Organizations are increasingly becoming aware that leadership plays a crucial role in driving them towards their goals and objectives. Leaders have the task of restructuring and transforming the organization in key areas that aim at meeting customers at their point of need as well as fulfilling market demands as and when they arise. In such a scenario, transformational leaders are the ideal people to bolster performance and ensure value based leadership techniques are widely utilized to transform the business into something bigger than before. Leaders, ought to stay focused and determined enough to spearhead the organization’s key endeavors while aiming to satisfy the unpredictable rising needs of customers.
Losing the focus will only mean that the leader has failed to perform his or her task accordingly and the organization’s failure is in the looming. To avoid such incidences, it is imperative for organization leaders to settle conscientiously those leadership styles and strategies that aim at improving the overall performance of the organization from various perspectives. Certainly, leaders are the backbone of any organization whereby all employees look up to such influential persons to stay focused and foster the best way ahead towards meeting its goals and objectives among them being meeting or even exceeding the expectations of their customers both in service provision and in products. Clear leadership roles should be spelt out clearly and in the best way possible to enhance efficiency in the running of the organization while ensuring that the organization is always ready and willing to give its customers more than what they expected, which will then help to win their loyalty and keep the business flourishing. Additionally, a good leader should strive towards achieving a competent organizational structure that reflects nothing less than success throughout the life of the organization.
This paper explicates the case of AT&T Incorporation identifying key challenges and barriers to the success of the company leading to its failure to meet its customers’ expectations as well as an in-depth analysis of leadership roles needed to bring change and bolster the company towards achieving its goals.
According to Sander & Bobo (2012), AT&T Inc. is the leading Dallas based telecommunications service provider in the United States, whose operational segments include wireline and wireless communication and other services and products through its affiliates and subsidiaries all over the United States and other international destinations. Formally, it operated under the brand name of SBC Communications Inc. pending 2005 when it changed its name to AT&T Inc. up to date.
The company’s wireline segment encompasses the provision of dial-up internet services, U-verse services, enterprise network services, Wi-Fi services, and packet services as well as local and international voice services for a wide array of business applications such as sales and reservation centers among other services. Its wireless segment as well offers both voice and data communication services, sells AT&T branded handsets, and wireless data cards to various individuals with personal computers among other products and services. The company has experienced tough times during its operations since its inception in 1983 having to stomach dubious distinction as America’s worst performing cell phone company. Lately, the company has had to concede to a number of criticisms after rated with poor performance in terms of customer satisfaction according to customer reports.
Information Gatekeepers (2013), explains that currently, AT&T faces three main challenges, which include awful performance, absolute abysmal customer service, and poor value. Apparently, AT&T has been noted with a lot of concern for being the incompetent and unresponsive to new and emerging customer needs. Notably, the company has been lagging behind on 4G technology, which is the latest technology that that enables customers who use smartphones to access and browse with a relatively high speed. The company has also been using fiber optic-based network in provision of TV services to its mere 2 million U-TV customers, which has not worked either as customers keep complaining of poor network reception among other complains.
Information Gatekeepers (2013) explicates that despite the company’s downs, it has a chance of overcoming all the aforementioned challenges should it consider undertaking organizational changes that might help to deal accordingly with these challenges. Embracing these changes would enhance the company to face any form of challenge and keep the company aware of imminent consumer behaviors that the company ought to prepare for and strategize on the best way to go about them. Certainly, when organizations start to experience such turbulent times as those of AT&T, the problem must be emanating from leadership and in such a case, organizational change is necessary. Regarding the case of AT&T Company, embracing structural change, task change, and technological change would be the best thing to do in a bid to save the reputation of the company. Structural change would include restructuring and reviewing of the various spans of authority as well as centralization of authority despite the company’s operations with a number of subsidiaries.
Structural change will enhance quick decision making without having to consume much of a time and thus increasing on efficiency for the benefit of the company. Efficiency will enhance the company and augment its responsive ability to various emerging issues as well as drive the company to greater desirable heights than now. Embracing the change in terms of task will involve a review of the job design geared towards excellence and competence in terms of quality services and products that not only aim to meet customers’ needs and wants but also exceed their expectations. On the other hand, it would be necessary for the company to embrace change in technology in terms of quick absorption of the latest technological arrivals in various aspects to enable the company serve their customers appropriately. Apparently, the company’s technological response is slower besides it being unable to implement competent technology policies that enhance good customer relation in the long run.
