Classical humanism is one of the ways of life that revolves around the interests of the people. It facilitates stressing of the human worth through building up the aspect of self-realization. Humanism development was first witnessed in Rome and Greece as a result of the philosophy and literary works of 1400 to 1650. Classical humanism had a relative impact especially in the Renaissance period. Classical humanism happening during the fourteenth century involved classical humanists working on the recovery, editing, copying, and studying the ancient Latin and Greek manuscripts. A relative illustration of the classical humanism has a reflection on the Athens Acropolis. This is one of the most celebrated trademark monument of Greece and Athens. The monument still stands with significance and conceitedly as an old aura of the city.
The Parthenon as a temple on the Athenian Acropolis construction was dedicated to Athena, the maiden goddess whom the people in Athens considered a patron deity. The construction of the monument began during the 447BC when the Empire was powerful and was later completed during 438BC. The structure is termed as classical humanism since its construction happened during the period. The Acropolis and the Parthenon forms the ultimate achievement of Athens’s classical architecture as a symbol of prominence. The Parthenon has the Doric order with seventeen columns at its flanks, eight columns at the facade conforming to the ration of 9:4 as established. The ration is responsible for governing the horizontal and vertical proportions of the monument and its relationships including the spacing between the columns and their relative height.
One of the most significant facts about the perfect achievement is that the columns have a zigzag make giving the impression of straight foundations. The combination of Ionic frieze and Doric metopes on the walls has a unique aspect as ancient masterpieces. The decorative sculptures are part of the Greek art high points and an enduring symbol of the Athenian democracy, Ancient Greece and one of the global significant cultural monuments. The structure stands on a stylobate platform surrounded by peripteral columns. The colonnades surround the inner masonry configuration with the end of the structure gable finished with a pediment triangularly filled with sculpture. The decorative stonework of the monument was originally extremely colored. The Parthenon’s frize richness and the metope decoration agree with the relative function of the structure treasury.
The Parthenon was under extensive damage during the 1687 considered one of the greatest catastrophes to have befallen it during its long history. Venetians expedition through the leadership of Francesco Morosini had the order to attack Athens with the sole purpose of capturing Acropolis. With gunpowder magazine stored in the Parthenon, a Venetian mortar round firing from Philopappus hills blew up the magazine, which destroyed the structure partly. The central portion of the building was demolished causing the cella walls crumble into the rubble.
An intensive reconstruction effort begun in 1975 with the purpose of restoring the Parthenon and a committee was established in 1983 after some delay. The project fascinated late mechanical assistance and financial support from the EU. This also saw the documentation of the artifacts remaining in the monument site through an archeological committee. This involved assistance from computer models for the determination of the artifacts original locations. Some of the fragile but significant sculptures were also relocated to Acropolis Museum. Some cases cited that the prior re-construction was incorrect. The restoration of the Parthenon cannot match the pre-1687 state. The continued mitigation of the explosion damage will be in the interest of structural integrity restoration especially of the edifice and the aesthetic integrity. This is through filling in the lintels and column drums chipped sections using sculpted marbles, which are cemented, in the place.
Oedipus Tyrannus: Tragedy of Self Identity
According to Aristotle, ‘Tragedy is both an imitation of life in general and an imitation of an action’. Definitely, self-recognition and self-knowledge are significant tools for the comprehension of individual behaviour and more so, life in general. Wealth and kingship is not a measure for raised human dignity beyond the common person. It is important to show respect and value for human dignity despite one’s material wealth or formal status in the society. This is what is expressed in Konzett Melanie’s “Out of tragedy comes self-knowledge.” Notwithstanding his wealth and kingship, King Oedipus is made to suffer at the end, for reasons that may be traced in his personal character. King Oedipus ends up losing all his wealth and power. For this reason, Oedipus is considered a tragedy of self-identity due to his personality traits of short temperedness, arrogant pride, and heartfelt desire to know the truth.
