Shirley Geok-Lin Lim is a critic, a writer, and a poet, who have expressed her feelings about how people survive, and events unfold in life. Lim has managed to do this in her book Among the Moon Faces: an Asian-American Memoir of Homeland, where she expressed her opinions forcefully about culture, human language, and intimacy. She began her book by touching on different events that she has encountered in life. Throughout her book, Lim seems to be confused whether to like or hate her parents. This study will offer a reflection of Shirley Geok-Lin Lim’s memoir in relation to life experience, culture, and language.
Being an Arab, I can relate much of Lim’s life to an ordinary Arab person. Lim’s life experience is a reflection of how different cultures raise their children, and how these cultures perceive the Western languages and culture. Naming of children portrayed the family line in Malayan culture, and one could simply know the child’s generation depending on their names. Although many cultures allow children to be taught the Western culture and religion, they do not expect them to leave their own culture. Being closer to her mother since childhood, Lim opted to align her language towards her mother’s origin. Even in the immigrant land, she chose to stick to her parents’ dialect before accepting other languages. Many Arabs who move to other countries for study or employment usually practice their culture in the foreign land and they are quite easy to spot.
Most of Asian cultures do not value daughters more than sons. This also happens in our culture. When a girl is born in a family of many boys, she is often ignored and mistreated by boys. Boys are given the first priority in everything, from education to family affairs. The communication between Lim and her grandfather was minimal, just because she was a girl. Therefore, the author expressed how she survived through harsh conditions as a girl. Women in Arab countries are typically inferior to men in many ways. They do not mingle freely with men both at home and in the Mosque. Sons are more preferred to daughters since they will support their parents when they grow old. However, this form of mistreatment on girls should not discourage them from following their dreams. Exposure to Western culture has proved that success does not come from parents’ support alone, but individual effort.
Western ideological indulgence and cultural colonialism have transformed various social systems through political domination. Colonization led to the establishment of schools and other educational institutions, which taught people from different cultures about the Western civilization. However, the colonialist culture corrupted other people’s cultures, as many people could not resist the power that accompanied this new form of life. Young people in particular are always curious to learn new things, as long as they are not physically harmed. On the other hand, the contemporary Arab world has a massive traditional influence on religion and arts, and has chosen to maintain its worldwide status (Hammond 2). Men are allowed to marry more than one wife, but clandestine relationships are highly prohibited. Although the fear of disintegration is rife, leaders in these nations have vowed to maintain their culture and institutions.
The colonialist teachers mingled with the native students with ease to illustrate that they were just like them. They made students to accept that whatever they did was always right, even when some of them were explicitly unfair. If any student misbehaves in class, he or she is labeled naughty or uncooperative. School life proved to be the best ground for an individual to discover his/her character. The conflict between teachers and students is a demonstration of deviance, as well as, brazenness. However, it is not always right to support all that our teachers tell us because no human being is perfect.
Modern education, particularly to women in the Arab world, occurred in the 20th century. The development in female education is quite slow in the Arab world due to the position of women in society. Fairness is a universal value and so is human dignity, hence, every individual should be granted a fair ground to compete on the global field. Women rights are always limited in the Arab countries. Any country that inhibits human rights to a section of its citizens denies itself a chance to succeed democratically, politically, institutionally, and economically.
Children usually experiences a harsh time, especially when their parents separate. Conflict erupts whenever a single parent is left to take care of children. In Arab countries, the family members and the society always treat a female divorcee with suspicion; hence, separation of parents is relatively minimal. Women in Arab countries have the responsibility of keeping the family stable and in harmony even when their marriage is in a miserable condition. The Arab culture expects wives to put up with their husbands’ mistakes and be self-sacrificing figures.
In conclusion, Lim’s memoir expressed culture, religion, and language change of a girl born of a Chinese father and a Malaysian Chinese mother. This memoir is a reflection of a change in culture, religion, environment, and linguistics. In many cultures, girls are treated as inferior to boys. They are expected to remain in the kitchen with their mothers to be taught how to cook and rear children. However, things have changed and girls have a bigger role to play in society, since they get the same education as men. Naming of children no longer adheres to their parents’ lineage. Both boys and girls can inherit their parents’ property. Although Western civilization has its own disadvantages, it has indeed transformed many cultures and languages to fit in diverse environments.
Hammond, Andrew. Pop Culture Arab World! Media, Arts, and Lifestyle. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, 2, 2005. Internet resource.
Research on Deviant Behavior
Description of the Experiment and the observation of the social reaction to the displayed behavior
For this experiment, I to asked a co-worker to pass me butter in the meeting where there was no served food. At first, the co-worker whom I asked to pass for me the butter assumed as though they did not hear me well. When I insisted with my quest, everybody looked at me blankly as though they did not understand me. Colleagues in the meeting starred at me with a lot of misunderstanding in their faces while looking at the chairperson to see if he was in harmony with what I was talking about. In the midst of this occurrence, people stopped discussing the issue that was at hand.
