Our Hiking-Trip Reflection
Living within urban settings does not provide me with pretty opportunities to be involved in outdoor activities, unless my family books a tourism trip. During such trips with parents, it is expected that most of the issues involved in such a trip shall be taken care of by the parents.
Last week we undertook a hike, whose events are quite memorable and still very fresh within my mind. Among the most outstanding features of the trip we undertook was the teamwork, which was portrayed by the participants: From my personal perception, the entire tour was well-organized, and thus the credit of success.
The hike’s location was known as Cypress Mountain. As a matter of fact, I had no previous knowledge as to where the location was or what the camping-site was all about, owing to the fact that I was new in the city. The first impression that I got about my classmates is that they are well organized and in an eventuality, they are well prepared to work together so as to respond to the issue accordingly.
We split into different groups on own initiative. The blueprint on the activities of the hike had clear directives as to what each person was expected to do during the trip. All worked-out smoothly even as time run out since all the group members keenly observed their roles.
Even though I thought I was the only person who was making the trip to Cypress Mountain for the first time, it so happened that most of my classmates had never been there previously, thus they were also for their virgin Cypress exploration. During the walk to the mountain, we lost the way severally, but finally we made it to our destiny. Our leaders played their roles effectively, for example, they herald even as we followed, and thus ensuring that we were not only secure but also using the appropriate paths.
When there were threatening situations, those entrusted with security issues took the forefront in attempt to defend the rest of the team. For example, when we came to a point where there was a steep slope, boys took the initiative of marching ahead to evaluate the scene and determine whether it was secure to use that root. When we went through a trail which is a very easy trap over, people had to hold each others’ hand for eased balancing. Division of labor played an appropriate role of reducing the risk factors.
Co-cars are not old within the market place: Thus, I had never given it a trial previously. In an endeavor to try novel ideas and explore new areas that I had not previously been into, my classmates were quite resourceful; they were of great assistance, thus easing the entire exploration. I am yet to acquire a driving license and utilization of public means of transport would have been relatively time-consuming. In my struggle on how to make to the mountain, somebody, whom previously I knew by facial appearance only volunteered to drive me. During the ride, we got to know each other at personal level, and shared a number of issues in relation to planning activities, information that I deem quite useful. Even though we are all full time students, seldom do we spend time within campus after classes, thus leaving us with very little time of interaction, which consequently engineers lack of closeness and tight friendship. Thus, co-car drive gave students an opportunity not only to make new friends but also to get to know each other more intensely.
Give and Take
Even though the students who took part in the trip were all youthful, they had varying health conditions. Some of these students have regular excises, while some others are quiet dormant thus triggering the need to involve a give and take approach in the trip, and therefore compelling the spirit of teamwork. During the trip, those who were physically fit could march some distance ahead, but would have regular stopovers, awaiting those who drug behind.
Upon the tenth minute during the walk, several people requested the leaders for a water-break, despite the fact that some other people were not even in need of the break and were quite shocked, though did not complain. The very understanding that all are not equal and each person has their strengths and weaknesses compelled an understanding upon all. Individuals who are not as strong in hiking have areas that they are best suited, thus employment of teamwork is imperative. Based on the fact that humans are social animals, there is a need to endeavor to understand the differences we have with other people and learn how to live with them harmoniously irrespective of the differences
Our hike to Cypress Mountain was very exciting and informing: More so as far as the importance of teamwork is concerned. Right from the onset of the semester, we decided on the venue, the appropriate dates and the logistics of the hiking trip. Each and every member of our class took an active role of planning and making the trip a success. The trip can be deemed as quite productive, as besides exploration of new places we had never been before, we were able to have personal interactions with classmates and to get to know each other even the more. From this trip, I was able to make some new friends, including my group leader. Even after finishing activities we were entrusted with as a group, we still interact with each other in out life outside campus, all credit to the hiking trip and the teamwork in groups. The trip left some precious memories and remarkable lessons about life in university: We can still achieve academically while still having fun.
A statute of fraud is a legal principle that requires some specific contracts be in writing and be signed by all parties to be bound by the contract. Usually, to fulfill the requirements of the contract the writing must recognize the contracting parties, list the subject matter of the agreement, and portray the fundamental terms and conditions of the parties’ agreement. The rationale of this statute is to preclude harm from a deceitful behavior. All together, the vilifications of these statutes were intended protect the genuine; hence, a strong argument persists to keep them in place. It is also sound civic rule to expect parties to specific significant dealings reduce their agreements to writing.
Reasons for the statute of frauds
Two reasons are usually given for the application of these statutes. The decree plays a consultative responsibility. The thought here is that requiring the parties to write down their dealings makes them take the agreement more seriously and makes them approach the entire issue less hurriedly (Rutledge 75-89). It causes the people involved to be extra cautious about the agreement. This creates two problems of whether the statute has a cautionary effect and why the statute does not apply to many other categories. The last role is to provide proof. This is the thought that this law is said to stop deception. This is because, without a written agreement, one can go to the court and lie that he/she is in a contract or about the terms of the contract.
Exceptions to the Statute of Frauds
This statute does not invalidate an agreement. The statute makes some contracts voidable by one of the parties, in the occasion that the party does not wish to proceed with the contract (Frier and White 45). At times, a party to a contract that would otherwise be void under the statute of frauds will however be able to implement it, on the grounds of partial performance or promissory estoppel. Where part performance exists, a party who has accepted part performance by another party under the contract will normally be stopped from asserting the statutory of frauds to evade fulfilling its own contractual responsibilities. Promissory estoppels exist where considerable injustices would result from discharging a party from the contract, and the party in quest of discharge was aware or logically should have known that those injustices would be formed at the time of the original contract (Rose 82-92). The essentials of promissory estoppels include an apparent and explicit offer, realistic hope of dependence on the offer, realistic dependence on offer by the receiving party and damage because of depending on the offer. This was attested after the petition in Big G Corp. v. Henry, where the defendants had introduced their discharge claim on a promissory estoppel argument. The court opted to acknowledge the proof, and gave a special order to the jury to establish whether the parties had made an oral agreement that the petitioner would receive the title of the property in fulfillment of the arrears of the defendant. This was proved correct, and the jury gave the ruling in support of the suspect.
Parol Evidence Rule
This is a substantive rule of contract law, which states that a court will not acknowledge evidence of the parties’ previous negotiations, previous oral or agreements if that evidence contradicts or changes the terms of a written contract (O’Gorman 1023). The decision of whether Parol evidence rule will be conceived focuses on the court’s decision of whether the written agreement is incorporated in the parties’ final agreement. An illustration was the lawsuit in Johnson v. Lewis, where the court held that an easement is freedom, benefit or a gain which a party may have in real estate of another devoid of revenue and must be under a deed. The court affirmed that even if the award of an easement is typically subject to the statute of frauds and must be in writing, a Parol grant that has been carried out would be maintained just as Parol agreement for the sale of land would be. The court did not concur that the petitioners’ argument satisfactorily outlined such a right of the way as would ultimately develop into a vested right. However, the judges have accepted various exclusions to the process of the Parol evidence rule. Among the well-effected exceptions include proof of subsequent alterations, proof of mistake, deceit, or falsification in the development of the written contract, proof of previous transactions between parties, evidence of an oral clause precedent to the written contract, and proof of a gross clerical error.
Categories of contracts under this statute
While the statute of frauds deviates from one nation to another, it demands that the following five categories of agreements must be in written form for them to be enforceable.
Real estate agreements
Under this statute, Agreements for the auction of landed estate should be in writing. Exclusion arises as to whether a spoken agreement for the garage sale of landed estate has been partly executed. If a seller executes his part of the contract by delivering a good title to the buyer, the seller can then recover the purchase price from the buyer even when the contract is oral (Bottiglieri 113-116). On the part of the buyer, if the buyer makes an important development on the land or takes control of the property and pays a portion of the purchase price, the contract will be enforceable. A good example is the lawsuit in Sullivan v. Porter. In this case, the petitioner had occupied the land and made improvements on it after the defendant promised him that he would make necessary arrangements for the completion of the paperwork. The law court declared the contract legally binding. The defendant’s dealings induced partial performance by the petitioner and hence he won.
Retailing of commodities agreements
Any transaction for the retailing of merchandise worth over USD 500 must be in writing as was evidenced in the case of Activities Corp. v. Brown. In this case, the parties made an oral contract to procure a chair for USD 60,000. The merchant resisted making the assertion. The court affirmed that if the defendant denies giving the verbal promise, then the petitioner could not follow up the case on the expectation that evidence of the verbal agreement will come up during discovery. However, there are some exceptions to this law; where an oral contract for the sale of commodities over USD 500 or more will be implemented. An agreement is enforceable if the buyer picks up and admits the merchandise. Also, if the purchaser accepts part of the merchandise, the agreement is still enforceable (Barrett 78). In Davis v. Meyer, the court pronounced that an oral sales agreement in writing and where no price has been paid is void unless the purchaser accepts and receives part of the merchandise being sold. It is insufficient on behalf of the supplier to deliver the object. There must be receipt and deliberate and unqualified approval by the purchaser. When a contract regards the sale of goods and services together, the statute of frauds will administer if the agreement is principally for the sale of goods and will not administer if the agreement is principally for services.
Contracts in Consideration of wedding
Agreements made in deliberation of a wedding must be put on paper. It is important to note that this is not an agreement to marry but an agreement in contemplation of marriage.
