How Technology Help Us to Improve Children’s Access to High Quality Literature
Learning technology is taking literacy teaching above its print-based and oral method to take in electronic texts and online with multimedia. Computers are making new chances for collaborating and writing. The Internet is making worldwide connections for learners to interact, underlining the urge for rock-solid writing and reading skills. By altering the method that information is taken, digested, and used, technology is influencing how students, listen, write, read, and correspond (Vukelich, Christie, Jean, 2011).
Literacy instruction means the education of essential literacy knowledge in writing, reading, listening, and verbal communication. In current digital humankind, though, technology has resulted in expanded understanding of literature. Apart from having essential literacy knowledge, current learners also require technology knowledge for, accessing, examining, conversing, and using computing information, thinking vitally concerning messages towards latest media, and knowing and assessing data
How can technology help us to improve children’s access to high quality literature?
Majority of teachers currently concur that literacy instruction, at least, should take in computing skills. Other futuristic teachers see a greater responsibility for technology in the literacy; they think that technology has the possibility to join learners to writing and reading. Meyer and Rose (2005), for instance, stated “the possibility of new technology to rejuvenate reading instruction and to create reading further appropriate to the lives of kids growing up in the current era.
Technology has an important responsibility in all parts of American life these days, and this responsibility will just increase in the future. The important aspect of technology for kid’s education and growth are well acknowledged. As technology turn to be easy to be used and early childhood software multiplies, kid’s use of technology turn to be well known. As a result, early childhood teachers have a duty to seriously scrutinize the effect of technology on kids and be ready to use technology to help kids.
The suitable and helpful use of technology with kids is at the end of the day the duty of the early childhood teacher, working jointly with guardians. Guardians and educators both require to come up with better options as clients. As they get educated on the suitable importance of technology, guardians and educators are most probable to come up with informed resolutions and to make it recognized by inventors of technology when they are not pleased with outcome (Adams, 2011).
To attain the probable importance of technology, both in-service and pre-service education must offer early childhood teachers with privileges for essential information and consciousness. These efforts should attend to the fast propagation and fast-paced change inside the technology field. Opportunities that stress evaluating the software in relation to kid’s improvement are necessary.
Technology and media are means that are valuable only when used properly. The emergence of technology and the stable flow of latest devices may result in some teachers to employ technology for technology’s sake, instead of being a way to an end.
Technology should not be used for tasks that are not educationally minded, not developmentally suitable, or not effective. Inactive use of technology and any kind of screen media is an unsuitable substitute for active play, jointly with other kids, and interrelations with grownups. Technologically literate teachers who are concerned in kids growth theory and developmentally suitable practices have the, skills knowledge, and experience to choose and use technology devices and interactive media that fits the times and developmental levels of the kids in their upkeep, and they are aware how and when to incorporate technology into the program efficiently.
Adams, M.J. 2011. Technology for Developing Children’s Language and Literacy: Bringing Speech Recognition to the Classroom. New York: The Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop.
Meyer, A., & Rose, D. H. (2005). The future is in the margins: The role of technology and disability in educational reform. In D. H. Rose, A. Meyer & C. Hitchcock (Eds.), The universally designed classroom: Accessible curriculum and digital technologies (pp. 13-35). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
Vuklelich, C., Christie, J., & Billie E. (2011). Helping Young Children Learn Language and Literacy- Birth through kindergarten. Pearson 3rd edition.
Running Head: EDUCATION
Philosophy of Teaching and Learning in Class
Teaching is a discipline requiring strategic approaches in ensuring content delivery and appropriate results in learners being able to understand the concepts taught to them. Given that it is a practical discipline whose results are learner specific, there is a need as observed by Les & Underwood (1998) to ensure that the philosophy and strategy that a teacher takes has capacities to bear fruits and attain given objectives qualitatively and quantitatively (Ziglar, Flanagan & Dhanam, 2004). This means therefore that teaching itself is a scientific art that has to be learnt and well understood in order to arrive at the most appropriate philosophy that is both relevant and sufficient for the practice. In this regard therefore, it is imperative to observe that there is no strong or weak philosophy per se.
The strategic approach taken for teaching is determined by a myriad of factors most of which are subsequently affected by other fundamental factors such as environment, resources and teacher experience making it difficult to unilaterally consider a given philosophy as being universally expedient (Les & Underwood, 1998). This paper discusses teaching and philosophy of teaching in class indicating the various attributes of the approach that would make teaching an exciting as well as fulfilling activity for both the teacher and the learner.
The first thing that informs the basis of a teaching practice is what Greenberg (1987) calls philosophy of teaching statement (Greenberg, 1987). This creates a basis upon which all the desired strategies and approaches of teaching are predicated and informs both the teacher and the learner of the expectations that the teaching exercise intends to achieve. In it, personal values and needs for the learners and the department in which one works have to be centrally reflected in the statement in order to ensure clarity of purpose and intent (Les & Underwood, 1998). Four primary questions are instrumental in designing and formulating a philosophy of teaching statement which in order of their occurrence are given below:
Objectives to what end is the teaching philosophy intended for?
Strategic approach by what means is it to be achieved?
Success and Involvement to what degree is it to be effected?
Importance of what importance is the philosophy formulated?
Teaching philosophy has to be formulated first and fore most by describing the objectives that the teacher has for the lesson, the learners, him/herself and the entire institution at large. In formulating these objectives, it is imperative to capture the objectives for the learners where their understanding of foundational concepts taught is primary. In my practical class situation, in formulating my philosophy of teaching, one of the key objectives that I set out to achieve is impartation of not only academic knowledge but also life-long skills. By this, it is usually my intention to strive to ensure that through my teaching approach, strategies and philosophy, I mould the learners to foster critical thinking, facilitate their acquisition of life skills, prepare learners to function effectively in an informed economy and develop problem-solving strategies for the challenges that they face in their spheres of influence (Ziglar, Flanagan & Dhanam, 2004). I usually consider this component of my philosophy as the backbone of my teaching approach which when well captured and understood guarantees an effective and flawless teaching experience for both my students and myself.
After formulating and crafting the objectives to inform my teaching philosophy, I consider myself to have given my teaching experience a bearing and focus which now has to be supported by the strategic approach that I take. These usually consist of the methods used to achieve or work towards achieving the pre-set objectives. In my philosophy, I have found six teaching approaches and techniques quite revolutionary and instrumental in ensuring effective teaching experience and have hence relied largely on them.
For technical concepts, case study teaching approach that takes a case to review and critique allowing learners to learn from the parallels provided in the study and the concepts shared during teaching is quite helpful (Greenberg, 1987). I also use collaborative and cooperative learning approach where I collaborate with students to encourage greater teacher-learner and learner-learner interactions to enhance understanding through discussion and brainstorming (Ziglar, Flanagan & Dhanam, 2004).
Problem-based learning strategy fosters critical thinking in students and prompts them to brainstorm over given problems, critique available solutions and decide on the most appropriate of the methods to solve it (Fraser & Fisher, 1982). This is one of the most practical strategic approaches that centrally guides my teaching philosophy given that my objectives are mainly geared towards ensuring that learners’ practical skills are not only developed but also put to use. Finally, team-based teaching strategy also finds a lot of application in modern day learning where team work and corporate performance is encouraged over individual display since the former stands greater chances of corporate success that by far outshines the latter (Ziglar, Flanagan & Dhanam, 2004). The competitive corporate world now encourages greater corporate performance of their human resources rather than individual display and this requires that as students are trained to get into these fields, they are well equipped with appropriate team work skills and competences and this why this approach is quite definitive in my teaching philosophy.
Success and Involvement
Once the philosophy has enumerated the objectives and the strategic methods to attain them, it is now critical to ensure that these objectives and methods used to attain them are gauged to determine their effectiveness and relevance. It is the recommendation of Hartmut (1978) that since the objectives are student oriented, the measures to determine their effectiveness and relevance should also be student-oriented reflecting on the teacher’s efforts rather than the number of chapters covered from the class text book (Hartmut, 1978).
In my teaching philosophy I use both standard evaluation forms and personalized evaluation tools to gauge the performance of my teaching experience. The personalized tools are more relevant as are more objective oriented and can be tailored to measure the exact parameters required. For instance, one of my philosophy’s objective is to develop problem-solving skills in my students and here my evaluation is usually informed by the testing their ability to solve problems. In this case, I discuss how I construct problems for them to solve, the specific skills the designed problems are meant to evaluate, and the level of performance from the students that I am interested in (Fraser & Fisher, 1982). It is on this basis that Osborne, Salzberger & Wittenberg (1999) in discussing the various approaches to evaluation concedes that:
I have come to realize that ultimately students learn what we examine for. If we test for learning of facts, students will learn facts. If we test for problem solving, they will learn to be better problem solvers….My long-term goal is to learn more about and then to implement improved mechanisms for assessment of students, likely in the realm of ability-based or performance-based assessment (p. 34).
Teaching philosophy has a lot of importance when it comes to the overall performance of the teaching experience. With a well articulated and prepared teaching philosophy, there are many rewards that can be anticipated to be attained by it.