Everybody was attempting to understand what was going on with me since it is very abnormal for somebody to deviate from the item under discussion in the meeting to come up with a completely different thing. The chairperson then ordered the meeting to be adjourned. Immediately, I was called to the office of the general manager who was chairing the meeting; at a glance, my colleagues were looking at me with disbelief registered in their faces. Everybody thereafter was relating to me as though I had gone crazy. Work mates treated me as if I had a mental problem. Everybody looked at me because my behavior totally contradicted his or her belief and expectations. It is expected that people have to behave in a certain formal manner in a meeting and any behavior that contradict the expected norm is considered deviant and abnormal.
Define and describe the interactionism perspective on understanding deviant behavior and explain how your behavior became deviant in the context in which you performed it.
Interactionism refers to the pattern in which communication and information is relied. The information passed is often related to the social environment and the interpretation of an information passed depends on various factors. These factors upon, which a relied information anchors its meaning are socially determined. For example, age, social, and economic class would greatly determine how people interact in the society and how information is received and interpreted (Reynolds, & Herman, 2003). The listeners would also respond to the speaker in a different manner depending on how they interpret their social environment.
Symbolic interactionism comes in to play as the study of human behavior and human relationships. Human beings thus construct reality and the norms of behavior depending on how the environment define and dictates a certain mode of behavior to either be acceptable or unacceptable (Herman, 1995). The reality on the norm thus does exist but every individual do attach the concept of reality and their expectations of the norm on how people should behave is often socially constructed. People would therefore respond to situations based on what they know but on the basis through which the society dictates a specific behavior (Osgood, 1997). The society and an indivi�d�u�a�l� �m�e�m�b�e�r�/�s� �o�f� �t�h�e� �s�o�c�i�e�t�y� �c�a�n�n�o�t� �b�e� �u�n�d�e�r�s�t�o�o�d� �i�n�d�e�p�e�n�d�e�n�t�l�y�.� �I�n�d�i�v�i�d�u�a�l�s� �c�r�e�a�t�e� �t�h�e� �s�o�c�i�e�t�y� �a�n�d� �t�h�e� �s�o�c�i�e�t�y� �i�n� �t�u�r�n� �c�r�e�a�t�e�s� �a�n� �i�n�d�i�v�i�d�u�a�l�.� �T�h�e� �t�w�o� �a�r�e� �t�h�e�r�e�f�o�r�e� �p�r�o�d�u�c�t�s� �o�f� �e�a�c�h� �o�t�h�e�r� �(�K�e�c�m�a�n�o�v�i�c�,� �2�0�1�1�)�.� �T�o� �t�h�i�s� �e�x�t�e�n�t�,� �o�n�e� s� �b�e�h�a�v�i�o�r� �w�o�u�l�d� �b�e� �u�n�d�e�r�s�tood based on the societal norms. Any behavior that contradicts a socially constructed norm would be considered abnormal and people would respond in an awkward manner.
Any action that goes against the socially constructed interaction is thus considered deviant. In a formal meeting set-up, people are expected to behave formally and at all times, people have to stick to the agenda under discussion. In the scenario of a meeting, one item should be tackled after the other and should there be a thing that is to be raised, it is in order that such a thing is to be raised after all the items have been addressed. My behavior negates this expectation. First, the demand for butter in the meeting is out of the subject completely. It is also improper for one to one to bring up an agenda that is not consistent to the items under discussion. All points of concerns that are to be addressed are to be raised through the chairperson. In my case, I asked my colleague to pass for me butter without seeking the attention of the chair: a thing that is considered disrespectful.
Why this behavior
I choose the behavior of asking for butter in the meeting where food was not served because it serves as the best example through which deviant behavior could be expressed and an explicit reaction could be observed. Food to that matter are often served in informal set-ups and asking for food related items in a formal meeting would defiantly elicit different understanding, interpretations, and interpretation of my action. This behavior brings to reality the construction of the social norm (Dotter, 2004). It is expected that people have to adhere to the norms of the meeting and deviating from the agenda and coming up with a totally different thing would not bring the intension of the meeting. The behavior displayed made the meeting to be adjourned because everybody thought that I went insane. All the reactions that were observed are due to the social constructions.
Dotter, D. (2004). Creating deviance: An interactionist approach.� �W�a�l�n�u�t� �C�r�e�e�k�,� �C�a�l�i�f�:� �A�l�t�a�m�i�r�a� �P�r�e�s�s�.�
�H�e�r�m�a�n�,� �N�.� �J�.� �(�1�9�9�5�)�.� �D�e�v�i�a�n�c�e�:� �a� �s�y�m�b�o�l�i�c� �i�n�t�e�r�a�c�t�i�o�n�i�s�t� �a�p�p�r�o�a�c�h�.� �N�e�w� �Y�o�r�k�:� �G�e�n�e�r�a�l� �H�a�l�l�.�
�K�e�c�m�a�n�o�v�i�c�,� �D�.� �(�2�0�1�1�)�.� �C�o�n�t�r�o�v�e�r�s�i�e�s� �a�n�d� �d�i�l�e�m�m�a�s� �i�n� �c�o�n�t�e�m�p�o�r�a�r�y� �p�s�y�c�h�i�a�t�r�y�.� �N�e�w� �B�r�u�n�s�w�i�c�k�,� �N�.�J�:� �T�r�a�n�s�a�c�t�i�o�n� �P�u�b�l�i�s�h�e�r�s�.�
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Reynolds, L. T., & Herman-Kinney, N. J. (2003). Handbook of symbolic interactionism. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
RESEARCH ON DEVIANT BEHAVIOR2
How Does Advertising Reflect and Shape the Values of Our Society?
