inspirational books have effectively guided their clients to a right path.
Through religion, social justice is ensured. According to Miller and Thoresen (35), religion advocates for social justice. It calls for a good relationship with one another, respect for social position and advocates for equality in all cases.
Sacredness of Life
Religion views life as a sacred. This means that life springs from within and therefore, highly valued. Plante (55) advocates for the sacredness as a tool changing the perspective of life. By assisting people to embrace sacredness of life, they will change their perspective of life and start valuing life. Religion further advocates for gratitude, love, unity, and sense of belonging. These should be used by psychologists to guide their clients.
An Example of an Integrated Program
Based on the above model and spiritual tools, spiritual intervention programs can be designed to help patients out of the program. The program begins with an introduction. During this stage, a person is introduced to a prescribed spiritual journey (Kehoe 1086). He or she is given the format of the program and expectations to set him or her in on the process. The process is followed by giving spiritual resources. During the process, spiritual resources that elicit the patient on the ideal of personal and community resources are imparted. Spiritual resources include payers, songs, psalms, and preaching. Through these resources, patients are educated on standards of life and how to cope up with the process. For instance, Schmidt and Adami (20) realized the value of spiritual resources for a patient. By encouraging him to read from the book of psalms, Schmidt and Adami realized that a 32-year old man was able to cope up with his stressful mental state. The man realized that he could emulate the writer of the psalmist who underwent stressful situation but looked upon God for help and deliverance. This means that by teaching patients on proper means of using spiritual resources, the patients is able to cope up with his or her situation and emerge out of the process cleansed.
The next step in the spiritual intervention involves incorporating spiritual strivings. Emmons (25) emphasizes on the importance of spiritual strivings on treatment of psychiatric patients. Spiritual strivings are journeys undertaken by an individual. Through spiritual strivings, one sets some spiritual targets that can be achieved. The targets are meant to make someone change his or her perceptions towards certain issue. By encouraging patients to have spiritual strivings, they will be encouraged to move out of their situations. For instance, the patient may be encouraged to come up with spiritual strivings against anger. He or she may be taught how to avoid the anger and resolve to live peacefully despite his or her situation. Depending on the state of the patient, appropriate spiritual strivings can be designed to help him or her attain meaningful and realistic goals related to his or her life. This in the long run will help the patient focus on the goals rather than focusing on the psychiatric condition thereby reducing stress related to the same.
The next step in spiritual intervention involves extensive godly views on struggles. Through the concept of spirituality, the patient is made aware of the struggles Christians goes through and therefore helped to cope up with the situation. A person referred for psychiatric goes through several struggles including feeling of rejection, anger, resentments, and other personal struggles. Such struggles can have a bad effect on the emotion of the victim leading to stress. As a result, spiritual intervention based on goodly views on personal struggles enables the patient face life struggles positively with the idea that other people have gone through the same successively with the help of God.
The next step in spiritual intervention involves a reflection on forgiveness. The bible and other religious books advocates for forgiveness. According to Enright and Fitzgibbons (12), majority of clients normally have a deep sense of unforgiveness stemming from an event that led to their status. Some may have been raped by their loved ones thereby developing an unforgiveness spirit towards them. Enright and Fitzgibbons (15) further add that the main step of healing is pegged forgiveness. If such clients are helped to forgive one another, they are likely to recover from their status. This means that forgiveness is among the best intervention method for psychiatric clients. Given religion and spirituality advocates for forgiveness, the client will be helped to forgive one another.
The final step in spiritual intervention involves giving hope to the client. According to Yahne and Miller (219), hope is the best cure for psychiatric clients and can be instilled through spiritual values. In most cases, clients have lost hope of leading a normal life as a result of some misfortunes they may have undergone in their lives. For instance, children who have lost their parents in road accident have lost hope of leading a life full of parental love. As a result, they may resort to sulking in life with no glimmer of hope. However, if they are show the hope from a Godly perspective, they are likely to recover from their status. Yahne and Miller have shown that hope is essential for clients seeking counseling (220). The therapist can explore spiritual and religious methods of restoring hope to clients. The client is assisted to understand the meaning of hope in biblical perspective and ways of applying it. There are several biblical perspectives of restoring hope. They include trusting in God, singing psalms, and offering support to one another.
Ethical Precautions during Integration of Religion and Science in Psychiatry
From the above integrated program, it is clear that religion and spirituality can be employed in psychiatry. However, some precautions should be considered. In the first place, psychiatrists should understand they are not theologians. As a result, they should not overstep their professional boundaries. Also, psychiatrists should not use the opportunity to promote their own interests. There is likelihood for physicians affiliated to a certain religion promoting the interests of their religion rather than sticking to their profession. Cases of dual relationships where clients and physicians come from the same congregation should be avoided. Lastly, physicians should uphold professional ethics (American Psychological Association 1061). This means they should treat all clients equally irrespective of their religious affiliations.
The value of spirituality cannot be ignored in psychology. Given that psychology deals with the mentality of a person, its relation and value to religion can be established because religion deals with believes that stems from the mind and faith in the all-powerful God. This paper as established that religion and spirituality can be integrated in psychology. The analysis has considered a body of facts with empirical evidence on the relationship between spirituality and mental disorders. Thereafter, the study has established the science behind religion and spirituality through consideration of a modified bio-psycho-social model. To demonstrate how the model works, the paper has given a detailed seven-step program that psychiatrists can employ. The paper has further mentioned spiritual tools psychologists need to execute their duties. Finally, the paper has mentioned ethical considerations involved in the use of religion and spirituality in counseling. Based on the analysis made in this paper, it can be seen that religion and science are integrated in psychiatry.
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Different literatures speculate that Sir Francis Walsingham was born between the year 1530 and 1532. The exact date of his birth still remains a mystery among different authors of his article. The birth of Sir Francis Walsingham was at a place called Scadbury Park in London. Sir Francis Walsingham, the son of Son of William Walsingham and Joyce Denny grew and became a pronounced devout Protestant during his early day. In addition to his eloquence in speeaking, Francis was a tough talker and as to such was very straight in his discussions.
William Walsingham died when Sir Francis was an infant. This left his mother, the widow with no option but to marry Sir John Carey, who was a close relative of Mary Boleyn, a sister to Anne Boleyn. As the case unfolds, the father to sir Francis was a was common sergeant in London while his mother was a close relative of Sir Anthony Denny. Even though the father had no good social background, Sir Francis’ mother had a well-established family background with her very close relatives like Sir Anthony Denny occupying very prominent post within Henry VIII’s Privy Council. The uncle to Sir Francis, Sir Edmund, was one of the Lieutenants of the Tower of London. Sir Francis was the only son of William Walsingham ().