As an educator therefore, my teaching philosophy greatly defined by the above strategies and special gives me great utmost confidence that all my learners has the capacity to strive for success in their academic performance quest and actually attain them. In order to ensure this quest is well attained, it is my intention to do my best to promote growth by reinforcing it by majoring on creativity, outlining the importance of education as well as giving learners an opportunity to critically analyze knowledge for their own discovery (Fraser & Fisher, 1982). In this, I appreciate that different people are unique in their learning capacities and therefore hold different opinions regarding their learning and therefore their suggesting have to be considered to make their learning effective (Osborne, Salzberger & Wittenberg, 1999). This perception engraved in my teaching philosophy will encourage learners to value effort and determination to succeed in their endeavours.
In addition to this, my philosophy is informed by the need to practice professionalism which will include such things like showing good leadership skills for my learners and those that are involved in my teaching approach. This requirement ensures that I am an authority that is responsible so as to serve as a role model and be able to serve and guide students well in their quest to acquire knowledge and an education (Osborne, Salzberger & Wittenberg, 1999). As a teacher, it is imperative that attend to my learners academic and welfare needs well to ensure that their personal and academic needs are well addressed and sufficiently supported to create them into better and responsible people in the society (Ziglar, Flanagan & Dhanam, 2004).
At the center of my teaching philosophy is the fact that I consider my students as the main priority and there I am aware of the fact that they have different levels of language proficiency which requires that the communication approach to be considerate of that fact. It is my belief that the creation of a student-centered learning system in my approach to ensure that the students are able to take charge of their own learning experience with little help from me as their teacher (Osborne, Salzberger & Wittenberg, 1999). The importance of this approach is that there will be an inculcation of responsibility in them to ensure that they achieve their learning goals and take a more central role in their learning experience. In this regard therefore, my role as a teacher will be to coach and guide to facilitate the students through their learning process by providing them with relevant information and giving guidelines to help them achieve their learning targets (Osborne, Salzberger & Wittenberg, 1999).
In conclusion therefore, teaching philosophy is a concept that marks the way teaching process is done enumerating the entire requirements that strategies that are to be used to assist in the learning process. The concept underlines the key areas that are important to aid teachers in their teaching practice to ensure that the teaching process is well followed to ensure that the students are well taught and understand the concepts that are taught to them (Ziglar, Flanagan & Dhanam, 2004). With strategies that are resourceful and elaborate as discussed herein, I will be able to achieve self-satisfaction and success in my teaching endeavors. The philosophy allows me as a teacher to be open to newer ideas and suggestions to enrich my teaching experience where it allows me to be move involved in educational activities, attend to educational talks and seminars and participate in forums and seminars that further expand me knowledge base and experience in teaching. This experience easily equips me with up-to-date expertise and information helping me to keep in touch with global issues enriching my knowledge base with latest technology and experience.
Fraser, B. J., & Fisher, D. L. (1982). Predicting students’ outcomes from their perceptions of classroom psychosocial environment. American Educational Research Journal, 19: 498- 518.
Greenberg, D. (1987). The Sudbury Valley School Experience “Back to Basics – Political basics.” New York: Revell.
Hartmut, J. (1978). Supportive dimensions of teacher behavior in relationship to pupil emotional cognitive processes. Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht, 25: 69-74.
Les, C. & Underwood, J. (1998). The Significance Principle: The Secret Behind High Performance People and Organizations. New York: Broadman & Holman Publishers.
Osborne, E., Salzberger, I. & Wittenberg, G. W. (1999). The Emotional Experience of Learning and Teaching. Karnac Books, London.
Ziglar, Z. Flanagan, B. & Dhanam, K. (2004). Top Performance: How to Develop Excellence in Yourself and Others. New York: Revell.
PHILOSOPHY OF TEACHING AND LEARNING IN CLASS 2
Student Adapted Environments
College degrees have become so paramount in the modern world and they have even replaced high school diplomas concerning the mainstay for responsible citizenship and self-sufficiency. However, too many students, unfortunately, abandon their studies prior to the completion of their course. Such drop out cases are attributed to a mix of institutional and individual factors such as change of major, family demands, lack of money, as well as poor psycho-social fit (Kuh et al., 2005). Kuh et al (2007) have identified 5 sets of variables, which examine the success of students. These are the student background characteristics; institutions’ structural characteristics like mission, selectivity, and size; their interactions with staff members and faculty as well as peers; the perceptions of the students concerning the learning environment; and quality of the effort devoted by students towards their educationally purposeful activities.
According to Kuh et al (1994), learning institutions should support as well as encourage learning and successfulness of students via a learning ethos and cultivation of human-scale settings, which pervades all the institutional aspects. The learning institutions characterized by such features seldom happen by accident and thus educational institutions must work to foster their characteristics. Thus, Kuh et al (2005) argue that such environments usually require intentional designing as well as assiduous maintenance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the student-adapted environments in the Northeastern State University by looking at various factors that contribute towards the same.
Overview: Northeastern State University (NSU):
The NSU is a US public university. It has its main campus in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, at Ozark Mountains’ foot. It has two additional campuses located in Broken Arrow and Muskogee. In fact, NSU is the oldest higher learning institution in Oklahoma State. Moreover, it goes down in history as being among the oldest higher learning institutions located to the West of River Mississippi (NSU, 2012a).
Mission and how it demonstrates a Living’ Mission and a Living’ Educational Philosophy
The Mission of NSU entails the empowerment of individuals in an endeavor of making them to be socially responsible global citizens by creating and sustaining a culture of learning and discovery. (NSU, 2012a, Para 2) The different Northeastern State University campuses have their foundation laid upon the rich Cherokee Nation educational heritage. As such, the institution provides its diverse communities and societies with a wide range of lifelong learning via undergraduate, post-graduate, and professional degree programs. The NSU learning environment advocates for quality teaching, scholarly and research activities, high expectations, as well as service to the professional and local communities (NSU, 2012c). To achieve this end, the institution’s staff and faculty members are highly dedicated in the provision of friendly learning environment for students in which the students get adequate preparation for achievement of personal goals and socially responsible careers, which in turn foster their successfulness in the challenging global society (NSU, 2012a).
In essence, the institution’s primary focus is facilitation of development of individual students and this captures its living mission and living educational philosophy. In fact, the university has the principle purpose of providing programs for public service, research, formal instruction, as well as other learning opportunities, characterized by sufficient diversity towards being significant towards the varying requirements of individual students, and society at large. In addition, the institution endeavors to achieve brilliance in instruction as well as other opportunities of learning and thus fosters to provide commendable public service and research programs, adequate towards the support of its underlying mission and vision (Kuh et al., 2005).
Kramer (2007) argues that the educational institutions that vividly elucidate their educational objectives as well as align their diverse educational programs and policies with clear, coherent institutional philosophy and mission happen to be more efficient and effective in their operations. In accomplishment of the NSU’s mission, it has been fundamental for the institution to foster a comprehensive dedication towards the search and dissemination of the truth. For achievement of this, the institution have cultivated a viable learning environment, which stimulates intellectual curiosity, arouses the students moral and social conscience, supplies essential tools for the transformation of information into understanding and knowledge, and cultivate a willingness of responding towards the global mankind needs among its students (Kuh et al., 2005).
Means of Maintaining an Unshakable Focus on Student Learning
Maintenance of an unshakable focus upon the students as well as their success remains an integral and distinctive thread within student-centered culture and environment. The institution has anchored this focus on a philosophy of talent development, which bleeds across the institute. This is via a view, which recognizes the significance of valuing as well as addressing the diverse needs and talents of the students. Through adherence to a concrete talent development philosophy, the institute benefits all the students, particularly when the pedagogical practices honor and acknowledge the backgrounds and experiences of the students and perceive their skills and talents as assets. Since all the students have a distinctive view on the world as well as the different topics under study, they enrich their learning and that of others via sharing their experience and knowledge (Kramer, 2007).
Faculty members who teach the first-year students engage in skills assessment and then permit the students to choose their preferred means of completing their assignments in order to reinforce their confidence, as opposed to forcing all the students to perform a similar thing that may give unfair advantage to some who perform well in such a particular format. Kuh (2007) argues that the staff and faculty utilizing a talent development model believe all the students can learn everything taught by the college. Kramer (2007) supports this notion and claims that a fundamental step in the enactment of this philosophy lies in the validation of students, a process that assists them in believing that they will succeed and also that they are institutional full members.
As a white institution, most of the African-American students struggle so much academically and the institution surveyed this fact and established that such students contend with frustration and alienation feelings, alongside little support for their efforts, compared to their white peers. Due to this, the institution started a program within faculties and staff of validating students via working with them one on one, praising and addressing them by name, and provision of support and encouragement. This cultivated an atmosphere in which the students started perceiving themselves as having the capability of learning, which consequently contributes to increased confidence and interest in their learning capacity (Kuh et al, 2005).
How it adapts its Environment for Educational Enrichment
The built physical and natural environments of the institution shape the students behavior via allowing some types of activities and restricting others. Furthermore, the commitment of students in terms of loyalty and persistence towards the institution are greatly strengthened via the intentional creation of a viable sense of place via connecting the architecture and design of the institution to some meaningful experiences as well as some activities memories (Kuh et al., 2005). Thus, the institution understands that its academic buildings’ proximity to the residences of the students promote or hinders interactions between the students from varied majors. Additionally, the actual physical environment features are designed in such a way that they encourage learning and development process among the students and the faculties (Kuh et al., 1994).
