HEALTH SCIENCE CAREER RADIOGRAPHY
Studies show that, the discovery of X-rays led to the start of radiography in mid 1890s by Wilhelm Rontgen. He described their rigorous properties and later followed the description of this rays being the type of electromagnetic radiations. The first medical use of the rays was one year after their discovery where they aided in surgery in Birmingham.
There are various roles of a radiographer, these include; diagnostic radiographers are health professionals who have the responsibility for the production of medical images for all medical activities that need the images for treatment procedures and decision making regarding the health of an individual. They are an important arm of health p[profession and are there to select and implement appropriate examination protocols that tend to answer all clinical questions.
A radiographer as a profession has specific important roles that he carries out day to day. These roles include; perform imaging as requested for by referencing doctors and other specialists. The imaging may occur while the patient undergoes surgery procedures (Fleitz and Campeau, 2009). The radiographer may also receive and interpret requests from other medical specialists for imaging examinations that will be performed on patients.
The radiographer determines the necessary and appropriate imaging techniques that provide diagnostic information for the doctors. He has to give the calculations of the details that include length and intensity of the exposure to the radiation. The radiographer has to explain all the procedures to patients in readiness for exercise; he also addresses the concerns of patients about the radiation. The radiographer makes sure that the patients are well prepared concerning the procedures for the radiation. The radiographer does the work of positioning the patient and the imaging equipment for the production of the most appropriate images of the area of examination.
The radiology tech salary depends on a variety of factors that include the geographic location, the facility that one works in, the experience, and the level of skills. Studies show that, X-ray technicians, ultrasound technicians, radiologic technicians, and MRI technician’s salaries range from an average of $40,000 to around $82,000 per month. However, these salaries will differ according the experience and the level of education the technicians have. The facilities the technicians work at also affect the expected salary.
Looking at the job market in Houston Texas, the discussion reveals the following details. Houston is the home for the largest medical center around the world (Fleitz and Campeau, 2009). This is contributed by the fact that there are other stakeholders, that include; energy, software and technology, and computer companies. This fact makes it possible for the medical center to employ all the latest technologies in radiography. Studies show that, the employment opportunities for radiographers are projected to grow to 30% from the year 2011 to 2021. There are various options for employment in Houston; diagnostic medical sonographers, radio technologists, nuclear medicine technologists, and radiation therapists.
The options are categorically, the advanced opportunities for radiographers in Houston. All this jobs offer competitive average wages of around $56000 to $170000. Diagnostic radiologists require more training and as such, they are supposed to graduate from accredited medical school and also has a license exam and become an intern for at least one year then thereafter complete a four year residency in radiology as a mandatory requirement. Afterwards the radiologist may decide the area of specialization, for instance, cardiovascular radiology, breast imaging, and neuroradiology. Continuing education units requirements for-relicensure are as follows, graduates must pass the state administered licensing examinations through the American registry of radiologic technologists. This requires a technologist to complete a specific amount of continuing professional education in every two years. Studies show that states boards of health recognize current certification for licensure requirements (Fleitz and Campeau, 2009).
Fleitz, J and Campeau, F. (2009). Limited Radiography. Washington, DC: Cengage Learning.
HEALTH SCIENCE CAREER RADIOGRAPHY 5
Running head: HEALTH SCIENCE CAREER RADIOGRAPHY
Should Government Promote Dental Information to Community
The amazing changes in oral health over the past half century reflect the solid science base for counteractive action of oral infections that has been created and connected in the community, in clinical practice, and in the home. The dental calling has as far back as anyone can remember championed illness anticipation and health advancement methodologies to oral health. The introductory perceptions in the 1930s that individuals living in groups served by characteristically fluoridated water had more level dental caries propelled the trailblazing clinical avoidance investigations of the 1940s and 1950s.
Oral health awareness services given by dental hygienists in the neighborhood environment can help improve dental health problem for families, the matured and uncommon requirements patients (IFDH, 2013). Notwithstanding giving a noteworthy wellspring of training, medicine procurement and the progressing backing of health messages, community health projects can reflect the objectives of government and other human services advocates. The government plays a very significant role in improving the oral health of its citizens.
The staggering accomplishment of the studies expedited a pervasive appropriation of community water fluoridation as a high-profit, minimal effort preventive system that profited old and adolescent, rich and poor much the same. It additionally gave force for health specialists, scientists, industry, and open health executives to think about different sorts of group wide, supplier based, and distinct systems pointed at enhancing oral and general health. Most regular oral illnesses could be avoided through a mix of group, proficient, and distinctive methods.