The assumption is that the family had its origin from Walsingham somewhere in Norfolk. However, the extent to which the family can be traced is up London during the first half of the 15th century. The revelations made according to various studies on the life history of Sir Francis is that due to his mother’s family background and good reputations, Sir Francis’ family was one of the wealthy families within the city. Since the family was wealthy and had good reputation across the nation, Sir Francis’ and his family planted themselves as the only family that could provide the Tudor monarchy with its justices of peace and various supports as far as governance is concerned (). This family background went as far as influencing the life experience of Sir Francis, which became the main contributor of much of the influence, which London extended over the English policy in the early 16th century.
Sir Francis’s great grandfather, Alan, was a cord-wainer of Gracechurch Street; Alan’s son Thomas, a vintner, purchased Scadbury in Chislehurst, and Thomas’s great-grandson William bought Foot’s Cray, where Francis may have been born.
The education posterity of Sir Francis studied has a link to King’s College and Cambridge. In the year 1550, sir Francis went abroad to further is his education and pursues his life ambitions. During the year 1552, Sir Francis returned to England and enrolled at Gray’s law courts. Following the ascend of Mary I into the throne, Sir Francis, who was a staunch Protestant and an advocate for humanity, fled abroad with a bid to continue his law pursuits at the University of Padua. During that time of his study, Sir Francis lived in Switzerland for a period of three years from 1556 to 1558. Sir Francis thus matriculated as one of the fellow-commoners and allies to King’s College in Cambridge.
He continued studying at King’s college amidst strong Protestant influences until Michaelmas in 1550, when sir Francis appeared. When he returned to England mid 1552, he was instantly accepted at Gray’s Inn in which he obtained admission on January 28, 1553. Six months later Sir Edward VI’s died. This sudden death of Sir Edward prompted Sir Francis to resume his endless foreign travels with a view of obtaining the highest level of studies ().
The search for knowledge and quest for human dignity ended with an admission at Padua where he served as a consiliarius between the year 1555 and 1556. On his return to England and after the accession of Queen Elizabeth, Sir Francis became an MP elect for Banbury. This was the first parliament attended by Sir Francis in the year 1588. The accession of Elizabeth I into the throne in 1558 meant that good for Sir Francis since the atrocities that occurred earlier ware now detached (). The beginning of power assimilation on the people of England had its root to the quest for freedom and human occupancy as reprimanded by the England dignitaries. In 1559, Sir Francis’ friendship with Sir William Cecil was the sole contributor to his entry into the realm of power as the Member of Parliament for Banbury and later in 1563 for Lyme Regis ().
In dead, this was a good start for Sir Francis and given the nature of his doctrine as the pillar of his growth, Sir Francis completely cherished the moments of his service as the Member of Parliament.
The marriage history of sir Francis was a complex one. It was so unfortunate that in his first marriage, he decided to settle for a widow with a son, Ann Carleill. The widow died leaving her son Christopher under the sole care and responsibility of Sir Francis. In his second line of marriage, Sir Francis decided to settle for a second widow, Ursula St. Barbe. Sir Francis had three stepsons, Christopher from his first wife and the two other stepsons from his marriage to Ursula, John and George. The upheavals during the political periods led to the unfortunate death of Sir Francis’ two stepsons, John and George in 1567. The life encounter with Ursula led to the birth of a daughter, France. At her birth and during her early life, France was ever known as the lady in waiting to Elizabeth I. in 1583 France got married to Philip Sidney who died later. The death of Sidney led to prompted Robert Devereux.
Career Serving the Queen
The early career service of Sir Francis dates back to between 1573 and 1590 when he served as Queen Elizabeth’s personal secretary to the state. In line of his duties, Sir Francis also served Queen Elizabeth as spymaster. This put him in the light of footage as one of the contributors to today’s espionage (). According to Benjamin Brook, Sir Francis was a steady promoter of the social reformation, a constant and frequent friend of the puritans as well as one of the most celebrated diplomats in the life history of England. His talent and drive for business encounters, his eloquence in speaking, constant insinuating address, and contribution to universal intelligence as well as the profound secrecy during his service are some of the mentioned attributes of Sir Francis. Sir Francis became one of the employees of Queen Elizabeth in the most important embassies.
His line of duty was that of the most secret to the rule of England and most of his policies given that he trained as a professional lawyer contributed much in bringing political cohesion during his time as the secret service and advisor to the queen. Following his advancement to the most prolific and sensitive post, the secretary of the state, Sir Francis became the pillar and the force that derived political quest for various reforms observed today in England and across other nations. his was advancement, notwithstanding the impeccable nature of extraneous doctrines and forceful conformation to a particular religion (). The serving period of Sir Francis had remarkable happening. As a secretary to the state, he went as far as accumulating wealth and fortune, which he spent in bringing light to the life of the public peasants.
One of the articles of Shakespeare’s presentations over England during the time of Sir Francis is fascinating in its own nature. The revelation made here is an exploration of the life lived during political upheavals in Europe. As presented in mid sixteenth century, Europe was engaged in both hot and cold Wars that involved clashing ideologies, the feudal underpinnings of Catholicism versus the Protestant Reformation, which brought in changes in politics, religion, and technology and gave rise to the modern world. The stakes were high for both sides, particularly for England, which is the subject for an examination of contributions made by Sir Francis in the life Christian Protestants. It happened that Henry VIII, who broke with the Catholic Church, had been the bedrock of British society for a thousand years. His reasons for the break were political, not theological, as others would say. The Pope refused to dissolve his marriage so that he could marry his mistress, so Henry created his own church. Furthermore, once the break was made, he seized the opportunity to loot the rich holdings of the church, the monasteries and convents, to enrich his own coffers. Good people like Sir Francis who did not see these reasons as sufficient to warrant the dropping of their ancient faith resisted, and were imprisoned and executed but others fled out of England. In the ancient pattern of most of the world, when the Prince changes religion, so do his subjects. Henry assumed this prerogative but it never sat well with the British.
After Henry and his sickly son died, his very Catholic daughter, Mary, became monarch and launched a five-year pogrom aimed at restoring Catholicism in Britain (). Upon her death, her sister Elizabeth, a Protestant, became Queen and she was adamant about the role of religion in her England. She maintained the Church of England that her father had begun and demanded that everybody attend services. However, she did not intend to investigate her subjects’ private consciences. Outward conformity was what she demanded, for the sake of national peace. The great Catholic families were permitted to practice their faith as long as they did not threaten her throne or conspire with the Catholic powers against England. Her tightrope walk is the subject of Her Majesty’s Spymaster and the hero of this article, Sir Francis Walsingham, who maintained England’s freedom and independence by organizing a network of spies and secret agents that became the model for future conflicts of comparable urgency.