Kuh et al (1994) has acknowledged that there are considerable variations in the extent to which institutional social and physical environments promote or are congenial towards the success of students. For instance, an institute can foster the interaction between students and their faculty or even peer interaction prior to or after classes via placing of comfortable seats and/or benches near the lecture rooms or even support the interaction of the students with the faculty through creation of well-equipped study space for group near the faculty offices. This would in turn foster the likelihood of increment of the spontaneous interactions between the faculty and students (Kuh et al, 2005).
Built environment affects what individuals with visual or physical limitations can do, directly. Statutes, paintings, carvings, as well as other adapted environment aspects privilege or value some student groups over the others. In some cases, certain groups’ members may find some properties of such built environment as alienating. For instance, the portraits of entirely white male leaders of campus within a famous meeting room within the student center (Kuh et al, 1994). As such, the NSU should understand the different student groupings’ perceptions as well as react against the physical environment as a crucial effort of enhancing satisfaction and success of the students in any effort.
The social constituent represents the demographic characteristics of students and overriding personality orientations, which can be represented via the students’ proportions pursuing different majors. This implies that the institutional environment with large sciences and engineering majors vary from the environments with large performing arts and business students’ numbers as the science and engineering students’ personalities have the tendency of being conventional and realistic while the arts and business groups tend to be more artistic and enterprising (Kuh et al, 2005). Thus, academic environment, as core mechanisms via which students advance their distinctive abilities and interests’ patters, must be favorable for effectiveness in learning and development among college and university students as they can easily deduce meanings from such built or natural, and the social environments surrounding them.
How it highlights the Pathways to Student Success
The NSU offers transfer or parallel degree programs tailored to meet the requirements of the students planning to transfer into 4-year institutional plans in order to pursue baccalaureate degree. In addition, the university also offers some technical degrees as well as technical/academic certificate programs aimed at preparing students for their entry into workforce upon the completion of their studies or degree programs (NSU, 2012b). Thus, the certificate and degree programs offered by the Northeastern State University highlights effective pathways towards the success of students as it aims at preparing them for the corporate world.
Demonstration of an Improvement-Oriented Culture
The institution has high expectations of performance for all its students. According to Kuh et al (2005), setting of high expectations, followed by holding the students accountable for realizing them remains an important earmark of any student-centered culture. This culture leads to the tendency of the students to regulate their behavior to ensure they meet the demands that the institution has placed upon them, irrespective of their former academic history. Kramer (2007) found out this fact for students learning at selective establishments who surpassed their envisaged performance when confronted with high expectations. Thus, the institution, as a student-centered culture, has set appropriate expectations to their specific students.
Due to the urge for success and improvement of performance, the university requires its students to take freshman and advanced compositions as well as at least one course of intensive writing within their major. The institution has also demarcated some writing-intensive courses like nursing, engineering, etc as requiring writing portfolios (Kuh et al, 2005). Actually, every international affair and public course at or beyond three hundred-level qualifies as writing intensive. In addition, the institute’s lynchpin for first-year program entails a small, academically scrupulous seminar, which is designed as a means of fostering learning communities as well as introduces new students towards the college-level work (Kramer, 2007). Thus, the institute has well devised expectations for all students at their different academic levels to ensure the improvement of its performance and productivity (Kuh et al, 2005).
Ways of Encouraging Shared Responsibility for Student Success and Educational Quality
Effective partnerships and shared responsibilities among those with most contact with the students, that is student affairs professionals and the faculty, are imperative in the creation of an institutional culture for supporting the success of students. As such, there is need for establishment of a shared responsibility sense for the success of students in the institution (Kuh et al, 2005). Such establishments are characterized in the NSU by a considerably high level of collaboration and respect among the members of community. In addition, it has generated success of the students, which is important to all stakeholders. According to Kuh et al (1994), citing a report entitled Powerful Partnerships: A Shared Responsibility for Learning, the principles for student learning’s sharing responsibility has been clearly outlined.
As such, NSU have promoted integration of its educational resources in the development of the whole student. A key approach of cultivating viable partnerships between the students and academic affairs lies in working harmoniously in development of freshman interest groups. The freshman interest groups aim at assisting the students in integration and making meaning concerning their in-class as well as out-of-class experiences as well as encourage more regular substantive contact with faculty members and their peers outside the class and increased participation in the campus activities (Kuh et al, 2007).
In conclusion, all learning institutions must have effective student-adapted environments to foster the success of students. Most of the institutions fail to recognize the diverse needs of the students in terms of their race, ethnicity, class, and even the course they pursue in the institutions of higher learning. This ultimately results into high drop out rates in such institutions and the cure lies in enhancing the participation and adoption of some basic features and characteristics to foster acceptance by the students.
Kramer, G. L. (2007). Fostering student success in the campus community. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Kuh, G. D. (2007). Piecing together the student success puzzle: Research, propositions, and recommendations, San Francisco, Calif: Wiley Subscription Services at Jossey-Bass.
Kuh, G. D., Douglas, K. B., Lund, J. P., & Ramin-Gyurnek, J. (1994). Student learning Outside the Classroom: Transcending Artificial Boundaries, (ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 8). Washington, DC: The George Washington University, Graduate School of Education and Human Development
Kuh, G.D., Cruce, T., Shoup, R., Kinzie, J. & Gonyea, R.M. (2007). Unmasking the Effects of Student Engagement on College Grades and Persistence, retrieved on 30 May 2012 from, http://nsse.iub.edu/uploads/AERA_2007_Kuh_et_al.pdf
Kuh, G.D., Kinzie, J., Schuh, J.H., Whitt, E.J., & Associates (2005). Student Success in College: Creating Conditions that Matter, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Northeastern State University (NSU). (2012a). University Planning Council: Mission, Vision and Values, retrieved 30 May 2012 from, http://www.nsuok.edu/upg/Mission.aspx
Northeastern State University (NSU). (2012b). Higher Learning Commission Accreditation: NSU Strategic Plan 2009-2014, retrieved on 30 May 2012 from, http://hlc.nsuok.edu/NSUStrategicPlan.aspx
Northeastern State University (NSU). (2012c). University Planning Council: Strategic Enrollment Plan, retrieved on 30 May 2012 from, http://www.nsuok.edu/upg/StrategicPlan/UniversityActionProjects/StrategicEnrollmentPlan.aspx Bottom of Form
Student Adapted Environments 9
Change Leadership for Differentiated Instruction
A school is a complex matrix of students from all walks of life with different challenges, expectations, abilities, and inspirations. Despite the variations, these students are often exposed to the same curriculum and teaching methodologies which end up delivering some of them to wrong and unexpected destinations. This generalized approach to education is among the many factors that have led to increased school drop cases and academic failures. Winebrenner (1996) proposes differentiated instruction approach as an effective integrative teaching practice that meets all the students at their points of need.
Differentiated instruction is a theory of instruction that teachers employ to address diverse needs of students by integrating learners’ variations in curriculum planning and instruction delivery (Willoughby, 2005). These learners include those who are racially, culturally, linguistically, intellectually, economically, and inspirationally variant (Grafi-Sharab, 2009). The main objective of this research is to identify differentiated instructions needed in a school setting and develop professional change leadership necessary for effective implementation of the proposed differentiated instruction plan. The main stakeholders in this plan include students, parents, school staff, teachers and teacher leaders.
Background of the case
The professional differentiated instruction plan is the most effective teaching methodology for a school with the above variants which differentiate students on the basis of understanding capabilities, experiences, learning style, language proficiency, learning preparedness, background knowledge, and expectations among others (Willoughby, 2005). These variations are evident in any learning environment since people are never equal. Many learners come from families with unique challenges such as poor or lack of parenting due to factors such as financial hardship and orphanage (Anderson, 2007). A student from a background characterized with economic and financial hardship has little access to libraries and books at home. This learner will have a learning gap when compared to those from affluent backgrounds with reading materials at their disposal (Grafi-Sharabi, 2009).
Others come from different cultures and geographic backgrounds with difficulties in mastery of the language of instruction in school. A good illustration of this issue is a case of students whose first language of instruction in early childhood education was French and later on decided to pursue higher education in schools where the primary language of instruction is English. Such students will have language difficulties which will weigh heavily in their class performance. There are yet still another group of learners who are good in some subject disciplines and poor in others. It is not common to find learners who can balance all disciplines .One could be good in sciences while very poor in humanity and art disciplines. Such a student with difficulties in specific disciplines needs special attention to address the challenge (Rogers, 2008). There is also another group of learners who are not gifted academically and only go to school to develop their talents and non-academic creative skills such as sports and performing arts offered at school. This group of students has different expectations and is not prepared to partake on academic learning.