For effective change, there is need for AT&T Inc. to settle for an effective change model and utilize it effectively so that the impact is felt and the organization is able to focus on success. Phillips & Gully (2011), elucidates that Lewin’s Force Field Organization Change Model is a classic organizational change management model proposed by Kurt Lewin in 1951. According to Lewin, an organization is a system held by identical conflicting forces in a constant balanced state. He therefore proposed this model on the basis two assumptions, which included the existence of the driving forces for change in an organization and the presence of opposing forces that stand against change. As such, he devised a three-stage process of implementing change to an organization regardless of the nature of the change needed.
The first stage of implementing change as opined by Lewin involved the creation of motivation to change, which he called the process of unfreezing. Under this stage, AT&T Company will need to induce a motivational program for its employees in a bid to prepare them to the imminent changes as far as task, embracing new technology, and structural changes are concerned. Unfreezing will help to do away with retrogressive organizational culture and eliminate the status quo because of the fact that organizational culture is the main obstacle that poses threat and resistance to any form of change. The second crucial stage is adjusting the equilibrium, which will involve implementing of the actual change and developing of a new organizational culture for the benefit of the company in its endeavors. This change may be achieved through three main approaches, which include moral persuasion, re-education, and use of force against forces impeding the change. The third and final stage of implementing change is refreezing, which takes into account the establishment of new norms, regulations, punishments or rewards that have to be done preferably on regular basis for the change to be effective. As such, the company will be able to focus on customer needs and wants with the aim of exceeding their expectation in terms of service delivery and products offered.
Accordingly, the role of the leader who is the chairperson as well as the chief executive officer of AT&T Company has to dominate for successful implementation of the imminent change. Transformational leadership styles have to be take precedence because they have a significantly crucial role in implementing and retaining the required change for AT&T Company. In the field of implementing task change, the leader has to consider a director leadership style in a bid to get b the tasks done in the best way possible to improve the company’s performance. This style will ensure that the leader uses his or her directive in ensuring that whatever is to be undertaken in an organization is achieved.
The style keeps the team focused on organizational goals through supervision and delegation of duties while ensuring that the leader seizes the wider perspective of the firm. Additionally, autocratic leadership style will help in policymaking, make key decisions regarding the future of the organization as well as dictate and assign tasks to each member to enhance a focused environment for employees in a bid to achieve the desired goals and objectives of the company. Better still; the leader should exemplify a high degree of intelligence, social maturity and breadth, inner motivation and achievement desires, and good human relation attitudes for the sake of improving the company’s image. The proper use of the abovementioned approaches to change will enable the leader induce motivation for change as well as achieve the desired goals for the organization.
There are impediments that hamper the success of an organization in its endeavors and no matter how an organization may struggle, there will be success guaranteed if these impediments are not identified, analyzed, and controlled. Information Gatekeepers (2013) reiterates that resistance to change, poor leadership styles, poor customer relations, and corruption among managers leading to embezzlement of funds meant for investment are the key barriers to success. Resistance to change is a major barrier to the success of any organization, which therefore means that an organization will not be able to keep abreast with latest trends in technology, management, and other fields within an organization. Change is an inevitable and yet a significantly phenomenal thing worth the attention of any organization.
Change encourages success as it develops ways and means towards which an organization can easily identify its strength and weaknesses allowing it to strategize on the best way forward to achieving the desired goals and objectives, hence inviting success for the organization’s operations. Additionally, poor leadership styles hamper success by allowing poor implementation of policies and strategies that are worth driving an organization towards realizing its goals. Indeed, poor leadership plays a great role in impeding success of an organization because leaders are the drivers of the organization and failure to execute their duties and responsibilities appropriately means failure of the organization. On the other hand, corruption allows leaders to misuse funds for self-gratification leading to unavailability of funds for investment when needed.
