The future of civil/construction engineering
In the ever changing world, there are many aspects that are undergoing changes in the construction industry. Like many other industries, the construction industry will have to undergo changes to meet the future demands that will be created by an increase in population, diminishing resources and the increasing need for sustainable structures. With prospects of a world population of over ten billion inhabitants by the year 2050, there is a need for the construction industry to focus their attention on how to handle the pressure that this increase will yield. Some of these pressures will be the need for sustainable energy, fresh air, clean water and safe waste disposal facilities and many more. Therefore, there will be the need to create a sustainable world that handles these cases appropriately.
For this to be achieved, there will be the need to carry out credible research and development in the industry. As the American society of civil engineers suggests, this will provide substantial information that will be useful to the civil engineers in coming up with meaningful projects. Proper research will address how to come up with applications that steer technology, risk management and utilizing resources. Currently, information technology has grown tremendously in construction industry. This means that in the coming years, more integration of artificial intelligent infrastructure is expected. This will call for adaption of civil engineers to new innovations and integrations of new technologies in design and construction.
Therefore, there are a number of challenges that will arise for those aspiring to venture in the construction industry as engineers. First, one will need to be ready to cope with the ever changing technology in the industry. A future civil engineer will need to be always up to speed with emerging technologies not only in the construction industry, but in the world as a whole. As much as civil engineering is a learning profession, those in it will need to take up additional courses probably in artificial intelligence and other advanced information technology courses. This will help them in coping with technology integration that is expected to occur in the industry in addition, engineers will need to be extremely creative to enable them come up with viable projects. This will require them to travel wide, read wide and be ready to try out new things frequently in order to expand their horizon of imagination as far as construction engineering is concerned.
Water Usage in Solar Panel Production
A solar panel is a box that contains many solar cells. Solar photovoltaic cells are responsible for transforming sunlight into electrical energy. Generating a lot of electrical power requires a large number of the solar cells. They are placed inside a panel because of their fragile nature. The panel protects them from damage. The solar cells interconnected together forms a photovoltaic solar module. The module can serve as part of the bigger photovoltaic system used in generation and distribution of electricity in a domestic, industrial, or commercial set up. Every module is rated between 100-320 watts using the Standard test condition. The efficiency of each module is determined by its area. It is common to find a solar panel that contains multiple modules since a single one produces limited quantity of energy. Generally, a photovoltaic system would consist of solar modules, inverter, a battery (optional), a solar tracker, and interconnection of wires (Gallaher et al, 2012).
The manufacture of the cells also called photovoltaic cells consumes a lot of water, nearly 1000 meters cubic per day. The tremendous consumption of water is due to its plentiful supply and the fact that water is inexpensive in places where the cells are rationally produced. Water is responsible for all wet processing parts, such as removal of chemical residues from equipments and cleaning of wafers and panels. The use of water has rules and specifications for quality purposes. Highly strict specification will result in unnecessary high expenditure on equipment while poor specifications will affect the manufacturing yield.
Life Cycle of Solar Panels Production
The solar panel life cycle begins with extraction of necessary minerals for example silicon in the form of sand. The minerals are then washed and refined to remove impurities. Further purification to obtain grade silicon is done. Monocrystalls are then grown from the refined silicon which are shaped and sawn to form wafers. Next, solar cells are manufactured form the wafers and assembled into PV modules. The modules are ready for installation. Afetr a usefull life, the solar panels are recycled and reused for making new panels (Sheffield & Sheffield, 2007).
The operation of PV uses little or no water. As a result, this paper explains water usage in on-site manufacture of PV, construction project, and recycling of solar panels. The method used to determine water usage is specifically described by withdrawal and consumption (Sheffield & Sheffield, 2007). Water withdrawal defines the water collected from soucers such as tap water, surface, ground, and rain. Water consumption is the water used by evaporation, incorporation into products, or removed from immediate environment.
Almost half of the water usage in life cycle of saolar panel is on PV manufacture, a third is on BOS and the rest on recycling (Tiwari, 2010). In the manufacture of module, water is used in grid electricity, glass, cooling, and site irrigation. During the BOS stage, water is used on preparation of site, removal of dust, and washing during construction. Transportation is also important contributors to water usage. During recycling, electricity, rinsing, and chemicals recycling use water.