Knowing what the other side was planning for you could prevent bloodshed or worse, the loss of independence and freedom. One would recognize the literature presented at the time of controversies and how pervasive the spy network was in Elizabeth’s England, but never really could the Queen herself understand the justification for the ever presented case of religion negligence. Queen Elizabeth concerns were national building, which depended upon national school systems that ranged from village level to tertiary level that could identify and educate young men of modest backgrounds but promising talent. This became another aspect of Protestant Reformation in creating a society in which meritocracy, not feudal caste, produced a competent ruling class. The printing press, increasing literacy, and a state-run school system, gave England an advantage of competence that Catholic France, for example, did not have. Sir Francis Walsingham is an example of this competence. A young man of modest means and a staunch Protestant with a well-developed sense of duty, he was earmarked for government service by his colleagues and by the Queen.
The one event that shaped the rest of his life occurred when he was Ambassador to France. He witnessed the Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in which the French King resolved the Catholic Protestant conflicts in France by luring the leading Huguenots to Paris for a state wedding and then massacring them, not only in Paris but throughout France. It was genocidal and Walsingham was horrified. He could see the consequences of this action for England if France, Spain, or the Pope found an opening, perhaps either through a Catholic marriage for Elizabeth or by replacing her on the throne with a Catholic candidate such as Mary, Queen of Scotts. When he returned to England, he reported to the queen and she immediately saw the danger to her and to England. For the rest of her reign, Walsingham was made responsible for keeping England independent. The stakes for England were no less urgent than the World War II conflict between western democracies and Hitler’s fascist empire or after that with the Soviet Union, another empire that would crush freedom. Knowing what the other side was planning, or aborting deadly attacks, which was the business of the spy services and is once more involved in the global conflict between the secular world and religious fascism.
As a strong and steady advocator of the reformation, Sir Francis used his position and influence to give light and protect Christianity within both England and international borders. One writer prominent writer records the following concerning the period of sir Francis’ period of service and concerning his stand as an advocate for freedom of worship. At an early period of his service, Sir Francis opposed himself to the rigid enforcement of the behavior change objected to by the Puritans. At the same time, Francis used his political power with different leaders, to prevent church separations base on different scruples. When the breach had become so wide that many of the Puritans felt themselves obliged to separate for the enjoyment of religious freedom, Walsingham exerted all his power in the council to mitigate the harshness of the bishops.
When the prim London authorities tried to limit the new troupe’s performances, Walsingham calmly remonstrated with them, and got his way. Walsingham’s international support for Protestantism included attempts to protect the persecuted French Huguenots. Leslie Stephen writes. In the autumn of 1570, Walsingham was for the first time formally entrusted with public duties commensurate in dignity with his talents and experience. He was sent to Paris to second the efforts of Sir Henry Norris, the resident ambassador at the French court, in pressing on the French government the necessity of extending an unqualified toleration to the Huguenots. The task was thoroughly congenial to Francis; for he held the conviction that it was England’s mission to nurture Protestantism on the continent especially in France and the Low Countries and to free it from persecution (). Walsingham favored a multi-national Protestant league to counter the threat posed by Roman Catholicism.
Both Walsingham and the earl of Leicester, members of Elizabeth’s Privy Council, were strongly in favour of intervention in the Netherlands. They shared a belief that England’s best response to the Spanish threat was to protect its Protestant co-religionists in the Netherlands, ideally as the leading force in a multi-national Protestant league. Both men had invested a great deal of time and political capital in the Dutch cause over many years (). For Leicester and Walsingham, and the many Englishmen who thought like them, the queen’s policy towards the Netherlands had a greater significance than merely the fate of the Dutch, important though it was. In their eyes, the Low Countries represented the crucial test case for the notion of a broader international Protestant cause’. This view was based upon the idea that the Protestant communities of northern Europe must act together against the forces of the Counter-Reformation. Aside from strong Protestantism, support for this cause was characterized by a rich intellectual culture and an internationalist conception of political and military action.
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Critical thinking paper
People have become overly dependent on technology
There are two possible positions of the above topic, people have become overly dependent on technology because despite the advantages it confers to its users, currently, life is impossible without it. Technology makes it easy to search store and access information and they have become lazy to either think or involve themselves in tiring work like digging into books. For example, people find it unnecessary to learn when they can easily find out what they need from google search, learning languages has been abandoned following the advent of automated translators and most people do not find the need of maintaining interact socially when they can communicate with friends online (Breedja, 2013).
Although technology is slowly changing peoples social lives, relationships and the way things are done in peoples daily lives, people can function effectively without it. Technology is part of human invention and advancement to make life better and as an effort to move from the manual to a technical world. Technology is not the problem in the picture, but the choices people make create a negative image for gadgets whose creation intention was positive. Technology makes activities that were initially done without is easier like communication, disease prevention, transport and working among other things.
My position is that people have become overly dependent on technology and people have moved from doing things manually to use of machines to make work easier, increase productivity and save time. A survey I conducted at my workplace indicates that 8 out of every 10 people were dependent on technology while only two were not.
A survey carried out by Gahran (2011) indicates that 90% of Americans own machinery aimed at making their lives more comfortable through communication, contracting business and monitoring and evaluation of processes like the computerized traffic system. Moreover, the convenience brought about by the use of technology has blinded people such that they are not ready for service interruptions like black outs and cyber attacks.
Upon putting the evidence from the survey through a scientific method, the first case does not measure up to the examination because a small study sample was interviewed and the data collected is not representative enough to be used to make generalizations. To make the evidence acceptable, a larger sample should be interviewed that is representative of different classes of people. However, the second study is scientific because the data was drawn from a large sample, analyzed and generalizations made effectively. My intended audience is people from different backgrounds, cultural and economic class because societal change of whatever kind has a profound effect on different groups of people.
Technology is essential in the modern society because it is the leeway through which people can lead comfortable lives. The purpose of inventions is to make life better and therefore people should refrain from using it negatively. Parents should take up their responsibility to ensure that children learn how to socialize from a tender age (Carr, 2001). Moreover, literature indicates that most accidents are caused by people driving while they are on the phone leading to loss of concentration. In addition, technology should be used for the purpose it is intended for like communication and making work easier.
According to Carr (2001), people should invest in understanding the both the positive and negative side of technology use rather than using it blindly. For instance, most online social sites like Facebook, Twitter and Skype require users to disclose their personal information to the public. In most cases, the personal information is accessed and used to the detriment of the users by hackers and cyber bullies leading to tainting of personality and theft and in severe cases murder.