Oedipus was short tempered. Minor things due to his temperamental nature angered him easily. For instance, he was adamant to hear what Tiresias said after begging him to narrate all that was in his mind and what he knew. “Am I to listen to such things from him! May you be damned! Get out of here at once! Turn around and go!” (Sophocles, 434-436). In fact, he became angered when Tiresias expounded on the evil that Oedipus had been living with. This shows his nature of being short tempered.
Oedipus was arrogant and prideful person who always wanted to remain a hero and make sure that he revenged the death of Laius. In addition, he had pride as a saviour of the people and always wanted to be perceived as the only hero. He desperately wanted to avenge the death of Laius, though due to his pride, he wanted to search for the person who committed that crime and punish him. According to (Sophocles, 270-271), Oedipus says, “I’ll fight for him, I’ll leave no means untried, to catch the one who did it with his hands.” Indeed, he had sworn not to let down the people of Thebes. He really wanted to show that that, once again, he could be a hero. The latter depicts his characteristic nature of arrogance and pride.
Oedipus struggled a lot pursuing the truth in a bid to know what had happened to his life and birth. He was looking for truth and wanted to have all the evidence and facts so that he could convict the person who murdered Laius. “Ah! All of it was destined to be true!” (Sophocles, 1187). After knowing the actual truth, he was much struck and came to realization that everything was not as he had thought. Instead, everything was falling apart. This shows his compulsive desire to know the truth.
Ultimately, the character flaws of Oedipus directed him to his downfall. Oedipus was short tempered. Moreover, he had arrogant pride. Finally, he had a heartfelt desire to know the truth. Therefore, his short temperedness, arrogant pride, and heartfelt desire to know the truth led him to a downfall. According to Aristotle, “Tragedy is both an imitation of life in general and an imitation of an action.” After searching for justice, he ended up getting the truth, which he could not conceive. The truth directed him to a corner and fixed him rightly. There was no shortcut for him to run away from his deeds.
Humanistic Theories by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rodgers
Humanistic personality theories came as complete and comprehensive analogy to the behavioral explanation of personality, unlike the psychodynamic psychologist who failed in giving concrete and comprehensive attribute to the humanist personality. Notable figures behind this newly framed humanistic approach include Abraham Maslow and Carl Rodgers. Previously, key theories that explained humanism had ignored the inherent qualities that distinguished humans among animals, an issue that was corrected by the two theorists under their theoretical framework of humanism. Key issues that were never captured under the previous theories includes, self-actualization concept in humans and self-determination principles, which gave distinguishable approach to both humans and animals. These two concepts became key pillars that were relied upon by both Maslow and Carl in making their theoretical justifications. Eventual inception of the theory of humanism begun in the late 1950’s, with these two figures predominantly featuring as theoretical icons. However, certain intricate and point of divergence were realized in the two theories developed by these two scholars, and this forms point of comparison towards the inception of the two theories. However, the two scholars shared many points of convergence, which considerably termed them key figures of the humanistic theories. Clear cut distinction was postulated that made two theoretical perspectives by the humanistic theories and humanistic psychologist. For instance, humanistic psychologist made key contributions and views on human beings, and categorically viewed people’s lives just in the same manner that various people would see their lives (Pastorino, & Doyle-Portillo, 2006, p.639). In addition, humanistic psychologist had an optimistic view and ideals on humanity; basically, their focus on humanity was based on their ostensible ability in thinking more critically and rationally, has good control of their biologically induced perceptions and urges, and the ability of human beings to have complete achievement of their own potentials. On the other hand, Humanistic views were divergent and differed on the account of their perspective on human race, where they attributed people as responsible for their lives and corresponding actions, and have ostensible capability ad knowledge to change the course of their destiny, based on behaviors and attitudes. Before handling humanistic theory into details, we first focus on individual’s contributions to the overall theoretical knowledge and framework.