To overcome the aforementioned impediments, there is need to develop a plan that will help in dodging these barriers and instead make them stepping-stones to success. Communication and education as well as the participation and involvement of employees in implementing change will reduce chances of resistance to change and thus allowing the smoothening of the road to success. It will also be prudent for the leader to identify and analyze the nature of his employees in a bid to allow him or her to employ appropriate leadership style that seeks to motivate employees into improving their performance and thus allowing the company to move towards its success.
Appropriate leadership styles will enable the company to focus on the primary goals of the company as well as give employees the morale to work responsibly towards fulfilling the organizational goals. Moreover, the organization can scrape out any corrupt leader within the premises by seeking to test their integrity through various ways and means to reduce embezzlement of funds and allow the organization to focus on profitable investments rather than fulfilling personal goals at the expense of the organization’s money and other resources. In addition, the organization can develop a good customer relationship by always seeking to satisfy their needs and wants.
In conclusion, this paper has explicated the case of AT&T Incorporation, which has consistently performed poorly due to failure to meet its customers’ expectations. The paper has identified three key challenges that face the company ranging from awful performance, absolute abysmal customer service, and poor value. In addition, the paper has covered three organizational changes that are necessary for the company to be able to address these challenges accordingly. Therefore, as regards to the changes required in addressing these issues, the paper has elucidated Lewin’s Force Field Organization Change Model that is crucial in implementing the said changes.
Additionally, the paper delved into an in-depth analysis of leadership needed to bring change and bolster the company towards achieving its goals. The paper has also dealt accordingly with the barriers that hamper organizational strive for success leading to failure in meeting customers’ expectations as well as the plan to overcome these impediments allowing the organization to achieve its goals and thus succeeding in its operations. Indeed, the paper has unveiled that, leaders play a big role in the running of an organization and the choice of the leadership styles and skills to use in managing the activities of an organization determine the path followed by the organization. Therefore, the failure of the leader is the failure of the organization and vice versa.
Information Gatekeepers, I. (2013). MAN: A Monthly Newsletter Covering Worldwide Developments in the “Metropolitan Area Networks” Markets, Applications, Technology. New York: Information Gatekeepers Inc.
Phillips, J. M., & Gully, S. M. (2011). Organizational Behavior: Tools for Success. Cengage Learning: New York.
Sander, P., & Bobo, S. (2012). The 100 Best Stocks to Buy in 2013. Chicago: Adams Media.
AT&T INCORPORATION 9
AT&T INCORPORATION 1
Newspapers and tabloids are critical sources of news for the modern society members. In examination or reading of the newspapers and tabloids, it is ideal to focus on the political view, graphics, and content of the news with the aim of grasping the perspective behind the development of the news. The main objective of this project is to offer a critical view and evaluation content as presented by newspaper and tabloids in the context of the United Kingdom. In this research exercise (media critique), the focus will be on the Daily Mail (Mail Online) and The Telegraph with the aim of providing critical analysis in relation to the MP Tory Patrick Mercer.
Daily Mail (Mail Online) and the Telegraph aims to elaborate and present the content to the readers in the most effective and efficient manners. The first comparison between the two sources of information or new content is the expression of the headings or titles of the content. Daily Mail adopts and integrates the headline for the news content, as is this the moment MP signs fake lobbying contract? Tory Patrick Mercer quits party as Cameron critic falls for sting operation and pockets £4,000 to lobby for Fiji. On the other hand, the Telegraph adopts and incorporates a direct and summarized title as, exposed: deal that sank cash for questions MP Mercer. From these illustrations, it is ideal to note that the Daily Mail provides substantial information in its heading before reading the news content while the Telegraph leaves it for the reader to find out in the text through intriguing headline.
The two sources of information or news in the context of the United Kingdom adopt different presentation methods and graphics. In the context of the Mail Online (Daily Mail), the source starts the presentation through integration of the content of the news in point form. This is essential in the provision of valuable summary of the news by evaluation of the main points in relation to the news with reference to MP Mercer’s case. On the other hand, the Telegraph newspaper does not offer the opportunity for the reader to grasp the content of the news through scanning of the key concepts in the points form.