Contracts that Cannot be Executed in One Year
Under this stipulation of the statute of frauds, agreements that cannot be executed within one year of the agreement after establishment should be in writing. However, it is important to note that if there is a hypothetical likelihood that the agreement can be executed within one year, the agreement is outside the statute of frauds and hence, does not require being in writing for it to be enforceable. As was the lawsuit in Professional Bull Riders, Inc. v. AutoZone, Inc. where one party promised to support another for two years, but the contract had a clause that allowed the party to pull out at any time. The court held that since the parties reserved the right to pull out at any time, the agreement can be executed in a year’s time and therefore was enforceable. The exception to this decree is where an agreement has been fully executed. When a verbal agreement that cannot be executed in one year has been completely executed, the agreement is wholly enforceable despite the period of execution taken (Goodwin 602-603).
Contracts of Suretyship
Based on this stipulation of the statute of frauds, a promise made by a third person to a creditor that the third person will be liable for the obligation that the debtor owes the creditor should be in writing. In Winternitz v. Summit Hills Joint Venture, the question was if an agreement involving external parties to the agreement was enforceable. The court affirmed that agreements that influence third parties are outside the statute of frauds and can only be enforced if it influences such parties. The exception to this rule is that if the third person directly makes the promise to the debtor instead of the creditor the promise need not be in writing (Goodwin 603-604).
The major issue in the statute of frauds is that it has experienced a diachronic process of erosion. The statute is intended to put off fraud, but it is enormously over-inclusive; it covers numerous cases where it is evident that a promise was made even if it was not written. The statute allows defendants to contest to withdraw from a promise that should lawfully, be fulfilled by allowing defendants to contend that the promise was not in writing.
Barrett, Jonathan. “Has the Statute of Frauds been rendered nugatory?” New York: Pantheon, 2010. Print
Bottiglieri, William A. “Electronic Signatures and the Statute of Frauds.” Journal of Business Case Studies (JBCS) 4.1 (2011): 113-116.
Frier, Bruce W., and James J. White. The modern law of contracts. New York: John Wiley, 2008. Print
Goodwin, John R. “PLACING FRAUD BACK INTO THE STATUTE OF FRAUDS�������������������� U�C�C� �2�7
Running Head: Practicum Observation and Lesson Planning
Practicum Observation 2 and Lesson Planning Focused on Assessment
Practicum Observation 2
My second practicum was held in Bloomington High School on 14th November 2011. I participate in a 9th grade English lesson instructed by Jane Faubion. The main objective of this lesson was to enhance the listening skills of the students. The teacher introduced the lesson and communicated the objectives of the lesson to the students. The first activity involved listening to a song and taking notes on the message of the song. The students were expected to listen to the song and comprehend the message that the songwriter was communicating. The song was played twice before the students could start writing their notes. The teacher asked the students to interchange their notes with their neighbors. The teacher then picked some students at random to read to the class what their neighbors had written. The students would give their feedback indicating whether the notes were right or wrong. The activity was repeated with a different song.
The introduction of the songs to the learning experience changed the learning context and enhanced the interest of the students. The lesson required the participation of the students when listening to the songs and analyzing the notes made by their classmates. The teacher allowed the students to express their opinion of the songs and responses from their classmates before providing the correct answers. Most of the students got the correct message of the second song correctly. After the analysis of the first song, the students were more attentive when listening to the second song. The teacher asked the students to compare the messages of the two songs in a written essay before concluding the lesson.
The use of songs to teach language is an effective strategy of enhancing the language skills of the students (Grunet, 2010). Jane Faubion integrated this strategy effectively in the lesson. The introduction of the songs was meant to enhance the listening skills of the students. However, the students’ speaking skills were enhanced during the discussions of the songs and as they tried to sing along. In addition, the students learnt new vocabularies and pronunciation of some words by listening to the songs. One of the notable issues during the lesson is that some students seemed uncomfortable when their notes were read aloud by their neighbors. This issue was noted at the beginning of the discussion but as the class progressed, the students became confident of their answers. The teacher was quick to listen to the point of view of the students before correcting them and this improved their confidence especially in the analysis of the second song.
The mini unit involves adjusting the students’ written, spoken, and visual language so that they can communicate effectively with different audiences and for various purposes
A formative assessment was conducted with the students in the practicum after the lesson. The aim of this assessment was to identify the needs of the students in the practical application of English grammar and vocabulary. The teachers asked open-ended questions to the students and made notes on the responses of the students. The open-ended questions revolved around the challenges that students experience when writing English compositions and when making public speeches in English. The teachers noted the challenges that the students had when expressing themselves in the discussion and when writing their assignments.
Lesson plan 1
Standards: Students adjust their written, spoken, and visual language to communicate effectively with different audiences and for various purposes
Theme: Effective language application
Lesson Topic: Application of English vocabularies in writing
Students will apply the English grammar and vocabularies learnt in class in writing
Students will assess their writing skills and identify their strengths and weaknesses
Students will understand the meaning of the vocabularies taught in class and apply them effectively
The teacher will provide a topic to the students and a list of vocabularies. The students will be required to utilize the vocabularies in writing short essays on the topic provided
Materials: Handouts with different topics and vocabularies
Motivation: The students will choose their favorite topic from the list. The student with the best essay will be rewarded in the next lesson
The teacher will introduce the lesson and outline the structure of the lesson to the students.
The teacher will issue the handouts with the topics and vocabularies and allow the students to pick their favorite topics
The teacher will explain the meaning of each vocabulary
The students will analyze their topics and write short essays with all the vocabularies
The students will give their feedback on the lesson and outline any challenges
Practice and Application: The students will write short essays with the vocabularies presented in class
Review and Assessment: The teacher will ask for feedback from the students about the exercise and ask questions as well. The feedback and questions will be discussed before closing the lesson
Extension: Writing assignments
Lesson plan 2
Standards: Students adjust their written, spoken, and visual language to communicate effectively with different audiences and for various purposes
Theme: Effective language application
Lesson Topic: Application of English grammar and vocabularies in conversations
Students will use the correct English grammar in their conversations
Students will differentiate between formal and informal languages
Students will identify grammatical errors in speeches and conversations
Students will improve their English speaking skills
Learning Strategies: The students will listen to three video clips and analyze them. The students will identify any mistakes in the conversations and correct them
Materials: 3 Video clips
Motivation: Open class discussions on the video clips
The teacher will introduce the lesson and objectives of the subsequent tasks
The students will watch the video clips on their computers and analyze them.
The students will identify the grammatical errors in the video clips and suggest the correct sentences
The students will give feedback on the lesson activities
Practice and Application: Identifying grammatical errors in the video clips provided
Review and Assessment: The students will give their views and ask questions at the end of the lesson
Extension: The teachers will provide more videos for the students to analyze in groups after the lesson
Lesson plan 3
Standards: Students adjust their written, spoken, and visual language to communicate effectively with different audiences and for various purposes
Theme: Effective language application
Lesson Topic: Application of English vocabularies and grammar in conversations
The students will apply the English grammar and vocabularies effectively in conversations with different audiences
Students will learn to listen and respond appropriately when holding conversations
Students will enhance their English speaking skills
Learning Strategies: Students will hold debates on different topics in groups
Materials: Handouts with debate topics
Motivation: Active participation of students in the debates
The teacher will introduce the lesson and divide the class into two groups
The teacher will issue the handouts with topics of discussion
The students will chose 3 interesting topics from the list provided
Students will hold debates on the topic with different representatives from both group presenting the groups’ arguments
The students will give their feedback on the lesson
Practice and Application: The students will apply the vocabularies, grammar, and speaking skills in the debates.
Review and Assessment: The teacher will assess the application of English grammar and vocabularies during the debates and correct any mistakes identified at the end of the lesson
Extension: The students can conduct other debates on the remaining topics in their free time
Summative assessment test: At the end of the unit, each student is required to prepare a written speech and present it to the class. The students will pose questions to each student on the topic of their speech. The teacher will assess the written speeches and the presentations. The teacher will also assess the response of the students to the questions posed to them.
Assessment tools enable the teachers to understand what their students can do and cannot do. They also inform the teacher whether the students understood the subject matter taught in class and if they can apply the knowledge effectively. The teacher can assess the progress of the lesson and make any necessary adjustments on the subsequent lessons (Parsons, 2001; Phye, 1997). The assessment tools can be summative or formative. Formative assessments are normally carried out as part of the instruction process. Thus, they may be performed at the end of a lesson or as the lesson progresses. This kind of assessment provides the teacher with information that will enable them to change their teaching strategies and the learning methods. Such adjustments ensure that the set goals and objectives of the unit or course are achieved. Teachers can assess the effectiveness of their teaching methods through the formative assessment tools (Afflerbach, 2007; Orlich et al., 2009).
Summative assessments are periodical and summarize the achievement of the students in a certain course or level of learning. Teachers can compare the achievement of their students using the summative assessments. Although there is a distinction between formative assessment and summative assessment, some of the assessment tools can be used for both formative and summative reasons. Teachers bear the responsibility of deciding the kind of assessment tools to utilize depending on the kind of information they require on the achievement of their students (Afflerbach, 2007; Orlich et al., 2009). Students can assess their own achievement and take personal responsibility of the learning process. Students can conduct self-assessment through reflective questions, charts, graphs, sketchbooks and journals among other tools. Self-assessments are effective in directing the students on how they can adjust their learning methods and seek the guidance of their teachers (Parsons, 2001; Phye, 1997).