Abraham Maslow’s Theoretical Framework
Abraham Maslow made remarkable attributes to human inner capability and his ability to make things possible based on the self-actualization principle. This concept became Abraham’s ladder to a determination of human motives. According to Maslow, human being has demands and dire needs that are generated through the principle of self-actualization. Regarding this terminology, human beings tend to certify their self-actualization needs once they have satisfied their basic needs. Self-fulfillment comes after all basic needs have been satisfied; this is the anchor under which Maslow made his arguments. In addition, Maslow specifies that before self-actualization concept sets in people’s minds, they have to prioritize their needs in a hierarchical fashion. Other than the self-actualization concept, Maslow gave an account of a different perspective on human health which differs with psychodynamic theories. The psychodynamic theorist lacked an account of making descriptive attributes to human health, as they based their arguments on clinical case studies (Carducci, 2006, p. 115). Maslow’s account of study was entirely based exceptional figures of his time, which he regarded to have professed healthy status. The list of Maslow’s mental health mentors include, Eleanor Roosevelt, Abraham Lincoln, among other lieutenants that he considered of god mental health.
Maslow made clear illustration on the self-actualization concept based on personalities who professed this nature. According Maslow, people who had this trait possessed the characteristic of self-awareness and acceptance. Self-awareness and acceptance became a key pillar in which Maslow made his arguments right. This trait qualified people to be self-actualized when they become aware and accept themselves. Self-awareness and acceptance begins by making an appreciation of one’s self, irrespective of self-social status (Pastorino, & Doyle-Portillo, 2006, p.641). Maslow made a remarkable contribution into this terminology and categorically stated that, people who accept themselves have an upper edge in making life time achievements. Life-skill achievements and contributions were based on the attitude that humanity had in themselves, and their respective potentials in making their own life prospects. Therefore, the principle of self-actualization relied heavily on the adoption of self-awareness and acceptance concept. In addition, this principle became very objective in fulfilling life’s demands. Awareness, as postulated by Maslow was central in identifying opportunities in life.
Other than the trait above, Abraham categorized those possessing self-actualization principles to have a characteristic of openness and spontaneity. According to Maslow, openness and spontaneity is essential in making positive interactions with people from different social and political orientations. This principle is equally important in determining one’s ability in making right his options life, based on the parallel efforts made by others. Error and irresponsibility would remain under control through positive interaction among people, who share all aspects of life together. In addition, self-actualization and proper understanding became possible among people who openly share their fortunes and misfortunes together.
Maslow then illustrated that self-actualization concept entail an ability to enjoy work and see work as key mission to be fulfilled. Treating work positively, and making it a key mission in life helps in realizing one’s actual state. According to Maslow, work is a reward from God and must be positively perceived by all and sundry. Objection to work leads to extreme sufferance and failure to meet all consideration of basic needs. In an equal fashion, failure to recognize work as part and parcel of life would inflict undue frustrations on someone’s life. Therefore, Maslow made it clear that work must be positively perceived and its fulfillments should be everyone’s passion and aspiration. In the contemporary society, work is considered a central pillar of livelihood; this concept is equally supported in the bible, where God commissioned everyone to work. So, work is a fulfillment of God’s mission in helping humanity attains self-actualization state (Pastorino, & Doyle-Portillo, 2006, p.645). According to Maslow, work should be enjoyed and positively perceived as a blessing and commission by God. People who enjoy work tend to have a smooth ride and generally good health. Therefore, enjoyment of work and its fulfillment as mission from God, help humanity in attaining a self-realization and actualization status. This is a key postulate of Maslow in making justification to work and his key principle of self-actualization.
Another trait that Maslow closely associated with people who have attained self-actualization state includes ostensible ability of developing friendship without absolute dependence on them. A good man makes friendship so readily and uses such opportunity to grow and make his life as civil as possible. Friendships are ideal in times of necessity and happiness. In addition, Maslow commented that, friends have key responsibility in person’s life, and people must tend to retain and make many friendships. However, overlying on friends for assistance is never ethical and leads to adverse relationship amongst people. Self-actualization is achieved when friends interact in a mutually beneficial manner, where people have restraint and limit to other friendship. Ability to make friendship is deterministic to one’s nature of acquiring self-actualization state. On the other hand, being overly dependent on people generate animosity and hatred, since one becomes burdensome to his colleague. This is a restraint measure that would control people against making friendship that would later end in frustrations and disgusts.