The two news contents also integrate different forms of graphics with the aim of elaborating and presenting the news content to the viewers and the readers. The Daily Mail uses pictures/images to support their claim and headline in the expression of the political perspective. The source of information uses pictures to demonstrate or convey messages to the readers such as presentation of the image in which the MP signs the fake lobbying documents. On the contrary, the Telegraph focuses on the demonstration or elaboration of the news content through integration of the YouTube video clip attached to the information. This is ideal for the readers to watch the footage thus presentation of a concrete evidence in relation to the news content.
According to the evaluation of the news content with reference to the case of MP Mercer, there is an element of conservatism and liberalism. This relates to the presentation of MP Mercer as an enemy and disgrace to the conservative MPs. This is a sense of similarity in the presentation of the news content with the aim of demonstrating their political affiliation and interaction with the political sphere of the society. Despite the essence of conservatism in the presentation of the news, the Daily Mail integrates liberal approach to the issues through incorporation of diverse issues towards the case of MP Mercer. This is evident in the argument that MP Mercer worded the questions himself before presentation of the questions to the parliament. For instance, Daily Mail notes, They also claimed he had refused a request to cook the results’ of the All-Party Group report on Fiji in order to fix the conclusions. They tried to force his hand and he said No,’ one friend added (Matt 2013).
The two sources of information are also similar in the sense that they incorporate quotations for the purposes of enhancing credibility and authenticity with the aim of connecting with the readers at all levels. For instance, the Daily Mail and Telegraph indicate that the MP resigned from the whip position and would not contest in the next general election. In the meantime, to save my party embarrassment, I have resigned the Conservative Whip. I have also decided not to stand at the next General Election (Matt 2013, Telegraph 2013).
It is also essential to note that the two sources of information in relation to current events in the United Kingdom and across the globe play critical role in acknowledging the source of information. The information presented by the Daily Mail and the Telegraph is an undercover investigation conducted by The Telegraph and the BBC’s Panorama program. This similarity is vital for the readers to place the story into crucial and valuable context for effective and efficient elaboration. Acknowledgement of the source of information is also vital for the evidence, authenticity, and credibility of the news content.
The Telegraph. (2013). Exposed: the deal that sank cash for questions MP Patrick Mercer. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/?source=refresh on 1st June 2013
Matt Chorley. (2013). is this the moment MP signs fake lobbying contract? Tory Patrick Mercer quits party as Cameron critic falls for sting operation and pockets £4,000 to lobby for Fiji. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2333850/Patrick-Mercer-Is- moment-MP-signs-fake-lobbying-contract-Cameron-critic-quits-party-falls-sting- operation-pockets-4-000-lobby-Fiji.html on 1st June 2013
MEDIA CRITIQUE 4
Running head: MEDIA CRITIQUE 1
The News Media as an Industry
News media are components of the mass media and are dedicated to deliver information to the general public or a targeted group in the public on past and current happenings and other matters that affect their lives. This news comes in the form of printed copies, broadcasts and recently, it has upgraded the Internet releases. The participants in the news industry have different roles that they play in the process of gathering, preparing and presenting the news. Their management differs in how they perceive happenings and participants in their news stories (Gillmor, 2008).
The various roles played by the participants in the news industry
The news industry is significant in providing the public with information about matters affecting them and the society in which they live. This information may range from their political situation, the economic and social situations, as well as other crucial matters such as health and lifestyle. With the increased access to media, the public is kept up-to-date with the current happenings and this has helped, not only with knowledge, but also by saving lives through warnings such as those on natural calamities. The media have established a firm foundation for important information such as non-market issues and businesses of interest. This news stimulates the public actions that leads to improvements in their progress in life (Islam, & World Bank, 2002).
How does management differ from journalists in their perspectives on what constitutes the who, what, where, and why of a story?
Many journalists have similarities in the way they gather their news and in the usage of the 5Ws. However, their management may differ in their relationship with the government. For instance, in china, the media is part of the government and hence entitled to a high social status. On the other hand, media in the US is an independent entity from the government and ranks as the fourth force in the social life following congress, government and the court. In addition to this, freedom of the press determines the content of the stories presented under the contents of the 5Ws. The responsibilities that these firms think they should take, which are mostly shaped by variations in geography, history, ideology and culture, also affect the journalists’ perspectives on what constitutes the 5Ws. These social and cultural variations largely influence the media, despite journalist’s will to remain as objective as possible (Willis, 2003).
