Minimizing Energy losses in surface oil and gas facilities
Requirement for the surface facilities for the steam based includes; treatment for boiler feed water generation, water pipelines, produced water recycle, steam generation plants, and wastewater treatment units in conjunction with oil treatment, gas treatment units, gathering systems, well pads, and other utilities and offsite parts (ISO 13702 1999). These facilities intended for in-situ burning processes needs steam generation on a smaller scale, produced gas treatment, oil treatment, water treatment air compression units, and other utilities and offsite units. This paper is much concerned about facilities for steam based and in-situ combustion, oil recovery methods. The surface facilities may possibly consist of carbon capture sour gas treatment, equestration units’, cogeneration units for electric power, and s sulfur recovery, being inclusive of the general project.
Thus, the process technique of surface facilities includes process combination and energy regulation to reduce general expenses of steam and power production and increase heat recuperation making out the costs of operating between capital and trade-offs, and reducing the general heat loss and utility heating or cooling. Consequence and risk studies according to Seveso-II (2002) are often referred to as worst-case assessments.
Natural gas covers for 29 percent of the total energy supply in United States’ (2009) and plays a significant role in satisfying our energy needs.1 Although the U.S. at present generates approximately 21 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) in a years, other sources of supply have to be brought in for three major reasons. Primarily traditional sources have been exhausted and new sources must be initiated to cover for this loss. Second, use of natural gas is projected to increase since natural gas taken by many as a necessary part of any tactic to implement optional forms of energy to fight global warming. Third, to attain the national goal of increased energy independence, additional energy generation is required because U.S. production is not enough to achieve demand.
The major sources of air emissions (continuous or non-continuous) as a result from onshore activities comprise the use of compressors, and heat generation, and combustion sources from power pumps, and reciprocating engines (boilers, turbines, and other engines); emissions as a result from venting and flaring of fugitive emissions; and hydrocarbons
All reasonable effort s should be made to increase energy efficiency and modify facilities to reduce energy use. The general goal should be to decrease air emissions and assess less costly alternatives for minimizing emissions that are technically viable. The other suggestions on the management of energy conservation and greenhouse gases are noted in the General EHS Guidelines.
Energy optimization is a significant part of surface facilities process method. The following are general approaches to optimize the energy;
Calculate and measure the thermodynamic shortcomings of the treatment procedures. The actual energy usage has to be higher than the thermodynamic minimum Select procedures with lower thermodynamic lowest energy needed.
Select the surface process unit operating situations go hand in hand with the reservoir working conditions. Thus, the exchange of heat will be reduced. Any heat exchange will have efficiency limitation owing to entropy alterations.
reduce transportation of hot liquid for treatment to keep away from insulation losses
Calculate if straight contact heat exchange can be attained as it will be more resourceful than indirect heat exchange.
If cogeneration is essential, ensure efficiency of fuel by heat recovery steam production.
Keep away from too much production of low-level heat because of seasonal changes of ambient temperatures; less heat from process cooling will have to be detached expending energy in air or water-cooling.
Make the most of heat combination between hot and cold process streams to reduce outside cooling or heating.
Choose equipment like steam pumps, heater turbine s and boilers, with increased efficiencies.
Consider waste heat energy recovery units, If low level heat generation could not be evaded
Thermodynamics gives less energy necessities and most thermodynamic efficiency for a separation procedure, the minimum thermodynamic work needed for separating a uniform mixture in to pure products at stable temperature is given by the rise of Gibb’s free energy of the products over the input (Semiat 8196).
Venting and Flaring
Related gas brought to the surface with crude oil process of oil generation is at times disposed of at onshore facilities by flaring or venting to the environment. This exercise is now extensively seen to be a waste of a valuable supply, as well as an important source of GHG eliminations. Nevertheless, venting or flaring are also significant safety procedures used on onshore oil and gas facilities to make sure gas and other hydrocarbons are carefully disposed of in the time of power, equipment failure, or emergency.
Steps consistent with the Global Gas Venting and Flaring Reduction Voluntary Standard (part of the World Bank Group’s Global Gas Flaring Reduction Public-Private Partnership (World Bank Group 2004) should be taken on when considering flaring and venting alternatives for onshore activities. The standard gives direction on how to remove or attain reductions in the f venting and flaring of natural gas.
Constant venting of associated gas is not seen as current accepted exercise and should be evaded. The related gas stream should be directed to an efficient flare method, even though constant flaring of gas should be evaded if viable options are available. Before adopting flaring, viable options for the use of the gas should be calculated to the maximum point possible and incorporated into production method.
Other options may entail export of the gas to a neighboring facility or to market , gas injection for reservoir pressure maintenance, gas utilization for on-site energy requirements, enhanced recovery using gas lift, or gas for instrumentation. An evaluation of options should be effectively documented and filed. If none of the alternative courses is currently viable, then steps to reduce are volumes should be assessed and flaring should be seen as a temporary resolution, with the eradication of continuous production associated gas flaring as the ideal objective.
In the situation of a need or equipment failure, or plant trouble conditions, supplementary gas should not be vented but rather be sent to a resourceful flare gas system. Emergency venting may be essential under particular field events where flaring of the gas stream is impossible, or where a flare gas method is unavailable, such as a lack of enough hydrocarbon content in the gas stream to support burning or a lack of enough gas pressure to let it to go into the flare system. Explanation for not including a gas flaring system should be completely documented before an emergency gas venting facility is well thought-out.
To reduce flaring situations as a because of equipment failure and plant upsets, plant consistency should be 95 percent and equipment sparing and plant turn down should be provided for in order.
If flaring is essential, non-stop upgrading of flaring through putting up of best practices and new technologies should be established. The following control steps and pollution prevention ought to be taken into consideration for gas flaring: Putting in place of source gas reduction steps to high extent possible;
Use of resourceful flare information, and optimization of the number and size of burning nozzles;
Making best use of flare burning efficiency by controlling and optimizing flare fuel / air stream flow rates to make sure the right ratio of support stream to flare stream;
Reducing flaring from wash out and pilots, without compromising security, through steps comprising;, flare gas recovery units, inert wash out gas, setting up of wash out gas reduction equipments, and setting up of conservation pilots, soft seat valve technology where suitable;
Reducing danger of pilot blow-out by making enough exit velocity and giving wind guards; Use of a dependable direct ignition system;
Setting up high reliable instrument pressure protection systems, where suitable, to minimize over pressure situations and evade or minimize flaring events.
Reducing fluid carry-over and entrainment in the gas flare stream with a appropriate fluid separation system;
Reducing flame lift off
Using flare to manage odor and visible smoke emissions Constructing flare at a secure distance from local communities and the labor force including workforce accommodation units;
Putting in place of burner replacement and maintenance programs to make sure non-stop total flare efficiency;
Metering of the flare gas.
To reduce flaring situations because of equipment failure and plant breakdown plant dependability should be 95 percent and provision are supposed to be made for plant turn down and equipment sparing protocols. Flaring quantities for brand facilities should be anticipated during the primary commissioning time so that fixed quantity flaring objectives can be made up. The quantity of gas flared for all flaring events should be wrote down and reported.
Cooling and Heating Systems
Water preservation opportunities given in the General EHS rule should be well thought-out for oil and gas facility cooling and heating systems. If cooling water is to be used, it should be given out to surface waters in a place that will let utmost mixing and cooling of the thermal plume to make sure that the temperature is ranging 3 degrees Celsius of ambient temperature at the edge of the distinct mixing region or within 100 meters of the discharge place
If biocides and or additional chemical additives are used in the cooling water system, concern should be given to residual result at discharge using methods such as risk-based assessment.
Fire and Explosion
Onshore oil and gas production facilities should be designed, built, and used as per international standards10 for the control and prevention of fire and explosion risks (Ontario Fire Marshal 2010). The major effective method of stopping fires and explosions at oil and gas facilities is by controlling the discharge of combustible substances and gas, and the early disruption and detection of leaks (Wormald n.p). Possible ignition sources should be kept to a lowest and sufficient isolation distance between possible ignition sources and combustible material, and between processing facilities and nearby buildings11, should be in place. Facilities should be categorized into risk areas, as per international good practice,12 and according to possibility of discharge of combustible gases and fluid (IFC 16).
All equipment ought to be scrutinized on a daily basis for any of leakage, with corrective step taken, as required, to make sure the equipment keep on operating in a secure and environmentally satisfactory way. All disposal and injection sites supplied with tubing and packed should occasionally oversee the tubing covering annulus pressure in order check the reliability of the packer and tubing. If a well is not finished with a packer, alternative techniques should be implemented, such as temperature logs or tracer logs to make sure the liquids imputed are appropriately controlled and are going into an appropriate disposal formation. Rate of testing depends on the working state. Like, if an area has many corrosion breakdowns, then testing for the mechanical reliability of the well should be regular (API 12).
Interstage Cooling (IC) is a smart alternative for upgrading the efficiency of the HTGR PCS. As extra phases are added, the standard temperature over which injected energy is increased remains higher and/or the standard temperature over which rejection energy is decreased remains lower. If only these were the single effect of the IC, the cycle efficiency would all the time raise with more phases. However, with each extra phase, pressure go down is present.
Additional inter-phase pumping must be completed to cover up for this extra pressure drop. Since the pumps aren’t 100% competent, in the end the entropy loss at some stage in an additional pumping operation results in a lesser overall energy input than without that phase. When this happens, the cycle efficiency in reality reduces. When cycle efficiency upgrading is not justified for the extra cost, the extra phase can be evaluated against attainable component performances.
Intercooler boosts the cycle effectiveness because of reducing the temperature input to the compressor. One intercooler upgrades the cycle effectiveness by approximately 3 %. Once the primary intercooler is used, the second and third intercooler gives much slighter efficiency boosts (Barner 2006).
Major ordinary type of cooling equipment employs a compression cooling cycle. Subsequent to the refrigerant being evaporated through heating from the cooling load, the steam is compressed. This increases the temperature of the gas well beyond ambient temperature, so the heat in the gas can be extracted by cooling it with water or air at ambient temperature. Extracting heat leads the compressed gas to condense back to a warm fluid.
Warm refrigerant liquid coming from condenser is directed into the cooling place by a flow control machine of some kind. The pressure in the cooling place is determined by the suction of the compressor and by the rate of cooling. Because the evaporator pressure is, lower than the condenser pressure, a small part of the liquid refrigerant spark into steam when it goes through the control machine. This sparking cools the remaining fluid to the temperature of the evaporator. The liquid refrigerant is prepared to take up heat from the cooling load, going through the phase (Wulfinghoff 1300).
Compression cooling method may as well have accomplice devices or specialized qualities, like; hot gas bypass circuits, , purge units, crankcase heaters valves for controlling the flow of refrigerant to different parts of a coil and many others. The majority of these accessories are particular to specific models, types, or system models.
The temperature differential between condenser and cooling pace is normally higher than those of the real cooling load. This is an issue of great attention, since the temperature differential is the main theoretical aspect that confines COP. As a reasonable example of how the temperature differential comes up, the example of an air-cooled water chiller used for air conditioning is taken into consideration.
Gas Turbines Energy Losses
Gas compressor engines gets their power from burning fuel in a combustion compartment and using the rapid flowing burning gases to move turbine in almost the same manner as the high pressure vapor moves a vapor turbine. It has the second turbine stand-in as an air compressor put on the similar shaft. The air compressor takes in air, compresses it, and provides it at high pressure into the burning engines hence increase the strength of the flames burning.
It is an encouraging response mechanism. As the gas engines speeds up, it also makes the turbine to run hence forcing a lot of air through the burning compartment, which on the other hand boost s the combustion speed of the fuel sending extra high pressure burning gases into the gas compressor raising its momentum more. An exit not controlled is taken care of by controls on the fuel provider line that minimizes the quantity of fuel imputed to the compressors hence minimizing its speed.
Gas turbine uses reasonable quantities of power just to move its turbine. with all cyclic heat turbines, a highest working temperature in the mechanism entails bigger effectiveness (Carnot’s Law), but in a compressor it too entails that extra energy is lost as misuse heat via the burning exhaust gases whose temperatures are usually over 1,000°C . As a result simple cycle compressor effectiveness is low. For heavy machines, design effectiveness varies between 30% and 40%. (The effectiveness of aero machines is in varying of 38% and 42% whereas a low power micro turbine attains simply 18% to 22%). Although raising the firing temperature raises the yield power at a given pressure proportion, there is too a sacrifice of effectiveness as a result of rise in losses because of the cooling air necessary to uphold the turbine mechanism at sensible working temperatures. Compression raises the air temperature so that the air at the discharge of compressor is at a higher temperature and pressure (Brooks 2).
Gases going through a perfect gas turbine experience three thermodynamic procedures. These are isobaric compression, isentropic (constant pressure) burning and isentropic expansion. Jointly, these make up the Brayton cycle.
In a practical gas compressor, gases are primarily speeded up in either an axial compressor or a Centrifugal. They gases are subsequently slowed by use of diverging nozzle called a diffuser; these procedures raise the temperature and pressure of the process. In a perfect method, this is isentropic. However, in practical, energy is lost to heat, because of turbulence and friction. Gases then go from where it diffuses to a burning chamber, or same machine, where heat is increased. In a perfect method, this happens at steady pressure (isobaric heat addition). Since there is no vary in pressure the particular of the gases rises. In practical circumstances these procedures normally go together with a small loss in pressure, because of friction. Lastly, this larger volume of gases are extended and sped by nozzle lead vanes before energy is taken out by a turbine. In an perfect system, these gases are long-drawn-out isentropically and come out of the turbine at their initial pressure. Practically, this procedure is not isentropic as energy is once more lost to turbulence and friction.