Though the first solar manufacturing did not approve usage of water in cleaning modules, generally, 5 Litres per MegaWatt-hour of water was used in the cleaning during operation. Next, we used water to add new films and layers to the PV structure in order to improve its efficiency. It is common knowledge that defects in the crystal structure reduces efficiency of the PV. As a result, we used water vapor at 250º to 400º C. the water vapor provided hydrogen that combined with Si to form SiH in a process called passivation. This process reduces hole-electron combination, thermal annealing. A test conducted by Abe et al indicated that the process was at 40º0 C lasting for 5 minutes with 13-slm water flow rate. The advantages of using steam in this process are that it readily injects hydrogen and oxygen atoms into the Si interface. It much easier than plasma process and has a higher efficiency (Nee et al, 2013).
The transportation of solar panels accounts for about 7% of the life cycle water usage. Most frequently, the PV module, racks, BOS hardware have to be transported to overseas by ship. They are then distributed to centers using tracks and finally to the installation sites. Transport by ship ofcourse requires a lot of water possibly and ocean or sea. The propulsion of trucks also uses water.
The table below is a summary of water usage in solar panel life cycle.
Life cycle processOn-site usage (L/MWh)Total (L/MWh)Module production752BOS hardware3106-150Recycling123Mineral’s extraction254TransportationUnlimitedUnlimited
In our solar panel production, we used wet-recycling technology fitted with cooling towers. The towers withdraw from the system about 600 to 650 gallons of water per megawatt-hour of electricity produced. The waste water from the production of photovoltaic cells can also be used to produce energy. They are highly efficient on the grounds of silicon crystals. They are very expensive, even more than the solar cells produced under the thin film technology because of the expensive raw silicon and the elaborate manufacturing processes.
A recent development in the usage of water for photovoltaic cells manufacturing is the introduction of water quality standards. Guidelines to the use of High Purity Water are contained in SEMI PV3-0310. In the history of PV industry, this guide has never been produced before (Eden et al, 2012). The difference in levels of purity of water during production leads to varying users’ needs. The standards were developed by a team of PV manufacturers, suppliers, engineers, and managers. They evaluated water and came up with a cost estimate based on the fact that high quality needs calls for a higher investment in the treatment process.
In summary, water usage in soalr panel production is low compared to other electricity generators. It reduces water withdrawal by 1700 to 5600 L/MWh in the production process. The primary uses of eater are mineral extraction, transport during distribution, recycling and installation. A water balance system would reduce water consumptiuon during manufacture.
Edenhofer, O., Pichs, M. R., Sokona, Y. (2012). United Nations Environment Programme., World Meteorological Organization., Intergovernmental Panel on Climat�e� �C�h�a�n�g�e�.�,� �&� �P�o�t�s�d�a�m�-�I�n�s�t�i�t�u�t� �f�u�r� �K�l�i�m�a�f�o�l�g�e�n�f�o�r�s�c�h�u�n�g�.� �S�p�e�c�i�a�l� �r�e�p�o�r�t� �o�f� �t�h�e� �I�n�t�e�r�g�o�v�e�r�n�m�e�n�t�a�l� �P�a�n�e�l� �o�n� �C�l�i�m�a�t�e� �C�h�a�n�g�e�.� �N�e�w� �Y�o�r�k�:� �C�a�m�b�r�i�d�g�e� �U�n�i�v�e�r�s�i�t�y� �P�r�e�s�s�.� �
�G�a�l�l�a�h�e�r�,� �M�.� �P�.�,� �L�i�n�k�,� �A�.� �N�.�,� �&� �O�’�C�o�n�n�o�r�,� �A�.� �(�2�0�1�2�)�.� �P�u�b�l�i�c� �i�n�v�e�s�t�m�e�n�t�s� �i�n� �e�n�e�r�g�y� �t�e�c�h�n�o�l�o�g�y�.� �Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Sheffield, J. W., & Sheffield, C. (2007). Assessment of hydrogen energy for sustainable development. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Assessment of Hydrogen Energy for Sustainable Development: Energy & Environmental Security,
Nee, A. Y. C., Song, B., & Ong, S.-K. (2013). Re-engineering manufacturing for sustainability: Proceedings of the 20th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Singapore 17-19 April, 2013. Singapore: Springer.