The methods that the government need to utilize incorporate illness anticipation and health advancement mediations controlled around people in general, professionals, and policymakers to make a nature’s domain, decrease danger variables, brief target amasses, and enhance learning and practices. They were chosen on the foundation of the importance of the health issue they were intended to anticipate, if regarding commonness, occurrence, intensity, cost, or effect on personal satisfaction. The community can improve their oral health when are aware of the measures being undertaken by the government. The government should communicate the measures and ask the community to implement them in order to avoid dental diseases caused fluoridated water.
Given the cluster of variables influencing dental development and advancement, the way to open health projects pointed at avoiding life commencement imperfections lies fundamentally in health advancement and training crusades. People should be made mindful of known danger and defensive elements in dental diseases. Such projects might as well underline the significance of great nourishment, evasion of tobacco and liquor utilization, and dental concern. As data from developmental science, heredity, and epidemiologic and clinical studies gathers, dental consideration suppliers are better positioned to give directing. People in general are best served by health advancement and sickness aversion fights that convey discoveries about danger and defensive elements in pregnancy. Absence of information can influence health of the individuals in the society.
In the event that people are not acquainted with the significance and forethought of their youngster’s essential teeth or when they have no idea that dental sealants exist, they are unrealistic to make fitting move or look for expert administrations. It is the role of health care organization being directed by the government to ensure that the community is aware of the existence of dental ailments.
In the event that general society is not cognizant of the profits of community water fluoridation, open referenda and subsidizing for such intercessions are not liable to be backed. In addition, if people have no idea that an oral tumor examination exists, they may not approach about the necessity for one. Notwithstanding, it is generally secured that information alone will not essentially accelerate proper practices. For instance, regardless of the fact that people realize that tobacco utilization is unhealthful and that it helps numerous life-debilitating ailments, some keep on smoking. The dominant part of individuals who need such information mostthose in low-salary bunches and those with more level levels of instruction likewise are the ones who fail to offer the data and abilities (oral health ability) to request and get particular preventive administrations or medication choices. Health experts are in a perfect position to give state-of-the-art health data and consideration to their patients. They likewise have a chance to improve their information and practices and in addition build their correspondence to patients about the systems they give and the explanations behind these techniques. Most parts of the overall population, paying little mind to socioeconomic level, have a tendency to accept that the most ideal approach to forestall dental caries is by brushing their teeth (Gift et al. 1994).
An easier observed worth of fluorides by the general population in averting dental caries additionally was seen in the 1985 NHIS (Corbin et al. 1985). In an overview of information and convictions of people in general, dental specialists, and dental scientists about the most ideal approach to anticipate dental caries, people in general and the dental practitioners recognized tooth brushing, while dental analysts unanimously stacked up fluorides, as most imperative. A little study around Latina moms demonstrated that they accepted that brushing with preparing pop is an exceptional approach to avert dental caries; they knew little about brushing with a fluoride-holding dentifrice (Watson et al. 1999). Reported study on the oral hygiene practices of an accommodation example of 34,897 clients and nonusers of tobacco items who got dental mind in 75 dental practices, 74 percent reported brushing twice a day and 36 percent reported flossing once every day (Andrews 1998).
Tobacco clients brushed and flossed considerably less as often as possible than nonusers. Patients with more than a secondary school training were less inclined to utilize tobacco items and more inclined to brush no less than 2 times each day and floss day by day than were those with less instruction.
Few national investigations of open and expert learning, state of mind, and practices exist. Highlights from these, state and neighborhood ponders that assessed the aversion of dental caries, periodontal maladies, and oral malignancies are given underneath. For the most part, the general population is unable to separate between systems that avoid dental caries and those that avert periodontal illnesses (Gift et al. 1994). This perplexity has been credited to the overarching advertising message that alludes to them as “plaque ailments” preventable by exhaustive tooth cleaning with a toothbrush and floss. In addition, the overall population and medicinal services suppliers are not completely educated about the relative worth of fluoride and the fitting proposed requisitions of regimens to counteract dental caries (Gallup 1992). More work is required to enhance information and practices identified with oral tumor avoidance too. Similarly as with different territories of examination, extra study exploration is required to better comprehend discoveries to date and to improve custom-made mediations.