Other characteristic that Maslow links self-actualization concept, involves the character of good sense of humor on people. Humor and laughter go handy, and this is the point of view that Maslow makes a relationship. Maslow makes a connective experience between laughter and humanity in the fashion that they operate. Actually, humor is a critical trait that every person must exhibit. Humor generates excitements, and consequently creates good time among people; this scenario has an effect of prolonging one’s life and living standards. Therefore, this concept must be inherent in person professing a self-actualization state. Finally, Maslow makes his last associative character trait on people and their efforts towards the acquisition of self-actualization state. The ostensible tendency in affording peak experience is based on spiritual or emotional life, in greater magnitude help a person towards an acquisition of self-actualization concept. Spiritual life is generally essential in motivating one’s psychological orientation in in realizing him or herself. Having God’s spirit is desirable for every human race. Character justifications above centers Maslow’s approach to self-actualization principal as key concept of humanistic theory.
Carl Rogers and his Humanistic Personality Approach
Carl Rogers being a humanist psychologist agreed with major assumptions that had earlier been postulated by Maslow Abraham. In his special humanistic theory, Rogers added more descriptions to Abraham’s theoretical framework and categorically stated that personal growth based on self-actualization requires an environment that provides them with elements of self-disclosure and openness, which he framed under the general terminology of genuineness. In addition, Rogers stipulated that acceptance and empathy as crucial elements provident under the growth environment. According to Rogers, acceptance and empathy operated in scenarios where individuals would see with unconditional positive regard and being listened to, and understood, respectively (Carducci, 2006, p. 123). The four elements highlighted above are regarded as crucial environmental conditions that aids in personality growth and development, this is the general outline of Rogers’s theoretical perspective to humanist psychology. Rogers just like Maslow, made contributions to the self-actualization principle, though made his justification based on the environmental conditions that supported such growth terms. Principally, Rogers laid his self-actualization theory on the beliefs that every person has the experience and capability of achieving their corresponding goals, wishes, and desires in life. According to Rogers, certification of one’s life desires requires articulate measures of satisfying self-actualization goals. Maslow’s theory was entirely based on self-actualization concepts and its connective characteristics, while on the contrary, Rogers’s theory to humanistic concept was based on self-actualization concept, alongside other key pillars as discussed below.
Rogers defined this theory as an ostensible tendency of human beings to strive and make actualization, maintenance and enhancement of the experience. This is the bottom-line of Rogers’s arguments regarding self-actualization principle. In his psychological postulation to this concept, Rogers makes an outright rejection to the deterministic nature that was earlier propagated by the psychoanalysis and personals behind behaviorism theory. According to his claim, Rogers mentioned that human behavioral is determined by perceived situation that originates from the environment. In a similar fashion to Maslow, theoretical framework, Rogers attributed one central thing behind self-actualization, which is the oriented self-actualization motivated tendency in humanity. Human beings have a self-generated motive and prospects of becoming a full human being due to the desire to attain an apical point in life. In addition, Rogers discovered one central theme in humanism, which is the value of creativity and goodness (Carducci, 2006, p.128). This, according to Rogers is a universal trait in everyone, and people have this inherently in them. However, the good and creative virtues inherent in people tend to get ruined only if, self-external constraints or poor self- concept override the very virtuous principles in humanity. This concept led to the next terminology applied by Rogers, which is commonly known as congruence and incongruence principles. According to Rodgers, self-actualization concept only becomes ideal when personal ideals become congruent with the self-image or actual behaviors. In situation where converse situation overrides, then the good principle, or ideal self is ruined and the incongruence state sets in. A fully functioning person is a self-actualized person; this is the model framework of Rogers’s arguments regarding self-ideal and self-image in line with the operational congruence framework. In his illustrations, Rogers mentioned the need for people to profess ideal image in reflection of the principles under self-actualization. This is a good enough justification made by Rogers in expanding the concept of self-actualization that earlier began with Maslow. However, notable points of contradiction became evident based on the approaches adopted by these humanist in making right their theories. While Maslow concentrated on the character, Rogers makes a simple model on congruence pillars of theoretical matching.