Tiwari, G. N., & Dubey, S. (2010). Fundamentals of photovoltaic modules and their applications. Cambridge, U.K: Royal Society of Chemistry.
WATER USAGE IN SOLAR PANEL PRODUCTION 2
Running head: WATER USAGE IN SOLAR PANEL PRODUCTION 1
The Power of German Engineering
German car manufacturer industry is one of the global successful and largest employers and leading in car inventions with a strong labor force. The labor force with a population over 876,000 has over the years contributed to the success of Germany automobile industry. Germany has been recognized as the absolute leading fourth producer of cars conceding to Japan, China and the United States. This is with a significant annual rate of production up to 10 million and has a share of 35.6 percent of the current European Union car distribution. The German designed cars have won most times in the World Car of the Year, International Car of the Year, and European Car of the Year annual awards among the other countries. Porsche 911 and Volkswagen managed fourth and fifth places during the awards in the category of Car of the Century. The country tops in car production in the automobile world with a significant rate from BMW, Audi, Mercedes Benz and Porsche to Volkswagen.
German Automobile Industry
Germany car industry is considered the global birthplace of car manufacture. This is since Nikolaus Otto and Karl Benz managed to develop four-stroke engines for internal combustion purposes independently. During 1926, the formation of Daimler-Benz from Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler predecessor companies facilitated the production of 900 cars annually under Mercedes-Benz marquee. BMW was later found in 1916 but begun its auto production in 1928. The global economy collapse during the early 1930s great depression plunged the auto industry of Germany into a devastating crisis. Only twelve among the 1920s existing companies survived the great depression inclusive of Ford and Opel’s factory based in Cologne and Daimler-Benz. The German comeback from the situation was facilitated by the efforts of a venture union formed by Dampf Kraft Wagen, Audi; Horch and Wanderer referred to as Auto Union.
The German automobile industry still thrives following the diversity aspect of most of car-manufacturing company’s activity in the sector. The large car manufacturing companies including Mercedes Benz and medium sized manufacturers such as Porsche are found in the industry. This is as well as the technological system aiding production processes and module suppliers. The supply companies provide approximately 70 percent of the value added within the German domestic automobile sector. This ensures that the German automobile industry remains leading in production and forefront of the global car sell competition. The German automobile industry also serves as the instigator for the majority of the other car production related sectors. The industry has a large network of car manufacturing suppliers from the relative fields of metalworking, mechanical engineering, chemical and textile industry.
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The leading German cars in the automobile world
This is one of the leading cars produced by Germany with headquarters based in Ingolstadt under the ownership of Volkswagen Group. The company has been performing well with its sales in the European automobile markets. Audi is considered globally to have one of the perfectly built qualities among all the commercial auto manufacturers. The car has a sales record figure originating from half its 50 major market sales during 2004. The increment in sales to different parts of the world has attracted a response from Audi through building of vital dealerships in major areas through brand expansion.
This is another car brand manufacturer in Germany located in Munich always referred to as the ultimate driving machine in its US markets. The company has been successful in the automobile industry and was founded in 1913 by Karl Rapp. The original intention of the production company was to manufacture aircraft until it managed to secure one of the most successful contracts to build V12 engines. In the modern times, following a change in countless designs, the company can safely admit of belonging to a similar class as other German luxury cars such as the Porsche and Mercedes-Benz. The car brand is also known for its cheap value compared to its counterparts manufacturing everything ranging from the compact I’ vehicle series to the valued 5, 6 and 7 car series.
This is one of the most successful German automobile companies with immortal series production. The company headquarters is in Stuttgart and its productions are known to be among the finest cars globally. The company has crafted its niche as one of the top racing car kings with a production of more than 190 cars during 2006 for racing events. From one of Germany’s most recognized biggest motorsport events, 24 Hour June Nurburgring race to Le Mans American Series with major races in St. Petersburg, Houston and Long Beach, the company car always delivers successfully in the racing department.