Recent research by Bolszo and McDonnell (2009) on emissions optimization of a biodiesel fired 30-kW gas compressor shows that biodiesel liquid properties is a consequence of inferior atomization and prolonged evaporation periods in contrast to hydrocarbon diesel. It emerged that the smallest amount NOx emission levels attained for biodiesel goes beyond the least attained for diesel, and that optimizing the fuel injection procedure will upgrade the biodiesel NOx emissions (Fagbenle 38).
Theoretical research was recently doner by Glaude et al. (2009) to elucidate the NOx index of biodiesels in gas compressor taking natural gas and conventional petroleum gas oils as reference fuels. The adiabatic flame temperature was seen as the main determinant of NOx emissions in gas compressors and used as a solution for NOx emission.
API, Environmental Protection for Onshore Oil and Gas Production Operations and Leases. API Recommended Practice 51rfirst Edition, July 2009
Chang H. Oh Robert Barner, Effects of Interstage Cooling on Brayton Cycle Efficiency: ANS Annual Meeting, 2006. Web. http://www.inl.gov/technicalpublications/Documents/3479831.pdf
C. D. Bolszo and V. G. McDonell, Emissions optimization of a biodiesel fired gas turbine, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol 32, Issue 2, 2009, Pages 2949-2956.
EIA, Offshore Gross Withdrawals of Natural GasEIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2010
Frank. Brooks, GE Gas Turbine Performance Characteristics,’ New York: GE Power Systems Schenectady.
ISO 13702, Petroleum and natural gas industries – Control and mitigation of fires and explosions on offshore production installations – Requirements and guidelines, the Int. Org. for Standardization. 1999.
Mercx, W. P. M., Modeling and experimental research into gas explosions. Overall report of the MERGE project, CEC contract: STEP-CT-0111 (SSMA), 1994. Print.
Ontario Fire Marshal, 2010, Sunrise Propane explosion investigation report, inv. no: 212-007 2008.
Raphael Semiat, Energy Issues in Desalination Processes, Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 42, No. 22, 2008, pp 8193-8201.
Richard ‘Layi Fagbenle (2010). Exergy and Environmental Considerations in Gas Turbine Technology and Applications, Gas Turbines, Gurrappa Injeti (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-146-6, InTech
Pierre A. Glaude, Rene Fournet, Roda Bounaceur and Michel Moliere, (2009). Gas Turbines and Biodiesel: A clarification of the relative NOx indices of FAME, Gasoil and Natural Gas
Seveso-II Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances, The European Commission,2002.
Wulfinghoff, ENERGY EFFICIENCY MANUAL: Compression Cooling’ Reference note 32, 1999. Web. http://www.energybooks.com/pdf/D1132.pdf
World Bank Group. 2004. A Voluntary Standard for Global Gas Flaring and Venting Reduction. Global Gas Flaring Reduction (GGFR) Public-Private Partnership. Report No. 4. Washington, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / World Bank.
Wormald, Fire Protection Solutions for the Oil & Gas Industry Reduce the risks associated with highly flammable and explosive products, 2009. web. http://www.wormald.com.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/153955/Wormald_ResourcesBrochure_Dec09_EmailCopy.pdf
Proposal Title: No More Plastic Bags
Description: Making the world a better place by eliminating plastic bags from the system, and replacing them with biodegradable paper bags or grocery trolley.
Plastic bags present different types of dangers to the environment and humans. In their research, Fjed, Eisenberg and Compton found out that the production process emits voluminous gaseous wastes into the environment (69). The relative chemicals have adverse effects on rainfall cycles, vegetation and water quality. Also, poor disposal of these bags contributes to hygiene problems. In this regard, littering and poor disposal leads to blockage of drainage and sanitary systems. Statistical evidence ascertains that this contributes to increased incidences of waterborne illnesses amongst populations (Fjed et al 70).
Notably, the process of manufacturing plastic bags consumes a significant percentage of natural resources. In this respect, it culminates in depletion of important resources that could have otherwise been used in other areas of development. Research ascertains that plastic wastes constitute a significant 10 percent of the wastes disposed along coastlines (Bishop 112). They lead to death of aquatic animals from suffocation. When consumed by livestock and wildlife, they lead to deaths. This results from chocking and digestive complications.
At this point, it cannot be disputed that plastic bags are dangerous to humans, the environment and animals. Their effects include environmental pollution, human, and wildlife deaths and water related illnesses. For this reason, they should be eliminated from the system. This is likely to reduce relative deaths, enhance the wellbeing of the environment and save the natural resource base. Undoubtedly, this will make the world a better place. They should be replaced with biodegradable paper bags or grocery trolleys.
Bishop, Paul. Pollution prevention: Fundamentals and practice. USA: Waveland, 2004. Print.
Fjeld Robert, Eisenberg Norman and Compton, Keith. Quantitative environmental risk analysis for human health. New York: Wiley- Interscience, 2007. Print.
Internal/External Environmental Factors that Motivate Employees
within the Work Center
Motivation is an important factor that determines who individuals perceive their responsibilities. When it comes to the work environment, this is likely to improve productivity or otherwise lead to poor services. There are many instances where organizations have either made positive progress due to the motivating measures put in place or made losses because of lack of motivating factors. However, it is important to note that the work environment play significant roles into how the employees are motivated. The work environment can be either internal or external. There are also many things that motivate different employees and all mangers have the responsibility to find them out. This research seeks to study the diverse internal or external environmental factors that work to motivate employees in an organization. This research will use the descriptive survey design to meet the objective of finding out the factors that motivate the employees into high productivity. A sample of 50 employees within one organization will be used in this survey with a well-structured questionnaire to help collect data that will later be analyzed to give a conclusion.
Motivation is s psychological process that determines different people’s attitudes, perception and behavior. Employee motivation is an essential thing that has continued to be a problem for business managers and leaders. A number of businesses have ended up registering losses due to the unmotivated employees who are unable to take their assignments seriously. Note that every manager works towards utilizing the available resources to make maximum profits. Many indicators like absenteeism and low work morale characterize unmotivated workforce, things that lead to the low quality products. On the other hand, when employees are motivated, they do more in terms of coming up with innovative ways of improving production and are always persistence in all business undertakings (MacDonald, 1996).
Many researches that have been done on employee motivation; however, there is need to find out the specific factors that motivate individual employees within a work center. Different businesses or work centers will register various outputs depending on how the employees are motivated. Nevertheless, within a given work center, different employees also produce results depending on how motivated they are. This fact brings another dimension, that different employees are motivated by various factors that may be attributed to the internal or external environment of the work center. This may also explain the reason as to why employees give register certain production index as compared to the rest.
This research seeks to find out the various internal environmental factors that work to motivate the employees within a working center. Internal environmental factors are those that can be controlled by the business itself while the external environmental factors are those that are attributed to the outside forces are beyond the control of the work itself. Finding out the various environmental factors that bring motivation will be important in identifying the ways that the business managers or leaders can put in place to ensure that high quality services are rendered to the clients (Taiwo, 2009). The fact that different employees may be motivated by different factors, this research would be important in doing self-evaluation into how the performance has been for an individual business.
Managers of the business would easily identify contribution that employee motivation or lack of motivation has contributed to the success or failure of the business.
In order to understand motivation, there is need to realize that it is closely related to individual behaviors. According to Luthan (1998), does not just occur to an individual employee within an organization, it is brought about through a number of environmental factors within and without the organization. He emphasizes that that just as the cognitive processes; motivation can never be seen and can only be realized through behavior of the different people. Therefore, there is a need to look into the behavioral aspect of the employees to find out how motivated they are. Importantly, the managers should also understand that the motivation amongst the employees could only be understood by there are deliberate measures to address the needs and desires of the employees. Minner, Ebrahimi, and Watchel (1995) emphasize on the fact that motivation can only be achieved when needs, incentives, and drives of the employees are adequately addressed.
Kohun (1992) defines work environment as the totality of the forces that come into play within and between all the employees, including the activities that take place within the business. Therefore, it is paramount that the manner in which work environment is organized can influence how motivated the employees are when undertaking different assignments within an organization. An environment that is organized in such a way that there is a free flow of ideas and knowledge works to motivate all the employees to bring innovation and fresh ideas to improve production. To make this come to a reality, the management has the duty to identify those factors within the employment situation as well as the psychological factors that may motivate the workers within the organization. Failure to do this stands to discourage and de-motivate the employees due the feeling of unmet needs or desires by the activities undertaken at the work center. It thus known that the work environment can influence productivity of the employees either positively or negatively, but only depending on how it has been organized.
Different organizations have diverse ways of motivating their employees. An organization that can identify the needs of individual employees will work on how to motivate the employees by putting in place measures to help produce the best out of them. This is the best way to ensure that the best professionals are retained within the work center. Many organizations have lost their best employees to other competitors by not putting in place the necessary motivation strategies. Salaries, wages and terms of service are the major part of motivating the employees (MacDonald, 1996). Failure of looking into this aspect may lead to the many employees looking for other organizations where there are better terms of service. Furthermore, deliberate measure to train the employees can work to motivate them into better services for the good of the organization. Nevertheless, there are other employees who are motivated by the job satisfaction and the how the information flows within the organization. To such employees, a free environment makes them more productive in terms of how they put in practice their innovative ideas (Taiwo, 2009).
This research will use a descriptive mode of study, as it would collect the actual descriptive and actual information that give the situation within the work center. The only way to know the actual situation is to formulate a survey design that tries to find what is happening within an organization and then use such data to produce information that can be utilized in formulating a conclusion. The research will target 50 employees of only one organization. This sample will be important to find out the perception that individual employees have on environmental factors that contribute to their motivation and productivity within the organization.
A questionnaire will be used to collect the data from the sample population with all the questions modified to meet the objectives of this research. The questionnaire will have different part with the first part asking about the age, sex, profession, marital status, and experience of an employee. The second part will be divided into three parts with the first part seeking to find motivation of an individual employee. The responses o this part will range from Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. The second part will seek to find out the job satisfaction of the employees while the last part will entail many items that measure the organization’s commitment into motivating the employees within the organization. It will also include a question on the external environmental factors that work to motivate or discourage the employees. The data acquired will be used to analyze and come up with the correct situation on how the internal and external environmental factors work to motivate and improve productivity.
Luthan, F. (1998). Organisational Behaviour. 8th ed. Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill.
MacDonald, R. (1996). Labors of love: Voluntary working in a depressed economy. Journal of
Social Policy 25 (1), 19-38.
Kohun, S. (1992). Business Environment. Ibadan: University Press Kyko OC (2005).
Instrumentation: Know Yourself and Others Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (2003) 3rd editions: Harloa Pearson Educational Limited.
Miner, B., Ebrahimi, B. and Wachtel, M. (1995). How deficiency in management contributes to
the United States’ competiveness problem and what can be done about it? Human Resource Management. Fall, p. 363.
Taiwo, S. (2009). The influence of work environment on workers’ productivity: A case of
selected oil and gas industry in Lagos, Nigeria. African Journal of Business Management Vol. 4 (3), pp. 299-307, March 2010. Retrieved August 14, 2013 from http://www.academicjournals.org/AJBM
INTERNAL/EXTERNAL FACTORS THAT MOTIVATE EMPLOYEES 5
Running head: ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS THAT MOTIVATE EMPLOYEES 1
Plausible methods of e-waste recycling
What is e-waste?
E-wastes can be defined as the disposal of electronic gadgets suchas televisions, cell phones, mp3 players and computers. Most of the hazardous wastes in the world are produced by industrialized countries. When consumers from industrializedcountries recycle or discard their electronic gadgets, they fail to think on what will happen to the old televisions orphones. It should be noted that it is expensive to recycle e-waste in a manner that is safe both to the environment and human beings.
Rather than being recycled or dismantled domestically, e-wastes are in most cases shipped to countries where environmental and labor laws are not strict. In this case, e-wastes can either be shipped through brokers or directly to the country of destiny. In a report by Basel Action , Lortch argues that there is little option on disposing e-waste, but to sell computers parts as scraps to brokers who will in turn export them to different countries depending on market.
In the current market, theeconomies of e-market prefer the exportation of electronics as opposed to managing it in America. In this case, the country makes a choice between shipping e-wastes and selling it offshore and usingmoney to manage and dissemble the materials. A good business man cannot spend 4 to 5 dollars to handle and dissemble materials locally when the same material can fetch more than 3 bucks overseas. Selling the material overseas subjects companies and individualsto fewer environmentaland labor regulations.
When electronic gadgets are dismantled, workersremove gold, copper, lead and other metals with value so that they can again sell them. In the process, large amounts of toxiccompounds and heavy materials are released into the surrounding air, soil and water. This is harmful to humanhealth because the chemical substances released from these metals are toxic. Substances such as mercury are armfulto human health. It is believed that 22% of mercury consumption every year comes from electronic equipment. Mercury is specificallyhazardous because it accumulates in livingthings and then gets concentrated in the food chain. When it is combined with water, it becomes methylated mercury. Mercury can damage vital organs in human beings such as the kidney and the brain (Schackelford, 43).