Students can conduct assessments on one another and get the opinion of the classmates on their work. Peer assessments can be conducted during the class activities or out of class. Some of the tools used on peer assessment include interviews, class presentations, group, and class critiques. Teachers have a variety of assessment tools to administer to their students for formative and summative purposes. These assessment tools include state assessments, interim assessments, end-of-unit tests, observations, and discussions, oral and postal presentations. Other assessment tools include portfolios, rubrics, reports, exams, and maps among other (Parsons, 2001; Phye, 1997).
Teachers should align the assessment tools with the learning objectives in each unit or lessons. A wide range of assessment tests gives a clear picture of the students’ achievement as opposed to a single assessment criterion. The feedback of such assessment should be communicated to the students in time so that can make the necessary adjustments on their learning methods (Afflerbach, 2007). The created mini-unit will be effectively in helping the students to make the necessary adjustments in all forms of language. This is because the class activities will allow the students to apply all the language skills effectively. However, more lessons will be required to ensure that the standard is understood properly.
Afflerbach, P. (2007). Understanding and Using Reading Assessment, K-12. International Reading Association.
Grunet, R. (2010). Teaching English through Songs. GRIN Verlag
Orlich, D, C., Harder, R, J., Callahan, R, C., Trevisan, M, S., Brown, A, H. (2009). Teaching Strategies: A Guide to Effective Instruction. Cengage Learning
Parsons, S. (2001). Bookwise: Teacher’s Guide. Nelson Thornes
Phye, G, D. (1997). Handbook of Classroom Assessment: Learning, Achievement, and Adjustment. Elsevier
Appendix1: Practicum/Field Experience Observation and Activity Log
Teacher Candidate: GCU ID:
Name of School: Bloomington High School
Classroom Teacher Name & Phone: Jane Faubion
Log of Hours Spent:
DateTime Spent (Hours: Minutes)Activity14th November 201140 minutesThe purpose of the lesson was to enhance the listening skills of the students.
Activity1: The teacher asked the students to listen to a song and analyze the message(s) communicated through the song.
Activity 2: The teacher asked the students to interchange their notes and read to the class what their neighbors had written. The students discussed the responses
Activity 3: The students repeated the previous activities with a different song
Activity 4: The teacher asked the students to write a brief essay comparing the messages of the two songs
Classroom Teacher Evaluation
Thank you for allowing our learner to observe and/or participate in your classroom. At the end of the practicum/field experience, please evaluate the learner by taking into consideration that he/she is a prospective teacher. Write a brief narrative, in the space provided below, assessing the performance of the learner in the activities in which he/she was involved
The learner was attentive throughout the lesson and participated in the activities conducted in class. The learner asked questions on how the activities helped the English learners.
Classroom Teacher’s Signature
Practicum Observation and Lesson Planning 1
Cover Letter for MBA Admission
Dear Mr., Mrs., Ms
I write this letter in application for admission into your institution’s MBA program, in total confidence that the experience, passion, and skills that I have are perfectly ideal for the course’s aims, features, and values. I discovered the opportunity through the institution’s online platform and advertisement invitations for applications. Members of the institution’s alumni with whom I have contact recommended my application, after identifying matches between my experience and objectives and the institution’s program structure, values, and aims.
My interest to enroll in the institution’s MBA program has basis on belief that my experience and academic backgrounds stand the best, valuable chance to develop and mature effectively under the program’s structure. The program has acclaim and positive reviews among members of the institution’s alumni who have experienced the value of the professionalism and skills that it instills in their careers. I also admire the program’s objective and structure to influence the talents, skills, and personalities of students and yield dynamic abilities that match modern business environments’ changing demands.
My professional, educational, volunteer, and career objective backgrounds shall enable competent utilization of the program’s resources to achieve value for the institution, as a member of the alumnus, and personally, in professional terms. My diligent, focused, and committed personality also promises my effective study of the program. Included is an attachment of the particulars of my strengths and experiences, in my resume, for a detailed review. It is my objective to perform competently and achieve the highest level of merit and qualification that the program provides, through diligent and committed learning.
I hope to obtain an admission interview at a date and time of your convenience. My email and phone number details are ( ..) and ( .) respectively, for convenient contact. I value your commission of time to consider this application.
Cover Letter for MBA Admission 2
RE: Extension Of Tax Credit
There is an extension of the tax credit program to December 2013 in the California film and corporation. This is a short term expansion plan within the company and I am writing to you to inform you to take advantage of the offer as it has a lot of benefits once you apply for the extension.
There are several advantages that I will pose to you as you consider as I think that it is important that you apply for this service. One, once you apply for this exemption you are sure of cutting down costs as per my investigations, I can assure you that you qualify for a 25percent tax credit. Since your film production is independent, you may transfer the tax credit to another firm, or you can sell the credits. This is quite beneficial to your film company.
By accepting this exemption, you are likely to improve the state of the economy by employing several people within the society thus enhancing your company’s manpower effect. This means that you are able to source for new incentives, source for new labor force, increase your company’s assets and improve the employees’ skills through training.
Being associated with a world renowned film production company, you are sure that your product will be advertised, and will become renown in the region thus increasing your chances of becoming famous in the long run.
Of important, the tax credit may help you add quality to your production thus customers may be willing to watch your film. This will lead to increased demand for your film hence increasing your net worth. There is a great advantage when you apply for the tax credit with California film and television. This includes
Your staff may qualify for the free training by the film company which is offered to companies that participates in the program. This is very beneficial as you will gain experience outside what the common norms of the company are.
Companies that enroll for the tax credit arte often assisted by the company when they want to shoot. This is in form of assisting them with experts at reduced prices. Since our company comprises some of the most qualified experts. This means that your company will enjoy these services of our qualified personnel’s.
In case you don’t have the state of the art film production tools, our company will lease them to you at a discounted prices. This includes personnel services and human resources.
Any company applying for the tax credit qualifies automatically for the resource and research for the film industry requirements. This means that one qualifies for one stop quality assistance from the film company.
In line with the above benefits, I hope that you will consider our offer and apply for the tax credit. It will be to both of the company’s advantage and would appreciate working with you. Be part of our one stop film production and TV incentive and enjoy the best the system can offer.
Film production company, p.o. Box 0012004562145 SA, California
Performance Management Fundamentals
I work at the Department of Ajman Municipality and planning. Specifically, I work in the marketing section where I work as the marketing unit officer. According the organization’s website, among the main core value for the department is to stimulate and reward talented employees and to encourage them to be more productive. Another core value for municipality and planning department Ajman is to assist the workforce to improve their individual and collective abilities and to provide their best in sharing information and decision making. These two main values imply that the main focus of performance in Department of Ajman Municipality and planning is results. The employees are encouraged to improve their abilities and to be more productive. This will lead to better results or rather this can only be measured in terms of results for each individual and eventually as a team.
The emphasis on results is also entrenched in the organizations strategic plan for 2011-2015. The strategic plans maps out a plan to create an enabled workforce to drive excellence. This aspect of performance is managed through developing leaders, attracting and retaining talents, improving work environment to promote creativity and innovation. I specifically work in the marketing department. In this department the key indicator of performance is results. We market the municipal events and other business of the organization. The performance of Department of Ajman Municipality and planning is highly depended on the performance of the marketing department. Therefore, the department has to produce results. This can only be achieved by effective marketing in the organization. Therefore, the management creates an environment where each individual can produce results to better the organization. The result of each individual is the critical performance indicator.
Department of Ajman Municipality and planning http://www.am.gov.ae/en/OurDept/Pages/StrategicDocument.aspx
Department of Ajman Municipality and planning http://www.am.gov.ae/en/OurDept/Pages/OurVision.aspx
COMPANY CASE STUDY 3
Running Head: PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS 1
Re: – Job ID:
Please accept the enclosed resume for the Administrative with a Strategic Policy and Program Division of the Research and Planning Branch.
As a recent graduate from University of Toronto with degree of Honor Bachelor of Arts. I have learned problem solving, communication and analytical skills. I have also completed courses on the following topics Economics, International Development Studies and Women Studies.
Honours Bachelor of Arts (H.B.A)
Graduated in Aug 2013
University of Toronto
Triple minor in Economics, International Development Studies and Women Studies
I was employed by the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities as a Service Delivery Assistant at the Skills Development Unit. My current experience has allowed me to acquire a thorough knowledge and understanding of decision-making and approval processes with regards to administrative policies and procedures of the Ontario government. I have strong organization skills to develop and maintain multiple administrative processes and systems.
My experience working with the public at Tim Horton, has given me excellent communication and interpersonal skills. As a math tutor, I exercised my aptitude for detailed numeric work, good arithmetic skills and strong analytical skills. Through my volunteer job at the Councilor Raymond Cho’s office, I have created excellent communication skills and improved my public relations. In addition, my experience working as an Office Assistant at Impact Welding has given me excellent communication and interpersonal skills.
I am self-motivated, reliable, conscientious and hard working. I am a discreet person and can be relied upon on confidential matters. I am an avid learner and would be willing to learn any new skills required in my new assignment. I can work independently and as a team in fast-paced environment. My areas of expertise lie in administration, organization, documentation and communication. In addition, I have extensive experience working with Corel Word Perfect, Microsoft word, Excel, Access and PowerPoint and online systems and databases. I am also proficient in various Internet navigation programs and e-mail systems.
In closing, I would like to say that I am looking forward to work in an environment that will provide a challenge and allow me to use my skills and develop new ones. I would welcome the opportunity to meet with you to provide further information regarding my skills and qualifications.