The above described variations call for a differentiated instruction theory in order to meet their needs. However, in most cases, the opposite is applied and all of them, irrespective of their variations and differences, are hurdled in the same classrooms and forced to take undifferentiated instructions which fail them on purpose (Tomlinson & Allan, 2000). This approach, teachers fail to take notice of slow learners in classes as their attention is drifted fast learners who answer most of the questions asked in class. In this scenario, a teacher falsely assumes that all learners have understood the concept being taught.
Differentiated instruction strategies
In an ideal learning environmental, all teachers should be guided by a moral conscience to ensure that irrespective of differences, all learners are taught in a manner that meet their expectations and needs. The effective teaching strategies that meet these demands include calls for classroom differentiation, flexible grouping, and teacher-student collaborative teaching approach (Dept of Defence, 2006).
Classroom differentiation entails classifying and categorizing students on the basis of their unique needs. This makes it easy for a teacher to clarify learning goals to students, group them into effective discussion groups, and assess their learning understanding and overall progress. Unique teaching methods in a differentiated classroom include process and product differentiation. Process in this case refers to the way a learner comes to understanding and owning of the concept, subject skill, or generalization. A teacher can differentiate learning process by giving different levels of teacher assistance to students at different levels of difficulties and at the level of learners’ interests (Levy, 2009). Products refer to students’ items of demonstrating what they have learnt. This may include the use of end of semester exams, end of unit projects, and continuous assessment tests.
Flexible grouping ensures that various groups of learners are structured differently from each other to meet diverse goals. In this scheme, as teacher may choose to group students to various small instructional groups depending on their needs and interests or allow learners to group themselves. Teacher-student collaborative teaching methodology proposes that a teacher should develop closer personal relationship with learners in order to identify with their challenges that need unique remedies. In this scheme, a teacher should act as a facilitator and motivate his learners to participate actively in learning process. This interpersonal relationship eliminates fear among needy learners and encourages them to participate in learning process according to their capabilities. Effective tools and strategies used in differentiated instruction approach include getting knowledge of the student, adjustable assignments, assessment of the learner, curriculum approaches, and in structural strategies.
Before embarking on implementation of differentiated instruction approach as a teaching aid to facilitate teachers’ reach to all learners, it is important to observe the scope of it. Differentiated instruction does not imply planning a separate lesson for each learner in class but adapting a teaching methodology which provides learning options to enhance understanding of all. It does not imply change of curriculum for some group of learners but provision of appropriate level of for curriculum challenge for different students depending on their learning abilities to ensure that their needs are catered for (Winebrenner, 1996).
Implementation of professional development plan
The implementation of the above described strategies demand change leadership that will involve all parents and parent groups, students and their leaders, teachers and their leaders, and external trainers. The school head-teacher should play the role of a change leader in introduction and implementation of the program tailored to meet all students’ needs. As an effective leader, he should be able to give direction, provide guidance, and support to the implementers of change who include parents, teachers, and student leaders with the highest level of professionalism. The head teacher should challenge the status quo by expressing dissatisfaction on the use of un-differentiated instruction methodology in school (Changefirst Limited, 2011). He should voice this issue only after doing enough information gathering to gain understanding of the existence of the case in the school. After this, the head teacher should own the vision and take it up with the stakeholders to enlighten them of his effective alternative options. Upon understanding and implementation, he should ease transition and ensure future reinforcement of the new teaching methodology.
In implementing this, the head-teacher should ensure that the vision of introducing differentiated instruction as a teaching methodology is consistent with the overall school vision. The next step is proposing the vision to the teachers with an explanation aimed at enlightening them on its effectiveness. The teachers should then verify the truth of the matter in the case and get initiated in the change process within coercion. Upon acknowledging that the presented case is true, teachers should then undertake to collect information of the variations that exist among the students under the head-teacher’s guidance. Parents and their representative groups should be involved in this process for ease of identification of learners’ variations in terms of capabilities, interests, and expectations. This process is complex and sometimes it may involve professional counselors and psychologists. The findings should be used to categorize students according to their level of need. It should be well explained to them as to why they are being grouped in those various groups so as to avoid stigmatization and persecution perception from some special needy groups with unique challenges.
Upon completion of differentiation task, teachers should undertake extensive professional training on various teaching methodologies employed in the new proposed scheme to ensure that they all well equipped to handle transition without a crisis. Grafi-Sharabi (2009) presented research information findings that many teachers in schools were aware of the need for differentiated instructional approach in teaching but were afraid of the workload involved in its implementation. Some of them were not motivated to try it because they considered it a delving into learners’ affairs which is beyond their professional expectation. This underscores the essence of training to ensure that teachers are properly motivated and informed of their moral and professional obligation to nurture all learners in the line of their academic fulfillment.
There exists a body of effective professional leadership principles required in the implementation of this integrative teaching plan. The school head teacher together with other top managers forms the highest level implementation responsibilities. The first leadership principle expected of them is knowledge ownership. The head teacher should know differentiated instructions, change leadership process, assessment tools and strategies, and appropriate professional development required in handling the change. This knowledge is important in convincing teachers and parents on the effectiveness of the teaching approach. Effective communication skills are paramount in insemination of information. He should she able to convince teachers and parents about the objective and vision of change and most importantly transform teachers into implementers of the program.
Another key leadership principle is visionary. A leader without a vision will never get lost because he has no known destination, the one with a poor vision will never know when to implement plans because the future is not clear. Thus with visionary leadership principle, the school principle should be able to visualize the future state of the school in terms of its vision and other positioning philosophies. Visionary skills are essential in forecasting expected barriers in the implementation process so as to invest enough time and resources in planning before embarking on implementation process (Stone & Roaf, 2007).
The above described principles are necessary before and during transition. After the new teaching approach is implemented, an integrative parents-teachers’ leadership and monitoring principle should be employed. Parents are encouraged to coordinate with teachers in assessment of the progress of learners. The essence of involving parents is because they know their children better than teachers and spent a deal of time with them at home, in the case of day schools. By identifying their children as needy and tracing the root cause of the problem, such as lack of sufficient time to access reading materials while at home, parents can play a substantive role in ensuring that such children get enough time to read while at home (Anderson, 2009).
The role of teachers in implementation of differentiated instruction plan
While parents and school principals are critical in the implementation of differentiated instruction approach in teaching, teachers are the ultimate wheel of delivery which determines success of the program. Teachers should develop a teaching guideline to ensure clarification of essential concepts and generalizations to ensure all students in classrooms understands. The second guideline is to develop and use assessment as a teaching kit to measure the progress and effectiveness on differentiated instruction. Assessment should be done before, during, and after the learning episode.
The third guideline is emphasizing of creative and critical thinking as an objective in the design of lessons. To employ this guideline, teachers should ensure that assessment assignments and projects given to learners explore their creative thinking instead of the mere tests that explore general skills of learning. The fourth guideline is engaging all learners in class. Teachers should develop and structure class lessons that involve all learners proactive instead of using the traditional teaching methods. A lesson should involve activities, questions, and suggestions to and from learners to ensure their active participation. Another essential guide is provision of a balance teacher-assigned work and learner-selected tasks. A teacher should encourage learners to develop a learning culture of assigning themselves tasks that are consistent with the curriculum to further their creative skills. These self-assigned tasks should balance with teachers’ assignments to ensure optimum utilization of learners’ capabilities (Hall, 2002).
Described in this paper are evidences why differentiated instruction approach is necessary in schools. This is due to the existence of variance among learners on the basis of their race, culture, language, intellectual capabilities, economic backgrounds, and experience among others. Difference in culture and languages bring about difficulties in understanding a concept taught in a secondary language. For instance, an English student will have difficulties in comprehending instructions addressed in other languages such as Germany or French. Economic and financial variations bring about a variation in learning proficiency. Learners from affluent backgrounds have access to readings materials which make them better placed than those from poor families where access to books is hard. Described in the paper also are instruction differentiation strategies such as classroom differentiation, flexible grouping, and teacher-student collaborative teaching methodology.
Classroom differentiation ensures that all the needs of various groups of students are met by the teacher. Flexible grouping ensures that learners place themselves in small groups according to their needs and desires for easy address by the teacher. Collaborative teaching approach ensures that the learners gain easy access to their teachers. In this teaching approach, a teacher plays a role of a facilitator in class instead of using the conventional authoritative teaching approach. The role of the school head teacher is essential in ensuring effective implementation of differentiated teaching approach.
As a change leader, he should have strategic leadership principles such as visionary, integrative, and knowledge ownership to execute his role effectively. Teachers and parents are also very important in ensuring the success of the plan. Parents are expected to provide a smooth learning environment to learners while at home and also buy reading materials for them to enhance their reading proficiency. Teachers are the facilitators of the plan.