Currently both at school, work and home, people have become too lazy to think and whenever they need to know anything, all they do is google. This has worsened to an extend that people cannot figure anything out by themselves. Dependency on search engines has a negative effect on personal mental development, independence and ability to develop problem solving skills. In addition, it denies people an opportunity to realize and explore their intellectual ability because even with proper training, Lack of practice limits their ability to develop. In the ancient times, people still communicated, worked manually and moved from one place to another but this took a lot of time and energy.
The rapid growth of the technology industry has had both positive and negative effects, through making life easier and on the other hand, abuse has negative effects of different tenets of the society. Honea (2001) states that technology plays an integral part in the society, starting from the house to the office. For instance, housewives have adopted the use of machines from cooking to washing, tendering the compounds among other house chores and very limited chores are done manually in the house. However, it is important to acknowledge that the operation of the machinery requires human knowledge and the machines cannot operate themselves. Despite the level of human advancement, human input will always be a prerequisite to make life complete.
In the workplace, although performance of many tasks is done through machines, people need to have knowledge of the programs required to achieve the desired end results. For instance, employees can communicate within seconds without leaving their desks, but they all require to have knowledge on how to operate computers, send mails and think; to be able to compose a message.
Despite its advantages, dependence on technology has led to a complete lifestyle change and use of machines put less pressure on people to exercise physically. For instance, the rising cases of obesity are related to lack of physical activity like walking because people have gotten used to use of vehicles to move from one place to another (Honea, 2001). In addition, in offices, people rarely use staircase because it is easier and quicker to use the lift.
Students do calculations using calculators and do assignments using the internet that enhances easy access of information and limits individuals’ ability to analyze data and customize it to fit their situations. For instance, to curb the laziness and students’ inability to go the extra mile to do academic research, institutions have been forced to use plagiarism checkers to limit copying of assignments from the internet. The passivity related to the use of modern technology leads to a decrease in creativity which if not checked will have a negative toll on the future of the humankind. Over-dependence on technology has negative effects on both mental and physical development of the human kind and if the trend is left unchecked, humans will be replaced by machines In the near future (Honea, 2001).
Breedja, L., (2013). People Have Become Overly Dependent on Technology. StudyMode.com. Retrieved on 19th December , 2013, from http://www.studymode.com/essays/People-Have-Become-Overly-Dependent-On-1692310.html
Carr, P., (2001). Changing the culture: Are we too dependent on computers?,
Retrieved on 19th December , 2013, from www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/m0KZH/3_14/30122398/p1/article.jhtml
Gahran, A., (2011). Report: 90% of Americans own a computerized gadget, Retrieved on 19th December , 2013, from http://edition.cnn.com/2011/TECH/mobile/02/03/texting.photos.gahran/
Honea, C., (2001). Americans Too Dependent on Technology, Retrieved on 19th December , 2013, from http://cyberbuzz.gatech.edu/nique/issues/winter1999/2.26.99/eds5.html
Critical Thinking Paper 2
Running Head: Critical Thinking Paper 1
Discuss the Influence of Romanticism Movement on the Russian Literature.
Romanticism was a 19th century ideological and artistic movement in the field of literature, music, and art, which spread throughout the continent of Europe. The 19th century literature and art works in Europe were dominated by neoclassicism. It was a reaction movement against rationalism brought about by the French revolution and the enlightenment period in Europe. The romantic era affected natural science, politics, and systems of education. The period was linked to radical and liberal movements. Although Russian intellectuals embraced romanticism later than other countries, it became a major component of the literature works. Romanticism was characterized by primitivism, nationality, and individualism.
Proponents of the movement held that the unspoiled were good and valuable and that the savages and children are heroes in the society. They valued music, folklore and other works of art of the uncivilized people. Nationality entailed respect of each ethnic group in the country. They believed that every individual, society, or nation played an important role in molding the culture of the whole world. Romanticism emphasized the unique role of every individual. The artistic work was highly valued and artists were regarded as special people in the society. Romanticists termed artwork as an individual’s expression of talent and an excellent way of using one’s wisdom. This was in contrast to neo classicism in which art is regarded as craft and an artist as a craft person (Pushkin 26).
Romanticism in Russia
Romanticism in the 19th century Russia is linked to the works of writers, such as Konstantin Batyushkov, Nikolay Karamzin, and Alexander Pushkin. Some of the Pushkin’s prominent works include Eugene Onegin, the Captains daughter, and other stories. Many Russian writers were influenced by Pushkin’s work, the best poet in the 19th century. Romanticism resulted in weakening of the rules applied in literature works in the previous years. During the 18th century (neoclassical period), the content and structure of literature was clearly defined. Romanticism changed the structure of literature work through the application of new methods and styles. Rules, and forms applied in the 19th century were eliminated in literature.
Pushkin’s work formed a strong foundation for other composers in Russia who came after him. Examples of opera that were inspired by Pushkin are Lyudmila and Glinka’s Russian. These are remarkable pieces of music throughout Russia. Other operas, such as Boris Godunov, the Queen of spades and Eugene Onegin became famous than his own production. Composers from other countries, such as Malipiero and Suppe Leoncavallo have also drawn from the works of Pushkin. Although, translating his work was a difficult task, his work has inspired Henry James and other writers from western countries who have borrowed from his style of writing (Pushkin 26).
Pushkin (28) argues that the product of romanticism was realism. Pushkin criticized over-expressiveness in his work Karamzin. Romanticism is also portrayed in Gogol’s work in which he describes love and fantasy for the natural power. Here realism and fantasy are combined. In the story of the Greatcoat, Gogol describes a clerk whose aim was to get a new greatcoat. Unfortunately, the clerk never got the coat after it was stolen away. Gogol was encouraged by Pushkin to shift his talent into writing stories related to the history of Russia.
Pushkin played an important role in the development of modern literature in Russia. He is recognized for developing the language, which is applied by composers of modern literature works. He also expanded the lexicon in Russia. He developed calques whenever he found gaps in the vocabulary of Russia. The modern literature in Russia is founded on Pushkin’s vocabulary and good skills of writing. Pushkin’s records were used in the development of the modern culture and language used in Russia. Because of his immense contribution in literature, he is regarded as the 19th century father of literature in Russia. Pushkin borrowed from other countries in Europe in an effort to develop literature. Moreover, he introduced writers from European countries to Russia. Until his death, Pushkin left behind different types of literary, such as letters, short stories, drama, essays, narratives and poems.
As a journalist, Pushkin wrote the sovremennik, a famous magazine used in Russia in the 19th century. His work acted as an inspiration to the works of other writers. Pushkin demonstrated the role of maintaining an individual’s culture through his work. This was through the use of the Russian language in his documentation. This was an implication that he valued his own language than any other language. In order for people from other countries to use his documents, the documents were translated into other languages but this was not an easy task. Similarly, people should not only learn to respect and value their own culture but also the culture of other people. The language, cultural values, and practices of other people should be respected regardless of how primitive they may appear (Pushkin 35).