The Fully Functioning Person’s concept by Rogers
Rogers looked beyond self-actualization concept that had been earlier postulated by Maslow. In his consideration, Rogers saw the need for operational platforms beyond self-actualization, and extended to capture the need for fully functioning person’s concept. Principally, self-actualization is achieved when a person achieves his or her full functioning stage. Self-actualization and the fully functioning model was an ideal concept that Rogers dwelt, while highlighting his theoretical ideals and models. According to Roger’s beliefs, the two principles could incidentally lead to the other, and this concept would only be determined by the subjective frameworks and experience attainable on particular individuals (Rogers, 1951, p.65). In wider outlook to the two principles, Rogers commented that achievement of self-actualization status could not incidentally generate full functioning person as used in determining humanist theory. In order to make his unique justification to the concept of fully functioning person, Rogers identified key characters of person’s attainable to this moral ideal. A fully Functioning person, must be open to experience various ideas within and outside his scope or geographical periphery. Unlike Maslow’s theoretical justification on self-actualization concepts, Rogers identified the need to adopt both positive and negative emotions as they jointly contribute to the overall progress of the personal traits in a person. Negative emotions, are accepted but thoroughly worked through in order to eliminate side effects associated to them. Fully functioning persons must equally portray the trait of living an Existential living, where they get in touch with every aspects of physical or emotionally generated experience, based on their occurrence. In addition, such people learn to adopt non-prejudging and perceptive attitudes. With such traits, Rogers justifies that Fully Functioning persons live their full lives and appreciate the present scenarios that nature brings in their lives and refrain from looking back but focus forward to their future.
Other than the two traits presented above, Rogers in a more clear fashion to make justifications to the fully functioning person model states that, such persons must have the full potential and ability of trusting their feelings. Trusting ones’ feelings steer people to the desired and ideal directions. According to this trait, full functioning persons must learn and trust themselves in making certain decisions, and appreciate their decisions as the best. Having full trust and confidence in oneself gives credible outlook into achieving full functioning person (Rogers, 1951, p.67). Behind trusting one’s feelings, a full functioning person must be creative and makes good thoughts out of his own personal creativity. Being creative requires one to be a cautious risk-taker. Adjustment to new changes and experience entails wider scheme of making more progress into becoming a fully functioning person. Finally, a fully functioning person must be capable of exhibiting a fulfilled lifestyle. Based on Roger’s principle on the self-actualization concept through fully functioning person framework, people captured in this model are well adjusted, fully balanced and very rare, but interesting to encounter. In addition, fully functioning persons are considered as great achievers in the contemporary society.
Personality Development theory by Rogers
This theory is considered the central theory perpetuated by Rogers. This theory, commonly known as notion of self-concept was defined as sets of organization, which are consistent of perceptions and belief about a particular person. This is a central idea that was developed to give more meaning to the humanistic term in relation to ones’ self. According to Rogers, the self-concept is influenced by major experiences that a person undergoes in his or her life. In his additional remarks, Rogers mentions two concepts to be behind self-concepts, which generally includes childhood experience and evaluation from other people within the surrounding (Rogers, 1959, p. 87). The climax of personality development theory by Rogers attributes to the connections between experience and behaviors, and their consistence with the personal self-image, something that reflect ideal issues in life. One general trend that relates to self-image, ideal-self and congruence is attained based on their mutual relationship. For instance, the closer the self-image and ideal-image are to one another, the more congruency or consistency is achieved by both terms. This is the conceptual framework that Rogers applied in justifying self-concept theoretical model. The general model of self-concept as postulated by Rogers, generally entail the following concepts, Self-worth, which basically entails what people think about themselves. In his illustrations, Rogers made connective platforms between childhood experience between a father and mother to a child. In addition, Rogers attributed self-image as a second component to the general mode of self-concept. This concept involves valuing personal image and one’s self standing. Other key components that are captured under the framework of personal development include ideal self and its key regards. In his clinical and physical health attributes, Rogers attributed the concept of self-worth to the overall model of positive regard, and categorically commented that people’s feelings of self-worth have an ostensibly high regard in one’s physical health. Additional concepts captured under the model of self-concept include; both unconditional and conditional positive regards.