Department of Defence Education Activity. (January 2006). TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR DIFFERENTIATION OF INSTRUCTION. pages:1-3.from: http://www.dodea.edu/curriculum/docs/ge/2006_manuals/pdf/section_ii/differentiation_of_instruction.pdf
Tomlinson, A.C.& Allan, S. D. (2000). Chapter 1. Understanding Differentiated Instruction: Building a Foundation for Leadership. In Leadership for Differentiating Schools & Classrooms (pp. pages:11-37). New Jersey: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. From: http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/100216/chapters/Understanding-Differentiated-Instruction@-Building-a-Foundation-for-Leadership.aspx
Grafi-Sharab, G. (2009). A phenomenological study of teacher perceptions of implementing the differentiated instruction approach. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, p.n.from: http://udini.proquest.com/view/a-phenomenological-study-of-teacher-pqid:1957929801/
Levy, H. M. (2009). Meeting the needs of all students through differentiated instruction:Helping every child reach and exceed standards. The Clearing House, 81(4), 161-165.from: http://www.wou.edu/~tbolsta/web/texbook/24_Meeting_the_Needs.pdf
Changefirst Limited. (2011). Effective Change Leadership:The 3 key phases of change leadership. patges:1-5.
Rogers, K. B. (2008). Lessons Learned About Educating the gifted and talented A synthesis of the research on educational practice. The Gifted Child Quarterly , 51(4), 382-397.from: http://aea11gt.pbworks.com/f/LessonsLrnd-Rogers.pdf
Willoughby, J. (2005). Differentiating Instruction: Meeting Students Where They Are. n.p.from: http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/subject/di_meeting.phtml
Winebrenner, S. (1996). Teaching kids with learning difficulties in the regular classroom. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publication, pages:2-15.
Anderson, K. M. (2007). TIPS FOR TEACHING:Differentiating Instruction to Include All Students. 2007 Heldref Publications , Vol. 51, No. 3, pages:1-9.from: http://gaining.educ.msu.edu/resources/files/Anderson.pdf
Anderson, K. M. (2009). Differentiating instruction to include all students. Preventing School Failure , 51(3), 4954.from: http://www.education.gov.qa/research/samples/strugglingstudents.pdf
Hall, T. (2002). Differentiated Instruction:Effective Classroom Practices Report. National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum (NCAC) , pages:1-9.from: http://www.cast.org/system/galleries/download/ncac/DifInstruc.pdf
Stone, J & Roaf, W. (2007). The Role of the Principal in Supporting Differentiated Instruction Practices. pages:1-18.from: http://www.hcbe.net/media/CMSImport/6E55F26FF8114539A463AD9B7E0D9D23.pdf
Change Leadership for Differentiated Education Environment 1
Academic Integrity at Walden University
Walden University is an example of institution with values that places emphasis on academic integrity and professionalism (Walden University, 2013). As a developing scholar-practitioner, these values imply that I must conduct all aspects of my scholarship practices in a professional way. In this case, I am supposed to ensure that my work is reported with academic honesty, I take responsibility for my work, and I ensure that I follow the laid-down conventions, laws, and rules when presenting my work. Also, these values imply that I am in an environment where I am supposed to high standards of academic conduct and professional relationship that is pegged on honesty, courtesy, and mutual respect.
The academic values at Walden University have had various impacts on the learning community, my work at Walden, and beyond. In the first place, these values have promoted originality, which in turn has resulted in innovation and discovery for the Walden learning community, including the entire faculty and students. Such discoveries and originality have made learning fascinating and beneficial to the community. As a student body, we have assisted in encouraging and disseminating works of other scholars through maintenance of academic honesty. These values are a perfect foundation for my career in public health sector. In this sector, ethical conduct, including maintaining patient’s confidential information is a must, and thus, these values have grounded me on a firm foundation of professional, personal, and academic integrity.
I have some strengths, as well as weaknesses in my academic development. I am an upcoming scholar, and thus, most of my research and critical thinking skills are not at its best. Initially, I used to find it difficult selecting credible sources for my research work, but my exposure to various academic libraries has honed my experience. Although I have been exposed to a very good system of values, I am sometimes tempted to skip tedious steps, such as transcribing raw interview data, when carrying out research work due to time factor. I therefore need to strike a balance between quality and speed without tempering with values.
I need to develop my organizational skills as wells as further my skills in drafting dissertations in relations to choice of credible sources. To achieve this, I will seek mentorship from my professor in this area. Also, I will focus on utilizing the virtual library in the school until I perfect in areas, such as choice of relevant and credible research sources.
Walden University. (2013). Vision, Mission, and Goals . Retrieved Oct 02, 2013, from Walden University: http://catalog.waldenu.edu/content.php?catoid=57&navoid=7946
ACADEMIC INTEGRITY AT WALDEN UNIVERSITY 4
Running head: ACADEMIC INTEGRITY AT WALDEN UNIVERSITY 1
How Globalization has Influenced Boys in Egypt’s Secondary School System
Over the recent years, globalization has acquired multiple meanings. There are, however, two distinct perspectives in its definition: one focuses mainly on the technological aspects and the other emphasizes the social, political and economic aspects of it. This paper looks at how globalization has influenced boys in Egypt’s secondary education. In this respect, this paper presents arguments from both perspectives.
Over the past few years, social scientists, as well as comparative educators have been involved in extensive debates as to the influence of globalization on the social, economic and political dynamics, including educational reforms (Ginburg & Megahed, 2011).
Today, Egypt’s education system is said to have local elements, such as the the Islamization of the Egyptian society’s moeurs (Diana, 2010, p.1). At the same time, the country’s educational system has elements of international and global nature in its attempt to insert it in the larger analytical framework of globalization (Diana, 2010, p.1).
In considering how globalization has influenced boys in Egypt’s secondary school education system, this paper focuses on various perspectives. There is the general examination of the globalization on adolescents, especially considering that this age-group is the period of great interaction with technology (such as the internet, including social network sites). Secondly, this paper considers how global elements could influence identity (national, gender and/or social class). Thirdly, there is also the aspect of language (especially the impact of the use of English as the main global language).
It is important to note that the writer of this paper did not take any primary research on the topic. Therefore, this paper makes inferences based on theoretical studies and secondary sources on the effect of globalization on education in Egypt (as envisaged in educational system changes aimed at achieving global standards), and how these relate to gender balances.
Ultimately, this paper considers two perspectives of influence. The first perspective looks at Globalization as a phenomenon of the general. The second perspective looks at Globalization specifically through its impact on changes in the education system. The implication here is that we cannot separate the social from the cognitive influence- the social context influences cognitive abilities as much as cognitive traits influence how a person interprets social elements.
Islamization of Education in Egypt
Education in Egypt is guaranteed as part of Human Rights. This is a local issue. However, the emphasis on this is also an aspect of globalization. In this respect, this goes back over the years. For example, on ascendancy to power, Hosni Mubarak expressed his intention to intervene in the educational sector, to reform and develop it toward modernization and improvement (Herrera, 2006, p.26). In recent years, these plans have been extended as part of the global Millennium Development Goals).
However, as Patel and McMichael (2004) points out, globalization has had the paradoxical effect of turning the people inwards towards their internal cultural aspects. Although the country’s educational system has been focused on attaining global standards of education, the constitutional guarantee of education in Egypt is based on historical and traditional aspects. Thus, accompanying the aspects of globalization, is the unofficial Islamization of education in public and government schools. This is the attempt of the Egyptian government to curb what it perceives the over-imposing nature of globalization and, therefore, to retain some of its fundamental features (such as in terms of language and religion, among others).
This has been expressed in various ways. For example, the teachers have an Islamic disposition. Therefore, teachers have the tendency to transmit to students the sense of belonging to a Muslim society, regardless of whether they are Muslims or Christians.
In this respect, the number of private Islamic schools, regarded as a form of Islamist activism, has been on the rise in the country. Unlike the government and non-Islamic schools, these schools guarantee extra religious courses, separation of sexes and emphasis on students’ moral character.
Despite these elements, a number of elements of globalization are still visible. For example, these schools still use modern instruments and practices, including technological and English proficiencies.
How Globalization has Influenced Boys in Egypt’s Secondary School System
Globalization and Education
Globalization has increased focus on education as the major tool for incorporation into the knowledge society’ and the technological economy (Stromquist, 2005, p.16). Thus, the global concept of education has come to influence national educational systems. Generally, the global primary and secondary education standards have seen the rise of certain trends across the globe.
Expansion of Enrolment
Because of globalization, there is increased competition for the available jobs that globalization creates. There has also been increased demand for educational expansion. Parents, realizing that education is a key asset in the modern world, invest extensively in education. Consequently, there has been increased enrolment in education across the globe. Although enrolment in Africa, for instance, is comparatively low compared to , enrolment has still increased. In this respect, the educational gap between girls and boys is also increasingly narrowing.
For example, through the Girls’ Improved Learning Outcomes (GILO) project, the Egyptian government has made efforts to improve the accessibility to education for the girls. This is part of the pursuit for the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) towards improving education for girls. Because more girls have access to secondary education and are being successful, we can infer that, to a degree, their male counterparts have lost the high position that they held back when secondary education was mainly a male-reserve.
Moreover, this expansion has also been accompanied by the emergence of highly differentiated educational circuits (Stromquist, 2005, p.17). Here, stratification goes beyond just gender groups. Rather, the focus here is on how globalization has emphasized economic class differentiation. The privatization and liberalization of schooling has led to the rise of different schools with rich going to good private schools and these from low-income families going to public schools. This is evidenced in the way that children from families of different social classes are enrolled in different schools which are seen as appropriate for their status. As a result, there is minimum social contact between each other.