This is one of German’s largest car manufacturers with a global mark and is located in Sindelfingen. The company is also referred to as Daimler and is best known for the production of cars with the longest life span. It is very common worldwide to drive a car product from Mercedes Benz company for more than 20 years.
The company is located in Wolfsburg and is also another German leading car manufacturer in the automobile industry. The company is also leading in the employment rate. This facilitates a global car production with customer-oriented qualities.
Automobile manufacture in Germany forms the core industry in the country. The automobiles built for over 120 years have been an evolutionary process. This facilitated the creation of a successful key industry in Germany. The leading car producers in the country build cars with the aim of meeting the highest market quality expectations. The engineers outdo each other in the development and research of automobile production. The results from the industry top the line of car products leading the way for the future German car production as the global leaders in terms of comfort, reliability, security, efficiency, image and design. Germany has also marked the success spot as the leading sales market especially for passenger car production as well as the significant supplying car industry. In the future, the country keeps
Sustainability in Engineering
Sustainability in engineering, also referred to as sustainable engineering refers to the incorporation of economic, environmental, and social considerations into energy system, process, and product design methods. This form of engineering also encourages the consideration of the entire process and product lifecycle at the course of designing. The primary intention of sustainable engineering is mitigating environmental effects across the whole lifecycle while simultaneously making the most of the product’s and process’ benefit to the economic and social stakeholders. Sustainable engineering is also referred as the process of operating or designing systems that use resources and energy in a sustainable manner. This implies that the systems that are derived from sustainable engineering will use the resources and energy in a rate that will not compromise the natural environment. This is done with the primary purpose of ensuring that future generations are not hindered in their efforts to meet their own needs (Maydl 178).
Sustainable engineering involves water supply, industrial processing, food production, and development of natural resources, transportation, and other engineering products. Sustainable engineering has recorded a number of achievements. These achievements include Global Environmental Facility, United Nations Environmental Program, and the World Bank has combined programs that have had a positive effect of encouraging sustainable developments in both the developed and developing countries. The other notable accomplishment includes the enhancement of industrial process to include new processes that have been very influential in enhancing sustainability in different regions of the world. Future goals of sustainable engineering includes the creation of comprehensive programs that offers safe provisions for basic human needs, health, food, water, and energy in a sustainable manner. Sustainable engineering has also been very critical in enhancing education on sustainability to aid the development of the developing countries (Allenby 9).
Allenby, Brad, et al. “Sustainable engineering education in the United States.” Sustainability Science 4.1 (2009): 7-15.
Maydl, Peter. “Sustainable engineering: state-of-the-art and prospects.” Structural engineering international 14.3 (2004): 176-180.
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Inventions of Buildings
Jhon Lewet was the person who invented the first buildings. The invention of building sought to provide shelter to people. Thus, in the late 300 BC there were only undeveloped structures made of leaves. Buildings were structures that were invented by assembling and erecting structures. This was to provide shelter to the people. The evolution of the buildings involves the trend of construction process that started with using human power to the current use of powerful machinery. The invention of the buildings were sought to adapt in climates. The early building was affected by the durability of materials used that are perishable (Breverton 129). These include leaves, branches, and other materials. Next, the building were made form more durable materials such as metals and plastics.
The further evolvement of buildings sought to improve the stronger materials and in the knowledge of exploiting them. Thirdly, the inventions of the degree of control seek to excise interior buildings in order to encourage regulation of humidity, air temperature, and air speed (Wei 78). The present state of building is more sophisticated. It includes a wide range of building system that is directed at different building markets. Buildings related to understand the designs that incorporate the use of material properties and enforce safety standards. In the past, the invention of building involved processes that were not well organized (Bua and Max 262). Today, the buildings are well organized to include building products, artisans and building consultants.
In the late 12,000 BC the building were not well developed and were only formed to show circular rings of stones that provides shelters. The people adopted crude huts made from wooden material and light walls of from animal skins. In order to shows concerns of the environment, the buildings were designed in a way that sheds people from rain and snow. The building was of membranes. The membranes help to control and maintain of light and health in the houses, but it provided visual privacy. The membranes need support from winds and any other materials. According to the inventions of buildings, the Saudi Arabian goat’s hair tents, wooden frames, American India tepee with many poles helped to create better shelter to the hunter-gatherers.