The Scope of the e-waste Problem
A report released by UnitedNations Environment Program in February 2010 indicated that the amount of e-waste is likely to increase by 40 million tons annually. Trade on e-waste continue increase at an astonishing speed, hence there is need for every country to come up with morestringent enforcement and legislations. The report claims that more than 25 million personal computers and 140 million communication devices such as smart phones and cell phones were manufactured in America in 2007. The high number of manufactured and sold electronics increasesthe numberof electronics being discarded. The high number of discarded materials has led to an in creased volume of e-waste
Existing Legal Structures
Although America has tried to enact the federal laws which will regulate e-wastes, some states such as California have enacted their own laws to regulate e-waste. The American law does notcompressively addressissues of e-waste. Because the costs of recycling are certainly high, the country will continue exporting its e-waste overseas where human and environmental consequences are worse (John, 48).
Just like in America, Europe must deal with high volumes of e-wastes. Since 2002, the EU has directed thathazardous materials like mercury, lead, hexavalent chromium and cadmium completely be phased out of production. In America, RoHS is responsible for regulating substances used in the production of electronic, while WEEE deals with the regulation in the disposal of such products. The objectives cannot, however, be attained if member states act individually. The national policies on e-waste by different countries differ, and this is likely to hinder the effectiveness of e-waste management.The EU claims that there is need for a cohesive and a unified legislation, which should be implemented by all manufacturers
The main aim of the Basel Convection is to reduce the amount of e-wastes across nations. Particular, the treaty aims at reducing the movement of hazardous wastes from developed nations to developing nations. The convection was put in place in 1992 and then amended in May 1995. The law prohibits the export of hazardous wastes for any purpose from countries listed in a proposed new annex to the Convention to all other Parties of the Convention (Ogunseitan et al, 231). Although America entered into this Convection, it is yet to ratify it. America has rather entered into different bilateral agreements that govern the international movements for e-wastes. This is aimed at ensuring that the movement of e-wastes is greatly reduced and environmentally sound.
Most people throw away their electronic gadgets after they have used them, and this has been a major threat to the environment. The thrown away electronics tend to breakdown and as a result, releases substances like flame retardants, heavy metals, and other chemicals into water and soil.
To address problems associated with e-wastes, environmentalists have tried to push for laws in America and other countries across the world that would check on e-wastes. The laws will requires that manufacturing companies such as computers, cellphones, and other electronic companies recycle their e-waste. Countries such India process more than nine hundred tons of these wastes annually. However, the country has very few registered companies which can recycle e-wastes. This means that there are a lot of used gadgets which are dumped in the informal sectors. Moreover, labors and the environment are not given proper protection from toxic substances.
In America, it is alleged that more than 4.5 million tons of e-wastes are dumped in landfills annually. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), most American cities and companies export e-materials, and their toxics have been a burden in other countries. However, the government has tried to regulate dismantlers, but there are challenges associated with this. One of the major obstacles of e-waste management is that unlike other industrial pollutants, it is a post consumer generated
It should be noted that e-wastes have valuable and recoverable resources such as copper, gold, iron, aluminum and plastics. While preserving the natural resources, e-wastes need to be reused and recycled rather than dumping them into landfills. E-wastes contain hazardous substances such as mercury, chromium, beryllium and retards which are harmful to our soil and water. Servers and computers contain mercury, cadmium and chromium. LCD and flat TV screens may contain lead which is a poisonous substance. Most phone and computer manufacturing companies provide their consumers with buy-back offers, whenever they return the used gadgets. Recycling of e-wastes enables manufacturing companies to get raw materials continuously without exploiting the natural resources.
Accordingly, e-waste recycling reduces energy consumption in the country. The cost of energy required in recycling e-waste is relatively low as compared with the costs of processing and mining raw materials. For instance, recycling of aluminum will take ninety-five percent less energy than production of fresh aluminum from raw materials, and recycling of plastics can save up to 70% energy, recycling of glass up to 40% energy, while recycling of steel can save up to 60% energy ( Liu,et al, 132). Arguably, e-waste management reduces dependency on oil, reduces greenhouse emissions and reduces air pollution.
Typical steps in e-wastes recycling
Operational units should be reused by donating them to individuals who cannot afford new devices
Usable components should be repaired or refurbished
Peripherals and components should be recovered and reused
There should be safe and proper disposal of usable e-wastes without interfering with people or nearby ecosystem
Exponential growth of ewaste
E-waste has been growing at a very high rate in the current world. According to the United Nations Environment Program report, e-wastes from used computers in China will jump to 400% by 2020 down from 200% in 2000. In India, it is likely to reach 500% while disposable china phones could be 8 times higher by 2010 as compared to the 2007 level.
In 2007, Americans owned more than three billion electronic gadgets. America is regarded to be one of the major producers of electronic wastes. In 2005, more than 100,000 tons of used monitors, cathode tubes and monitors were collected and exported for refurbishment and manufacture. This notwithstanding, however, there is inadequate data concerning the shipment of these electronics from America to other countries. In Britain, a person can averagely consume three tons of electrical equipment during his/her lifetime.
Ironically, it is the country’s achievement in the ICT and Telecommunication which has spurred e-waste. Notably, the government needs to put in place new devices such as digital televisions, and ensure that people move away from second generation mobiles to third generation mobiles. On the other hand, electronic equipment with high speed, large memory, and faster processing units are likely to reduce the impacts of e-wastes.
Some of the modern electronic gadgets contain more than 60 different chemical substances. Some of these elements are metals like copper and gold. Although developed nations such as US have put in place legislative measures, which are aimed at mining these resources from e-wastes, most of the resources get lost. Developed countries need to put in place effective recycling measures in order to get metals which can be used in the manufacturing industry. Recycling is commercially viable as witnessed in Hewlett Packard in South Africa. In 2008, this facility generated more than USD 14000 from 60 tons of electronic gadgets. It also employed about 19 people, whose work was to refurbish and resale electronic products. They also dismantled others and the raw products were sold to firms that recycle plastics and metals. Moreover, some jewelry was made from some of the boards and processors.
Liberalization and privatization of the ICT sector in most countries has increased the delivery of ICT services to most people. This has been witnessed in developing nations where electronic gadgets such as mobile phones are innovatively used to offer financial, agricultural and education al services. Some countries in developing nations have put in place measures that are aimed increasing the access of ICT. For instance, the government of Kenya reduced tax on ICT equipment during its 2009/2010 budget.
On the other hand, there has been laxity in the international level on the regulation of the exportation of e-waste. The laxity among the exporting jurisdiction enables these countries to benefit from lax standards and cheaper labor in the recipient countries. Arguably, an effective ewaste ecosystem must stand the scrutiny of environment, health and safety standards, and this would involve detection and measurement of emissions into air, water and soil, as well as safety and protection for workers involved in this industry( Dietmara, and Eugsterb, 452).
America is one of the countries with a lot of old electronic gadgets waiting to be recycled, reused or thrown away. The Environmental Pretention Agency of America claims that more than three quarters of electronic goods sold in America are piled in closets and garages. In some cases, the goods are thrown away and end up in incinerations, landfills, while others are exported to other countries such as Asia
It is alleged that more than 4 million tones of used electronics were dumped in landfills in 2000. Notably, electronic products have toxic chemical which can leak into the surrounding atmosphere and affect the nearby environment or communities. Although regulations have been put in place in most developed countries to prevent dumping of electronics in landfills, most countries are still practicing it. For instance, in Hong Kong, more than 20% of used computed are dumped into landfills.
Incineration is the release of heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury, cadmium into the ashes and air. When mercury is released into the air accumulates in food chains especially in fish. It then finds its way into the human body when fish is consumed as food. Notably, if the products contain PVC plastic, highly toxic dioxins and furans are also released, while brominated flame retardants generate brominated dioxins and furans when e-waste is burned (Horne, 132).
To increase the lifespan of a commodity, most old gadgets are exported to third world nations. Although there are some are some advantages of reusing these products in developing countries, there are serious challenges of this practice because the products are only used for a short period of time. Moreover, most developing countries do not have hazardous e-waste facilities.
Recycling provides a better option of reusing raw materials of a product. However, e-waste has hazardous chemicals which can be harmful to workers, as well as to the environment and the neighboring communities at large.The Nokia Company is among the major mobile companies which have developed the take-back scheme in Australia, European Union, Asia, and some parts of Latin America. In 2005, Nokia started to collect disposable phones and offered prepaid cards as incentives for recycling. During this process, the company managed to collect over 80 tons of used phones.
On the other hand, Samsung has come up with a voluntary take-back program for its electronic products that have reached disposable level. This is being done in countries such as Asia, Europe, and North America. In this case, the major aim of the company is to ensure that its products are recycled in the most effective and efficient manner so as to maximize usable commodities and minimize unrecoverable materials. For any person or firm to recycle electronic wastes, the e-wastes must first be collected through a collection system. The collection system is important because lack of it could see a large volume of e-wastes being piled up in offices, homes and repair shops. A global survey conducted by Nokia revealed that less that 4% of people participated in recycling of e-waste.
This means that there are a number of old phones lying at home. As a result, there is need to create awareness among people on the need to participate in recycling by offering them with incentives.
Civil societies such as the Greepeace society have tried to promote e-waste management. This society assesses manufacturing companies in terms of the ability to recycle their products. The society demands that companies reduce their greenhouse emissions by putting in place energy efficient measures, cleaning their products so as to ensure hazardous substances are eliminated, recycling their products and avoiding the use of materials which are unsustainable in their packaging and products.
The Convection Movement is perhaps one of the most comprehensive environmental garments on e-waste management. However, most developing nations have not been able to translate the provisions of this convection into national legislations. The research by the United Nation Environment Program assessed challenges that face e-waste management in eleven nations. The countries included Kenya, South Africa, Morocco, Uganda, Colombia, Peru, India, Brazil, Mexico, and Senegal showedthat these countries lack dedicated legislative and policy mechanism to deal with e-waste management.
Most of the business communities have tried to support recycling of e-wastes. Manufacturers such as Samsung, LG, HP, Sony, Panasonic, and Gateway have initiated tack-back programs. Most of these companies have set aside goals on the amount of e-wastes to be recycled or re-used. America for instance, recycles only a quarter of its e-waste and global revenues for e-waste recovery are estimated to be $14 billion by the year 2014 (Smith, 121).
The government should play a critical role in e-waste management, and some of the roles the government that the government should take part in include:
The government should set up regulatory agencies which are capable of consolidating and coordinating with the regulatory functions of the various government and federal authorities pertaining to electronic waste (Frank, 37).
The government needs to come up with stringentlaws on proper management of electronic wastes in both public and private institutions. Any existing laws and regulations should be reviewed and revaamped periodically.
The government should create public awareness in order to create positiveattitudes among people.
In conclusion, America as one of the largest producers of e-wastes should ratifythe Basel Convection. Notably non-parties of the convection do not trade with parties of the convection. As a result, black markets are common in third world countries, and their existence can be traced to the US. America is a super power, and therefore, should play a key role incurbing global trade on e-waste. Moreover, the country needs to come up with clear standards of recycling wastes. It should set a system for enforcement andcompliance of e-waste recycling. Notably, the costs of recycling are high, and the country lacks effectivelegislations. For America to reduce the exportation of e-wastes to less developed countries such as Nigeria, it will need pressure from a binding, robust international regime.
Ackerman, Frank. Why Do We Recycle?: Markets, Values, and Public Policy. London: Island
Edgar Smith. Waste tire recycling: environmental benefits and commercial challenges.
International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management 6.3-4, 363-364,
Horne; J. “A Literature Review on the Environmental and Health Impacts of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment”. London: Ministry for the Environment, 2011
Hicks, C., and Eugsterb, M. “The recycling and disposal of electrical and electronic waste in
Chinalegislative and market responses”. Environmental Impact Assessment , 2005
Review 25 (5): 459471
Liu,H. et al. Chelsea Center For Recycling And Economic Development. Environmental
Impacts of Recycling Rubber in Light Fill Applications: Summary & Evaluation of
Existing Literature University of Massachusetts, 1998
Ogunseitan, O. et al “The Electronics Revolution: From E-Wonderland to E-Wasteland” Science
326: 670671, 2009
Schackelford ,K. Recycling, evolution and the structure of human personality. Personality and
Individual Differences, 41 15511556, 2006
Tierney, John. Recycling Is Garbage. New York: The New York Times, 1996
Sur name 10
Organizational Profile: Wes Harlem Environmental Action, Inc (WE ACT)
The organization for the last two decades have been involved in activities to impact public policy through various ways like community based participatory research and partnerships. Majorly, the organizations’ social responsibility revolves around environmental safety and improving cleanliness of the surrounding community mostly the North River Sewage Plant located in the Hudson River which is found between 138th and 145th streets. WE ACT was compelled to initiate such a social program involving the community when numerous cases allergic and respiratory symptoms were widely reported in the area.
Most importantly, children were the driving force for this initiative since a large number of them started having frequent asthmatic attacks. Therefore there was need to curb factors that were thought to increase such cases hence the initiative by WE ACT. The organization as well as the community around made some connections between the facility, asthma and air pollution. In addition, the hospitalizations as well as mortality ratios in this area were three to times more compared to those of other areas and communities in New York.
WE ACT social initiative was a holistic approach in that, they involved the community around and educated them with regard to environmental health linkages. The program also involved a thorough campaign which targeted State and city officials with regard to ambient air pollution and its concerns especially in Northern Manhattan, pollutants which emanated from the plant as well as impact to the health of the residents especially children. To ensure this problem is alleviated, the organization constructed a state park atop the sewage plant to curb all these challenges. However, this posed serious ethical issues especially with some members of the organization who could use the state park facility to charge residents for its use when it as meant for environmental conservation. It is my view that despite the challenges of such an initiative, it is the way to go especially in consideration of health implications in absence of this initiative.