In this case, there are intra-gender differences as much as there are inter-gender distinctions. Boys from poor families (unless one gets sponsorship, which is only common in post-secondary education) are likely to go to public schools with poor facilities, while those from rich families will attend better schools. Even despite gender imbalances in education,
According to Rassool (2004), the expansion of education in various countries across the globe has been accompanied by the increased parental share of the costs of schooling.
Privatization and Liberalization of Schooling
Privatization and liberalization of schooling has been seen as an effort towards producing greater efficiency. Like in other areas of social life and the economy, the customers’ (parents) are also said to be freed from state monopoly (Ginsburg and Megahed, 2011).
Just like privatization and liberalization of schooling, decentralization is also seen as an effort to increase efficiency as schools are able to establish a flexible and more efficient bureaucracy with parents able to participate in their governance, hence strengthening civil society (Ginsburg & Megahed, 2011, p.10).
Stromquist (2005) defines quality as an educational content that enables students to obtain the knowledge they require for the construction of an equitable social and economic world (p.18). The last two factors discussed above are part of the pursuit for quality. The access to quality education is a major factor in the global education concept. Quality in this case is measured in terms of level of education attained, as well as the institutions that a person attends. However, quality is mainly measured through testing of students. This refers to the cross-national standardized testing of students.
Education and Gender
That this paper discusses the impact of globalization on boys means that it cannot avoid the debate on gender balance in education. Stromquist (2007) argues that the socialization of people into the value of schooling is so effective to the extent that many cannot see how educational settings are also fundamental sites in which societal values, ideologies and norms (such as gender ideologies) are reproduced.
Stromquist (2007) also points out that quality is not provided in most schools. In this respect, there is a degree of gender bias, with such mechanisms as affirmative action to correct women’s subaltern status [being] absent in educational public policies (Stromquist, 2007, p.18). This, according to Stromquist (2007), follows the fact that the design of such elements of quality have not taken gender perspectives into consideration. Thus, boys and girls are not suffering the same. Given the confluence of gender, social class, and ethnicity, girls who are poor, indigenous, and rural are suffering more than boys (Stromquist, 2007, p.11).
Culture and Adolescent Development
Far from being students, boys in secondary schools are also teenagers. In this respect, therefore, this paper examines the technological aspects of globalization (especially the internet) and how they have influenced the development of boys in secondary schools in Egypt. As such, focus turns to how globalization as a cultural phenomenon influences the physical, socio-emotional and cognitive development in Egypt’s teenage boys. The assumption here is that majority of teenage boys in Egypt are secondary schools students or that majority of boys in secondary schools are teenagers.
Cheng and Farrugia (2002) defines culture as the system of beliefs, values, languages, and behaviors, and human-made aspects of the physical environment (p.7). Such a system influences people differently depending on the groups in which they belong. The way that different elements of culture influence adults is different from how they influence teenagers. For example, cultural values and societal systems may impact individual adolescents’ development through the mediating effects of proximal social contexts such as family and peers. They also may moderate the association between social and environmental factors and adolescent outcomes (Cheng and Farrugia, 2002, p.9).
Warschauer, et al. (2006) explore how the choice of language online has impacted globalization and identity in Egypt. This is based on the premise that the internet (as a major new means of global communication) is likely to impact on language use. To open this debate, the two start by noting that the dominating language of choice online is English. In the mid-1990s, when 80 percent of international websites were found to be in English. This led some to argue that the internet would encourage global use of English to such a degree that other languages would be crowded out. This has not come to be. In fact, the number of non-English websites has grown quickly over the past recent years. Still, English remains the dominant language used online (Warschauer, et al., 2006).
In Egypt, language use is disglossia; one dialect is used informal cases and another in spoken and/or informal realms. In this case, two varieties of Arabic are used. Classical Arabic is largely the language used in formal situations (such in the Qu’ran and other print publications, television news broadcasts and formal speech, among others). Egyptian Arabic is the language of informal situations (such as conversations, television soap operas, films and songs, among others). Besides these, there are also other languages (such as Coptic language, other African languages used by refugees and European languages used in tourism and business).
In addition, English is the second language used by a large section of Egypt’s elite. For example, most private schools (from kindergarten to secondary schools) use English as the main- if not the only- medium of instruction in some subjects (especially Mathematics and Sciences). Beyond secondary schools, the elite continue their studies in English-medium institutions (either abroad or English-medium local universities). In recent years, the government has also undertaken steps to promote the use of English in the country’s education system. For example, the government has launched experimental language schools within the public school system ((Warschauer, et al., 2006, p.3). By 2006, the government had launched 80 of these experimental language schools. Of these, 79 used English as a medium of instruction. The remaining one used French.
One of the key drivers of the increased proliferation and use of English in the country is the use of the internet in Egypt. This began as a small university network in 1993. However, the internet has been commercial since 1998. Since then, the number of internet users in the country has increased annually. For example, by 2000, the number of internet users reached 440,000. Moreover, the Egyptian government has emphasized on information and communication technologies. According to Warschauer, et al. (2006), the country has one of the world’s fastest growing ICT markets. The government embarked on initiatives to ensure and expand internet access to be used in many areas, including the educational system.
The use of the internet (also as a character of globalization) marked the beginning of a major proliferation of English usage in the country, especially considering that the internet still remains the dominant online language in the country (Warschauer, et al., 2006)).
Summary and Conclusion: the Impact of Globalization on Boys in Egypt’s Secondary Schools
This paper is a boy-specific to an extent. Not that these cases do not apply to boys in secondary schools in Egypt. Rather, the implication is that most of the points given here also apply to girls in secondary schools.
There is not ample research on gender-specific impacts of globalization in Egypt’s secondary school system. Perhaps this is attributed to the lack of a framework of measuring and comparing such influences. For this reason, this paper has not faced this question head-on. Moreover, it has not provided concrete answers. Rather, it provides grounds for making certain inferences, so that most of the observations made here also apply in the case of girls, as well.
One of the approaches used here is to look at the desire to meet global standards of education (including secondary education) might have benefited and/or hurt some of the social privileges that boys in the country’s secondary schools might have enjoyed at the expense of the girls. As discussed above, one of the impacts that the government’s pursuit for global ambitions is the increased access to education for girls. Globalization has, however, influenced more than just elements of traditional gender identities in the country. As discussed above, global concepts of education (including liberalization and privatization of schooling) have pronounced even more social stratification in the Egyptian society. It is important to emphasize that globalization has not led to the stratification. Rather, it has made the stratification even more visible by providing the institutions where such divisions can be played out.
Language as an aspect of culture has also been influenced. For example, globalization has led to the proliferation of English (through globalization technologies, such as the internet where English is the main language used). Again, this applies for all sexes.
Chen, C. & Farruggia, S. (2002). Culture and Adolescent Development, in W.J. Lonner,
D.L. Dinnel, S.A. Hayes, & D.N. Sattler (Eds.), Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham
Diana, C. (2010). Globalization Impact on Education in Egypt, European University
Institute, Working Paper RSCAS 2010/92
Ginburg, M. & Megahed, N. (2011). Globalization and the Reform of Faculties of Education
in Egypt: the Roles of Individual and Organizational, National and International Agents, Education Policy Analysis Archives, 19(15): 1-25
Herrera, L. (2006). Islamization and Education: between Politics, Profit and Pluralism,
in Herrera, L. & Torres, C.A. (eds.), Cultures of Arab Schooling, New York: State University of New York Press, pp. 25-52
Patel,R. & McMichael,P.(2004).Third Worldism and the Lineages of Global Fascism:
There Grouping of the Global South in the Neoliberal Era, Third World Quarterly, 25(1):231-254
Rassool,N. (2004).Exploring the Construction of Social Class in Educational Discourse:
the Rational Order of the Nation-State Versus Global Uncertainties, Pedagogy, Culture and Society ,12(1): 121-139
Warschauer, M., El Said, G.R. & Zohry, A.G. (2006). Language Choice Online:
Globalization and Identity in Egypt, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 7(4)
Stromquist, N.P. (2005). The Impact of Globalization on Education and Gender: an
Emergent Cross-National Balance, Journal of Education, 37: 7-37
Stromquist, N.P. (2007). The Gender Socialization Process in Schools: a
Cross-National Comparison, Paper Prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report
GLOBALIZATION | 12
Running head: GLOBALIZATION 1
Criteria Considerations for Program Evaluation
The main target of this dental hygiene program in elementary schools was to identify the oral hygiene conditions of elementary level children, increase oral cavity hygiene in schoolchildren, and awareness of good oral hygiene habits. The most appropriate criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of dental hygiene programs among elementary children are the use of experimental design and improvement-focused model (Snyder, 2009). The researchers will comprise a number of hygienists. They will need to visit different schools in order to select sample students for purposes of the study.
There will be a need to determine and select sample schools at random. The hygienists will select students randomly for purposes of this evaluation. This is essential since it helps in reducing biasness and enhancing the credibility of the study. The sample students will be grouped in different sub-groups based on their oral hygiene status. Thus, the students who follow a regular oral hygiene routine will act as the control group for those that normally do not do so. This will all happen in the data collection phase of the study. The hygienist will determine the student’s oral hygiene status; record their observations and the answers to questionnaire questions, educate the children on methods of improving the oral hygiene status, and check the status of the students again after a set period. This will offer comparison that is effective in determining the effectiveness of the evaluation. Further, the evaluation will be done at intervals to ensure the results of the study are unbiased (Posavac, 2011).