Andrews JA, Severson HH, Lichtenstein E, Gordon JS. 1998. Relationship between tobacco use and self-reported oral hygiene habits. J Am Dent Assoc,129:313-20.
Corbin B, Maas W, Kleinman D, Backinger CL. 1985. NHIS findings on public knowledge and attitudes about oral diseases and preventive measures. Public Health Rep ;102:53-60.
Gift HC, Corbin SB, Nowjack-Raymer RE. 1994. Public knowledge about prevention of dental disease1990 NHIS. Public Health Rep, 109:397-404.
Gallup Organization, Inc. 1992. A Gallup study of parents’ behavior, knowledge and attitudes toward fluoride. Dent Office, 9-10.
International Federation of Dental Hygienists, 2013. Community Health. Available at http://www.ifdh.org/community_health.html
O’Neil H. Opinion study comparing attitudes about dental health. J Am Dent Assoc 1984;109:910-
Watson M, Horowitz A, Garcia I, Canto T. 1999. Caries conditions among 2-5 year old immigrant Latino children related to parents’ oral health knowledge, opinions and practices. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol;27:8-15.
Should Government Promote Dental Information to Community 2
Alpine is a suburb of New York City and one of the most expensive home codes in the United States. It has an average of six hundred and eleven households and the largest portion occupied by white inhabitants. It is a region occupied by high class people whose diet comprises of snacks and junk food especially for young children.
Cultural Beliefs Relating to Food Choices
Milton’s family resides in this area and his children are faced with the same challenge of eating snacks, mostly chocolate. When dinner is prepared they all complain of lack of appetite. Another claim by the family is that vegetables and other low fats’ food are cheap; hence should be consumed by the poor people. They believe that people of their social class should consume expensive food and not food assumed to belong to the poor. In this family both parents are working. Long working hours and irregular work schedule keep the parents away from the family; hence, less time is spent on household food work. This causes to prefer snacks instead of cook to save on time. Their children are allowed to make choices on what to eat and they will definitely go for junk, which is not healthy for them. This affects their self-esteem and they lose focus on studies due to improper eating habits.
Challenges of Coming up With a Menu
Coming up with a food menu was compounded by many challenges. First, the menu was to wipe out the junk food and come up with healthy meals. This was to be done bearing in mind that healthy food, comprising of vegetables is considered to belong to the poor. So a careful combination was done that the family will not be skeptical about the meal. Changing the family attitude to adapt new eating methods was very hectic especially the children. Parents complained lack of time to prepare the meals but later on they agreed.
The major objective included introducing traditional meals in the family and reducing consumption of junk food. This was to be achieved by ensuring that the family had at least one main family meal in a day. The menu also stipulated each person’s role in preparing the meals because cooking chores were left to the mother alone. This would reduce the time wasted in preparing main meals and ensuring each person takes part in cooking the meals. Another goal was to reduce the rate of skipping meals in the family and this was achieved through the introduction of the food menu. The food menu included a well-balanced meal schedule to avoid eating the same type of food. To reduce junk consumption in school and work places, we introduced a rule whereby everybody carried packed lunch from home.
Changing each person’s attitude about the previous meals and adapt the new menu was my focus. First, we discussed health perils associated with junk food. Most of the upper class families suffer from diseases like obesity and diabetes due to poor food balance. This was a fact that required to be discussed with the family. Secondly, traditional meals are a way of portraying one’s origin. Eating real American tradition meals show that a person is a real inhabitant of the United States. It shows the culture and ethnicity of the community. To cater for the family health wise we introduced a new type of meal, which was low in fats and calories. The new meal was Creamy Potato Salad with Bacon which is low in fats and ensures that the sweet taste is retained to attract the young ones. The recipe provided is supposed to serve eight people, which mean it is supposed to be taken twice in our family. The meal is easy to prepare and is made up of high quantity of carbohydrates and less cholesterol making it nutritious and healthy. It was to be accompanied with a lot of fruits and vegetables to ensure it is a balanced meal.
3 pounds small red potatoes about 24 of them
kosher salt and black pepper
8 slices bacon
1/2 cup mayonnaise
1/4 cup sour cream
3 tablespoons white wine vinegar
4 stalks celery, thinly sliced
1/2 cup chopped fresh persely
1/4 cup chopped fresh tarragon
Place the potatoes in a large pot. Add enough cold water to cover and bring to a boil. Add 1 teaspoon salt, reduce heat, and simmer until tender, 15 to 18 minutes. Drain and run under cold water to cool. Cut into quarters.