Fig .1 Buildings on Caves and Stones
The evolution of buildings in the agricultural revolution provides a significant outline f the invention of buildings. During this period, people did not travelled in search of pasture but they sought to more permanent buildings. In the Middle East, the building was made from walls that were made form clay packs, in Europe they were dry laid stones. This indicates the increase of durability in the design of buildings. Thus, the building comprises of reeds, clay, and stones. This marks the evolution of building of more durable buildings.
Fig2. Buildings made from Reeds, Clay and Stones.
In the 21st century, buildings are made from different buildings materials including cement, sand and other materials. The buildings also involve quality designs and plans to meet the desired needs to the people. Especially, the residential buildings comprise separate units that involve individual houses. These buildings are more complex in order to allow different collection of designs and surroundings. The buildings range from wood framed or masonry to high-rise buildings that can accommodate many people. The multistory buildings have emerged from the skyscrapers inventions that have many houses in the same building (Wei 23).
Fig 3. A 21st Residential Building
The invention of building comprises the skyscrapers. The first skyscrapers were built in the late 1880s in the design and establishment of a 10 to 20 story building in the United States. Afterwards, skyscrapers building have dominated the entire of New York. The invention of the skyscrapers promotes mass-producing steel. George A. Fuller was involved in the invention of skyscrapers. The development of the skyscrapers combined other innovations such as steel materials, elevators, central heating and telephone system. The building is also tall as designed by various architects including Cass Gilbert in 1913 (Sharma 818). Therefore, the evolution of building has led to the establishment of well-designed tall structures referred to as skyscrapers. They obtain their name from being tall. This marks the current trend of building in major cities. The figure below shows an example of a skyscraper building in a major city of
Fig 4. Empire State Building New York Skyscrapers
The tall buildings skyscrapers provide opportunities of solve problems by providing large capacities. This assist in meeting the people needs form the buildings. The skyscrapers buildings involve an industrial cultures that provides diversity and complexity that serves the needs of the society. Architectural design and development has imposed the nature of buildings constructed today.
In summary, the early hunters and gatherers who made leaves, stones and caves for providing for shelter did the invention of buildings. However, the buildings had concerned with durability. In order to shows concerns of the environment, the buildings were designed in a way that sheds people from rain and snow. The building was of membranes. Evolution of building s sought to ensure durability of buildings in order to enhance safety of people. Today, building involves skyscrapers and modern residential builds that involve complex construction process. This marks the trends of invention and evolution of buildings in the society.
Breverton, Terry. Breverton’s Encyclopedia of inventions: a compendium of technological Leaps, Groundbreaking discoveries and scientific breakthroughs that changed the world. London: Quercus, 2012.
Bua, Matt, and Goldfarb, Max. Architectural inventions: visionary drawing of buildings. London: Laurence King Publishers, 2012. Print
Sharma, Aashish, et al. “Life cycle assessment of buildings: a review.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15.1 (2011): 871-875.
Wei, James. Great inventions that changed the world. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2012.
Subsystem Hazard Analysis
Subsystem Hazard Analysis is a study carried out to identify design risks in subsystems. The analysis is normally carried out to evaluate formerly defined risks at the system level and discover new subsystem risks. The analysis must find functional malfunctions of subsystem which could lead to accidental loss. Equipment and component faults or failures as well as human errors that initiate a hazard as a result of the working of the subsystem are examined. The examination is accomplished by reviewing design specifications, engineering schematics ad drawings.
The SSHA must be finished not later that the commencement of system definition stage of the system metamorphosis. The process is done when comprehensive design information is available because it offers a method for evaluating in a larger depth the causes of risks formerly identified by the previous analysis. As the systems as well as interrelated subsystems are again defined during the system development and definition, the analysis must be revised. The process is done by the system analyst.