Handling Difficult Bosses & Co-Workers
Most organizations lose billions of dollars in relation to ineffective management, low productivity levels, drug addiction, alcoholism, and high turnover rate. Working under difficult bosses/managers and co-workers is a reflection of a toxic work environment. Toxic work environment is a hindrance to the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization thus the need to eliminate it from the workplace. It has negative implications on the motivation of the employees towards the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization. It is essential to focus on understanding the essence of toxic work environment with the aim of handling difficult bosses and co-workers. In the execution of this research exercise, the focus will be on understanding the behaviour of the co-workers, examination of the symptoms of toxic work environment, and effects on the motivation of the employees and realization of the goals and objectives of the organization. This will facilitate realization of the ways of handling managers/bosses and co-workers in the context of toxic work environment.
Understanding Co-Workers’ Behaviour
Several factors enhance or determine the behaviour of the co-workers within the context of an organization. It is vital to examine these factors in order to understand the behaviour of the co-workers thus an opportunity to address the issue of toxic work environment within the organization (Mattice, 2012).
It is ideal and effective for employees to demonstrate goals and desire to succeed. This is because of the essence of fulfilling one’s potential through being ambitious. The level of ambitiousness differs from one individual to another. Some individuals see power, positions, and money as divine rights thus evasion of the moral values in the pursuit of success. Such individuals adopt and implement concept of manipulation and sneakiness to achieve their ambitions. Such co-workers have the tendency of setting others for failure in the pursuit of personal gains (Mattice, 2012).
Some of the co-workers depend on the achievement of high status. Such employees tend to focus on the position tags thus are name-droppers. In order to identify such employees, the focus should be on the dress code because of their tendency to out-dress other workers. These employees belief in individuals they know and material possessions as important in comparison to real values such as ethics, love, and friendship (Mattice, 2012).
Financial resources are essential in the payment of bills, facilitation of survival, and running of the economy. Greed is a reflection of obsession with money driving other employees’ ambitions. This blinds such employees to other people’s feelings, emotions, and spiritual awareness. Greedy employees believe that money is the solution to all their problems thus implementation of every act towards the achievement of their goals and objectives (Mattice, 2012).
Another essential factor in determination of the behaviour of the employees within an organization is fear. Most employees are afraid of events such as being fired, making mistakes, and suffering from isolation from other employees within the institution. This makes the employees to scheme on the ways of acquiring success, salary, and personal goals to address such fear (Mattice, 2012).
Envy is also a motivating factor in the determination of behaviour among employees within an organization. Some employees feel incomplete and defective thus the need to adopt and implement other ways in the acquisition of success and personal gain to match their co-workers. This will contribute to betrayal and essence of unethical motives towards the achievement of success (Mattice, 2012).
Ego is one the essential factors in the provision of quality services to the organization. Employees with inadequate egos focus on the implementation of insecurity to attain bragging and boasting rights. Such employees adopt and integrate intimidation on others thus affecting their delivery in the pursuit of goals and objectives (Mattice, 2012). Other factors that affect or influence behaviour of the employees within the organization include
Symptoms of a Toxic Work Environment
There are various symptoms illustrating essences of toxic work environment. Some of the symptoms of difficult bosses/managers and co-workers within the organization include
Evasion of dealing or handling of problems by bosses or managers thus increase or deterioration of the problems affecting the organization
High absenteeism rate within the office with most employees calling in sick in order to avoid reporting to their duties or functions thus affecting the growth and development of the organization in the pursuit of its goals and targets
Tendency of employees demonstrating quit threats, but set-up their managers to fire them for the purposes of unemployment insurance and other compensation packages
Instilling of fear, dissent, rebellion, and resentment through essence of gossipmongers within the organization with the aim of destroying other peoples images or reputation for the purposes of personal gains or ambition
Adoption and implementation of petty organization’s policies such as restrictions of lunch hours, dress codes, communication, and socialization thus development of angry and resentful workforce (toxic work environment)
Lack of motivational tactics in the form of cheap and incomplete health insurance causing resentment among employees upon identification of the manipulation of their skills and expertise by the organization
Discrimination in relation to sex, race, age, religious, and ethnic background thus prevention of promotion or procurement of employment opportunities hence the development of toxic resentment within the workforce
Sexual harassment resulting into interference, resentment, and avoidance or lawsuits thus creation of a toxic work environment
Conflict of interest in relation to the pursuit of personal and organization goals as employees tend to focus on individualism rather than collectivism thus reduction in the levels of profits and high turnover of the employees
Distracting and disgusting habits of the co-workers thus limiting the completion of the projects or participation of other employees resulting into development of toxic work environment
Evasion of the problems of alcoholism and drug addiction by the organization creates unhealthy environment for the purposes of achieving the targets and objectives
Evasion of attending to the reports on the building code violations or dangerous work environments by the senior management of the organization is essential in the development of the toxic work environment.
High rate of transfers of the employees to different departments, branches, or divisions because of difficult bosses and co-workers or the essence of the toxic work environment
Insecurity within the workforce following demonstration of signs of mental illness and suicidal tendencies by other employees with minimal or lack of attention from the management of the organization
Laxity in relation to the security of the building
Inadequate evacuation programs and prevention drills to facilitate survival of the employees in case of any disaster
Essence of lawsuits in relation to the product liability is also a reflection of toxic work environment thus affecting the growth and development of the employees through influencing participation of the employees
Low implementation of teamwork and staff morale because of consistent dissension across the workforce
Inability of the employees to meet deadlines, final goals, and production quotas thus reduction in the credibility levels and reputation of the organization or business entity towards the achievement of the goals and objectives
Lack of clear restructuring plans and programs in case of mergers or alliances with other entities hence minimization of opportunity to consolidate positions thus termination of the contract of some employees
Effects of Toxic Work Environment
There are numerous effects of toxic work environment or difficult bosses and co-workers on the organization and development of the employees. In the determination of the ways of handling toxic work environment, it is ideal for the organization to identify relevant effects of the toxic work empowerment. One of the essential implications of toxic work environment is the decrease in the levels of production. There is a reduction in the levels of production because of uncomfortable employees thus inability to implement their focus on the relevant duties and obligations towards the achievement of the common goals and objectives. This will limit or hinder their contribution to the growth and development of the organization. Employees in such environments tend to focus on the negative effects of the workforce rather than the task at hand. These results into completion of minimal work hence the overall reduction in the production levels (Toxic Work Environments 2010).
There is also increase in the essence of punishments and complaints against the individuals behind the development or creation of hostile work environment. For instance, difficult bosses and co-workers will experience numerous complaints thus lack of focus on the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization. These complaints will increase aspect of disciplinary actions. The eventual outcome of the complaints and disciplinary actions is the increase in the level of toxic work environment. Such employees and bosses will increase their hostility towards the complainants thus deterioration of the issues within the organization. This will have negative influence on the growth and development of the organization (Toxic Work Environments 2010).
There is also the essence of the employee turnover or resignations. Most employees do not like handling stress in association with filing of complaints or lawsuit thus opt to resign hence the increase in the rate of turnover. This deprives the organization on the available labour thus minimization of the level of productivity. Toxic work environment has negative influence on the morale of the employees or workforce. Toxic work environment will decrease the moral of the employees thus projection of unfriendly attitude towards execution of their duties and functions towards the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization (Toxic Work Environments 2010).
There is also increase in the level of lawsuits thus derailing the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization. There are laws protecting employees against toxic work environment such as discrimination and sexual harassment. This proposition is essential in filing of the lawsuits against managers/bosses or the co-workers. This will hinder participation of the involved parities towards the achievement and realization of the goals and targets of the organization. Negative implications of the toxic work environment are costly towards the realization of the goals and objectives of the organization. It is therefore essential for the organization to adopt and implement effective and efficient ways in the minimization or handling of the difficult bosses and co-workers within the context of an organization (Toxic Work Environments 2010).
How to cope with toxic companies and co-workers
Toxic work environment demonstrates unique symptoms thus the need to adopt and implement different measures in handling the characteristics of the difficult bosses and co-workers. Some of these possible solutions in handling difficult bosses and co-workers include
Examination of oneself
The first towards minimization or elimination of the concept of toxic environment is examination of oneself in order to be sure the boss or the co-worker is the source of the problem hindering the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization. This approach will also facilitate identification of patterns of interactions and difficulties in dealing with the bosses and co-workers. It is ideal for an employee to start with the aspect of self-examination towards determination of the toxic work environment in relation to accurate source. This will also facilitate and sustain adoption and implementation of an accurate process for the reduction of the process (Roberta 2006).
Exploration of toxic work with other employees or workers
It is also an effective approach to discuss the issue of toxic work environment with the other workers or employees. This is essential in the exploration of appropriate ways towards addressing the issue thus facilitating operations of the organization in the achievement of the goals and objectives. This becomes a problem when one is the object of an attack or in the case where the boss appears to support toxic work environment. Focus on upholding the content of unspoken agreement with the confidant.
Approach the object or source of toxic work environment for the purpose of private discussion
It is essential to hold talks with the co-worker or bosses with the aim of expressing what you feel about the toxic work environment. This private discussion is effective and efficient in the illustration of the implications of the toxic environment on your performance and execution of services and duties because of lack of motivation and adequate environment for job satisfaction. This will enable difficult bosses and co-workers to learn on the implications of their actions on your performance. During this interaction, it is essential to reach positive agreement on how to eliminate action or toxic work environment (Roberta 2006).
Extensive follow up on the initial discussion
It is essential to evaluate the toxic work environment following the private discussion with the employees or difficult workers with the aim of determining change in its perspective or deterioration. This will enable you to decide on the needs to follow up the initial discussion in relation to its implications on the elimination of the toxic work environment. It is essential to hold other discussions in case of the need to confront the object affecting the performance of the employees towards the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization (Roberta 2006).
It is essential to confront the object of toxic work environment through implementation of gentle humour or sarcasm. Public confrontation is also effective and efficient in through implementation of exaggerated physical gestures with the aim of demonstrating the implications of the actions on your concentration and performance towards the achievement of the goals and objectives. This approach will work on some difficult bosses and co-workers while might fail terrible in relation to the other difficult workers (Roberta 2006).
Involve manager or Board of directors
In case of failure of the five methods in handling difficult co-workers and bosses, it is vital to escalate the situation and involve the highest authority within the organization. It is essential to adopt and implementation interaction mechanisms thus avoidance of illustrating the problem as a personal issues. This indicates the need to implement holistic approach in illustrating effects on your productivity, work, and progress towards the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization. Inform the authority on the exact actions contributing to the development of the toxic work environment. Incorporate the boss of the co-worker in the discussion.
It is also an effective approach to involve employees with similar problems with the difficult individual within the organization but in a critical and careful manner. In some cases, group aspects have massive implications on the outcome of the bosses or managers. Before implementation of this approach, it is ideal to understand the manager effectively and appropriately through examination of events or activities that appeals to him or her. The approach should not be a motive for a rebellion within the organization thus the need to outline appropriate concepts in the execution of this approach (Roberta 2006).
Limitation of accessibility
In case of failure of the approaches, it is essential to limit accessibility of the difficult bosses and co-workers to your operations or participation. It is ideal to protect the needs and demands of the organization, but avoid working with the co-worker whenever it is possible with the aim of saving and enhancing your productivity levels. It is also effective to transfer to other departments or branches in case of extreme toxic work environment. This will depend on the size of the organization. In case of large entities, employees have great chance of not working with the difficult co-worker or boss when they facilitate transfer to other branches or departments (Roshchin 2004).
The last option in handling difficult bosses or co-workers is to quit and seek for employment positions in other areas. This is vital for saving a career and minimization of further damage or creation of toxic work environment limiting your development and productivity. This should come after confirming that you are not the object of difficulty in relation to the motivation and morale of the employees towards the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization.
Toxic work environment affects development, growth, and productivity levels of the employees. This is through influencing their participation, morale, and innovative perspective of the workforce. It is ideal for the organization to identify and adopt valuable mechanism in the elimination of the toxic work environment from affecting participation of the employees. Some of the effective ways of handling difficult co-workers and bosses include filing of lawsuits, raising complaints with higher authorities, private discussions, transfer to other departments, and eventual quitting of the position in the pursuit of better opportunities. This will enhance performance of the employees while saving their careers.
Roshchin, A. V. (2004). Protection of the working environment. International Labour Review, 110(3), 235.
Toxic Work Environments: What Helps and What Hurts. (2010). Sociological Perspectives, 53(4), 455-477.
Mattice, C. M. (2012). Combating Incivility in the Office. Officepro, 72(1), 26-29.
Roberta Cava. (2006). Dealing with Difficult People: How to Deal with Nasty Customers, Demanding Bosses and Annoying Co-WorkersLinnda Durre. (2010). Surviving the Toxic Workplace: Protect Yourself against Co-workers, Bosses, and Work Environments That Poison Your Day [Paperback]
HANDLING DIFFICULT MANAGERS AND CO-WORKERS 2
Running head: HANDLING DIFFICULT MANAGERS AND CO-WORKERS 1
Being an Entrepreneur
An entrepreneur is an individual who can bring materials, labor, and resources into combination and increase their value. What excite me about being an entrepreneur are the benefits that I can reap. As an entrepreneur, I can get financial rewards. Human beings work for financial rewards. While working for other people, you will only be paid a small fraction of the total earnings, but when you are an entrepreneur, the whole earnings are personal. As an entrepreneur, you are the boss where you can make meaningful decisions with no one to be answerable to, thus gaining business independence. Entrepreneurs have the potential to exploit their abilities. They can push their skill set to new directions, hence increasing their chances to succeed. An entrepreneur can thrive on the enjoyment of being in business for him/herself.