Who and what controls the media in the 21st century, and why?
The nation is a key player in controlling the media with whom and what is presented. The government takes a center stage by validating what crucial information that should be presented to the public, as well as one that should be hoarded from the public spectacle. Such information may include security issues and crime offenses by the personnel in the high offices. The government controls the media by passing policies on how to regulate information, to either protect the public or carry out malicious activities and hiding them from people. Interest and activist groups also largely control the media by airing their concerns to the media and following them up to see that the information is trickling down as intended. This is important because the public get to know the current happenings or future expectations. It is significant because it pushes the players to act accordingly in resolving contentious matters (Chomsky, 2010).
Media has been a great tool by offering information to the public on matters affecting them. The groups that control media largely determine what information gets to the public and what does not. The differed managements also have influenced how the media releases the information collected by determining the 5Ws in their stories.
Chomsky, N. (2010). Media Control: The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda. New York: Seven Stories Press.
Gillmor, D. (2008). We the Media: Grassroots Journalism By the People, For the People. Sebastopol: O’Reilly Media, Inc.
Islam, R., & World Bank. (2002). The right to tell: The role of mass media in economic development. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Willis, J. (2003). The human journalist: Reporters, perspectives, and emotions. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Praeger.
THE NEWS MEDIA AS AN INDUSTRY 3
Running head: THE NEWS MEDIA AS AN INDUSTRY 1
Cyber Security and Facebook
The internet allows users to gather, process, store, and transfer huge amounts of data that include sensitive and proprietary, personal, and transactional data. Facebook has been the subject of a number of attacks and phishing, which resulted in privacy breaches, stolen information, and data exposure. Facebook threats evolve as rapidly as the internet expands and the associated risks are increasing. Cyber security is designed to protect facebook from attack and damage as well as unauthorized access.
Facebook pages provide a forum for dialogue between customers and brand. Along the process, vital and sensitive information is shared. Cyber security protects the information that has been provided in the facebook account. Cyber security ensures that any facebook information that has been provided by individual and it is sensitive or confidential, must remain confidential, and only be shared with those users deemed appropriate by those who operate the account.
Cyber security has a core principle of integrity. This means that information has to retain its integrity and must not be altered form its original state. It has been noticed that cyber criminals access people’s facebook accounts and alter some information. In this case, the owner’s sensitive and personal details go with the criminal. Cyber security protects facebook system by ensuring that information retains its integrity. Cyber security has another core principle of availability. They ensure that facebook information is available to those who need it. This means that information will longer land into the wrong hands of facebook criminals. This will protect personal data of individuals and restore any broken breaches. Cyber security ensures that there is incident response to cyber threats that affects facebook.
The safeguard of data is essential to prevent the access of sensitive data by unauthorized persons and to ascertain the safety of individuals. This responsibility would become complicated in the case of an approaching category five hurricane, which may damage information systems and cause the loss of such information. To protect the information in my faculty from the hurricane, my plan would involve the identification and gathering of all essential and necessary information and its storage in an online data center or cloud feature. I would ascertain that the cloud feature or data centre that I choose for the online storage of this information has a server whose location or base is adequately safe from the projected path of the approaching hurricane. This measure would avail an effective and safe back-up for the information and database during the destructive hurricane’s passage, even if the disaster damages the faculty’s systems (Friedman & West, 2010, p. 2-3).
To prevent theft of information from the faculty’s systems after the storm, I would ensure that I erase all sensitive data from the hard disks of faculty systems prior to the storm, after ensuring their complete and convenient storage in the cloud facility. My choice of this strategy involves consideration of its convenience, reliability, and effectiveness in protecting the information against the hurricane’s destructive effects. The use of private passwords and accounts online would protect the information from unauthorized access, while storage in a server that is away from the storm’s path would enable its security and my convenient access and download from any other system or machine after the storm. AHIMA’s recommendations regarding this situation involve the demand for provisions for the safety of information, using well-designed disaster plans and action plans to retrieve any destroyed or lost information (AHIMA Website/Resources). AHIMA demands comprehensive disaster preparedness plans to assure information safety and the stability of care services.