In the story of Eugene Onegin, the narrator gives the story of Eugene Onegin who inherited the land of his uncle after he passed away. He moves to the country, befriends a girl but ends up breaking her heart. He decides to escape to the city after killing his friend during a fight. Tatiana realizes that Petersburg is a philistine from Europe after going through his personal library. Tatiana gets herself a husband in Moscow. She is married into a higher class, which in turn improves her status. Years later, his old friend Eugene Onegin makes his way back to ST. Petersburg. Again, Onegin falls in love with Tatiana but she declines his love because of the love she has for her husband. Poor timing made Onegin to miss the love of Tatiana (Pushkin 26).
Romanticism is highly portrayed in this story. The storyteller is omnipresent and omniscient. This is because the events seem to have occurred a long time ago but he still appears in the plot of the story. The relationship between the narrator and other characters is evident where he seems to sympathize with Tatiana and Onegin of their relationship. This is because, Onegin is in love with Tatiana but her love of her husband is a barrier. Eugene may be characterized as the superfluous man in the story because it is difficult to understand his character traits. He relates well with the author of the story and the narrator. Although the reader would wish to understand him well, the complexity in his character makes it difficult. Onegin considers Tatiana as his hero. She is determined even after the heartbreak and this does not affect her life. She is a good representative of the character of an ideal woman. Through her character, women learned never to give up in life because of challenges and that they should learn to persevere. She is a positive influence in the literature of Russia (Pushkin 27).
The character of Lensky is the opposite of that of Onegin. He is youthful, innocent, and focused in life. Unlike her sister Tatiana, Olga who is engaged to Lensky is simple minded. There are many facts and real life events in this narrative. Examples include names of people, places, foods, and wine. Modern celebrities, such as Rousseau and Adam Smith are used in the narrative. The context in which the characters are used is a reality. The relationship between Tatiana and Onegin forms an important impression on both of them. A large portion of the narrative could have missed if the relationship between her and Onegin could not have been broken and if Tatiana could have failed to explain the relationship. The concept of love would have been less painful than it appears in the story if Onegin and Tatiana had not lived in separation for a period. Tatiana and Onegin do not lead happy lives because they are not satisfied with love. Onegin is jealous of Lensky and Olga because they lead simple lives with love for each other. Because of jealousy, he ends up killing Lensky. This is a clear indication that a complex and tortured love is more powerful that simple love.
According to Pushkin (30), the relationship between Onegin and Lensky shows that true friends are rare. People may pretend to be one’s friends but in the real sense, they are great enemies. If Onegin was a good friend, he could not have killed Lensky. He betrayed their relationship by killing him. Onegin is a representative of the contrast between complex and simple lives. All the characters contributed to the conflict that caused the death of Lensky. Tatiana annoyed Onegin at a party they had attended together with Lensky and Olga. Onegin danced with Olga as revenge because he had been taken to the feast by Lensky. Lensky was angered by Onegin’s act of dancing with his fiancée resulting in a fight. Onegin overpowered Lensky and killed him. This shows Lensky’s true love toward Olga.
Tatiana had a dream in which she was chased by bear during which she is attacked by demons and locked in a hut. Her dream is a reflection of the aggressive nature of the world. The dream provides an explanation of the superstitious nature of the people in Russia. It is clear from the dream that people in Russia believed in the superstitious power of supernatural beings. A good framework of gender-based roles is represented by the definitions of the country (pastoral) and the city (urban). This shows the contrasting features of both places representing complex and simple lives. Simple characters want to invent new things whereas complex characters want internal and external peace. For instance, in the beginning, Tatiana lives in the country and falls in love with Onegin from the city who proves himself to be corrupt and unreliable. Upon marriage, Tatiana marries a highly ranked official but she still longs for the countryside way of life, which is simple and secure.
Pushkin, Alexander. The Captain’s Daughter: And Other Stories. New York, NY: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2012.
Do People Play Games to Escape Reality of Reality
Some literature indicate that video game as a habit is addictive, which can be associated with substance abuse. However, they have failed to factor in the existing habits of individuals hiding behind this habit for the purpose of escaping the reality of life. This behavior is referred to as escapism. The aim of this study was to validate and measure why people get involved in playing video games as a tool of escaping life reality, and if they are aware of escaping life reality behavior habit and at the same time consider other factors such addiction. For this reason, a study was considered as the appropriate tool because there was no proper instrument that could have been used. One of the problems that arise with playing video games is that it does not solve the problems but keeps on shelving it for another day.
This research has constrained itself on the use of a social media as an escape mechanism from the daily reality of life. In order to conduct an effective study a total of 220 participants from different neighborhood in the city participated in the study of which 160 participants completed the study. Participants were recruited via the internet, social events and school symposiums. The results indicate that the number of individuals who played video games for whatever reason was higher than in other studies conducted earlier, and male played more than female. It also indicated that the majority of those who play video game were not aware they used it to hide from reality of life and believed were not addicted to games despite the time spent on video games and could not acknowledge that they are hiding in it for the purpose of avoiding the realities of life. Just like any study, it had limitations, which indicated there is a need for proper investigation of the reason as to why they are not aware of this disturbing fact.
Many people are involved in many ways of what is referred to escapism. Video game is one way people participate in escaping life reality. This is classified as escapism realism. This is realized through the use of entertainment and recreation on which we try to express feelings of sadness repression and daily life stress. Today games have advanced to a higher level that was never been thought before. People of all ages do indulge in gaming either through internet or game consoles in the comfort of their homes.
Then the question arises, do people play games to escape from reality? The truth is that people use games to escape from reality, which may include frustration from their jobs, and problematic family relations. On the other hand, this might not be true to some extent. The truth is that people wish to deal with their problems but in most cases they wish the problem never existed. Consequently, it does not help in solving these problems. In most cases, individuals are not aware of their escaping from reality through the use of this media. However, their activities occupy them and they forget about reality and stay relaxed for some time, after which they go back to the start of their problems without having solved them. One will find out that most of those who tend to play video games to escape from reality find themselves in control when playing this game than in real life scenario, where they have to deal with problems in their lives.
When such people start playing video games, they find themselves in a virtual world that makes feel in charge (Hainey, Boyle, Connolly, & Stansfield, 2011). It is an environment that they can be what they want to be, and do not need to worry about what other people in their lives will say about them. It gives them the opportunity to play across the usual bounds of play by providing opportunities to play outside the sets of daily rules. With the competitive nature of the game, they tend to get some sense of accomplishment.