Meanwhile, cook the bacon in a large skillet over medium heat until crisp, 6 to 8 minutes. Transfer to a paper towel-lined plate. Let cool, then break into pieces.
In a large bowl, whisk together the mayonnaise, sour cream, vinegar, ¾ teaspoon salt, and ½ teaspoon pepper. Add the potatoes and celery and toss to coat. Fold in the parsley, tarragon, and bacon before serving.
Climate Change as a Public Health Issue
Climate change: public health issues have been associated with epidemics, environmental disasters, health economy and many more. In the article “Rebranding Climate Change as a Public Health Issue”, Subramanian (2013) explains why there is a connection between current public health issues and climate change. Dangers of environmental changes have been linked to human health complications and Subramanian says that it is the high time people stopped politicizing about climate change and instead should take necessary actions (2013). The article portrays pollution and global warming as serious causes of health problems. Continuous emission of untreated gas to the environment has weakened the ozone layer, exposing human beings to illness. Pollution caused by dumping, second hand tobacco smoke and engine emission may cause infectious diseases like cancer and asthma. Subramanian believes that doctors and medical practitioners are the best tool that can be used to advocate for climate change and health (2013).
Causes and severity of climate change: climate change affects every person despite gender, social class, age difference and even geographical location. It is a global epidemic that is a menace to all human beings. Human activities have largely contributed to climate change. Environmental degradation and improvement in technology has affected climate change in different ways. Lack of proper dumping and recycling of materials has contributed to environmental degradation. This has been reflected to the severe diseases and natural epidemics in the recent years. A good example is the disease of cancer, according to Wikipedia it was discovered in the early 19th century and suspected to be caused by chemical substances. Since then, the exposure to chemicals has increased as the cases of cancer have similarly increased. Tornadoes and hurricanes are the recent epidemic cases that are caused by climate change. They are so dangerous that they lead to death of many people. Warmer average temperatures will direct to hotter days and more frequent heat waves increasing the probability of significant weather events such as storms and dangerous flooding. This weather change is caused by air and water pollutants leading to heat related diseases and deaths. Not only humans that are affected by climate changes, but also birds and other species are endangered. Species like fish and birds provide food for human beings. When they are endangered due to climate changes even human beings are also affected because they rely on their flesh for food. Lack of this food will lead to unbalanced diets hence poor health.
Intervention: according to United States Environmental Protection Agency, the impacts of climate change on wellbeing will depend on the efficiency of a community’s public health and safety systems to tackle the peril and the behavior change of persons affected. The whole community is affected hence every individual is involved in ensuring there are no activities which lead to climate change. The government also has a major role in ensuring this public health issue is tackled. Creating public awareness should be their number one priority in reducing climate change. To exploit this potential, the government launched a climate and health campaign in 2009 on regional climate change problems and the public health issues they entail (Subramanian, 2013). Another step that the government has indulged in is involving scientist and researchers to compile reports on what can be done to remedy the situation. The studies have come up with various ways like; reducing greenhouse gas emissions, planting trees to reverse global warming, powering down electronics, etc. Globally, there are steps that have been taken to reduce climate change like the Kyoto protocol which binds global treaty for the reduction of greenhouse gas emission.
Recommendations: preventing global warming and climate change is each individual mandate. It should start with a single person then to the whole community. However, the following steps can be taken to curb climate change as a public health issue. Since global warming is caused by emission of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere it can be reduced. Using gadgets that have less energy consumption will help boost energy efficiency. This will benefit families both economic and Health wise. Also, transforming the transportation sector into green transportation will reduce poisonous gas emission. This can be achieved through reviving renewable energy sources like solar and wind power. Managing forests and developing agriculture to reduce consumption of chemical food will reduce climate change related diseases. Planting trees and ensuring that food is naturally grown without using chemicals to fasten growth will help reduce diseases like cancer. The government should also adopt conservative measures on companies that pollute the environment. They should be taxed heavily and given stern warnings against pollution. Risk assessment and evaluation is another recommendation. Assessing ecological risks and identifying solutions to those risks is a good way of avoiding destruction caused by climate change related epidemics. Natural calamities which cannot be avoided should be studied and known when they occur so that people should take relevant measures and avoid diseases or death.
Subramanian, C. (2013). Rebranding climate change as a public health issue. Time health and family. Retrieved from: http://healthland.time.com/2013/08/08/rebranding-climate-change-as-a-public-health-issue/