The working hours, financial rewards, stress, and risks associated with entrepreneurship are of great concern to me. Entrepreneurship is a much riskier when compared to traditional employment. The worst-case scenario for an entrepreneurship is losing personal savings. In a traditional employment, one will only lose employment. This is apparent when one notices that a number of ventures fail in the first three years of operation. As an entrepreneur, you can easily experience a high degree of stress and anxiety. It is quite difficult for entrepreneurs to separate family life from business because they do not know how to deal with the self-reliance aspect of owning a business. A number of entrepreneurs start a business with the assumption that they have the necessary skills only to realize that they do not hence the need to hire people who can complement their skills. The process is complicated. Lack of skills is a great concern for an entrepreneur. The financial rewards for entrepreneurs may not be as expected in the start-up phase, therefore, not guaranteeing the much-anticipated financial independence.
Sustainable Development as a Part of an Entrepreneurship Course
Sustainable development is defined as development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs. It can only be achieved through long-term investments in economic, environmental, and human capital. Sustainable development requires an infrastructure that is able to support the creation and maintenance of knowledge repositories. It also requires an environment that enables the cultivation of knowledge. Through an entrepreneurial course, entrepreneurs’ ability to create wealth is enhanced. They are involved in the development of new products because they spent more time in Research and Development related activities. Entrepreneurs and their business opportunities are not just products of the environment that they are found, but interaction between the entrepreneur’s creativity and his or her organizational environment. Through entrepreneurship course, individuals can learn how to exploit business opportunities that can maintain them in consequence enhancing sustainable development.
When sustainable development becomes part of an entrepreneurship course, it enhances progressiveness and competitiveness in the society. The regulations on sustainable development are the direct ways of ruling an entrepreneurial business in the right approach that guarantees success and competitiveness. Through innovation, entrepreneurs can develop management systems that offer the competence to react swiftly to change. It can also promote innovation. Entrepreneurship courses enhance dynamism in sustainable development through the viability, agility, and efficiency of using new knowledge. Through entrepreneurship courses, entrepreneurs are prepared on how to take advantage of emerging business opportunities. This will promote the utilization of emerging resources, therefore, not compromising the resources for future generations. In addition, it helps to modify the rules of the game and create a new competitive space. Entrepreneurs will therefore be watchful of the future generation. The course networks entrepreneurs from different parts and this will ensure that they all pursue similar objectives of enhancing sustainable development.
Entrepreneurial culture is essential for nurturing and developing entrepreneurs. UAE is known as a land of various opportunities that are yet to be exploited. The organization should operate on the frontiers of technology. The tension between community and independence in UAE is very pronounced. Numerous entrepreneurs in the country are making use of the available low cost resources to launch new businesses. Technology like social media allows entrepreneurs to connect, collaborate, and communicate both locally and internationally. In the process, viable ideas are exchanged. The organization should also be encouraged to be proactive by coming up with a number of initiatives that can be embraced by the aggressive UAE entrepreneurs. The organization should also be willing to take risks. Various opportunities are available in the UAE but the fear of negative outcome has slowed down the process of exploring such opportunities. It is therefore necessary for the organization to be a risk taker.
The organization should secure commitment to corporate entrepreneurship within the UAE by identifying, selecting, and training entrepreneurs. In addition, the organization should come up with a sponsor or mentor system that will allow entrepreneurs to improve their skills. A reward system in an organization enhances the skills of the entrepreneurs. A system that rewards the most innovative ideas in the organization encourages creativity. In the process, new ideas are developed. When such ideas are embraced, the organization will expand and realize its objectives with ease. An organization operating in the UAE should be ready to accommodate failures. In the UAE, failure is part of learning. Any organization in the UAE should embrace the culture of transforming through renewal of key ideas that organizations are built. The organization should also encourage trials and errors as this culture gives room for mistakes while new and innovative products are being developed. The organization should also implement an evaluation system that allows the entrepreneurial unit to expand.
Entrepreneur and non-entrepreneur Organization
An entrepreneurial organization is stuck on subjectivism that takes a relative stance on values. It follows a drastic humanism and it is profit oriented. Non- entrepreneurial organization is not necessarily for profit. It is focused on solving issues in the society rather than generating profits nevertheless, goals do not preclude the organization from attaining profits. Entrepreneurial organization is articulated in an entrepreneurial attitude that is a combination of objective, vision, and cultural values bond by the leadership and incorporated by all in the organization. Non- entrepreneurial organization may be involved in business activities, such as selling products or services, but the main objective is to bring change in that locality instead of just making profits. An entrepreneurial organization reflects the basic characteristics of leaders in the organization. In addition, it considers the environment as part of the broader context that it operates. The environmental forces embraced represents diversity of opinions that increase human potential.
Non- entrepreneurial organization tries to generate a portion of their revenue from income instead of depending wholly on grants, fund-raisers, or contributions. Additionally, the success of non- entrepreneurial organization is difficult to measure because profitability is not the major objective of the organization. In entrepreneurial organization, it is easy to measure the success of the organization because its main objective is to make profits. An entrepreneurial organization is quite open and in essence, conflict amongst divergent forces, ideas, opinions, and information cannot be avoided. In a non- entrepreneurial organization, rules and regulations have already been set and therefore it is up to the employees to follow them as they strive to achieve the organization’s vision. Entrepreneurial organization embraces horizontal integration because it is the best strategy that can be used to develop entrepreneurial attitude. Non- entrepreneurial organization utilizes vertical integration because it is able to bring different units in the organization under the same control system.
The new entry is a significant act of entrepreneurship. It is defined as bringing products to new or established markets, offering established products to new markets, or creating new organizations, irrespective of whether the market or product are new to the customers or competitors. Newness represents something extraordinary that can make a distinction between one organization and their competitors. It can also create challenges to entrepreneurship by increasing entrepreneurs’ uncertainty over the value of new products and places a greater emphasis on the resources that are deemed essential for successful utilization. A successful process of a new entry involves generation of opportunity, exploitation of the opportunity, and obtaining a feedback loop from culmination, generation, and exploitation of opportunities. The generation of a new entry is an outcome of a combination of knowledge and other resources in a bundle that creators hope to be rare, valuable, and difficult for others to imitate. If a decision of a new entry is adequately attractive that it warrants exploitation, then the process is initiated.
The decision to exploit an opportunity embodies a commitment to market entry. The knowledge of customer demand is a key factor that the entrepreneur must consider. Exploitation of an opportunity does not necessarily mean that there is a demand for the opportunity. The demand for a new product depends on customers’ knowledge on the product and its value. Lack of knowledge increases customers’ uncertainties. Before an entrepreneur commits to full exploitation of opportunities, he or she must resolve customer uncertainties through regular feedback. Entrepreneurs will proceed with the exploitation of the opportunity if the feedback is positive about customers’ value of the product. Positive feedback encourages exploitation of the product.
The Timing of a New Entry
Brand identity: Announcing new brands in the market is quite challenging. While venturing into new entry, an entrepreneur needs to provide a description of the brand and the reason why he or she believes it is the best.
Advertising: The mode of advertising determines how the product is going to be received in the market. Television and newspaper advertisements will inform the market about the product with speed.
The size of the investment: Before moving into the market, it is essential for entrepreneurs to consider the size of their investment. When the investment is huge, more resources are needed. Extensive marking is also required.
Government Policies: Government policies dictate the success of new entry to the market. When the government offers incentives, such as tax liberation, it becomes easy for the business to compete with established businesses. Some restrictive government policies hamper the growth of the business.
Distribution channels: How products are going to be ushered into the market affects the timing of a new entry. Some products require short distribution channels while others require a longer one. A clear understanding of the distribution channel will increase the chances of success of the products.
Control of resources: Resource management is an essential factor to be considered while deciding the timing of a new entry. Proper management of resources increases efficiency, eliminates waste, and streamlines cost.
Intellectual property: Intellectual property rights play a key role when deciding the timing of a new entry because it protects the business from misappropriation and infringement.
Samsung Inc. is one the successful first-mover companies in UAE. The population in the UAE is largely urban and dynamic. Samsung products have been successfully integrated as other companies are moving in; the company has already enjoyed the benefits of a first-time mover. It has become so successful that people may understand that it is a foreign company.
New Entrepreneur Ideas
New entrepreneur ideas should be based on intuition because it is about experiences that individuals encounter in their lifetime and exists in the subconscious part of the brain.
Idea generation: Every product begins as an idea. Ideas are necessary for yielding successful products.
Concept statement: This is more specific about the version of the product idea. It can be used to determine how the products are going to look like in terms of dimensions or special features.
Idea screening: The basic function of idea screening process is to eliminate that, which could be easily marketed by the firm. It also aims to expand viable ideas to become full product concepts. Idea screening entails three risks that need to be considered before reaching out on a solution. These are internal risk, market risk, and strategic risk.
Project planning: At this stage, the new product proposal is evaluated. A project team is established and responsibilities are assigned to them. The proposal is also analyzed in terms of marking, terms of production, competitive, and financial factors. In addition, development budget needs to be established. The project plan is written up. It includes the estimates of production, future development, and marketing costs.
Project development: At this stage, development report that shows required plan design, marketing test plan, production facilities, financial program survey, and tooling requirements is prepared.
Test marketing: At this stage, management goes out and submits the product for customer approval. It is a controlled experiment limited to a geographical region. Test marketing aims to evaluate the marketing strategy and adjust it to be used. The findings are analyzed and products are prepared for launch.
Commercialization: It is the launching step. Emphasis is placed on the organization structure and management talent necessary for the implementation of the marketing strategy. In addition, quality control, production costs, and inventory requirements are emphasized.
Outline of global opportunity assessment plan for Arabian Jewelry
Prior to investing money and time in business, it is essential to have a clear picture of what the business is all about and an opportunity assessment plan offers an insight. It evaluates the opportunity, focuses on the risks and rewards, and thus advises whether to go for the opportunity or not. The Arabian Jewelry is admired by people all over the world. They are worn for individual adornment.
The description of the product entails;
Other competitive products that are available to fill the need of Arabian Jewelry
The market needs for the Arabian Jewelry
The specific aspects of the Arabian Jewelry such as patent, copyright, and trademark information
Competitive companies in the market space for Arabian Jewelry
Strengths and weaknesses of the competitors
3. Opportunity assessment
Assessing the opportunity for the Arabian Jewelry involves;
Establishing past trends and market size for the product
Establishing the social conditions that highlights market needs for Arabian Jewelry
Finding out the future growth and characteristics of the market for the product
Establishing the picture of international market and competition
Finding out new products that may have been introduced in the market recently
4. Entrepreneurial self-assessment
This involves addressing the following questions;
The reasons for going into business
What is exciting about the opportunity
Whether the opportunity will still hold if the initial excitement slips
The type of experience that are needed to implement successfully the business plan
5. Translating the opportunity into a viable venture
Critical examination of every step necessary in translating opportunities to new ventures
Evaluation of time and money needed in every step of translation
A clear identification of the source of capital when the business cannot finance itself
Advantages and disadvantages of all foreign market entry modes
Advantages Disadvantages Exporting
Exporting as a way of entering international market helps to obtain location economies and the experience curve
It gets rid of establishment costs for manufacturing operationsIt is affected by tariff barriers and high transportation costs
It battles with low-cost location manufacturers
There are a lot of problems with the local marketing agents
Licensing can over restrictive barriers of investment and reduce the risks and costs of establishing business enterprise
It can develop intangible property business applications Licensing creates competitors and does not have full control of business activities
Obtaining cross-border licensing has proved to be too difficult
Lack of engaging in global strategic coordinationTurnkey projects
Turnkey projects are less risky
They can earn a return on knowledge assets from technology skills Turnkey projects do not offer a long-term interest to the foreign country
It creates a competition among different firms Joint ventureLow political risks
Risks are shared with partners
Local partners can share out their knowledge
It leads to joint financial strength
Numerous conflicts due to shared ownership
There is no location economies or experience curve
Lack of technological control
There is no full control of management
Different views on benefits expected leads to disagreements
Franchising Low development risks and costsLack of engagement in worldwide strategic coordination
Inability to control quality Wholly owned subsidiary Operations are tightly controlled
Presence of economic locations and learning curves
Technical competences cannot be lost to competitors High risks and costs
There is a minimal knowledge spillover
Specialized skills can be applied extensively
The knowledge of the local market can be utilized extensively
Calls for commitment and more resources
It is difficult to manage local resources
Importance of Patents and Copyright
UAE is a land of opportunities. The patents offer incentives to entrepreneurs by recognizing their creativity. This opens the opportunity of material reward for marketable inventions. Incentives of this nature enhance innovation, thus promoting the quality of human life in UAE. Risks are the lifeblood of any innovation economy. Patent and copyrights ensures that entrepreneurs continue to push for new advances, knowing that they are going to enjoy the fruits because their rights are protected. In addition, patents and copyrights can leverage business. This will help entrepreneurs to retain ownership of their businesses while working with other business owners. Leveraging business offers tax breaks because of the Internal Revenue Service that permits the deduction of tax returns. Patents provide a legal recognition of an invention. In the event of infringement of rights, patents can be used as enforcement in courts. Patents and copyrights offer the incentive for further development.