American Health Information Management Association Website (n.d.). Resources: Disaster Planning and Recovery. AHIMA Website, retrieved on June 6, 2013 from: http://www.ahima.org/
Friedman, A., & West, D. (2010). Privacy and Security in Cloud Computing. Issues in Technology Innovation, No. 3, retrieved on June 6, 2013 from: http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/papers/2010/10/26%20cloud%20computing%20friedman%20west/1026_cloud_computing_friedman_west.pdf
Discussion Forum 2
Deficiencies in IT System Development and Program Change Process
Townsend and Townsend is pleased to help your firm to evaluate its IT System development processes. The purpose of this memo is to outline some of the deficiencies in Collin Harp’s IT system as well as viable solutions to eliminate these deficiencies.
No Formal System development process
Collin Harps relies on skilled programmers to develop all its programs. This approach to systems development is advantageous in that it saves on time taken to develop and implement a new system. However, this strategy is risky in that errors may occur during the development process and detecting such errors is a challenge if other employees are not involved in the development process. The programmers can make unauthorized changes to systems that are hard to detect. To avoid these risks, Harp should consider adopting a formal systems development process that involves other employees.
The formal systems development process should be written and all procedures should be outlined clearly. Inclusion of other employees to systems development processes will ensure that any changes in systems are justifiable and result in higher levels of efficiency. System users can help in evaluating the effectiveness of systems and their reliability. A similar approach should be used when making changes to systems. The language used in systems development should be familiar to all parties involved.
Separation of Duties
Programmers carry out all systems development activities and have access to back up data files to all systems created. Programmers keep records of old and current systems for future programming activities. This eliminates the need to reprogram the entire system. Giving programmers such freedom is risky in that programmers can change the contents of the master files. These files contain other programmers’ notes on the programming logic used to develop systems. Harp can lose all its master files and information therein to programmers. Collins Harp can avoid these risks by separating the duties of systems programmers from those of applications programmers. Harp can divide the programmers in a way that some specialize in systems development and the remaining programmers to handle development of application software. In addition, Harp should consider denying programmers access to its data files and copies of its programs. Programmers should inform all parties involved in systems development processes of the programming logic used and provide coded versions of new programs.
Collin Harp gives its programmers freedom to use their own approach and logic to develop systems. This freedom gives programmers an opportunity to improve the application development process. There is no documentation of systems development processes and programmer’s approach to the process. This means that if Harp changes its programmers, the new programmers would not have the required information and programming logic to make changes to existing programs. If Harp adopts a formal systems development process, it will be easy to document all procedures and program logic used in the process. I recommend that Harp record all requests to change IT systems and the procedures in the entire development process. Programmers should document their programming approach and logic as well. These records will make future changes on programs easy to implement even in the absence of the current programmers. Records of systems development processes will be useful to system users as well.
Townsend and Townsend will be pleased to assist you in implementing the recommended strategies.
Audit Memo 3
Reflective Paper on IFSM 304
Computer has become central to every society. We are currently dealing with issues such as digital security, identity theft, privacy, spam, internet pornography, phishing, and spyware. The ethical aspects of organization and the manner in which is managed exists the values that are intrinsic in the people that make up the organization. The manner in which information is used is depending on ethics and beliefs of the people that are part of the organization particularly the organization’s leadership. Information is a valuable organizational resource that has to be carefully safeguarded because information cannot secure or protect itself from spyware, identity thieves, or phishers. The ethical issues that are involved in the information age are many and varied. The most common ones are; accuracy, privacy, property, and accessibility.
After going through the course, I was able to learn that at the individual level, our good manners towards each other are an indicator of our ethical values. Ethical issues cover up extensive spectrum and organizations are attempting to develop a broad framework that managers can apply issues as they occur. Codes of ethical conduct have emerged as a standard framework in many organizations. Other types of behavior that affects anyone that uses technology have overtaken the technology field. Lack of ethical issues has led to destruction of data and software as well as disruption of computer services by computer viruses and hackers. Criminals are in particular interested in obtaining social security numbers, credit card numbers, bank account information, and other financially related data to facilitate their process of stealing identities and other valuables from unsuspecting customers.