From way back in history, human beings have challenges in their lives, which has resulted to opting for different ways of dealing with their issues. This has not been different in this day; the difference is the advancement in modern technology, especially computer science, which has brought a better way of dealing with this issue, and that is the computer games. During this age, the use of video games has become one of the entertainment components in many homes. The hard times and difficulties in coping with daily life has resulted in many spending their time in video games for escaping from reality.
One of the challenges that come with playing video games is that it keeps on augmenting the problems. In addition, the more they keep on playing, the more they are addicted, consequently wasting time during the day or night in order to satisfy the satisfaction.
The addiction to video game has resulted to new and different problems in the society. Most of the games people play have simulation like amounts that glorify and promote violence. It is unlikely that many people will want to call it a form of entertainment as it is more addictive and destructive, and it does not solve their problems in life. Further, people should not be concerned about it’s addiction but the role it has in the individual’s life, healing and character development.
This essay will attempt to address the forms of games people play and their impact in solving their problems of fear in life, as well as focus on how the game interaction pattern between the players and their reasoning affect their fears and challenges, and lastly if they are aware of their escapism tendency. Nevertheless, it is imperative not to neglect the importance that video games play in social life and in entertaining since they are an important aspect of humanity.
For many people around the globe, playing video game is another way of relaxing and passing time, but to some, it offers much more without their knowledge. The virtual world has thrived, with many people getting involved in it on a daily basis (Nicholas). The online environment is known as a multi player user online role playing games. Digital games appeal to individual for several reasons including their mass appeal, which makes them a target. Daniel A. Topler a staunch supporter of the games including the violent one thinks it is necessary to draw a line before them. Mirapaul (2003), says it is important to draw a line before engaging in this form of gaming since many people get involved in it without their knowledge, to the extent of not knowing they are being consumed by this game, or they are hiding from the reality of life. After starting their games, they find themselves in a virtual world that makes feel in control (Hainey, Boyle, Connolly, & Stansfield, 2011).
Despite the fact that a lot of literature support the idea that games are educational and important for socializing as indicated by Thomas (2004), Ariana has hinted on the violence in these games, and states that the programmers have to decide to hink twice before advancing the games (Cha, 2005). It is evident from previous studies that most games are much more of a violent nature thus, engaging the consumers. The motivation on which people play games seem to be different from escaping from reality, but with time, they end up using games as a tool for escaping from reality. In most cases, individuals are not aware of their escaping from reality through the use of this media.
However, their activities occupy them and they forget about reality as they stay relaxed for some time. Eventually, this does not help because they go back to their problems without having identified a solution. Nicholas (2006), states that the psychological impacts of the game for individuals who play is that it brings their control on the game. Therefore, they feel like they are free to face their lives thus, preferring it more than any other thing in their lives.
The research has constrained itself on the use of a social media as an escape mechanism from the daily reality of life. In order to conduct an effective study, a total of 220 participants from different neighborhood in the city participated in the study. The out of the 220 participants, 160 participants completed the study. Participants were recruited via the internet, social events and school symposiums, responding for the advertisements that were place on the areas that we have mentioned. The sample comprised 120 male and 100 female. They were of different ages ranging from 18 to 75 years. Notably 65 percent of the sample was between the age of 18 and 26 and 25 percent were between age of 27 and 75.
Geographically, the sample used in the study in an urban city and was conversant and fluent in English, with the majority of the participant residing from the city estates (68%) while the rest resided from the outskirts of the city. These neighborhoods represent 93 % of the sample, while the remaining sample resident outside the town, approximately 70 miles away.
In response to employment, 46 percent were employed and worked full time, 22 percent studied full time, 9 percent worked and studied full time , 8 percent were not on employment or even went to any school. The remaining never wanted to state whether they went to school or had a formal working status.
For the purpose of testing, the research retrospective study was conducted to analyse whether many people do escape reality through playing video games, and whether they do know that in real sense they are escaping from reality. This resulted to coming up and refining a questionnaire in the beginning of the study. Wide consultation was conducted without relevant participants and players in the study, and it was decided that the questionnaire will be coined to meet the context of the issue in the society in general. Questions were included to identify the nature of games played by different individual when under stress and when relaxing or passing time. Participants were also asked the genre of the game they preferred or use their favorite.
The information contained in this study will be available to the public upon completion of the whole study. It is the hope of every individual who participated in this research that the efforts made in getting the correct information were productive. The information provided by the participant will remain confidential upon the completion of the study and will not be revealed to the third party not unless with a signed consent of the participants.
For the purpose of verifying the effectiveness of the data collection system, a pilot study of 20 individuals was conducted around the town. From the result gathered it was satisfied that the data collection system was successful and it provided a chance for additional improvement on issues that were not satisfied. Then the data collected from the participants using the improved questionnaire.
The sample was given the questionnaires and asked to return them at their respective churches, central collecting place in the malls and institutions after a period of one week. Participation was voluntary to all participants. Participants were motivated towards the survey with a certificate that was to be issued after successful completion of filing the form. It is essential to note that all people from the age of 18-75 were considered because they were adults and were considered active members of the society and were strong. They were also able to experience the stress brought by the daily struggles of life. On the other hand, children and especially those below the age of 18 were not involved due to the complex nature of getting consent to participate in the survey from those in charge of them. Primary data was collected from the entire town. The views of all participants were considered of importance and were factored in the survey.
Research limitations and Ethical implication of the research method
The research involved human beings, which meant the integrity of information given could be dependable. It was difficult to note the ethical dilemma that might have occurred during the research. This research ensured the participants of the security of their confidentiality to their private information in case they revealed any, and was only to be used in the study alone. Upon completion of the study, they were to be given the results of the study and but this would not include the identity of the participants.
Just like any other research conducted before, there were some limitations present. The following limitation was experienced in conducting the study, and processing of the data. Below is a summary of the limitation. If one needs or desires to use their comment, he/she will only do so upon receiving written consent:
In order to find information on resonance between the lack of unionization between theory and practice
The study included adults while in real sense children are the target and most players of video games in most homes.
The study depends on the opinion of participants, which is unverified or cannot be verified as is bound to change over time.
Most participants did not get training or orientation on the way to fill and conduct the study.
Findings and Analysis
The finding with a sample of 160 successful participants can be summarized As follows: (1) the number of individuals who played video games for whatever reason was higher than in other studies conducted earlier on (2) males played much more regularly than female and it was in tandem with other research. (3) similar to the others, majority of those who play video game were not aware that they used it to hide from reality of life, and believed were not addicted to games despite the time spent on video games.
The results do confirm that it is evident people are indulged in a video game for the purpose of hiding from the reality of life without knowledge of the issues associated with it. Some participants are great players of video games for leisure purpose, but are addicted to it without knowing it and yet use it for the purpose of hiding from the reality of life when under stress unconsciously.