Carducci, B. J. (2006). The psychology of personality. Oxford: Blackwell.
Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2006). What is psychology?. Australia: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
Rogers, C. (1951). Client-centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications and Theory. London: Constable.
Rogers, C. (1959). A Theory of Therapy, Personality and Interpersonal Relationships as Developed in the Client-centered Framework. In (ed.) S. Koch, Psychology: A Study of a Science. Vol. 3: Formulations of the Person and the Social Context. New York: McGraw Hill.
Overcoming the Challenges of Emerging Adulthood
The ages between 18 and 25 have in times past been known as young adulthood. But there have been claims that the term indicates that adulthood has already been attained, yet even for the individuals in this stage of human development that was not the case. It is a transition period, if you may, where adolescence is coming to an end as the individual tends towards full adulthood. This essay looks at the story of one woman who managed to overcome the challenges facing her during this period of development and the success she has continued to enjoy. It becomes clear that even as there are distinct developmental stages, they are not entirely independent. They are interlinked in such a way that the previous stage influences the present one as much as the next one does. As one matures into one stage, the effects of the past ones are felt even as there is anticipation for the next stage of development.
Keywords: adulthood, adolescence, emerging adulthood, development stage
Overcoming the Challenges of Emerging Adulthood
A few decades ago, people in the age bracket of 18 to 25 years had a different kind of lifestyle than they do in the present times. They were practically adults with spouses, jobs and families to take care of. No wonder the term young adult seemed to fit them so perfectly. They were performing adult duties at this seemingly tender age. In current times the term emerging adulthood seems to be a better alternative as the demands on the individuals in this age bracket is to get a college education and establish a career before settling down in marriage later on (Arnett, 2004).
Pearl Arredondo gives a TED talk (2013) on how she grew up and the challenges she faced right from childhood, as an adolescent and an emerging adult. She was aware of her limitations but she defied them to excel. She was removed from the environment that would have dictated that she follows in the footsteps of her father as a gang member and drug addict. This would have been characteristic of this stage known as emerging adulthood where with the delay in getting married to late twenties and thirties, the individual is free to experiment with life, taking risks and searching for an identity (Berger, 2010).
Her own experiences and what she saw with other children in school inspired her to become a teacher and help other adolescents and emerging adults from becoming victims of their circumstances. The instability that is so rife during the period of emerging adulthood (Arnett, 2004) can only be countered by focus and sheer determination. Arredondo possesses both of this in good measure and armed with a college education she became a ground breaker in the education system (TED.com, 2013).
It is safe to say that the period between adolescence and adulthood is very fragile and especially to special needs children. Arredondo was able to recognize this having been one of such children herself, growing up. She set up an experimental educational curriculum to help such children cope and rise above their circumstances and limitations. She takes into consideration the digital age that these children relate to so well and uses this to raise emerging adults that excel beyond their limitations (TED.com, 2013).
One notable thing in Arredondo’s success story is the fact that no one expected this level of success from one with such a background. It is also clear that the experiences from her childhood might have played a very huge role in spurring her to success, whether she was conscious of it or not at the time.
Arnett, J. J. (2004). Emerging Adulthood: The Winding Road from the Late Teens through the Twenties. New York: Oxford University Press.
Berger, K. S. (2010). Invitation to the Life Span. New York: Worth Publishers