Patent and copyrights encourages fair-trading and contributes to economic and social development. They contribute to the growth of markets by safeguarding the value of assets, providing essential signals to investors, and lowering the cost of transaction. Copyright offers a clarification on how the existing norms in the market should be adopted. With copyright protection, an entrepreneur in UAE understands protection measures. Patents can be used to better the position of a business in a deal like value added reseller and strategic alliances. When a business is poorly patented, its valuable rights may be forfeited. Furthermore, competitors may take advantage of it and force the business out of the market. Patents and copyrights increase the shareholder’s value by deterring others from suing the company. They can also compliment exit strategies such as mergers, initial offers, and acquisitions. Patents can be used to negotiate deals with more ease because the existence of patent filing before contract negotiation starts clears ambiguities regarding the ownership of the business.
Gathering Marketing Information
Upside down pyramid is the best way of gathering marketing information when writing a business plan. In the upside down pyramid, general demographic and environmental trends that include population shifts, household income trends, travel trends, food consumption habits, and employment trends are observed. By understanding population shifts, it becomes easy to predict what is going to happen in future. This facilitates planning and the manner in which the products will be ushered into the market. Information regarding household trends can be used to price the products. Food consumption habits of individuals dictate how they spend their income at disposal. This will help entrepreneurs to predict the movement of products once they are in the market. The second phase of the pyramid shows how national food industry trends affect marketing information. Below that are the general economic trends in the local environment that the business aims to carry out its business. Understanding the whole picture of economic trends allow entrepreneur to forecast how the products react once in the market.
Through upside down pyramid, it is easy to understand the forces of competition in the local market. For a successful business, good knowledge of competitors is mandatory. Entrepreneurs can establish where their competitors are strong. This will challenge them to come up with new ways of penetrating the market. Where competitors are weak, the company can utilize and remove them from the market. Pricing and distribution strategies of competitors need to be understood. For example, if competitor A prices a product at $ 12, B $13, and C $12.5, the company can price that product at $11. An upside down pyramid highlights the market position of the company. After understanding the general economic trends both at the local and international level, the market position of the company can be understood. This will enable the entrepreneurs to enhance the position of the organization.
Environmental and industry analysis issues
Environmental analysis assesses external variables that cannot be controlled and may an impact on the business plan while industry analysis entails reviewing competitive strategies and industry trends.
Economic trends: several economic trends such as layoffs, unemployment, and recession reduce the activity of consumers in the market. While writing a business plan, it is essential to explore such trends because they are significant for planning and strategy development.
Technological trends: The maturity of existing technologies and the emergence of new ones have to be put into consideration while writing a business plan. This is because it will allow the entrepreneur to find out the technology that best fits his or her business.
Legal restriction: The policies that are set by government may influence consumer behavior through the legal framework that it sets within the market. The policies can involve deregulation of prices, safety regulations that can affect packaging, and restrictions on advertisements.
Political trends: Government development on tax laws, industry subsidies, trade quotas, and investment incentives has to be considered when planning. Political stability must also be considered. A country, which is not politically stable, is likely to report low market activity and a country with highly stable country will report high market activities.
Industry demand: The demand for products influences a business plan. By carrying out industry analysis, it becomes much easier to establish the total industry sales in the recent years and expectations in the industry. With this in mind, it is easy to establish the direction of the market (whether the market is declining or growing). This will enable entrepreneurs to react according.
Competition: Industry analysis will enable the entrepreneur to understand his or her nearest competitors, the number of firms that may have entered the industry in the recent years, and the latest products to be introduced to the industry. This will enable the entrepreneur to ways of making its business operations better.
The role of market research
Market research is defined as the process of collecting data of goods and services in order to determine if they can satisfy the needs of customers. It plays a key role in developing marketing strategy. Essentially, market research is about collecting information that can offer an insight on a customer’s mind. This will facilitate the understanding of what they are, where they come from, and how they gather information regarding products or services. In addition, market research can identify market trends, economic shifts, demographics, significant information on competition, and economic shifts. With this information, the success of the business is guaranteed because it acts as a guide in making strategic decisions. Furthermore, it helps to uncover customers’ needs that might not be met with ease. It can also promote the discovery of new ideas for goods and services.
Market research can pinpoint problems or obstacles that are going to hinder the business. With this in mind, the marketing strategy can be adjusted or solutions to the obstacles can be developed in advance. Market research helps to establish market positioning. It is essential to understand how the business is doing. Through the information from market research, it becomes easy to benchmark and monitor the progress of the business. It is useful for making decisions and taking the necessary action. Marketing research can be used to predict or forecast consumer actions. It can also determine the items that consumers are likely to purchase and the impact of sales promotion. Market research can help to identify areas for expansion once the products are introduced to the market. In addition, it can assist in testing the readiness of the market for the new products or services. While developing a marketing plan, market research can help to set realistic targets. The information that is collected assists in setting realistic targets for sales, growth, and the introduction of new products.
Features of a successful marketing plan
Marketing plans for start-ups may fail because they do not scale their ideas. They never take time to research on the market intensively. Others lack focus while some do not have the go-to-market strategy. A successful marketing plan has the following features.
Executive summary: This is a summary of overall recommendations and goals of the company.
Company overview: The plan should provide a brief description of the company such as background, mission statement, and competitive advantages.
Objectives: This part explains what they company wants to accomplish in general and with the marketing plan.
Situation analysis: An effective marketing plan must describe the weaknesses, strengths, threats, and opportunities that are facing the company.
Segmentation/Targeting/positioning analysis: The marketing plan should provide a tool for assessing market that the company carries its operations, products offered, and what to offer in the near future. The plan should also highlight the characteristics of the potential customers.
Environmental scan: This section highlights the services needed by customers, the general situation of the market, and marketing activities.
Target market: The plan should show the nature of the market niche, the profile of the target market, and the size of the market.
Marketing strategy: The marketing strategy needs to be specific to the type of products.
Financial projections: The marketing plan should offer a possible development as well as the anticipated return on investment from the investment.
Implementation plan: This highlights the timing of promotional activities in the company. It also highlights how future expansions will proceed.
Tactics: The plan should highlight the tactics needs to be embraced while implementing the marketing strategy.
Evaluation metrics and control: A company must have a means of assessing its recommendations. The marketing plan should indicate ways of undertaking such assessments, whether it is qualitative or quantitative.
Tracking Cash or Profits
It is important for an entrepreneur to track cash because cash is essential for the continuity of the business. In the current market, it is not possible for a business to run without cash in its account. Banks cannot be relied upon for overdraft facilities. As much as it is important to track cash than profits, it depends on the business or industry. An entrepreneur can set up a plan of doing a farming business, but a shortage of cash may force the entrepreneur to stop executing the project. When the project is not working, the business may fail to meet up its set targets. In the end, this affects the profits of the company. Depending on the industry or business, there are some instances where tracking profits is more important than tracking cash. When a firm does not consider profits as essential, it will lose its core objectives. Entrepreneurs venture into business in order to make profits, when profits are not tracked, the company will not able to measure its success.
When an entrepreneur tracks only profits and ignores cash, it will lead to bankruptcy. Failing to track cash leads to fraud in the company. The cash will disappear mysteriously and eventually, the company will lack cash. Without cash in an organization, it is extremely hard to run. Operations in the organization will come into standstill because they depend on money. For example, there will be no money to pay for the daily expenses within the organization. In addition, it will be hard to keep proper records of the organization. The firm may make profits but they can still fail because using profits as the only means of measuring the success of the company is deceiving. The company will not be able to plan for its future and sometimes, a total collapse.
The Usefulness of a Financial Plan
Assumptions are informed and educated. Financial plan shows production forecasts, sales forecasts, and cash forecasts. Sales forecast predicts the sales of the company. Estimating the sales of a company requires companies to look at the history of sales and other factors that influences future sales. Assumptions of the financial plan are useful because the company can use sales forecast to estimate its future activity. Production forecast can help the company to create a budget. In addition, a production forecast can be used to understand future market and distribution channels. Cash forecast estimates the revenue and expenses of the company. They can create a breakdown of expenses and revenue thus showing the position of the company. Additionally, a company can use financial assumption to anticipate the volume of sales and it will be able to rally its operational wants. In essence, basing financial plans on assumption is useful because there is no way were can understand the future without predicting them.
Quarterly financial plan reports make more sense to entrepreneurs because monthly reporting is complex. There are numerous challenges in frequent reporting which in return affect the quality of the process. Accountants assert that frequent reporting (monthly basis) prolongs the auditing process. Different countries have different accounting standards. Seasonal factors like sales impacts adversely on financial report quality when it is done on a monthly basis. This causes underlying risks for auditors and companies. Quarterly report can show enough information that encourages stakeholders.
Advantages and disadvantages of business acquisition
Market power: Acquisition builds market presence. As the market share of an organization increases, the competition that it faces will decrease and synergistic benefits are gained. This will increase the market power of the organization.
Speed: Acquisition offers the ability to acquire competencies and resources with speed. As organizations move into new markets, the cost and risks of new product development will decrease.
Financial gain: organizations that have low price earnings or share ration are obtained to take short-term gains through assets stripping.
Elimination of entry barriers: Through acquisition, market entry barriers are eliminated because the organization will acquire an existing one. This will lower the risk of competitive reaction.
Swift growth: Acquisition increases the growth of an organization. When a firm ventures into foreign market, it does not need to initiate its process of development because it can utilize existing structures of the firm that it enters into an agreement with.
Financial consequences: organizations expect high financial gains from acquisition deals. However, the returns may not be as attractive as expected. In most cases, the deal may not materialize and as such, the organization may suffer financial setbacks.
Integration challenges: Acquisition is faced with a number of integration challenges, as it may prove difficult to integrate the business culture of the new and old firms. In addition, cultural fit may not yield the expected results because employees may resist the new organizational culture.
Management wrangles: Acquisition may lead to management wrangles. The management of competencies and resources in the organization may hinder development progress.
High cost: In acquisition deals, the acquirer is required to pay high cost, particularly when takeover bids are hostile. The acquirer may not realize value addition thus jeopardizing the entire deal of value added.
Focus on managerial acquisition: When a firm focuses mostly on acquisition, it may forego the internal affairs of the company. This is detrimental to the internal development of the company.
Franchising and licensing arrangements
Franchising and licensing can be used to expand business. Franchising agreement is an arrangement where a single distributor of a trademark service or product offers an exclusive right of local distribution to independent retailers in return for payment of royalties and conformation to standardized operating procedures. A licensing agreement is an arrangement between licensor and licensee. The licensor allows the licensee to use his or her rights in exchange for an agreed fee.
Both licensing and franchising agreements require the licensee and franchisee to make payment to the original owners of the intellectual property. License and franchise agreement stipulates that the licensee and franchisee be considered independent contractors. This means that they are not employed by the parent company or they are not in partnership with the parent company. Both franchising and licensing agreements require franchisees and licensees to adhere strictly to the quality assurance standards set to them.
Licensing agreement works best if there are products or services that tie the licensee to the licensor and there is no standards set on how the licensee operates his or her business. Franchising agreement sets some standards on how the franchisee will operate his or her business. Franchising is governed by securities law while licensing is governed by contract law. In franchising agreements, registration is required but in licensing agreements, no registration is required. Territorial rights are offered to the franchisee in franchise agreements, but in licensing agreements, the territorial rights are not offered to the licensee. In franchising agreements, the franchiser provides support and training, but in licensing agreements, the licensor does not offer any form of support and training to the licensee. Licensing agreement does not require the licensee to disclose the financial information, whereas the franchising agreement requires the franchisee to disclose his or her financial documents.
Water Resources in UAE
The World Bank has identified the Middle East and North Africa regions as the most water-scarce regions in the world. Countries such as UAE have been faced with water problems. This has been problematic to the society and other economic activities such as farming, which has led to the government and the citizens working hand in hand to ensure that the water resources in the region have been conserved appropriately to avoid future water constraints. This paper will address the different factors that have affected the water resources in United Arabs Emirates and will focus on Abu Dhabi Emirate. The paper will include a brief profile of the water resources in the region. The paper will also give a forecast of the projected challenges in the water resources of the region. It will also incorporate a SWOT analysis of the water resources in the region and offer recommendations and solutions to the water problems in the region in the future (Rizk, 2003).
Water resources are critical for the wellbeing of any society around the world. This can be attributed to the fact that water is a critical component of life. Without water, life would not be possible. Just like other regions around the world, the Middle East region needs water. However, the region has been identified as one of the regions facing extreme water shortages. This has led to some organizations and institutions coming up with strategies of ensuring that the little water available is conserved. However, it is important to note that most of the water found in the region is derived from non-conventional water resources supplemented by conventional water resources.
Conventional water resources in the region include ground water, falajes, springs, and seasonal floods. The reason why the region has embarked on depending on non-conventional water resources is the verity that there has been a sharp increase in the demand for water. This has been enhanced by increasing population in the region. The non-conventional water resources include treated sewage water and desalinated water (Al Mulla, 2011).
Like other regions, the region depends on water for agriculture. The region uses water for irrigation. This can be attested by the fact that the region faces extreme water scarcity. The region has also been faced with increasing water scarcity. Unlike in the past when people viewed water resources as being infinite, the reality in the contemporary society is that water has become a scarce commodity.