However, it is appropriate to exercise caution when generalizing on the their involvement in video game for the purpose of hiding from the reality of life, since their initial aim of playing video games is socialization, which in some cases leads to escapism. Furthermore, addiction not only represents a behavioral pattern but also relates to the escapism factor in the participants indulgence in video games.
Evidently, the study does have some limitations that have hindered the quality and eligibility of the result but to a lower extent. However, it is important to consider a comprehensive study in the future whole sample will be all-inclusive. This will be useful in establishing the exact problem in the future study.
Eighty percent of those who completed the questionnaire had played video game either for leisure or escaping from stress. Fifty seven percent played regularly and denied that they were addicted to the video games, defined as three times in a week. Male participants were the regular players compared to female participant. It was also noted that male participants played more aggressive games than their female corresponding persons. 89 % of those in the age bracket of 18 to 45 years preferred more robust games than 14 percent of those aged between 46 to75. Regarding their knowledge of their escaping from reality in playing video game 91 percent refuted the claims, while 6 percent accepted that they do escape from the reality of life through playing of video games.
This study set out to understand fully the reasons and the perception of individuals who play video games in an effort to escape their daily frustration of life as well as understand their awareness of their actions. The pattern of answers in the questionnaire indicates that the participants studied here developed a number of reasons for their indulgence of video games and could not relate their predicament to their behavior. Many think they will get gratification from the games but will never understand that they are escaping from reality of the world.
While there is enough evidence that the most motivation for video gaming seems to be leisure and social in nature, respondents did not indicate the satisfaction in games but indicated that it gives them something to indulge in for the moment.
Unlike in other activities the correspondents did not indicate they were conversant to their addiction their habit of escaping from reality, like it has happened in other games. This aspect is important in getting a clear understanding of the effects of electric games to their consumers. As a result, there is a need for proper investigation of the reason as to why they are not aware of this disturbing fact.
However, it is important that the specification for the use of a video game does not stop with leisure alone since there is much that needs to be unearthed on this problem. It is important to establish the reasons why many people hide from the realty using video games and why they do not acknowledge this fact. Only then will the use of the video game for leisure will offer a clear explanation of the uses and effects of video games. The other future assignment in regard to this research will be to determine the impacts of hiding from the reality of life on video games. This investigation is likely to pave way for the investigation of why people do not acknowledge the fact that they are hiding from the realities of life.
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DO PEOPLE PLAY GAMES TO ESCAPE REALITY OF REALITY 2
Running page: DO PEOPLE PLAY GAMES TO ESCAPE REALITY OF REALITY 1
The Dark Ages and Dante’s Inferno Model
Dante’s Inferno model relates with the modern idea of crime and punishment in the application of the contrapasso principle (punishment featuring the aim of causing opposite suffering as revenge for a crime). Modern crime laws classify and prescribe different punishments for varying classes of crimes, based on the perceived strength and severity of the crimes’ effects on victims, for fairness and rational justice purposes. Modern punishment of crimes involves basis on laws that prescribe different punishment levels, periods, and varieties according to the perceived severity of each crime.
In modern society, the convicts of severe crimes, such as violent robbery, rape, or murder, face stiff and severe sentences, such as the death penalty or life imprisonment. This contrasts with the less severe penalties that convicts of light crimes such as social disorderliness face, such as brief jail sentences. This relates with the model’s application of proportional punishment to revenge for crimes, through the application of penalties that resemble or contrast with the committed crime proportionally (Gurnham, 2009, p. 42-43). Religion’s contribution in the punishment of modern society crimes involves the promotion of ethical and morality principles and concepts that serve as determinants of what punishment methods in society are ethical and moral, and which ones are not.
It promotes beliefs, values, and concepts in society concerning the correctness and suitability of punishment methods, based on principles such as respect for life and divinity, requirements for justice, and spiritual values. Religion promotes values concerning morality and ethics, based on spirituality, which societies use to determine the relevance and suitability of crime punishment methods. Religion, nevertheless, does not determine the punishment methods applicable in modern societies directly: its contribution applies to the extent that societies and governments accept religious concepts and values in the punishment of crimes, through the consideration and enforcement of such values and concepts in the development of criminal laws and penal codes.
In 2012, the relevance of pilgrimage involves the symbolism and representation of beliefs and religious values by individuals (Gurnham, 2009, p. 43-52, 57-76; Ferrari & Cristofori, 2010, p. 46-59). Religious visits to places of relevance and symbolism enhance believers’ values and attitudes towards their religion and its beliefs, through emotional and psychological strengthening during visits and experiences of places and objects that are symbolic of valuable religious events.
Ferrari, S., & Cristofori, R. (2010). Law and Religion in the 21st Century: Relations between States and Religious Communities. Ashgate Publishing, Farnham, UK
Gurnham, D. (2009). Memory, Imagination, Justice: Intersections of Law and Literature. Ashgate Publishing, Farnham, UK
The Dark Ages and Dante’s Inferno Model 2
Is Conformity more beneficial at work?
Social norms remain a central aspect and a powerful standard of behavior whose root developed from widely shared people beliefs. Conformity remains the central point of focus for streams of literature that emphasizes on isomorphic processes that guides the conformity behaviors. Due to the fact that deviations from the societal accepted norms continues to face sanctions, a number of aspects that form social factors such as need for status, reputation and prestige, all tend to produce behavioral conformity. In simple terms, conformity refers to tendency of aligning once attitude, behaviors and beliefs around us (Chen and David 530).
The fact that our social norms can become depended and determined by external social factors, this may as well imply that conformity has a powerful force that takes on a subtler unconscious influence or social pressure. Despite thinking ourselves as individuals, the fact remains that the system drives people to fit in it. This aspect implies that people always goes according to the flow. While Tayler and Robert (766) perceive conformity to have a negative impact at the work place, there are some who see it as having a positive impact at the work place (Chen and David, 540). The writer argues that conformity is more beneficial at the workplace.
Conformity at the workplace refers to a situation where employees follow rules together with adhering to both social and traditionally expected approaches on how businesses conduct their operations through familiar processes. For example, Chen and David (540) explain that conformity at the workplace is becoming readily observable among industries and every aspect of life. Employment together with the industries develops trends that impacts on a number of workplace practices.
Traditionally, and even in some of the present organizations, traditional office dress codes replace casual dress codes. While a number of organizations still maintain the need for their employees to respect certain dress codes, there are those that find it appropriate for their employees to dress in casual but smart way. Tayler and Robert (760) note that maintaining and conserving a dress code at the workplace as conformity contributes immensely towards business reputation. In a survey conducted by Chenand David (550) among the Chinesehuman resources, the findings indicated that conformity is an issue of both corporates and human resource leaders who find it easier to balance their employment trends and maintain the business image.