The SSHA uses different forms of system information to kindle risk identification. Undesired mishap and hazard checklists are needed to assist identifying new risks formerly unseen. Tools like functional flow diagram, indentured equipment list and reliability block diagram are used to aid the system analyst. By use of comprehensive design information which is present during the analysis, risk underlying factors can be assessed in a greater depth.
Techniques used include separate the subsystem and look within the subsystem for risks. Starts the analyses by populating the worksheet with risks identified earlier and evaluate the system components to figure out particular underlying factor in the risks. Then new risks and their underlying factors are identified by assessing the software modules and hardware components of the subsystem.
Clifton, A. (2005). Hazard Analysis Techniques for System Safety. United States: John Wiley & Sons.
Roland, H. (1990). System Safety Engineering and Management. United States: John Wiley & Sons.
Welch, N. (2002). What is system safety? A science and technology primer. New England chapter of the system safety society, 10-20.
SUBSYSTEM HAZARD ANALYSIS 3
Running head: SUBSYSTEM HAZARD ANALYSIS 1
Fault Tree Analysis
A Fault Tree is a top to down analysis (Roush & Webb 2009). This analysis takes a deductive approach whereby it defines the events as well as the sub-events, which may result to the occurrence of the top event. The relationship linking these events is usually directed by their logical correlation to each other. We can represent the fault tree using a qualitative or a quantitative manner (Verma & Karanki 2010). When using the qualitative manner it involves providing the graphical or illustrated relationship. This will be that of the top event including all of its subordinate events as well as their basic events.
According to Wiley and Sons (2010), Fault Tree Symbols include:
The Primary Event Symbol
The Intermediate Event Symbol
The Transfer Symbol
The above symbols are further sub-divided into various sub-symbols as illustrated below.
The Primary Event Symbol is sub-divided into Basic Event and Conditioning Event. The Basic Event forms the basic symbol while the Conditioning Event is the symbol used to perform conditional checks. The Intermediate Event symbol is used for naming.
The Gate Symbol sub-divided into the AND and the OR sub-symbols. The AND symbol is used when there is a requirement of inserting two or more values. However, it cannot be used when inserting a single value. The output generated from this symbol is usually 0 or 1. The symbol only satisfies the condition if both values are true, i.e. 1. It takes and only outputs 1 or 0. The OR symbol is used in the same way as the AND symbol. However, it will satisfy the condition only if both values are false.
Transfer Symbol is sub-divide into the Transfer IN and the Transfer OUT sub-symbols. The Transfer In symbol is used for inserting or inputting the values. The Transfer OUT sub-symbol is used to output the values.
Guidelines for Process Safety Documentation. (2010). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..
Roush, M. L., & Webb, W. M. (2009). Applied reliability engineering (5th ed.). College Park, MD: Center for Reliability Engineering, University of Maryland.
Verma, A. K., Srividya, A., & Karanki, D. R. (2010). Reliability and safety engineering. London: Springer.
FAULT TREE ANALYSIS 2
Running head: FAULT TREE ANALYSIS 1
Improving Reliability of Weak Links in Safety Systems
In several occasions, people become the weak links through various means in several safety systems. For example, after the establishment of a product is finished effectively, many engineers observe the product, and during the development testing and the product are found to have failed then that reflects badly on their capability. Usually, the engineers would wish that the product under progress will turn out to be successful. This is an illustration of weak links in safety scheme. However if the test carried out gives positive outcome then it indicates that they have completed their tasks effectively, on the other hand, if in the test indicates any kind of failure subsequently it leads to failure modes and a bad reliability (Pecht, 2010).
Improving the reliability of weak link could be accomplished in a number of ways. The reliability can be enhanced by putting all the required efforts that can lead to goals achievement, the organization should form an environment that makes the staff member feel good and observe proactive behavior. Generating new habits can make workers put more effort in finishing the tasks (Musa, Iannino, & Okumoto, 1987). The supervisors must take care of their responsibilities and they should make small adjustments to improve the reliability, the managers must enhance the urgency around to develop the reliability.
Managers are responsible in developing and efficiently communicating with others in case of the business to enhance the reliability to all levels within the business. They must look into the matters that arise and ensure they are fixed. Merging these proactive procedures with powerful analytical tactics to rapidly attend to problems as they happen, results in a system for achieving better reliability (Blanchard, Fabrycky, & Fabrycky, 1990).