The oral hygiene evaluation program seeks to answer such questions as; what is the effectiveness of dental health awareness? How can dental health education programs enhance oral hygiene among elementary students? How does maintaining routine tooth brushing enhance oral hygiene? These questions will help establish the dental hygiene routine of the participants. The questions are based on the summative program theory, which seeks to establish the outcome of an evaluation, its impact, gaps for future studies, and cost-effectiveness of the evaluation (Orr, 2010).
This evaluation criterion presents a number of potential limitations. For instance, its efficacy may only last for a short time. This is because the education program takes a limited duration and the elementary children tend to forget easily. Thus, although the program may be effective in changing the children’s oral hygiene habits immediately, the effect will only last for a short time. Thus, there is a need for further studies to determine how to ensure that the effects of this evaluation program last longer than it does currently. The study also considers a narrow range of variables, since the evaluation was only conducted among schoolchildren. In future, it would be appropriate for the hygienists to compare oral hygiene practices among different environmental, geographical, and socioeconomic backgrounds (Snyder, 2009).
To determine the best evaluation theory for a given research, it is essential to establish the study’s goals and evaluation criteria. Different program evaluation theories go hand in hand with specific evaluation criteria. The evaluation criterion in this study is based on experimental design. The goal of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of dental hygiene education programs in elementary schools. Thus, it goes hand in hand with the summative theory of program evaluation since this theory examines the impact of a given program (Whitehall et al., 2012).
Orr, S. K. (2010). Exploring stakeholder values and interests in evaluation. American Journal of Evaluation, 31(4), 557569. Retrieved from http://aje.sagepub.com/content/31/4/557
Posavac, E. J. (2011). Program evaluation: Methods and case studies (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Snyder, L. M. (2009). Using the improvement-focused model to evaluate an online teacher education program. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 38(2), 145153. Retrieved from http://baywood.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,6,11;journal,16,164;linkingpublicationresults,1:300322,1
Whitehall, A. K., Hill, L. G., & Koehler, C. R. (2012). A comparison of participant and practitioner beliefs about evaluation. American Journal of Evaluation, 33(2), 208220. Retrieved from http://aje.sagepub.com/content/33/2/208
CRITERIA CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM EVALUATION 2
Running head: CRITERIA CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM EVALUATION 1
Data Sources for Program Evaluation
The evaluation program will entail a number of hygienists visiting elementary schools and educating the young children on oral hygiene. The primary goal of this program is to ensure that elementary children are empowered with the knowledge that is concerned with fighting cavity. The potential sources of data for this evaluation will include the beneficiaries of the educational program, such as the participating students. Observers of the effect of the program, including the teachers, administrators, parents, non-teaching staff, and other students, will also be potential sources of data. The records kept by the hygienists during the educational program will also help in providing data for the evaluation program. The hygienists themselves are also good sources of data (Boulmetis & Dutwin, 2005).
These sources will all contribute significantly to the evaluation project. However, some sources are more appropriate than others are. For instance, the most appropriate sources of data will be the hygienists and the participating students. This is because they took part in the educational program, and thus, their view will contribute significantly to the evaluation. The records kept concerning the result of the educational program will also be significant in determining consistency. Taking one source of an observer, such as the parents of the students, will also help to counter any form of bias.
In order to enhance the validity, sensitivity, and persuasiveness of my evaluation, it will be necessary to follow certain procedures. For instance, I will ensure that I set up clear and attainable objectives for the evaluation program. I will then choose assessment measures that suit the set goals, and compare this with other measures to enhance validity. In order to enhance sensitivity, I will involve an uninterested third party’s feedback on the assessment that I make (Chen, 2005). The assessment measures I might include in this evaluation include valid measures, reliable measures, measures designed to detect change, and cost effective measures. These measures will enhance the validity of my evaluation program since they relate with the main goal of the evaluation, which is to assess the effectiveness of dental hygiene education program in reducing dental cavities among elementary level children.
Evaluators are guided by an ethical code that helps in enhancing professionalism in this field. However, they still face ethical challenges, often in their line of work. In this evaluation, I might face the ethical challenge of bribery, whereby I am offered monetary or material benefits in order to give biased results of the assessment. This is regardless of whether I am an internal or external evaluator. Intimidation by higher authorities to doctor the results of the evaluation may also manifest as an ethical problem. Another ethical issue may involve obtaining reliable information regarding illegal activities by the hygienist, while conducting the evaluation program.
Further, I might face confidentiality issues with the stakeholders, for instance if a stakeholder offers me sensitive information regarding the program (Morris, 2013). Dealing with these ethical issues requires me to maintain professionalism and adhere to the evaluator’s ethics code. This requires a high level of integrity and thus, I will not compromise on the validity of the evaluation for material gain. My priority is in offering a clear picture of the effectiveness of the educational program, and I am accountable to the type of assessment that I deliver. Thus, adhering to the evaluators’ code of ethics will help me to make professional decisions when faced with these ethical dilemmas (Thyer & Padgett, 2010).
Boulmetis, J. & Dutwin, P. (2005). The ABC of Evaluation: Timeless Techniques for Program and Project Managers. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Chen, H. (2005). Practical Program Evaluation: Assessing and Improving Planning Measures. New York: Sage Publishers.
Morris, M. (2013). Evaluation Ethics for Best Practice: Cases and Commentaries. New York: Guilfford Press.
Thyer, B. & Padgett, D. (2010). Program Evaluation: An Introduction. New York: Cengage Learning.
DATA SOURCES FOR PROGRAM EVALUATION 4
Running head: DATA SOURCES FOR PROGRAM EVALUATION 1
University of California, LA
Is Technology Producing A Decline In Critical Thinking And Analysis?
Anonymous. Electronics Business Journal (Feb. 11, 2009): 114
Another study Greenfield analyzed found that college students who watched “CNN Headline News” with just the news anchor on screen and without the “news crawl” across the bottom of the screen remembered significantly more facts from the televised broadcast than those who watched it with the distraction of the crawling text and with additional stock market and weather information on the screen. New Zealand researcher Paul Kearney measured multi-tasking and found that people who played a realistic video game before engaging in a military computer simulation showed a significant improvement in their ability to multi-task, compared with people in a control group who did not play the video game.
2009 FEB 11 VerticalNews.com
As technology has played a bigger role in our lives, our skills in critical thinking and analysis have declined, while our visual skills have improved, according to research by Patricia Greenfield, UCLA distinguished professor of psychology and director of the Children’s Digital Media Center, Los Angeles.
Learners have changed as a result of their exposure to technology, says Greenfield, who analyzed more than 50 studies on learning and technology, including research on multi-tasking and the use of computers, the Internet and video games. Her research was published this month in the journal Science.
Reading for pleasure, which has declined among young people in recent decades, enhances thinking and engages the imagination in a way that visual media such as video games and television do not, Greenfield said.
How much should schools use new media, versus older techniques such as reading and classroom discussion?
“No one medium is good for everything,” Greenfield said. “If we want to develop a variety of skills, we need a balanced media diet. Each medium has costs and benefits in terms of what skills each develops.”
Schools should make more effort to test students using visual media, she said, by asking them to prepare PowerPoint presentations, for example.
“As students spend more time with visual media and less time with print, evaluation methods that include visual media will give a better picture of what they actually know,” said Greenfield, who has been using films in her classes since the 1970s.
“By using more visual media, students will process information better,” she said. “However, most visual media are real-time media that do not allow time for reflection, analysis or imagination those do not get developed by real-time media such as television or video games. Technology is not a panacea in education, because of the skills that are being lost.
“Studies show that reading develops imagination, induction, reflection and critical thinking, as well as vocabulary,” Greenfield said. “Reading for pleasure is the key to developing these skills. Students today have more visual literacy and less print literacy. Many students do not read for pleasure and have not for decades.”
Parents should encourage their children to read and should read to their young children, she said.
Among the studies Greenfield analyzed was a classroom study showing that students who were given access to the Internet during class and were encouraged to use it during lectures did not process what the speaker said as well as students who did not have Internet access. When students were tested after class lectures, those who did not have Internet access performed better than those who did.
“Wiring classrooms for Internet access does not enhance learning,” Greenfield said.
Another study Greenfield analyzed found that college students who watched “CNN Headline News” with just the news anchor on screen and without the “news crawl” across the bottom of the screen remembered significantly more facts from the televised broadcast than those who watched it with the distraction of the crawling text and with additional stock market and weather information on the screen.
These and other studies show that multi-tasking “prevents people from getting a deeper understanding of information,” Greenfield said.
Yet, for certain tasks, divided attention is important, she added.
“If you’re a pilot, you need to be able to monitor multiple instruments at the same time. If you’re a cab driver, you need to pay attention to multiple events at the same time. If you’re in the military, you need to multi-task too,” she said. “On the other hand, if you’re trying to solve a complex problem, you need sustained concentration. If you are doing a task that requires deep and sustained thought, multi-tasking is detrimental.”