At stake with increased use of information technology, we must insure it, and the information it handles to enhance the dignity of humankind. To ensure that ethical issues are no longer a threat to organizations or society, I will adopt a social contract that ensures that information systems do not improperly invade the privacy of a person to avoid indignities by assuring everyone the right to fulfill his or her human potential. Information systems must be accurate to avoid mortification. My career has been influenced by learning information technology and society in the sense that it has given me an extra energy motivation to learn more about the ethical issues in the information age and come up with tangible solution to the issue at hand. I will ensure that information system is accessible, as this will eliminate the indignities of information deprivation and literacy. Having the intellectual skills that deals with information such as calculating, writing, and reasoning will make sure that ethical issues in the society are eliminated.
As we continue towards a global community, there are several challenges that we see relating to ethics in the Information Technology. First of all, there is a general lack of awareness of information security issues. This has made people loose majority of their properties without their conscience. Secondly, there is a rapidly evolving complexity of systems. The other challenges presented by the emerging technologies are; the inscrutability afforded by the technologies and the large-scale nature of communication network. Information age will place information input into a database, which is prone to human, and device error. The increasing use of computers will increased the separation of the rich and the poor creating a digital divide between those who have and those that do not have. There will be increased problems of pornography, libel, harassment, and censorship on individuals and society.
Reflective Paper on IFSM 304 1
Adding CRM, SCM, and BI to Facebook
To put up a collaborative business environment, you need to integrate web services and leverage the complications of an existing IT infrastructure. Web services integration will enable you to overcome internal barriers, exploit external prospective, and create new applications to add a competitive edge.
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
Supply Chain Management (SCM)
Install a facebook developer application, go to the main developer application URL, and install the developer application. The developer will let you configure and manage facebook platform. To create SMC application, click the set up New Application button in the upper right. Facebook will send the screen where the application name can be entered. Create a barebone index.php. to confirm that Facebook is pulling the contents via the Callbak URL proxy.
Business Intelligence (BI)
Business Intelligence incorporates a range of features to promote interaction with facebook database. Install a facebook developer application, go to the main developer application URL, and install the developer application. To create Business Intelligence (BI), click a new application and insert Microstrategy gateway that adheres to facebook policy for data privacy and access.
www.thewinerycrm.com. (2009). Social Network Integration. Retrieved October 23, 2012 from http://www.thewinerycrm.com/Images/ch09_m.pdf
Information System Technology 1
Subliminal Perception Advertising
Subliminal perception is that deliberate process that is created by an advertisers to the audience where one receives and responds to information and instructions without being aware of what is going on or what the advert is all about (Armstrong, 171). It may not be possible for one to notice the information hidden in a particular advertisement, but many of them have hidden messages that provoke buyer consumerism (‘Guinn, Thomas 130). Subliminal mostly uses images or hidden texts that one may not able to capture immediately but the brain registers it and translates it.
From the Heineken advertisement, the image of the two bottles indicates subliminal advertisement. We are aware that this is a drink that is generally marketed for women and so when the term don’t touch my heinie is used, it indicates some sexual orientation in practice. Though the common perception may not grasp the words, the texts are rhetoric and connotative in nature. It has some relationship between women and men sexual desires. The image may woo some people to take more of it thinking unconsciously that they would have the pleasure being described.
At the same time, the two bottles of beer may imply nothing to the conscious mind in that there are two bottles and one at the center. Unconsciously, an image of a woman boobs can be derived. When flipped upside down, one can see the buttock of a person. Their complexion indicates that they may be women like and this indicates its association with women. Therefore this implies that the user is likely to associate this advert with sex, thus persuading people in absence of their knowledge. There is the small bottle at the center of the two indicating mans private parts. This may be a way of enticing women to engage in the drink.
These types of advertisement may affect buyers as they are considered inappropriate for normal viewing. This therefore may lead to a company losing on its sales when customers become aware of the message behind these images.
Heineken subliminal images obtained from http://www.subliminal-messaging.com/visual-examples-of-subliminal-messages illustrated below.
Armstrong, Jon S. Persuasive Advertising: Evidence-based Principles. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. Print.
‘Guinn, Thomas C, Chris T. Allen, and Richard J. Semenik. Advertising and Integrated Brand Promotion. Mason, OH: South-Western, Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.