Thank you for your time and consideration. I look forward to hearing from you.
Application for a Walden University MBA
My interest in graduate school stems from personal recognition and confidence that its programs offer the precise intensity and specialized proficiency that I shall need to excel in my professional objectives. I believe that further improvements on my current level of academic and practical experience are fundamental to my acquisition of the skills and competences that are essential if I am to succeed in the world of business today. The graduate level of study shall avail an opportunity for the perfection of my qualifications and merits for professional prosperity, through exploitation of my skills and knowledge at the Bachelor’s level. My plan to prepare appropriately and sufficiently for a valuable performance in my career has influenced my choice of graduate school studies, in belief that the program’s knowhow outcomes are critical for my effectiveness in my planned career.
I plan to find and excel in employment in the business administration department of a prominent enterprise with international operations after the studies, hopefully rising through the ranks to a leadership or managerial position with time. The MBA program is my preference for specialization in graduate studies. The influence behind my choice of the field has been my admiration of the authority and critical role that business administration plays in the operations of an enterprise. I have also had considerable experience in business administration functions and responsibilities previously, a factor that has motivated my choice. My interest in the MBA program and business administration specialization involve the passion and desire to participate in and influence the leadership and direction of a prominent business enterprise at the international level. I want to apply my experience, capacity, and insight in the business administration field to contribute value to my community and the world’s socioeconomic advancement.
I have a Bachelor’s Degree in Commerce, with specialization in Finance and Economics, which I earned from the University of Toronto in June, 2011. The course featured training on pertinent areas in business operations such as macro and microeconomics, strategic management, and finance and capital market operations. This academic experience relates closely with the MBA field through the offer of knowledge in the scope of operations and business activities that business administration seeks to influence for organizational success. MBA qualifications would complement my Bachelor’s qualifications in Commerce perfectly and increase my professional capability and merit, ensuring the strong competitiveness and productivity of my skills and performances in an organizational setting.
The level of my GPA in the course was 2.1: this is below the level that I would have liked, but there are unique circumstances and factors that adversely affected my performance. One of my family members in China had a bad experience with cancer during the first two-and-a-half years of my university studies. My thoughts of the close family member’s suffering drained me psychologically and physically, undermining my focus and effective use of the course’s academic resources in the two-and-a-half year period. This effect is especially evident given that my GPA scores in the fourth year of my studies improved a lot. I, nevertheless, plan to put extra effort in future to ensure that such inconveniences and bad experiences in my life have minimum effects on my studies, through improving my emotional and psychological resilience.
I do not have prior experience in the preparation of investigative papers/projects or other research achievements in my field.
My previous work experience has involved internship and full-time job responsibilities and positions in several organizations, including two mining companies. I worked at China Merchants Bank on internship terms in 2007, where I had responsibilities to monitor day-to-day marketing information and stock changes and design financial products in a financial engineering context. In 2008, I served as an intern in the Department of Foreign Exchange at Guang Dong Development Bank in Beijing, handling foreign exchange rate information, analyzing stock information, and attending Thomson Reuters Training.
Between October 2011 and December 2012, I had full-time job responsibilities at Sino Minerals Corporation and Keystone Associated Inc., in Toronto, Canada, working in Book-keeping, Project Coordinator, and Project Assistant positions. I handled invoices and receipts, the work hours and health and welfare benefits of staff, bank statements and tax return information, and statistical, accounting, and financial information, among other responsibilities. Since December, 2012, I have worked at Silvercorp Metals Inc. in the capacity of an Administrative Assistant, handling reports, presentations, and other documentation in the firm’s operations. The experiences have availed enormous knowledge and insight value in organizational operations and administrative duties, motivating my choice of a career in the administration of business. I have also worked and partnered with individuals from varied backgrounds in the roles, promoting my abilities to fit in different social environments. The responsibilities have offered ideas about the critical nature and importance of competent administrative functions in influencing the success of organizational organizations and promoted my useful preparation for the MBA and future career.
The range of my personal qualities includes personality characteristics that shall provide advantages in my graduate study and career. I am an excellent team-worker with efficient organization skills: I am diligent and impassioned in my work, seeking the input of others to improve my performance value and contribute to the productivity of teams. I am easily reachable and engaging in group settings – strengths that enhance my interpersonal skills and efficiency in project work. I further have excellent multitasking skills and a passion for learning and acquiring new insight, while applying professionalism and integrity in my commitments and activities for optimum group and personal results. I believe that these personal qualities are fundamental for productivity and efficiency in group work and projects. These strengths shall influence success in my MBA program and career through enhancing my cooperation with all parties – instructors and fellow students – and exploitation of the MBA course resources to influence my triumph.
Walden University’s environment is competent and convenient for my MBA studies as it offers an accredited program with a design to produce relevant and real-world skills based on well-rounded knowledge and a focus on internationally competitive competence. The student and academic culture at Walden is also convenient for my personality values as it seeks the maturity and development of future professionals with transformative ideas for the betterment of our society. The institution’s program also features an allowance for the choice of further specializations and program combinations to maximize each student’s unique career needs – an advantage that I hope to exploit. This environment offers an ideal match for my future goals as I would obtain the most optimum qualifications for my career. An online program would be suitable in my case as I am working: it would present an opportunity for my satisfactory fulfillment of both my academic and job responsibilities.
Reasons for Admissions Committee Review
I had a lower than sufficient GPA score – 2.1 compared to the admissions committee’s 2.3 standard. A close family member’s cancer illness in the first two-and-a-half years of my university studies undermined my focus and effective use of the Bachelor’s Degree course resources, due to the costs of considerable psychological and emotional pressure. This effect’s influence on my performance in the course is clear given my enormous performance improvements in the GPA score during my final year. I have a determination to ensure that similar circumstances do not undermine my future academic performance. I have overcome my extreme susceptibility to other pressures in my life: I am now stronger, psychologically and emotionally. I am confident of my ability to cope with such pressures and ensure that they do not affect my academic performances.
How I will be Successful
If admitted, I shall utilize the strengths of my personality – excellent multitasking, inter-personal, diligence, focus, passion, organization, and team-work skills – to exploit all the graduate program resources competently and comprehensively. I also hope to cooperate, coordinate, and partner with fellow students, instructors, library attendants, and others, and actively participate in the program’s activities and programs to draw optimum value for my academic performance. I believe that passion, diligence, and focus shall constitute essential factors for my excellence in the graduate studies.
Insert surname here 1
Running Head: Internship review
My internship was conducted for 40 days at Gilchrists, which is an accounting firm. My position during the internship was that of an office junior assistant. At the start of the internship, I had to define my learning objectives. Learning objectives can be defined as measurable and specific statements that describe the ability of a learner after engaging in a learning activity (Davis, 2010). I developed a Learning Objectives Profile that would enable me to understand the internship and my expectations during the internship. The Learning Objectives Profile enabled me to understand that I was responsible for my progress and development during the internship. In addition, I had a basis of evaluating my progress and performance in the organization during and after the internship. The Learning Objectives Profile acted as a guide of defining my roles and duties in the organization since it consisted of my own objectives as well as those of my employer.
Defining the learning objectives at the start of the internship enabled me to identify the skills that I would require to achieve the objectives. Based on the outlined skills, I was able to identify the skills that I already possess and those that I needed to acquire to be effective in performing my duties in Gilchrists. My learning objectives were specific and this kept me focused throughout the internship. They offered direction on the course that my internship would take each day since they were sequential as well. In addition, based on my objectives and personality I was able to identify my learning strategy. Therefore, any necessary adjustments on the learning style to achieve the objectives were identified at the start. Apart from setting objectives, I identified the strategies that I would use to manage and evaluate my objectives.
The main areas of learning during the internship included knowledge, skills, emotions, and attitudes. Throughout my internship, I identified additional areas of learning above the set objectives. I engaged my colleagues in evaluating my performance at each level to ensure that internship would be successful. The continuous evaluation of my performance enabled me to define the most appropriate course of action at every stage of the internship. At the end of my internship at Gilchrists, I compared my experience with the set objectives to draw conclusions on my effectiveness in achieving my objectives. This report provides a comprehensive review of my internship. The report provides a review of Gilchrists, learning objectives, skills, and knowledge acquired my employer’s assessment as well as recommendations for improved practice.
Job and Organizational Description
Gilchrists is a Chartered Certified Accountants firm that was established in 1993. Gilchrists is a small sized firm located in Highgate. The organization offers a wide range of services to its clients that are of high standards. Some of the services that Gilchrists offers include audit and accountancy, VAT, tax planning and compliance, payroll and bookkeeping. Other services include advice on business startup and development, HMRC investigations, business advice as well as company secretarial and formation services. The organization encourages its clients to plan for the growth and development of their businesses. Gilchrists is committed to the success of its clients and thus, the organization offers all the necessary support to the clients in their efforts to expand their business. Gilchrists offers support throughout the lifecycle of a client’s business to ensure that the clients are successful in implementing the advice offered to them by the organization (Gilchrists Chartered Certified Accountants, 2011).