Do video games strengthen skill in multi-tasking?
New Zealand researcher Paul Kearney measured multi-tasking and found that people who played a realistic video game before engaging in a military computer simulation showed a significant improvement in their ability to multi-task, compared with people in a control group who did not play the video game. In the simulation, the player operates a weapons console, locates targets and reacts quickly to events.
Greenfield wonders, however, whether the tasks in the simulation could have been performed better if done alone.
More than 85 percent of video games contain violence, one study found, and multiple studies of violent media games have shown that they can produce many negative effects, including aggressive behavior and desensitization to real-life violence, Greenfield said in summarizing the findings.
In another study, video game skills were a better predictor of surgeons’ success in performing laparoscopic surgery than actual laparoscopic surgery experience. In laparoscopic surgery, a surgeon makes a small incision in a patient and inserts a viewing tube with a small camera. The surgeon examines internal organs on a video monitor connected to the tube and can use the viewing tube to guide the surgery.
“Video game skill predicted laparoscopic surgery skills,” Greenfield said. “The best video game players made 47 percent fewer errors and performed 39 percent faster in laparoscopic tasks than the worst video game players.”
Visual intelligence has been rising globally for 50 years, Greenfield said. In 1942, people’s visual performance, as measured by a visual intelligence test known as Raven’s Progressive Matrices, went steadily down with age and declined substantially from age 25 to 65. By 1992, there was a much less significant age-related disparity in visual intelligence, Greenfield said.
“In a 1992 study, visual IQ stayed almost flat from age 25 to 65,” she said.
Greenfield believes much of this change is related to our increased use of technology, as well as other factors, including increased levels of formal education, improved nutrition, smaller families and increased societal complexity.
Population, Sample, and Setting
Who/what is the POPULATION for this study?
The population for this study is overweight adults who might benefit from prevention of further weight gain.
Data collection INSTRUMENT
Data are collected so that researchers can measure the impact that the IV has had on the DV. INSTRUMENTS are used to collect these data. Are the instruments surveys of some type? Are they scales? Or telephones? Questionnaires? Interviews? Lab tests? Other?
a. WHAT specific instrument/s was/were used to COLLECT DATA in this study? (I am looking for the instrument/s, not the data).
The researchers used several instruments to collect data. Diaries and charts were used to track food intake, weight, and exercise. Telephone interviews were conducted to counsel and motivate the participants. A calibrated scale was used to measure the weight and height of participants at pre-test and post-test. The researchers used the Tanita Body Composition Analyzer to measure body fat and the Gulick tape to measure waist circumference. They used the Brief Fat, Fruit, Vegetable, and Fiber Screeners to track eating behaviors, and the international physical Activity questionnaire to track physical activity.
b. How did the researchers describe their data collection INSTRUMENT/s and how they used it/them?
The researchers did not describe the design of the diaries used to track food and physical activity. However, they mention that the participants could access and complete the diaries online (Hunter et al., 2008, p. 121). The authors describe their interviews as motivational. The interviews were conducted via phone calls lasting approximately 15 minutes. The nature of information exchanged during motivational interviews depended on the individual needs of each respondent. The researchers do not provide much information about the scales used to measure weight, height, body fat, waist circumference, and physical activity apart from mentioning the name of each instrument.
The purpose of the study was to test the effectiveness of an online weight-management intervention for a diverse population of overweight adults. A possible research question for this study would have been, What is the effect of behavioral internet therapy (BIT) on the weight of overweight adults? A hypothesis is an informed guess about the likely outcome of a research (Gavin, 2008, p. 87). The researchers hypothesized that BIT would prevent weight gain and cause small weight losses in overweight adults (Hunter et al., 2008, p. 121). They also hypothesized that those undergoing usual care would gain weight over the treatment period. Other possible hypotheses would be (1) BIT has no effect on weight (2) Participants in the BIT intervention would gain weight (3) there would be no difference in the outcomes of BIT and usual care in weight management.
Identification and Operational Definitions of Study Variables
Name the independent and dependent variable/s in your study?
The independent variable (IV) is Behavioral internet therapy (BIT) and the dependent variables (DV) are weight, waist circumference, height, and body fat (Hunter et al., 2008, p. 120).
Where, SPECIFICALLY, is the Literature Review in your article? (Page number? Column? Paragraph/s?)
The literature review in this study is located in pages 119-120. Indeed, it is the entire introduction section consisting of three paragraphs located between the abstract and methods sections.
After reviewing the course content on primary and secondary sources search the reference page of your article for 1 primary source OR 1 secondary source that you are certain about just from reading the title in the citation. Tell me the number of the citation and whether that citation is primary or secondary. Use the readings/course content to provide a rationale for your selection (i.e., use the buzz words that are posted on the content page to help you). For example, your response to question 4c would be: #19, primary. Remember: make your decision based ONLY on the title!
#22, is a primary source because it is a randomized, controlled trial. A primary source presents first-hand (original) information concerning the phenomenon under investigation (Johnson & Christensen, 2012, p. 418).
#4, is a secondary source because of the use of the term systematic review in the title, which means that the source contains information synthesized from other sources. A secondary source is created by compiling findings from primary, secondary or both primary and secondary sources (Johnson & Christensen, 2012, p. 418).
At the beginning or end of the Literature Review and before the Methods section the researchers summarize what they found in earlier studies on the variables of interest. Researchers use this summary to point out a GAP in the literature. A gap is something that is still not understood, something that these researchers hope to understand after conducting their study. What GAP did these researchers point out in your study? Please explain thoroughly.
The researchers found that the extant research on online weight management programs did not represent the study population effectively because it focused predominantly on obese females aged over 40, and those with comorbid conditions (Hunter et al., 2008, p. 120). In addition, the aim of previous research had been to achieve moderate to high weight losses rather than to prevent weight gain. The researchers aimed to fill this gap by sampling healthy overweight (not obese, and with no comorbid conditions) younger adults (mean age -34) who might benefit from prevention of further weight gain and small-to-moderate weight losses.
5. Study Design
Using your understanding of the multiple research study designs from your textbook and the content pages what research design was used for this study (i.e., provide a definition of the type of design that you identify in your research article)?
The research design for this study is an internet experiment of the subtype randomized controlled trial. An experimental design is characterized by strict control of the research environment in order to determine the relationship among specific independent and dependent variables (Johnson & Christensen, 2012, p. 284). A randomized controlled trial is characterized by random assignment of participants to either the intervention group or the control group to enable the comparison of the outcomes for the two groups.
In your opinion, was this design appropriate for this study? Why or why not? (base this on evidence from your readings and course content)
A randomized controlled experimental design is the most appropriate for this study based on the nature of the study. Experimental designs are appropriate for investigating cause and effect relationships about which little is known such as the efficacy of new interventions such as BIT. The researchers in the present study had no prior knowledge of how BIT might affect weight in a diverse sample and thus had to conduct an experiment to investigate the relationship between BIT (IV) and weight (DV). Randomization distributes errors arising from extraneous variables equally among both the intervention group and the control group and thus it makes comparison of outcomes fair (Johnson & Christensen, 2012, p. 232).
Were threats to internal validity (extraneous variables) controlled in this study? How? Give specific examples.
The main extraneous variables for this study include weight loss medication use, physical activity restrictions, comorbid conditions (stroke, diabetes, cancer, myocardial infarction, thyroid difficulties, angina) and pregnancy/breastfeeding (Hunter et al., 2008, p. 120). The researchers controlled for these variables by conducting a pre-test eligibility assessment. Unknown errors were evened out by random assignment of the participants to the intervention group and the control group.
Think of another extraneous variable that should/could be controlled in this study? Why? (i.e., how do you think this variable might impact the DV or the outcome of the study?)
Physical activity was not effectively controlled in this study, yet it is one of the most important variables affecting weight loss. Increased physical activity is associated with weight loss because of the increased metabolism of body fat. The researchers used self-reports to measure physical activity of the participants, but self-reports have limited reliability due to their subjective nature. Accurate measurement of physical activity could help determine the possibility of its (physical activity) mediatory role in preventing weight gain.
e. How would YOU have controlled for this extraneous variable?
A better way to monitor physical activity would have been to use accelerometers. An accelerometer converts physical activity data into quantitative form or counts. According to Evenson, Buchner & Morland (2012, p. 2), accelerometers are more reliable than self-reports in measuring physical activity.
Evenson, K. R., Buchner, D. M., & Morland, K. B. (2012). Objective measurement of physical activity and sedentary behavior among US adults aged 60 years or older. Retrieved October 1, 2013 from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2012/pdf/11_0109.pdf
Gavin, H. (2008). Understanding research methods and statistics in psychology. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Hunter, C. M., Peterson, A. L., Alvarez, L. M., Poston, W. C., Brundige, A. R., Haddock, K. C., Van Brunt, D. L., & Foreyt, J. P. (2008). Weight management using the internet: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 34(2), 119-126.
Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. B. (2012). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches. Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE Publications.
ANALYSIS EXAM 8
Running Head: ANALYSIS EXAM 1