Many people around the region have faced extreme water scarcity. This has encouraged the region to ensure that it conserves the existing water resources and have come up with strategies to hinder the depravation of the resource. Water is also used for industrial purposes in the region. Some of the major industrial users of water include manufacturing plants, chemical processors, oil refineries, ore refineries, thermoelectric power companies, hydroelectric dams, and water used for coolants. Water in the region is also used for domestic uses. It is estimated that 8% of the water in region is used for domestic processes. These uses include gardening, sanitation, cooking, bathing, and drinking. There is also the increasing recreational water use in the region. Most of the recreational uses of water are associated with reservoir. Recreational uses of water include swimming, nature enthusiasts, water skiers, and anglers. However, recreational use has also been found to be wasting a lot of water. For instance, golf courses have been found to waste a lot of water in their effort of keeping the course green (Al Mulla, 2011).
This portrays the importance of water resources in the region. The water resources importance in the region is reflective of the entire world’s need for water resources conservation. It is in this respect that the governments in the region have introduced and implemented policies that seek to conserve and protect the water resources in the region. This has played a critical role in ensuring that the population in the region is not faced with extreme shortage of water. However, these policies have had discrepancies in their success rates. While some countries have been able to manage the water resources to a large extent of success, there are some countries in the region that have continued to face extreme hardships.
The political instability in the large area of Middle East has resulted in some people having to struggle to find basic water. It is also critical to note that the region is endowed with a climatic condition that makes accessing water to be really problematic. In the same respect, the acute shortage of water in the region has sparked off some sharp conflicts that have resulted in armed conflicts. Whereas it is imperative for the countries in the region to work together in addressing water shortages, conflicts have also been enhanced through different countries encroaching on the redistributing resources that their neighbors depend on. Though the region is faced with political instability and rivalry among neighbors, water resources management and development has been noted to have the ability of reducing the regional tensions to some extent (Ministry of Environment and Water, 2012).
The water situation in the Middle East is precarious. This has been attributed to the population growth and developmental needs in the region. The region is facing water scarcity and has not been left behind by the rest of the world in registering increasing population growth. There has been a forecast that the region’s per capita supply of renewable water supply will have declined from 3,430 cubic meters in 1960 to 667 cubic meters in the year 2025. It is also anticipated that a number of countries in the region may have renewable water supply that will barely take care of the basic needs of the people (Dawoud, 2012).
One reason that the region has faced these problems can be associated with the lack of international commitment to addressing the issue in the region. Many countries are faced with the burden of addressing their own water problems. This is despite the fact that most of the water resources in the region are not limited to a single country and are shared across borders. Aquifers and rivers are not limited to political boundaries. There are more than 200 river basins that are shared between more than two countries. These basins account for approximately 60% of the world’s land mass. Since aquifers are shared across international boundaries, water problems have been accelerated by different countries unfairly using the water masses that they share with other countries.
The water crisis in the world has been persistent for a number of years. This has resulted in some profound damages to the water resources in the world. This international problem has been reflected in the Middle East were many countries share single water bodies. The water crisis in the Middle East has been cemented by the fact that despite the increasing population in different regions, the region has an arid climate that makes competition for the natural water resources very intense among the different countries (ERWDA, 2002).
This indicates that the Middle East region has been facing an increasing water crisis for a number of decades. This has also been furthered by different militant organizations that seek to control the natural resources found in the region. However, there are some countries that have enjoyed significant stability over the years. For instance, the United Arabs Emirates is one of the countries that is politically stable and has been registering a comfortable economic growth over the years.
However, the countries still faces a water crisis if its current approach is not changed. However, the country has adopted a number of policies that have put the country on the better side when compared to other countries in the region. There are also a number of initiatives that seek to ensure that water crisis is averted and does not affect the country’s economic growth (Al Mulla, 2011).
For instance, it is reported that Abu Dhabi farmers are working together with the government on a number of ambitious plans that seek to reduce the water used in agricultural activities in the country. This are some of the initiatives that have been recognized as playing a critical role in ensuring that water conservation is a priority in the emirate. UAE is a country that is composed of seven emirates. Abu Dhabi is the largest emirate in the federation and Abu Dhabi city acts as the capital of UAE. Six of the emirates are located on the Persian Gulf coast. 80% of the entire country is a desert and this means that the country needs to enhance its water resources conservation to avert a water crisis (Brook, n.d.).
The agricultural use of water in the UAE increased from 1994 2003. This can be attributed to the verity that the agricultural areas tripled in that period and now the country has 260 732 ha. The country’s climate is arid and is characterized by high temperatures during the summer. The country has an average annual rainfall of approximately 78mm. The county has a total renewable resource of water totaling approximately 150 million cubic meters. However, Abu Dhabi does not have any permanent streams. Ground water resources of the country are found in the lower carbonate formations and upper clastic formations in the east of the country. The country is also endowed with aquifers of fan deposits of alluvial and gravel silt and sand, marl, dolomite, and limestone. The aquifers range from a maximum of 800 meters to 200 meters in thickness. The country is also endowed with ground water aquifers that range from 600 to 2,000 ppm. The average recharge of ground water in the country is estimated to be more than 120 million cubic meters. Most of the ground water is derived from infiltration from the various river beds found in the country (Food and Agriculture Organization, 2008).
The country has invested in a number of dams that have been constructed to enhance recharge of the ground water. In 2003, UAE had a total were 114 dams. These dams combined with various embankments have a total capacity of 118 million cubic meters. This has been noted as an increase of 48 percent of the total capacity of the reservoirs in 1995. These dams are usually used for recharging purposes although they are also used to offer protection from flush floods (Food and Agriculture Organization, 2008).
Abu Dhabi has a desalination plant that was installed in the year 1976. This plant has a capacity of 250 cubic meters per day. However, faced with increasing demand for water, there has been the installation of other desalination plants in Abu Dhabi and Dubai. The country desalination projects have been noted to have the capacity of producing 950 million cubic meters of water in 2005.
The UAE has also been noted for having the capacity of producing waste water. In the year 2006, the country treated about 289 million cubic meters from the waste water produced in the country. This implies that in 2006, the country treated 86% of the waste water produced in the country and reused the water. Over the years, because of increased population numbers, the volume of waste water produced has been increasing. The country has been recognized by FAO as a leading country in the field of treating sewage water. The waste water that has been treated is taken through tertiary treatment and then applied in landscaping work in the towns and other projects. The government has identified the need for the need to make use of treated sewage water on other uses. This includes researching on whether it would be viable for the water to be used to irrigate fruit trees and vegetables or whether it can be injected back into the ground water (Food and Agriculture Organization, 2008).
Possible Challenges in the Future
Some of the possible challenges in the country will include increasing populations. Increasing population has been noted to have the possibility of ensuring that the country needs a lot of water than it currently needs. However, current statistics have identified that Abu Dhabi and the rest of the UAE is currently engaged in making use of its water resources in such a manner that if there is no government intervention capable of ensuring water resources in the country are not deprived, then the country may find itself facing water crisis in the next two or three decades. The country has been registering increased population growth and this coupled with the industrial, agricultural, and other uses of water, the water resources may be over used and could be running dry.
It is critical to note that the country does not have a significant rainfall that can be depended upon in the future. This implies that the country will need to look into the future problems that may be presented by increased usage of water. It is also critical to note that the economical needs of the country will also need a lot of water for the increased industrial and power sources that is needed to meet the developmental need of the country. This implies that the country will face paramount water crisis in the future unless the government addresses the problems that are associated with water resources usage in the organization. It is also critical to note that increased population will increase the wastewater produced in the country. This wastewater may end up being waste entirely if the country does not invest in sewage treatment in the country (Hamidan, 2013).
Availability of technology that is critical in ensuring that the water resources in the country are enhanced
A highly skilled workforce that can be employed in the water industry to enhance the application of the safe usage of the water resources
A progressive government that will introduce progressive water policies
A conservative population that does not engage in water conservation practices
Lack of grassroots technology that will enhance the entire population to preserve water
Government overreliance on international technologies and not on local expertise that is well informed about the needs of the country
Available technologies from overseas countries that can enhance water resources preservation
Abundance of ground water resources in the region
Possibility of the discovery of other water resources
Encroaching of the water resources of the country by neighboring companies
Depravation of the water resources by different entities in the region
Neighboring countries’ conflict that may result in the deprivation of the resources
Solutions and Recommendations
Abu Dhabi and the rest of the UAE has adopted a number of solutions in reference to the possible challenges that may face the country in the future. The challenge of increasing population can be solved through the government coming up with strategies that will ensure that the population is well informed of the possible means of conserving water resources. The government will also need to ensure that the population is educated on the possible means of ensuring that they engage in good water usage to protect the country from facing future challenges.
Increased population means that the country will be producing increasing volumes of wastewater. This implies that the government will need t come up with increased technologies to ensure that all the wastewater is adequately treated to minimize wastage. The government should also ensure that it invests in research and development that is geared towards identifying various avenues where the treated water can be used. The government should also ensure that it fully conducts research that will address on the possibility of the treated water being used in agriculture to reduce the water that is used in agriculture. This will also be critical in ensuring that water is injected back to the ground water (Hamidan, 2013).
Although the country is located in a region where water poses as a crisis that may face the country any time in the future, the government has invested in water preservation technologies that have been critical in ensuring that the country is currently safe in its supply of water. However, it is critical to note that with increasing population, the country may find itself facing problems in the future that may lead to the country facing unprecedented water crisis. The government should invest in research that will help the country to alleviate such crisis. The country should also be at the forefront of pushing for stability in the region to avert water crisis that have been found to be associated with political instability and violence in the region. This will be critical in ensuring that the country is a leader in regional water preservation efforts and peace efforts.
Al Mulla, M. (2011). Wastewater Resources Management in UAE. Experts Consultation on Wastewater Management, 22 -24 May, Dubai, UAE.
Al Mulla, M. M. (2011). UAE State of the Water Report. United Arab Emirates Ministry of Environment and Water.
Brook, M. C. et al. (n.d.). Groundwater Resources: Development & Management in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Environment Agency, pp.1 21.
Dawoud, M. A. (2011). Water Resources in Abu Dhabi Emirate, Working Paper. Pp. 16 158.
Dawoud, M. A. (2012). Non-Conventional Water Resources Management in Abu Dhabi: Present, Future and Challenges. Environmental Agency Abu Dhabi, pp. 1 – 33.
ERWDA, (2002). Abu Dhabi Water Resources. Environmental Research and Wildlife Development Agency.
Food and Agriculture Organization. (2008). FAO’s Information System on Water and Agriculture: United Arab Emirates. Retrieved on October 1, 2013 from http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries_regions/untd_arab_em/index.stm.
Hamidan, S. (2013). Water Conservation Becomes a Higher Priority in U.A.E. The New York Times, May 2, 2013. Retrieved on October 1, 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/02/world/middleeast/02iht-m02-uae-water.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0.
Ministry of Environment and Water. (2012). Ministry of Environment and Water adopts a Decimal Strategy to enhance the Water Policy and Improve the Efficiency of Water Demand Management. Envirocities eMagazine, Vol. 2, pp. 4 7.
Rizk, Z. S. & Alsharhan, A. S. (2003). Water Resources in the United Arab Emirates. Water Resources Perspectives, p. 245 264.
WATER RESOURCES IN UAE 2
Running head: WATER RESOURCES IN UAE 1
Environmental Management of the Plastic Industry
Environmental management involves the purposeful activity that aims to improve and maintain the environmental resource conditions that suffer great effects from the human activities. This further revolves around managing the interactions and influences of the human societies over the environment. The major purpose of environmental management is to ensure the protection and sustenance of the ecosystems services to facilitate equitable use by the future human generations. The process further aims to maintain the integrity of the ecosystem in relation to economic, ethical and ecological variables. Environmental management attempts to identify the elements/factors that contribute in the probable conflicts between satisfying the needs and safeguarding the resources. This report will thus focus on evaluating the environmental management within one of the US firm in the plastic industry (i.e. XYZ Corporation). Trends have shown that firms within this industry that implement effective environmental management systems (i.e. EMS) have been attaining cost-saving benefits while also developing their environmental performance levels (March 32).
Compliance with the Environmental Laws in the Plastic Industry
XYZ Corporation will be operating in the plastic industry of the US and will develop an effective environmental management system (i.e. EMS) that will guide the company in its environmental management endeavors. For the successful performance of the EMS, the company will comply with the national and the international environmental standards of the US (Bradbury 2). The standards will allow the company to model the framework through which it will implement efficient management system of health, environmental and safety issues (March 17). XYZ will comply with the international environmental standards ISO 14000 standards to facilitate effective environmental management whereby the ISO 14001and ISO-14004 (i.e. both of 2004) will guide and state the requirements for the company to develop successful EMS. Through these standards, the company will have the ability and knowledge of regulating the environmental effects relating to its daily activities, services or products impacts while also improving its environmental performance levels progressively.
An EMS will allow XYZ to apply the structured approach in setting its environmental targets and objectives, implementing them and demonstrating their accomplishments. The ISO 14001-2004 will be helpful in developing a common framework/language of communication concerning the environmental management issues or challenges between XYZ and its regulators, the public, customers plus any other relevant stakeholder. Committing to comply with this standard will allow XYZ to align with the applicable environmental regulations and legislation as the law demands while at the same time devoting to progressive improvement of the environmental management levels of performance. Considering the current technology advanced, XYZ will similarly employ the internet-based standard, Enviro-Mark, for business that deals with safety, health and environmental management (McLughlan 2). This will allow XYZ to receive certification in five levels to enable the development of environmental systems in stages.