Gilchrists is a small sized organization and thus its management structure is simple. The management structure is attached in the appendices section of this report. The major marketing strategy in Gilchrist is relationship marketing. The organization seeks to maintain the existing clients by ensuring they are satisfied with its services. To this extent, the organization matches its services with the needs of its clients. The employees are trained on how to handle the clients beyond the basic training on accounting principles. The satisfied clients in turn recommend the services to other clients. The word-of-mouth has produced tremendous results in terms on increases in the number of clients. The organization maintains constant communication with its clients though emails and telephone calls as a way of building relationships with the clients. Gilchrists advertises its service on the internet as well as in business magazines. There are brochures at the organization’s front desk with its services and contacts that are issued to any person who visits the premises. In addition, Gilchrists offered competitive prices for its services to attract new customers.
During the internship, my position in Gilchrists was that of an office junior assistant. My responsibilities included running the weekly and monthly payroll for the clients as well as the employees in the organization and preparing quarterly VAT returns and bank reconciliation statements. Other responsibilities included posting and reconciling receipts and payments from the clients’ invoices, communicating with clients, bookkeeping, completing income tax returns and assisting other employees in auditing and reviewing financial statements.
The learning objectives for the internship were developed in the first week at Gilchrists. The objectives were based on kind of knowledge that I expected to attain from the internship and the objectives of my employer. In this case, the objectives of my employer include the organizations objectives and reasons for recruiting me into the organization. The objectives were realistic and achievable within the 40 days of my internship. The responsibilities and duties of an office assistant in Gilchrists contributed to my learning objectives as well. The management of Gilchrists is committed to the growth and development of the organization. One of the major interests of its management team is to expand its market share and increase the number of clients. The development plans revolve around reaching out to new customers and retaining the existing clients. These plans and objectives shaped my learning objectives for the internship.
Gilchrists employs a strategic approach to human resource management. Thus, every employee is expected to work with an understanding of the organization’s objectives and contribute to their achievement. Thus, my employer expected me to contribute to increasing the number of clients by ensuring that the organization was operating at a higher level of efficiency. My main objective was to gain experience of working in an accountancy firm. My experience at Gilchrists would help me in deciding whether I should pursue an accounting career or switch to another career path. I expected to acquire interpersonal skills, meet new people, and work with them in an office environment. I also needed to learn how to be self-disciplined and follow a fixed routine in a working environment.
One of my learning objectives was to gain experience on how to communicate with colleagues and clients in a busy working environment. Effective organizational communication is important to all employees regardless of their department or area of expertise. Another objective is to learn how the accounting principles that are taught in class apply to the real business world. I also needed to expand my understanding and skills in bookkeeping and accounting. I expected to gain additional knowledge on these areas beyond what has I learnt in class. The operations of Gilchrists introduced new areas of learned and one of my objectives was to acquire training in these areas. I have basic knowledge on payrolls and Superpay programmes. I intended to increase my knowledge on these two areas and their practical application in organizations.
Gilchrists used Microsoft Excel extensively to post suppliers’ payments and customers’ receipts. Microsoft Excel is also used to prepare the quarterly VAT returns and bank reconciliation statements. Therefore, one of my learning objectives at the start of the internship was to learn how to use the software for these purposes. Before starting on my work, I discussed the outlined objectives with my employer. My employer confirmed that the objectives were reasonable, realistic and in line with the objectives of the organization. In additions to my set objectives, my employers had development plans for my roles and responsibilities in the organization. The first development plan was to enhance my ability interpret the instructions given by colleagues. This was necessary to ensure that I carry out my responsibility in the right way.
My employer also expected me to ask for help from my colleagues when performing difficult tasks. I needed to develop a good working relationship with my colleagues so that it is easy to ask for help from them. Apart from consulting with my colleagues, I intended to build my knowledge in accounting and payroll to the level where I would perform the difficult tasks effectively. In addition to the Superpay programme, my employer expected me to use Sage Line 50 particularly for bookkeeping. This gave me another objective of learning the software and its application in bookkeeping. My employer also indicated that above my responsibilities at Gilchrists, I would have an opportunity to work in client’s office. Gilchrists uses this strategy to build relationships with the clients. Thus, I had a chance to participate in building these relationships and learn how to deal with the clients directly.
In order to achieve my objectives, I needed to learn how to manage the learning process. The objectives vary in their importance and thus I had to categorize them and rank them in the order of their importance. In addition, some of objectives can only be achieved after achieving other objectives. Thus, I had to outline the sequence in which the objectives would be achieved. For instance, I had to learn the basic application of the accounting knowledge before handling clients directly or working in their offices. I had to learn how to use the necessary software include the Superpay programme, Microsoft Excel and Sage Line 50 before preparing the reports on the monthly and weekly payments for the client’s. I needed to obtain the basic knowledge of how Gilchrists operates and then build on the knowledge to higher levels.
Some of the responsibilities had a fixed date on which they had to be fulfilled. For instance, one of my responsibilities was to inform clients on the amounts that they should pay for their Tax and National Insurance. This has to be done before the 19th of every month since that is the due date. Thus, learning how to prepare these reports and the software used was very important at the start of my internship. Some of the reminders to the clients to pay their taxes are attached in the appendix section of this internship review. Other requirements for me to achieve the set objectives include flexibility. Sometimes I had to stay in the office beyond the working hours to complete my assignments and learn some of the operations of the organization. This was particularly true when the reports to the clients were due and during the peak season. Extending my working hours enabled me to prepare for the upcoming tasks and review my learning objectives continually.
Apart from reviewing my objectives, I had time to review my performance in the organization and my employer’s expectations of my work. Therefore, I could make the necessary adjustments in my approach to work. The reviews enabled me to analyze the importance and relevance of the set objectives based on my experience. The extra working hours were also used to generate new objectives based on the new directions from my employers and the changes in the organization’s operations. My colleagues played an important role in helping me achieve my learning objectives. They analyzed my performance and advised me on the areas that I needed to improve. My colleagues also suggested new strategies that I could use to do my job in a more efficient manner.
In order to achieve my learning objectives, several skills were necessary. Some of the skills were developed during the internship. I also needed to develop some of the skills that had obtained prior to the internship. I needed to develop skills of participating in teamwork. Gilchrists works as a team comprising of the managers and the employees. Teamwork skills were necessary for me to interpret instructions correctly and contribute to the growth of the organization. Communication skills were necessary when dealing with clients and my colleagues as well. I needed to learn how to communicate with the clients in a professional and appropriate manner. Communication skills were necessary before getting the opportunity to work in the client’s office. Communication with clients involved writing letters, emails, telephone conversations and making notes on compliments slips.
My responsibilities included receive telephone calls from clients and transferring them to my colleagues. Thus, I had to learn the approach used when receiving and transferring calls from clients. It was necessary to acquire and perfect problem-solving skills for my internship. I identified different problems among the clients and decided to take the initiative to help them instead depending on my colleagues. Therefore, I had to learn how problems are solved in organizations in terms of procedures and defining viable solutions before starting on the problem-solving process. Interpersonal skills were necessary as well since the clients and colleagues were from diverse backgrounds. Gilchrists believes in diversity and thus employees individuals from different cultural backgrounds. Customer relations skills were necessary especially after starting to deal with the clients directly.
Another set of skills that were required to achieve my objectives are technical skills. One of my learning objectives involved learning how to use accounting software such as Superpay and Sage Line 50. These programs are necessary for preparing weekly and monthly payrolls for employees in different organizations. I had prior knowledge on how to use Microsoft Office Outlook and Microsoft Excel. However, I needed to learn how to apply them to the specific needs of Gilchrists. Communication with the clients through emails is conducted using Microsoft Office outlook. Information and documents are sent through email and thus I needed to how to use the software for this purpose. Other technical skills that I required include printing and scanning skills. Clients sometimes require hard copies of documents and thus I needed to learn how to print documents using Gilchrists’ computer network. Scanning skills were necessary for sending soft copies of documents to clients via email and for record keeping purposes.
Apart from the skills required to perform my duties, I need to develop personal skills that would help me with the internship and beyond the internship. Some of these skills include adaptability, punctuality, and the willingness to learn. These are skills that I possessed prior to the internship but in needed to improve them during the internship. I am an active, self confident and joyful person and these traits were necessary for my internship. Other personal skills that I needed to develop include the ability to make initiatives, problem-solving skills, being reliable and helpful to my colleagues and clients. Basic accounting skills were necessary for an opportunity to work in the organization. I had obtained these skills from the university. However, I needed to obtain the skills that were applicable to Gilchrists and to each of its clients.
Apart from the learning related to my course, the internship enabled me to learn new things about my personality. I was able to identify my preferred form of learning, which is a combination of a pragmatist and a reflector. As a reflector, I enjoy watching other people as they perform their duties and learning from the observation. I identify the shortcomings of their performance and avoid making the same mistakes they made in their work. I tend to adopt a low profile during the learning process. I prefer working at my own pace and pay keen attention to every detail. I also enjoy researching on ideas and review on the lessons learnt. To this extent, I would take time after work to reflect on everything that I had learnt in a day and the activities that took place in the organization.
As a pragmatist, I like experimenting with new techniques and take the initiative to do things in a different way. I tend to be impatient especially when the delay affects my subsequent tasks and may get on with things as I wait for the other person to act. I learn from the people’s experiences and I am focused on my responsibilities. Adopting an active learning strategy would be necessary for me to achieve the set objectives.
The main areas of learning during the internship can be categorized into four groups namely knowledge, skills, attitudes and emotions. Each of these areas is discussed below.