Blanchard, B. S., Fabrycky, W. J., & Fabrycky, W. J. (1990). Systems engineering and analysis (Vol. 4). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Musa, J. D., Iannino, A., & Okumoto, K. (1987). Software reliability (pp. 77-112). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Pecht, M. (Ed.). (2010). Product reliability, maintainability, and supportability handbook. CRC Press.
RELIABILITY OF WEAK LINKS 2
Running head: RELIABILITY OF WEAK LINKS 1
Construction Questions that would be asked for the Evaluation of a Project Using Projection Evaluation Tree Analysis
Project evaluation tree analysis enables organizations assess the success and performance of their investment decisions. This approach is feasible because it encompasses all aspects of the organization, including availability of finances, using computer software (Stephans, 2004). One of the questions that an executive/organization can ask for the evaluation of a project is whether the project is in line with the initial plan and estimates. Project management involves estimating the cost of pursuing a project before commencement. Project Evaluation Tree Analysis can help an organization in determining whether the actual cost of a project is in line with the estimates, which helps in taking corrective measures if necessary (Stephans, 2004).
The other construction question that is relevant under Project Evaluation Tree Analysis is the effect of a project on employees and personnel. Project management involves measuring the risk and benefits of a project as it progresses (Carayannis, Kwak & Anbari, 2005). This approach considers the social, economic, and technical aspect of a project, which influence the risks and benefits. Therefore, the question of the risks and benefits of a construction project is important when applying Project Tree Evaluation Analysis. The time that a construction project takes is also another important question that is relevant under project evaluation. The time a construction project takes determines whether the project meets the required standards (Chiesa & Frattini, 2009). The time is also an indication of the costs involved in the completion of a construction project. The question of time is important since Project Evaluation tree Analysis incorporates statistical variables and time in the assessment and evaluation of a project. Therefore, comparing actual and estimated costs, assessing the effect of a project on various parties and the time taken by a project are among the key issues that are relevant under Project Evaluation Tree Analysis.
Carayannis, E. G., Kwak, Y.-H., & Anbari, F. T. (2005). The story of managing projects: An interdisciplinary approach. Westport (Conn.: Praeger.
Chiesa, V., & Frattini, F. (2009). Evaluation and performance measurement of research and development: Techniques and perspectives for multi-level analysis. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Stephans, R. A. (2004). System safety for the 21st century: The updated and revised edition of system safety 2000. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Running Head: ENGINEERING 1
Change is a constant factor in life, and its major significance is to enhance life. On the other hand, old is gold and individuals often borrow from the past in order to keep enjoying the services of a given service. This is the case in the history of construction. There are three major phases of buildings. These are fire-resistive buildings (1870-1920), high-rise construction (1920-1960), and high-rise buildings (after 1960) (Shackelford, 2009). This paper discusses the differences and similarities between these three construction types.
The resistive buildings were the earliest form of construction. They were constructed without much concern for fire risks. For instance, the buildings’ floors had concrete piers, which presented a risk for the spread of fire by creating voids spaces beneath the structures. In order to prevent fire risks, the buildings had terra cotta tiles. This is unlike the more modern forms, which use concrete tiles to reduce fire risks (Shackelford, 2009).
The 1920-1960 High rise construction was unique in that they had steel frames and concrete tiles. The buildings’ windows also provided ventilation by opening to let in air. On the other hand, the high-rise constructions built after 1960 are characterized by glass and steel. In order to resist fire, the buildings used lightweight concrete and HVAC systems. Fire dampers also control the spread of fire. These buildings also had elevators and staircases placed centrally (Shackelford, 2009).
The major similarity among these buildings is that they all had a given mechanism of controlling fire. The degree of effectiveness in this concern increases over time, as more effective ways of controlling fire were employed. The use of concrete is also persistent in all the phases even as steel and glass took over.
Shackelford, R. (2009). Fire behavior and combustion processes. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning
FIRE BEHAVIOR 2
Running head: FIRE BEHAVIOR 1