The standard will serve as a tool to guide XYZ in training its workforce on environmental management while also offering guidance on how the company could management its environmental practices progress. XYZ will operate via the successive levels of this standard comprising of ‘certification, bronze, silver, gold, platinum and diamond’ until it reaches that level that will be most appropriate to satisfy its environmental needs (Waller et al 3). This company will similarly develop an environmental policy that reflects its culture. To develop the most effective policy, XYZ will actively engage in gathering and reviewing/analyzing policies written by the other companies within the plastic industry. In consequence, this will help the company to choose the style and format that most fits its organizational needs for environmental management according to the US environmental laws (The 1970 Act of National Environmental Policy).
Checklist I: Legal Compliance
XYZ will assess whether it has:
A written guideline for identifying the legal or any other requirement applicable in its environmental-related activities
A legislation register
Procedure for ensuring prior awareness concerning an upcoming legislation which, may affect the company
Proof for updating its legislation register
All the permits and authorizations, plus all other required documents as the current legislation demands
Review Sheet for Legislative Compliance
Control Methods, Programs & Procedures to Manage Environmental Hazards
Management of Waste
Managing waste products in the plastic industry costs money. In regulation of such costs, XYZ will eliminate and minimize its usage and waste of the resources. This initiative will help in increasing the company’s significance in the process of examining its sustainability issues in future. XYZ initiative of managing wastes will aim at maximizing the cost-savings plus the benefits generating from the environment. The company will thus follow the waste hierarchy in identifying the most appropriate cost-effective opportunities in waste reduction and cost-efficient strategies. From Figure 1 below, the top level (i.e. eliminate, re-use and reduce) in XYZ’s EMS framework will allow the optimization of the benefits by the company. The will attain this through carrying out cautious purchase and usage of the company’s resources. Recycling process of this hierarchy will be the next step after examining the firm’s strategies of reduction, prevention and the re-use of wastes while disposal will be the very last resort for the company (Tangram 4).
Fig 1: XYZ’s Waste Hierarchy
Eliminate Reduce Re-use (i.e. product/material)
(i.e. waste only)
Securing Senior Management’s Commitment
The commitment of the senior management will be supportive in effectively implementing and operating the company’s EMS. XYZ will thus have programs that will equip the senior managers on the objectives of this EMS prior to commencing the implementation process while also increasingly engaging the senior staffs in the development of this environmental system. In convincing the senior managers concerning the EMS initiative, the environmental management team will prepare the project plan plus the estimated possible cost-savings generating from the EMS adoption. The team will ensure the EMS certification will receive credit from the senior management to ensure progressive environmental management and cost savings results. XYZ will conduct the first review that will provide information concerning the company’s current position in relation to the environmental issues. Regular reviews will similarly apply to assist in quantifying the generated savings while also sustaining the EMS implementation enthusiasm (Pethybridge 6).
Managing the Implementation Team
XYZ will entrust one individual with the responsibility of the EMS implementation. Among the roles of this EMS expert, the primary obligation will be coordinating the efforts generating from the small implementation team. This team however will have a common goal while employing the collaborative approach and work sharing in completing this task. For progressive results, the company will allocate adequate time and resources. The team will hold regular meetings (i.e. on a fortnight basis) accompanied by sufficient secretarial support in ensuring proper recording of the minutes and effective updating of the action plans. The EMS expert will assess these action plans on a weekly basis to maintain the entire project on track. A separate team will be developed to handle particular issues including the waste reduction, water usage, packaging use, and the energy efficiency. The team will comprise staffs from all the company levels (Tangram 7).
EMS Implementation Timescale
The implementation of the EMS for EXZ will take approximately 12 to 18months supported by an effective and realistic implementation plan. The workload for every program element will depend upon the complexity and size of the company’s environmental operations while also considering the size of its workforce of 1000employees. Such workload such as training thus will define the approximate time scale for XYZ’s EMS implementation (Pethybridge 7).
Developing the XYZ Environmental Policy
XYZ’s environmental policy will align with the ISO 14001 while increasingly referencing the firm’s objectives for its various environmental aspects such as waste, resource use and the energy consumption (Pethybridge 9). In developing this policy, the company will place the following factors into consideration:
Awareness and training for all the staffs
Operating with the XYZ’s supply chain for environmental performance improvements
Planning for environmental emergencies
Relationships with the regulators and the
Identifying the Site Processes and Activities
The EMS implementation team will initially make a list for the various XYZ’s departments including utilities, manufacturing, engineering and the store maintenance. Inclusive also will be the downstream and upstream processing activities like inward, printing, assembly, packaging and dispatching. The team will then indentify the diverse processes that build such activities (March 12).
XYZ will clearly record its environmental decisions systematically to allow for future reference and as a present it to the accredited certifiers (Pethybridge 14).
Written Procedure for Assessing the Significance: XYZ will record the procedure it applies in the identification of the environmental aspects and later evaluate their significance to allow for consistent outcome on each site.
Aspects Register: This will comprise the lists relating to significance evaluation and environmental aspects. The register will provide the XYZ’s details of its environmental aspects in addition to an assessment of their effects. It will illustrate how the company’s significant aspects link to its EMS.
XYZ’s Checklist II:
The company will seek to know whether it has:
An Aspects Register
A written procedure for identifying the environmental aspects and for assessing the important environmental effects
Evaluation tables and process maps
A policy for environment
Checklist III: XYZ Environmental Targets
Does the company have…?
Written targets and objectives for each XYZ’s department
A written procedure that helps in setting the targets and objectives
Past years records on targets and objectives plus the performance summary report to facilitate the Management’s Review
Issues of Working with Government Officials
Working in collaboration with the government officials may lead to several inefficiencies plus duplicative processes within the company’s environmental permitting system. There may also be issues involving confusion in relation to which authority needs to take the leadership since effective communication among the governmental levels relies on an expert to be initiative in facilitating the meetings. The presence of differing institutional arrangements from one province to another such that the provincial officials are deficient of the understanding regarding institutional arrangements in planning and developing activities (March 22). There is an issue involving failure to attain a common understanding of the sustainable development because different government departments have varied or conflicting ideas in relation to environmental management goals. Duplicative permitting processes issues result to inefficiencies, fatigue in public participation and tensions between the various governmental departments.
Challenges in Ensuring Employees Comply with Environmental Regulations
Considering that compliance with the environmental laws for employees can present several challenges, XYZ will develop strategies that will ensure the staff align with the environmental regulations. Challenges may arise because employees will be required to manage the hazardous materials in a way that allows for maximum protection of the environment and human health. The individuals will be responsible for effective handling, storing, ordering and waste disposal thus preventing injuries and illnesses, pollution of sewer systems, air, water and ground. To ensure compliance however, the environmental policies of XYZ will demand that all staffs to undergo some training programs to allow for activities that align with the company’s environmental regulations. Efficient training for this company will allow for successful EMS through raising awareness regarding environmental issues, equipping the staffs with particular technical skills (Thampapillai 23).
Checklist IV: Staff Training:
XYZ will seek to realize whether it has..?
A written plan for delivering training
A formal and documented way of assessing the training needs
Signed forms for training attendance
Records of the training materials including slides, notes, e.t.c
Professional & Ethical Dilemmas of a Responsible Environmental Professional
There are possible ethical and professional dilemmas that environmental professional may face in the course of their duties in this company. In environmental auditing for example, the environmental auditors are lacking professional standards or ethics codes (Blumenfeld 227). Without such standards, environmental professionals have to make ethical decisions based on available ethics codes or personal judgment. The professionals will thus be in a dilemma over whether to publicize or disclose the possible environmental hazard discovered during an audit of the company.
Environmentalists will further face conflicting choices between the competing moral demands. The environmental professional may get to a position where his/her task conflicts with the company’s obligation to safeguard/protect an innocent third party from suffering harm. The individual gets into a dilemma over what action to take when after discovering a particular environmental hazard and reporting it, the company fails to take action. It becomes a challenge for the environmental expert to decide whether to disclose the environmental risk to the external representatives including the press, government or the firm’s neighbors. The expert is not sure whether his/her task supersedes that of safeguarding the confidentiality of the company (Blumenfeld 227).
The above discussion has presented a report on how the US-bases Corporation, XYZ, plans to attain its environmental management system. The effectiveness of this system will be through compliance with US environmental laws and the ISO 14000 and development of the company’s environmental policy. Among the strategies and programs the company will employ include staff training programs, senior management’s commitment and implementation team management, among others. Environmental professionals may face dilemmas in their duty particularly in relation to protecting or disclosing an environmental hazard discovered during an audit (Benn 33).
Benn, Salut, Dunphy, David and Griffitths, Allan. Organizational Change for Corporate Sustainability. New York, USA: Taylor & Francis, Inc.2007
Blumenfeld, Karen. Dilemmas of Disclosure: Ethical Issues in Environmental Auditing. Business & Professional Ethics Journal. 8.3, 227-351, 1989.
Bradbury, James. EPA, The Clean Air Act and US Manufacturing. World Resources Institute. 1.1, 1-4, 2010.
Clements, Robin. Complete Guide to ISO 14000. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Publishers, 1996
March, Enviros. Environmental Management Systems for the Plastic Industry. Environmental Technology Best Practice Programme. 5.1, 1-50,2000
McLughlan, Roseanne. Going for Gold: Alto Plastics Ltd. Best Practice Programme Environmental Management Systems. 1.1, 1-2, 2000
Pethybridge, Emma. Plastic Industry Environmental Review. Institute for Environmental Science & Technology Journal. 3.1, 3-50, 2002
Tangram, Tebod. Environmental Management Systems in Plastics Processing. Plastic Worksheets for Industry. 1.1,4-12, 2000.
Thampapillai, Dan. Environmental Economics: Concepts, Methods and Policies, Oxford. Melbourne. USA: University Press, 2006.
Waller, Jason, Dowson, Myke and Davis, Ian. From Bronze to Gold in a Year: Aotea Plastics Industries Ltd. Best Practice Programme Environmental Management Systems. 1.1, 1-4, 2005.
National Environmental Policy Act (1970)
How public policy can help solve global warming
Watchful and complete experimental appraisals have unmistakably showed that the Earth’s atmosphere framework is changing according to developing climatic troubles of nursery gases and retaining airborne particles. Environmental change is happening, is initiated largely by individual’s exercises, and postures huge chances for and much of the time is now influencing a wide extend of human and characteristic frameworks. The potential dangers are serious and activities are obliged to alleviate environmental change hazards and to adjust to malicious environmental change sways that likely cannot be dodged. This paper audits key feasible environmental change impacts and suggests movements needed to moderate or adjust to current and foreseen results.
Climate Change Impacts
The Earth’s atmosphere is the result of complex, quite rapid, and regularly nonlinear, communications around physical, concoction, and living procedures happening at numerous scales in the environment; at physical, marine surfaces and fresh water; and in the profundities of landforms and the seas. However, researches about developments in Earth frameworks science have significantly reinforced individual’s comprehension of earlier and current atmosphere lands and forms. Human capacity to quantitatively foresee how what is to come atmosphere will react to proceeded and expanding fine-molecule and greenhouse-gas discharges is still restricted. Significantly more constrained is individual’s capability to anticipate decisively how the Earth’s environmental and human frameworks will react to atmosphere changes. In any case, extensive investigative appraisals of our potential future and present atmospheres obviously demonstrate that environmental change is quite, overall attributable to emanations from individual’s exercises, and possibly an exceptionally genuine issue.
The potential and observed range of environmental change effects distinguished by the ACC evaluation incorporate a hotter atmosphere with additional great climate occasions, noteworthy ocean level climb, more compelled sources of fresh water, disintegration or misfortune of key area and marine biological communities, and decreased nourishment assets, a considerable lot of which may posture genuine open health dangers. The impacts of unmitigated rates of environmental change on influential Earth framework segments, natural frameworks, and human social order through the next decade are liable to be extreme and conceivably irreversible on several years’ time scales.
Luckily, there are approaches that could be embraced that are attractive in their rights and are honorable, regardless of the possibility that there were no danger of an unnatural weather change. These strategies might lessen greenhouse gas discharges, increment energy effectiveness, decrease damages connected with a dangerous atmospheric deviation or increment the planet’s abilities to manage environmental change co-partnered issues. Here are some of them:
Eliminate All Subsidies for Fuel Use.
Subsidies for advancement and energy research, and also the creation, transportation, promoting and utilization of energy, support more terrific use of energy and raise outflows levels.
Decrease Regulatory Barriers to New Nuclear Power Plants.
Administrative postponements add considerably to the expense of atomic force, which is the main demonstrated engineering that can furnish enough dependable emanations free energy to lessen greenhouses gas outflows.
Alternative Forest Management Institutions.
Private and local woodland administration might lessen over gathering and ailment in crudely administered national backwoods, expanding the capability of the forest to ingest carbon and decreasing wildfires that discharge gigantic measures of Co
Liberalize Approval of Biotechnology.
Via biotechnology, human are advancing more quickly developing mixed bags of trees, which can retain and store many Co and dry season safe crops that can flourish notwithstanding environmental change.
Repeal the National Flood Insurance Program.
Financed surge protection is answerable for a significant part of the improvement in seaside territories and in surge fields. Wiping out this subsidy might make people less susceptible to higher ocean levels and expanded precipitation.
Build Use of Toll Roads with Congestion Pricing.
Toll paths with rates that shift as per times of day decreases activity defers that build use of energy and discharges.
Evacuate Older Cars from the Road.
Sponsoring the shift of more senior vehicles with fresher ones might build fuel productivity and decrease outflows.