The internship provided an opportunity for me to learn about Gilchrists and myself as well. Learning about the organization was necessary for me to perform the allocated duties in accordance to the set procedures and policies. I had no prior knowledge of how the organization operates and therefore I needed to learn and participate in its operations. The internship was an opportunity for me to learn whether I had mastered the accounting principles taught in class. I was able to identify skills and competences that I possess above knowledge obtained from the university. I had an opportunity to learn how the principles of accounting and bookkeeping are applied in real life. I was able to apply the principles in fulfilling my responsibilities as well.
The internship gave me an opportunity to learn additional accounting principles and practices above what I learnt in class. The practical application of accounting principles enabled me to assess my competence in this field. My performance and my employer’s assessment indicated that I am a competent accounting and with more training, I would be successful in this field. In addition to gaining knowledge in the accounting field, I gained knowledge in other fields such as customer relations, financial systems, and organizational systems.
There are specific programs that are used in accounting and bookkeeping. At the start of the internship, I had minimal knowledge on how these programs are used in accounting. However, the extensive use of these programs at Gilchrists increased my knowledge on their application. Learning about Gilchrists’ policies, practices, ethics, and marketing strategies gave me ideas of how I can run my own accounting firm. The interactions with my colleagues revealed some of the human resource management issues that managers in accounting firms should address for better performance.
The opportunity to work at Gilchrist gave me an idea of what to expect in future if I choose to pursue an accounting career. I have knowledge of how accounting firms operate as well as the major challenges that accountants face during their practice. My employer allocated different duties to me that was drawn from different departments. I had an opportunity to interact and work with colleagues from all the departments that are categorized by the kind of services that the organization offers. My experience and knowledge of how different departments operate will help me in choosing the specific area in the accounting field that I will specialize in as my future career.
Apart from gaining more knowledge about the organization, and myself I was able to learn more about the clients, their products, and the industry as well. The clients were from very different industries and had very different approaches to business management. Working directly with the clients gave me business ideas and exposed me to potential future employers. I had time to research on the dynamics of each client’s industry and this increased my level of knowledge about various industries.
My learning objectives during the internship included acquiring the skills relevant to accounting and bookkeeping. I also needed to acquire the necessary skills of performing my duties and operating within an office environment. Obtaining effective communications skills was one of my learning objectives during the internship. I was able to improve on communication with my colleagues and clients. My learning objectives included acquiring interpersonal skills. I acquired and utilized these skills when dealing with my colleagues and clients. Gilchrists values teamwork and thus, I learnt how to be an effective team player. Effective technical and personal skills were necessary during the internship and I was able to develop as well. Some of the personal skills that I acquired include time management, emotional intelligence, and self-evaluation.
I learnt new techniques and procedures in accounting and bookkeeping and applied them in my internship. I also expected to gain training on Gilchrists procedures and apply them correctly during the internship. In addition, my employer expected me to learn how to interpret instructions from my colleagues correctly and ask for assistance in difficult tasks. As a fast learner, I was able to adjust to the operations of Gilchrists within the first few days in office. My colleagues were open to helping me learn and this increased my speed of learning. My employer expected me to participate in increasing the number of clients and retaining the existing clients. By the end of the internship, I did not manage to bring in new clients. However, I was able to solve various problems faced by the existing clients and they were willing to remain in Gilchrists. This is because my problem- solving skills had greatly improved by the end of the internship.
The other set of skills that I developed during the internship is intellectual skills. I was able to reflect on my day-to-day experience at Gilchrists and evaluate my learning. Intellectual skills enabled me to evaluate whether I had achieved my objectives and my overall performance in the organization. The skills were also necessary in evaluating the performance of the organization and the areas that needed improvement. Consequently, I was able to give recommendations on how the organization can improve its performance. The recommendations are discussed in another section of this report. In order to give the most appropriate solutions to the clients, there was need for extensive research from various accounting and business management databases. Consequently, my research skills improved as well as my level of creativity.
Working at Gilchrists helped me to understand my attitude towards work, the field of accounting, the organization, and its external environment. At first, I was uncertain and anxious about the internship. This is because I did not know what to expect from the organization and I expected to work in a large organization for the internship. However, I was determined to complete the internship and learn from it. My attitude developed when my employer explained my responsibilities and assigned specific employees the responsibility of training me. I had to adjust my attitude and be open-minded in order to learn. This is because there were constant changes in the organization and continuous corrections from my trainers.
Since I had limited time for the internship, I was enthusiastic and curious enough to learn as much as I could from the internship. I constantly engaged my colleagues and my employers to find out how things are done. I was unsure of how to handle clients at first since some of them were impolite. This was particularly true when they were rushing to meet deadlines. Their constant phone calls demanding for quick services were disturbing at first. However, I developed patience and tolerance in order to handle such clients. My colleagues were supportive and helped me in developing the correct attitude towards the clients. In addition, I developed a positive attitude towards accounting as a career from the fulfillment I got in my later days of the internship.
Different experiences at Gilchrist generated both positive and negative emotions. For instance, the good reception by my employer and colleagues gave me encouragement and enthusiasm to report to work each day. I was excited about the learning processes especially after adjusting my attitude. Completing my tasks for the day and the positive reports about my performance enhanced my fulfillment and confidence as an accountant. I derived satisfaction from providing viable solutions to the customers as well. The working environment was friendly since I established a good relationship with my colleagues and my employer. I enjoyed having meals with my colleagues in and out of the office.
During the peak season, my tasks were overwhelming. For instance, there is a day I had a desk full of invoices that required my attention and I could only handle one invoice at a time. The irritating calls from customers rushing to meet their deadlines were a source of negative emotions as well. As indicated earlier, I had an opportunity to work from their clients’ offices and their negative attitude towards interns was intimidating. Some of the clients did not believe in my capacity to handle their issues and preferred to deal with my colleagues. Such instances were discouraging but the positive responses from other clients gave me the motivation to keep going. My enhanced emotional intelligence enabled me to handle all clients well.
My Employer’s Assessment
In addition to my learning objectives, my employer had expectations regarding my performance and contribution to the growth and development of the organization. Throughout the internship, my employer and colleagues reviewed my performance and gave recommendations on the areas that I needed to improve. The reviews during the first few days in office indicated that I needed to learn more especially on the company’s procedures. I also needed to learn how to deal with clients in terms of communication and providing solutions to their problems. In addition, I needed to acquire and apply some skills that would enable me to perform my duties. As I spent more time in the office, I was able to improve on the outlined areas. As a result, the comments from my colleagues and my employer were positive. The telephone conversations with my employers indicated that my performance was improving.
At the end of the internship, I had a discussion with my employer regarding my performance during the internship. My employer indicated that I had performed well and beyond their expectation based on the duration of my internship. During the discussion, my employer indicated that it was easy working with me because I was willing to learn. I was also willing to co-operate with other employees and embrace teamwork. My employer indicated that I took correction positively and as a result, my performance was outstanding. However, my employer indicated that I needed more training and working experience to perfect my accounting and bookkeeping skills. One of the procedures in Gilchrists is that the employees assess the interns and give a report to the management on their performance. The assessment by the employees begins during the training period since they are responsible for training the interns. The employees give continuous reports on the performance of the interns during the weekly meetings and the management uses these reports in making a decision on whether the internship should continue. The management uses the reports to assess the overall performance of the intern as well.
My employer indicated that the reports from my colleagues were positive throughout the internship. The reports indicated that I received the training from my colleagues positively and I was open to learning new ways of performing my duties. The reports indicated that my performance had an upward trend and as a result, the management allowed me to continue with my internship. As indicated earlier, one of my responsibilities during the internship involved working from the clients’ offices. My employer expected a report from the clients regarding my performance in their offices. Therefore, my employer would call the clients everyday to check on my performance. During the discussion, my employer indicated that the feedback from the clients regarding my performance was positive. The clients were willing to work with in future since I had effective problem-solving skills. Despite their reservations at the start, I was able to establish a good working relationship with the clients. I was quick in learning their procedures and in recommending ways in which they can improve their operations.
Gilchrists expects its employees to understand the clients and their businesses well so that they can give the most appropriate advice on their growth and development. The reports from the clients that I worked with at Gilchrists and in their offices indicated that a clear understanding of their businesses. I consulted with my colleagues in offering advice and support to these clients. Based on my assessment of their businesses, the clients got appropriate recommendations that would improve their performance. Above the comments from my colleagues, clients and my employer, I got a recommendation letter that indicated that I was competent to work in any accounting firm. The recommendation letter indicated that beyond my academic competences, I had a great personality that is necessary for my future career in the accounting field.
The study of Bachelor of Arts Accounting and Finance in the university has enabled me to get the basic theory of accounting and bookkeeping. The numerous exercises in class gave me the knowledge of how accounting and bookkeeping is supposed to be done in an organization. This form of knowledge is the minimum level of knowledge that one should have before working in an organization. The knowledge is substantial and comprehensive. This has enhanced my confidence as an accountant.
One of the shortcomings of participating in the internship is the difficulty of balancing my class work with the responsibilities at work. I had less time to concentrate on my coursework especially when there was a lot of work in the office. Studying after work was difficult due to fatigue and pending tasks for the day. However, balancing work and coursework become easier with time after gaining experience on how perform my tasks efficiently. Another challenge during my internship was establishing relationships with people from different backgrounds. My colleagues were professionals while am used to interacting with students with the same level of qualification in accounting. The clients had different personalities and their businesses were different as well.