Why More and More Students Are Taking Online Classes
The introduction of Internet brought a paradigm shift in the way life in the contemporary society is practiced and carried along. This shift has been both positive (developmental) and negative (deteriorated) ways depending on the usage of the internet and related technology. The development of internet has transformed how people work, interact, and entertain themselves as well as learning process and information sharing. In the learning process, students are taken through traditional and hybrid classes characterized by physical contacts between the student and teachers. This traditional form of education is fast replaced by online or distance education where students and instructors conduct learning process through internet. According to Kobra Lashgari (2011), online learning involves use of internet technology where students and instructors are geographically separated connected by advanced technology in interaction. There are various reasons why majority of students currently prefer online classes rather than traditional classes (Joshua 11).
First, online classes give and allow students to have a great deal of flexibility in their process of integrating their education into their normal daily life. This flexibility associated with online classes allows students to exercise greater control and manageable balance between their work and school. According to Kobra Lashgari (2011, p. 19), With online education students have the possibilities to adjust schedules to their life, rather than adjust their life to predetermined schedules. Secondly, the flexibility associated with online classes allows parents to exercise greater control of their children. This need for parent control and child care over their children has also necessitated need for online classes. Thirdly, students prefer online classes due to ease and availability of learning materials, journals which are scarce and limited in traditional classes. Internet provides endless and unlimited amount of information that teachers and students can identify and relate with (Campus Technology 1).
Online classes are also preferred since students are able to have their own program and manage their pace at home. The traditional classes involved numerous materials and books for reference which are replaced by online journals and reference materials hence preference for online classes among students. Students are preferring online classes since the concern for lateness, being in classroom, travel from classroom to another and frequent meeting with instructors are factors taken care of by online classes. One factor shortcoming that has been identified with traditional classes is the overwhelming ratio of teacher to student. However, with online classes, teacher ratio problem is solved and students get personalized attention from teachers hence an incentive for students to pursue education through online classes.
For the parents who are in school, online classes are better since they prefer family ties and bond as opposed to absent parent while attending traditional classes. Personal discussion with instructors is possible in online classes since it only requires computer, internet and probably a mobile phone hence making work easier (Joshua 14).
Many people who choose to attend online classes as opposed to traditional classes believe that it is more convenient and offers favorable learning environment. In addition, online classes offers students with the same or even better quality education as traditional classes at affordable cost and less travel time. Lastly, online classes are preferred since it provides various attractive learning styles and other array of learning practices and activities which are unavailable in traditional classes like Elearning-Companion. Another reason why students are going for online classes is the provision available with online classes where students can chose materials which are student-centered and meets their level of skills and knowledge (Campus Technology 1).
Effects of online classes have been both positive and negative as earlier stated with tremendous changes witnessed in this front. The effects of enrolling in online classes are far much beneficial especially to those who have to travel for long distances to take on their classes. They are reduced travel cost as well as time saving. Those who drives to class are expunged the need to spend many resources on gas by enrolling in online classes hence they no longer miss classes due to cost implications. This has enabled many people to access higher education at all levels as opposed to when traditional classes are the only form of education. Online classes have witnessed people with physical disabilities and those with limited mobility to access the same quality of education with normal’ people. Therefore, online classes have brought equality in the education sector as opposed to traditional classes. Online classes have also caused revolution in education sector where liberalization has witnessed tremendous growth in education policies. Online classes have also witnessed growth in enrolment of students since access to education programs accessible (Joshua 17).
When online classes are operational, the blame game witnessed in traditional classes is minimal where instructors blame classroom settings and environment in poor performance. This ensures that all stakeholders are accountable to their work and plays their roles effectively and efficiently. In conclusion, traditional classes have been replaced by online classes majorly due to advancement in technology. Education sector has also witnessed tremendous growth and liberalization where many students can now access education regardless of geographical configuration.
Campus Technology. Report: Students Taking Online Courses Jumps 96 Percent over 5 Years, Retrieved on 27th November, 2013 from: http://campustechnology.com/articles/2013/06/24/report-students-taking-online-courses-jumps-96-percent-over-5-years.aspx
Joshua, Bolkan. Causes and Effects of Online Classes as opposed to Traditional Classes, New York, Roultledge Publishers. 2012. Print.