According to the survey, only 15 percent of employers were willing to relax employees’ dress code. While few employers find it better to let their employees have casual work environment, majority of employers on the other hand conform to traditional dress codes like those that the ones found in the law offices, service firms, banks and other manufacturing industries.
Conformity at the workplace also facilitates employee initiative. According to Tayler and Robert (766), employees in most cases tend to demonstrate a high level of conformity when performing their jobs. In this case, employees fail to deviate away from their respective tasks according to job descriptions. While this may seem as being a strict conformity that enables employees to turn away from their social norms and conform to their job descriptions, Tayler and Robert notes that this aspect contributes to employee work initiative and motivation.
For instance, assume that business provides for a job description that states ensure restaurant guests attain satisfaction by implementing on complimentary items when the restaurant office clerk receives complain from the guest. This indicates that an employee who instead on depending on their own social behaviors, conform to jobs description and responds to guests complaints. This kind of response according to Tayler and Robert refers to employee exhibiting of strict conformity. More importantly, this kind of conformity not only benefits the guest as a way of providing feedback, but also increases supervisors confidence on employees ability and skills of exercising independent discretion and judgment.
Additionally, conformity at the workplace is a major contributor for socially expected behaviors. Chenand David (540) states that conformity represents socially acceptable or expected behaviors at the work environment. Similar to variability in businesses and area of focus, so is the diversity in employees. Employees at the work place come from different cultural backgrounds. This would call for a good example for a better practice for employees to demonstrate respect for their coworkers, managers and other colleagues. Conforming to expected business behaviors helps to streamline uniform behaviors among employees.
Lastly, a number of businesses that become subject to federal laws concerning compensations, safety practices and fair employment, exhibits conformity in their daily practices as well as conducting periodic audits and reporting. Such laws according to Durand and Philippe (970), regulates that businesses need to follow equal opportunities. For example, conformity in this case requires that instead of using aspects such as sex, religion, nationality, color or race, businesses need to use only applicable employment opportunities that concerns job qualifications and skills.
Against the benefits that conformity contributes to the workplace, other people see conformity as a negative contributor to the workplace. Tayler and Robert (766) notes that businesses use conformity to regulate on employees actions, reduce on the possibility of severe changes by creating universal social norms. Furthermore, Tayler and Robert also claim that conformity at the workplace restricts specific features for a positive advancement in societies.
The paper therefore finds conformity to be more beneficial at the workplace despite restricting and changing employees’ behavior, largely contribute towards business reputation.
Chen, Ying, and David Touve. “Conformity, Political Participation, and Economic Rewards: The Case of Chinese Private Entrepreneurs.” Asia Pacific Journal of Management 28.3 (2011): 529-553.
Durand, Rodolphe, and Philippe, Deborah, The impact of norm-conforming behaviors on firm reputation. Strategic Management Journal Strat. Mgmt. J., 32: 969993 (2011)
Tayler, William B., and Robert J. Bloomfield. “Norms, Conformity, and Controls.” Journal of Accounting Research 49.3 (2011): 753-790.
Jhumpa Lahiri’s Unaccustomed Earth
Jhumpa Lahiri’s Unaccustomed Earth is a fictional multiverse with characters who engage readers’ souls. In the episodes, she sculpts a real image, which does not show tolerance to homogenizing impulse. This essay offers a reading of Jhumpa’s viewpoints beyond the postcolonial criticism.
The cover page of the short stories collection has turquoise waves displaying the Tsunami with a cradling of gold bangle. It does not only capture Hema but also provides varied arguments that are intertwined intricately. The images in her writing seem to sprout from unseen forces that speak to readers despite the cultural conditioning. Efforts to categorize her work in different postcolonial Asian American and Indian American Diaspora writings are somehow relevant with the external backgrounds that she presents together with her characters. However, her work eludes the different categories since it relates to the human heart. From this perspective, New York Times also praised her book (Bran 88).
Additionally, her writing skill is not necessarily captured in the post episodes since Kairos speak on her behalf instead of Chronos. This stems from an Indic mindset, which is more of civilization as opposed to nationalistic categories. It is vaguely Indian and Bangladeshi, which is a crossbreed. With her mythopoeic storytelling sculpt, she offers a reality that cannot tolerate homogenizing to bring unity in the abstract. All the readings are from a particular perspective and the essay looks at the work from a Gynocentric matrix-point of view. This view honors the basic principle and the myriad flowering of the writer unconsciously. In this context, Lahiri’s people live in a fictional world that belongs to the new generation. Her work births an unparalleled range of emotions as well as plurality of various experiences (Christopher 45).
Lahiri’s work is a re-enchant in storytelling in some way. This is because she does not show much effort in deciphering and explaining her tales to simple comprehensible works. Instead, she keeps them mystical to the readers. For instance, her stories in Mira Nair’s film are enchanting. The re-enchantment can happen at the time Mother Principle’s falling on the earth is acknowledged. Her story fills readers with a numinosity of existence on the earth. The cover page of the story illustrates the invoking Tsunami upon the Mother Principle’s devastating beauty. However, the world offers revitalization with a divine entity. Within the auspices of imperial monotheistic consciousness and the corollary materialism, homogenizing worldviews are constructed in an attempt to provide more literature for demystifying.
There is a re-enchanting similar to the Weberian disenchantment of the modern instrumental rationality. In her work, she creates a self-articulated imagined community. This community goes beyond racial, gender, linguistic and ethnicity boundaries. Her imaginable foray is a product that dives into the human souls providing a fictional space of a new generation with new reality.
Although most of her tales inhibit people arriving at the shores of the new world because of British colonialism in India, their love and hates reveal a new generation. Her omniscient narrator includes the voice of a woman who is not gendered beckoning the coming of a generation, which shows that women do not have to apologize for their humanity (Rendon 68).
Lastly, Lahiri’s works show emergent possibilities of regenerating within the non-linear or Kairos moment. This is true since phallic time has passed giving way to womb time where the Tsunami is the non-dual regeneration time. Lahiri’s characters epitomize the people’s movements and their anguish of displacement where they resist the trope of power.
Bran, Ramona. Transplanted Identities in Jhumpa Lahiri’s Unaccustomed Earth, East-West Cultural Passage 11(2011): 88-99. Supplemental Index, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 July 2013.
Christopher, Kelly. “From distant shores; Jhumpa Lahiri’s ‘Unaccustomed Earth’ chronicles churning emotions, strained connections within immigrant families in America.” Fort Worth Star-Telegram (TX) 30 Mar. 2008.
Rendon, Catherine. “Jhumpa Lahiri. Unaccustomed Earth.” World Literature Today 83 (2009): 68.