Recommendations for Improved Practice
One of the challenges that I noted when working at Gilchrists is that the current number of employees cannot handle the needs of the clients effectively. This is especially the case when clients are rushing to meet deadlines for publishing their financial statements and filing their taxes. The employees have to working late every day during this season to meet the deadlines set by each client. Therefore, the management of Gilchrists should consider hiring more employees to meet the high demand for their services during this season. The organization’s clients have also been increasing without any corresponding increase in the number of employees. Since Gilchrists is a small sized organization, the management may be reluctant to increase the number of employees in the short term. However, the management team has the option of hiring accountants on contractual basis during the peak season. The number of permanent employees can be increased gradually as the organization expands.
Increasing the number of employees will reduce the workload for the existing employees and allow them to concentrate on a few clients. Consequently, they will be able to serve these clients with increased efficiency and offer them additional support. The clients’ satisfaction will therefore improve. Sometimes the employees were unable to meet the deadlines set by clients and this was an additional cost to the clients. Some of the clients were forced to wait longer than usual for services and this had a negative impact on the Gilchrists’ credibility and efficiency. Investing in human resources may save Gilchrists from the possible losses of clients due to dissatisfaction and employees due to overworking.
In addition, Gilchrists should encourage its clients to seek for services from the organization in good time instead of rushing to meet deadlines. This would reduce the number of clients that the employees handle when financial statements and tax returns among other documents are due. The employees can communicate with the clients during the off peak and encourage them to visit the offices at that time. One of the reasons why I had difficulties establishing a good working relationship with the clients when working from their offices is that the clients were informed in advance that I was an intern. Although my employer used the strategy to shape the expectations of the clients, it had a negative impact on the perception of the clients. Handling clients from Gilchrists’ offices was easier than working from their offices because the clients that visited Gilchrists’ offices were not aware of my position in the organization.
Gichrists had made significant efforts in investing in technology for improved efficiency. However, there is still need to invest in the most recent technology or carry out innovations on the existing technology. The organization can increase its efficiency in handling clients by improving its technology instead of increasing the number of employees. Advanced technology would increase the efficiency of the employees in handling clients. For instance, most of the reports that I gave to the clients were hand written and scanning was necessary to send them via email. Examples of handwritten reminders are attached in the appendices section. This procedure can be changed in a way that clients get soft copies of all reports.
Given the perception of clients about interns, my recommendation is a change in approach when dealing with the interns. Gilchrists and other organizations should only allow the interns to handle the clients when they are fully competent based on their assessments. Once the interns are qualified to handle the clients, the employers should not inform the clients of the position of the interns. However, the employers should be willing to offer the interns all the assistance they need when handling clients. For instance, the management can pair the intern with another employee for assistance and direction when dealing with clients directly.
My internship took place at Gilchrists, which is an accounting firm that offers services of high standards to individuals and organizations. Some of the services that Gilchrists offers include audit and accountancy, VAT, tax planning and compliance, payroll and bookkeeping, advice on business startup and development, HMRC investigations, business advice as well as company secretarial and formation services. I was an office junior assistant during my internship. I developed a Learning Objectives Profile at the start of my internship, which consisted of realistic and measurable goals. The profile provided a benchmark for assessing my performance and in identifying the skills that I would require during the internship. My learning objectives were based on my expectations as well as my employer’s expectations. They included learning how accounting firms operate and how accounting principles are applied in organizations. I intended to learn how to communicate and interact with people in an office environment and gain additional knowledge on book keeping and accounting.
Other objectives included increasing my knowledge on accounting related software and their practical application, interpreting instructions correctly, and building good working relationships with my colleagues. Some of the skills that were necessary to achieve my learning objectives include communication skills, interpersonal skills, customer relations skills, teamwork, flexibility, problem-solving and technical skills. Most of these objectives were achieved during the internship with the support of my employer and colleagues. My employer’s assessment of my performance during the internship was based on the reports given by my colleagues and clients. The assessment indicated that my performance was outstanding and I am competent to work in any accounting firm in future.
The accounting programme at the university provided the basic knowledge that one requires to join an accounting firm as an employee or intern. From my assessment, this knowledge is comprehensive and the internship provided an opportunity to put this knowledge into practical use. Working in different departments enabled me to identify my specific field of specialization in the accounting field in future. The internship enabled me to identify the challenges that accounting firms and their employees face as they provide services to their clients. Gilchrists can improve its practice and increase its market share by increasing the number of employees especially during the peak season. Improvements on technology will help Gilchrists to serve its clients more efficiently.
In conclusion, the internship was successful, informative, and necessary for my future career. The knowledge acquired will be useful in my future examinations and practice. The skills attained will be useful in my future working experience and in my personal life. The experiences at Gilchrists brought both positive and negative emotions. My attitude towards accounting as a career, Gilchrists, its clients, and external environment was positive by the end of the internship. Some of the challenges that I experienced during the internship include balancing my class work with the responsibilities in the office. Communicating and interacting with people from diverse backgrounds was also a challenge. However, I was able to overcome the challenges and learn from the internship.
David, S, S. (2010). Writing Learning Objectives: Beginning With the End in Mind. Retrieved 15 September 2011 from
Gilchrists Chartered Certified Accountants. (2011). About Us. Retrieved 15 September 2011 from http://www.gilchrists.com/
Appendix 1: Organizational Structure
Appendix 2: Email Example
Appendix 3: Compliments slips
Internship Review 7
My Church Volunteering: Written Paper on my Church Volunteering Duties and Experiences
This is an outline of my volunteer work in our church aimed at supporting community welfare. The project for volunteer work involves membership in a church committee that offers assistance to women and children in our community who are subject to social, marital, economic, and other challenges. The outline spells out my reasons for selecting the project for volunteer work and the project’s relevance to several social welfare and civil rights provisions and issues, including social voluntarism, the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, morality approach, and women and children’s rights.
Selection of the Civic Objective
The project of my volunteer work in our church involves active membership in a church committee involved in the offer of reasonable and logistical assistance to women and children in our local community who have social, marital, economic, and other problems. The committee seeks women and children in abusive homes and marital relationships, economic problems, et cetera, and provides them with help to alleviate their challenges. Such help involves recommendations for government and charity assistance in social programs, education assistance, access to legal services, humanitarian services, and any other necessary and practical assistance (Wilson & Dilulio, 2007, p. 104-107).
Several experiences in my work and life have influenced my selection of this project for volunteer work in our church. I grew up in a neighbourhood where some of my peers and their families could not afford basic life necessities, including education, food, family love and warmth, shelter, and clothing. Some of the reasons for these deficiencies in their lives included the lack of parental love, domestic violence, single motherhood, and being orphans and homeless. In my occupation as a counselor, I also encounter children and women who are subject to similar socioeconomic disadvantages. These experiences are negative, but they have influenced my decision to volunteer in church for the committee’s activities. This decision is also ethical on a personal level, as I consider women’s and children’s welfare as a matter of responsibility for both the community and its individuals. I also consider that each individual has a role in all issues’ leadership to ascertain community welfare (Wilson & Dilulio, 2007, p. 506-518). Both groups’ socioeconomic welfare is crucial for the larger community’s wellbeing as they represent an important ingredient in all social institutions and dimensions, including the future, education, population growth, health, and socioeconomic development.
Civic Project Objective
Voluntarism involves the offer of personal skills, services, and effort in advancing community and others’ welfare without direct compensation. In any civil society, humans are interdependent, meaning that no single individual is self-sufficient. All individuals in any civil society also display different levels of capacity to satisfy individual needs, based on monetary, social, and other wealth at their disposal. Individuals without some or most of such capacities/resources need others’ assistance to complement their welfare, and in some cases, such individuals are unable to compensate for such assistance. This is the foundation of voluntarism and individual citizens’ roles in social/human need in any civil society. Individual citizens’ voluntarism serves to offer others their needs in exchange for their potential in complementing their own using others’ distinct abilities (Young, n.d., p. 3-5).
Different individuals complement different needs for others based on their distinct capacities and resources. Such voluntarism acknowledges individual incapacities for self-sufficiency and serves as the foundation of socialization in civil societies. Gender/race issues are the focus of cultural, historical, and constitutional provisions in endeavors to guarantee balanced and optimum welfare for all. Constitutional and cultural provisions acknowledge differences among individuals, races, and genders in providing that such differences should not apply as bases for discriminative regard (Wilson & Dilulio, 2007, p. 104-107, 515-518). Constitutions seek to enable social/cultural harmony through provisions for equality, non-discriminative regard, and against other inconveniences based on individual, cultural, and historical differences and traits in a civil society.
The Project’s Relations to The Declaration of Independence
Certain provisions and objectives in the 1776 Declaration of Independence are relevant for this project. The Declaration sought to pronounce 13 U.S. states’ disassociation from British colonization based on their desire to guarantee certain civil rights for citizens. The Declaration’s foundation was all individuals’ equality in civil societies. It recognized all individuals’ freedoms/rights to life, search for happiness, and general social liberty. It also defined governments’ responsibilities in advancing individuals’ welfare and rights in civil societies. The Declaration advocated for all civil societies’ social groups’ rights and liberties to pursue happiness based on their objectives/desires, and proposed that prevalent socioeconomic circumstances should not threaten such groups’ realizations of such desires or progress towards them (Wilson & Dilulio, 2007, p. 17-24). This project aligns with the Declaration’s provisions in several ways. First, the committee seeks to ascertain women’s and children’s welfare as rightful and deserving members of the society, equally with others.
The church committee’s activities in offering logistical and other assistance to disadvantaged women and children seeks to upgrade their lives to standard social levels, similar to others’. The committee’s activities also seek to guarantee disadvantaged women and children’s civil and social liberties in the offer of logistical, legal, and other assistance to better their socioeconomic circumstances and lives. The committee acknowledges such disadvantaged groups’ undeserved socioeconomic circumstances and seeks to rectify them to upgrade their lives to others’ standards in our civil society. By targeting disadvantaged children and women for help, the church committee recognizes limitations from their socioeconomic circumstances in the search for happiness, and seeks to rectify them (Wilson & Dilulio, 2007, p. 18-34). The committee’s activities agree with the Declaration’s implications that some individuals/groups’ disadvantages threatened overall civil society welfare. This is an alignment of the committee’s activities and objectives with the 1776 Declaration’s aims.
The Project’s significance to Provisions in the U.S. Constitution
The U.S. Constitution offers laws and guidelines for civil life, including groups’ and individuals’ entitlements. One of the main tenets on whose basis it offers such laws is equality for all in its civil society, irrespective of sex, age, and race. The Constitution also spells out some basic liberties, services, and rights that it defines for all its citizens regardless of sex/gender, race, and age. These include decency of life, basic education, and access to and use of government amenities and services. The Constitution seeks to assure such rights and services for women, children, and the poor, as for men, adults, and the rich (Wilson & Dilulio, 2007, p. 30-35, 38-40). It implies a responsibility for disadvantaged sections in civil society, including the poor, the orphaned, and the abused, on the general community, society, and the government. In consequence, the Constitution defines obligations and roles for civil societies, the government, and the wider community to act in support of such disadvantaged groups.
Women and children in the civil society, who are subject to abject poverty, unavailability of government service, lack of education, inhospitable or unsuitable family life and security circumstances, et cetera represent instances of negations of these provisions. The church committee’s activities in seeking out and offering logistical and other help to such groups thus serve to assure the Constitution’s provisions, through creating platforms for addressing their inconveniences and deficient socioeconomic circumstances. The committee’s activities constitute a way for the observance of the Constitution’s obligations for the community. The Constitution seeks secure socioeconomic conditions for all citizens, irrespective of age, gender, and race, and places a responsibility on social communities and the government for such provision (Wilson & Dilulio, 2007, p. 30-35, 38-40). The church committee’s activities serve to fulfill this responsibility for the disadvantaged, in this case women and children, in supporting equality among citizens.
Moral Absolutism and the Project
Moral absolutism involves a philosophical approach in the judgment of behavior in which certain actions are either right or wrong, in singular fashion, depending on references to defined laws/values. This approach contrasts with relativism, in which the rightness/wrongness of behavior hinges on individual value patterns, contextual circumstances, intended result, and actual result evaluations. Moral absolutism in the context of the church committee’s activities in assisting women and children applies based on moral responsibility in action to address the groups’ socioeconomic and other inconveniences in society (Lau, 2011, p. 162-168). Women and children who are subject to such inconveniences in society as domestic abuse/violence, poverty, unavailability or incapacity to access government services, including education and health, indecent shelter, lack of food, et cetera are in need. Humans, by nature, are social, interdependent, and complementary. They are also compassionate, based on emotions, and intelligent, enabling personal conception and evaluation of others’ feelings and needs.
Lack of action among individuals in the context of a civil society to address conceived needs and deficiencies among fellow humans thus constitutes violation of and insensitivity to basic human nature. Inaction to support fellow humans out of socioeconomic inconveniences in civil society would thus be wrong, singularly, irrespective of intention, values, motive, result, or context. The church committee’s activities in offering logistical aid for women and children with socioeconomic and other disadvantages in civil society apply on this basis. Disregard for and ignorance of such disadvantaged groups’ plight among the church community and the civil society would be a human crime (Lau, 2011, p. 162-168). It would be plain wrong for the rest of the community to disregard such groups’ inconveniences irrespective of prevalent contexts or intended results. Moral relativism is invalid in this case, and the church committee’s activities are necessary to support general social welfare.
Women’s Equal Rights and the Project
Women’s equal rights in the context of civil life involve non-application, non-utilization, and non-reference to bias in reaching decisions and judgments that involve the two genders. They entail application of same standards in actions, regard, and behavior towards both genders. Women’s rights have assumed significance in civil societies due to popular regard in the past for women as weaker in comparison to men. Such regard has influenced women’s standing, responsibility spectrums, and positions in global civil societies. As international democratic principles guarantee, one basic tenet of civil society and decent human life is equality for all irrespective of natural differences (Wilson & Dilulio, 2007, p. 135-138). The U.S. Constitution spells out some basic liberties, services, and rights that it says apply for all its citizens regardless of gender, race, and age.
Equal rights for women in civil societies constitute an important platform for non-discrimination, non-alienation, and equal regard among both genders in socioeconomic issues. Women’s equal rights are important in decisions in the provision of and access to government/public services, in civil relationships, and in the provision of amenities with particular significance to their gender. This means that women’s equal rights are determinant in health services, school services/education, socioeconomic services, in marriages, et cetera. Women’s rights attract special significance as women’s roles in some vital socioeconomic and community aspects are paramount, such as in procreation and child care. Women’s positions and responsibilities in civil societies demand special guarantees in regard to their relations with the male gender for general community wellbeing.
It is in this context that women’s living, socioeconomic, and general social lives require security from violation, ignorance, insensitivity, and disregard. The church committee’s activities serve to entrench women’s rights through offering them opportunities to address insensitivities, violations, and welfare disregard in their lives (Wilson & Dilulio, 2007, p. 135-141). By identifying women’s plight in the civil society and offering logistical and other support to address them, the church committee’s activities seek to sponsor and entrench women’s equal rights in our society. The committee’s volunteer activities serve as an avenue for the enhancement and observance of women’s equal rights for their individual and the general community’s wellbeing.
Children’s Rights and the Project
Children’s rights involve entitlements and guarantees that laws and authorities prescribe in civil societies to safeguard children from abuse and various welfare threats. They involve prescriptions of behavior towards and treatment of individuals of small age, taking into account their vulnerabilities. Children present civil societies with several opportunities for the future, and care and nurture are important in their treatment. Civil societies’ children’s rights seek to guarantee convenient environments for children’s nurture to develop and mature into capable and knowledgeable individuals with suitable potential to safeguard and sustain their own and general social order (Wilson & Dilulio, 2007, p. 515-519). Invariably, children’s rights involve entitlements to education, appropriate and safe family environments, child care services, protection from abuse, suitable maturity and nurture processes, and society love/care. These conditions constitute basic needs for children’s development and maturity into responsible adulthoods. Violations or insufficiencies in such settings present societies with potential for irresponsible adults.
It is the obligation of communities, civil settings, and governments to offer and support facilitative nurture environments for children’s maturity and development into suitable adulthood. Such obligations involve identifications, look-outs, and rectifications of defective environments in civil societies that threaten such maturity and development. This is the setting for the church committee’s activities in offering reasonable and logistical assistance to women and children in our local community who have social, marital, economic, and other problems. The committee’s activities involve seeking women and children in abusive homes and marital relationships, economic problems, et cetera, and providing them with help to alleviate their challenges. It recommends such individuals for government and charity assistance in social programs, assists their education, and offers legal, humanitarian, and any other necessary and practical assistance (Wilson & Dilulio, 2007, p. 515-521).
Women are an important inclusion in this project for children’s welfare as their roles as mothers form vital environments in children’s development. In this respect, the committee’s assistance to women, especially those in abusive marital settings, poverty, and other socioeconomic inconveniences serves as an important avenue in assuring children’s rights.
My volunteer work in our church involves membership to a project committee that seeks women and children with economic, marital, social, and other challenges in the community and offers reasonable and logistical assistance. Such help involves recommendations for government and charity assistance in social programs, education assistance, access to legal services, humanitarian services, and any other necessary and practical assistance. My voluntary role derives from consideration that each individual has a role in all issues’ leadership to ascertain community welfare, and that welfare for both groups is crucial for overall community wellbeing. The project aligns with provisions in the Declaration of Independence for government and community obligations to sponsor all individuals’ rights in civil societies. It also aligns with U.S. Constitutional allowances for equality among all citizens irrespective of natural differences.
The committee’s activities are relevant to the moral absolutist concept that lack of action among individuals in the context of a civil society to address conceived needs and deficiencies among fellow humans would constitute negation of and insensitivity to basic human nature. They are also relevant in the context of children’s and women’s equality rights, through identifying both groups’ plights in the civil society and offering logistical and other support to address them. This serves to sponsor and entrench both groups’ rights in society. I regard my personal volunteer role and the overall church committee’s activities as noble, given that they seek to ascertain the entitlements of social groups that are helpless without demanding compensation. Playing due roles and offering my effort and services in the committee feel satisfying and motivating, in the knowledge that my position is beneficial to needy individuals in our society and for the advancement of our society’s welfare. I feel proud of my position and service in the committee and feel motivated to continue serving my society.
Lau, J. (2011). An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Creativity: think More, Think Better. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA
Wilson, J., & Dilulio, J. (2007). American Government: Institutions and Policies. Cengage Learning, Stamford, USA
Young, R. (n.d.). Volunteerism: Benefits, Incidence, Organizational Models, and Participation in the Public Sector. University of South Carolina, Institute for Public Service and Policy Research, retrieved on October 24, 2011 from: http://www.ipspr.sc.edu/publication/Volunteerism%20FINAL.pdf
My Church Volunteering Duties and Experiences 11