Advertisement refers to the persuasive communication where a person or groups of persons are persuaded to take a form of action or behave in a particular manner, usually in the form of acquiring a product or service. Advertisement attracts potential customers and pushes them to acquire products by creating an appealing and sometimes a happy feeling of using the product. Based on the findings of the media awareness network, advertisements averaged 3000 features a day in North America in 2010 (Berger 24). With increasing competition due to the increasing expansion of the market, businesses are finding that they have to shout loudest to be heard. One thing that is not shouting loudest is the manner advertising reflects and shapes the societal issues. This article establishes whether advertising reflects the values of the society and shapes these values, or only acts to mirror the existing values and culture.
According to Berger (24), it is advertising that teaches’ us how to live. It tells us about what is cool, trendy, fashionable, and important. Based on this information, the cultures of the world are defined. This shaping of our culture defines the values that we hold dear. We strive to acquire certain products to stay true to the culture passed down to us through advertising. Apart from portraying the product in the manner described, advertisement uses celebrities and popular people to help the consumer identify with the product. The consumer wants to associate with, imitate, and have the feeling associated to the product. The advertisement fabricates the issues that shape the culture and lifestyle of the time, such as television, internet, and social media to create notions that are appealing, employing influential celebrities to pass the message. The result is that the lifestyle of the community is shaped by the nature of the advertising. The advertising is blended into popular programs or magazine articles so well that the consumer is not capable of differentiating it from feature articles.
One of the examples of how advertising has influenced the values of the society is the relationship between Santa Clause and Coke. Children across Europe and North America know Santa as that fat fluffy person with a long white beard wearing a red robe, descends the chimney to hand with a handful of toys and other gifts for Christmas (Waugh 105). What we do not know is the relationship between Santa and coke. While Santa existed in society before the 1931 Coke creation, its popularity was brought to the fore by this creation.
Advertisement takes the position of educating, informing, and influencing the community. The society is better informed about certain products based on their exposure to certain advertising. The information is made to look seductive, causing a preoccupation with the material and information. The problem is that advertisers misuse this platform to provide distorted information meant to favor the product, i.e., material concerns and the assumption that these lead to happiness. The problem has been compounded by an audience that lives in a sea of information from the internet thereby not knowing what to trust.
Advertisement also plays a role in influencing the society negatively. It creates and promotes materialism, cynicism, and use of foul language. It creates an appeal that makes people want new things all the time, which motivates us to earn more money. With time, we do not have time for each other and strive to fulfill the desires generated by attractive advertisement. It is all about doing more things to earn more money instead of sitting with friends or family members. To get luxury life, people do wrong things as they pursue money. They develop cynic attitudes to things that do not help them achieve this insatiable desire. The influence of the material content of the advertisement is created in a manner that link their use to some lifestyles that may not be desirable.
Apart from the above, advertisement creates a perpetual dissatisfaction situation in the manner new products are rolled out and advertised to be better than the previous ones. When Apple introduced the iPhone 0ne, subsequent iPhones have been portrayed to indicate their superiority to previous versions, creating a perpetual dissatisfaction situation. Other negative influences include conformity, envy, anxiety, disrespect for tradition and authority, and sexual preoccupation
According to a feature article appearing in the University of Texas at Austin’s website, Kellner (Para 7) argues that advertising creates a social communication platform that mediates social relations and acts to promote trends. The argument is that while this communication is biased, the targeted audience gets information that not only promotes interest in the advertised product, but also creates awareness on issues relevant to the industry.
The Appealing and persuasive nature of advertising has by extension promoted the popularity of some medias of communication (Hovland, Wolburg & Eric Haley 57). People prefer watching television and or reading trendy magazines because of some features of the advertisement articles. The society wants to associate with the trendy and appealing features in the media and abandon dull and outdated’ media platforms that might also be useful. The shift has seen the reading culture drop significantly as people shy away from books and adopts a culture of obtaining information from online materials and visual media.
People want to associate with certain songs, events or artistic features based on its relation to advertisement (Waugh 165). People would retain the memory of the visual, artistic, and audio content of the advert long after interacting with it. The songs or art are made popular based on their usage in brands that appeal to the public. One instant is the association of Shakira’s Zangalewa’ song to the soccer World Cup extravaganza of 2010 in South Africa. People best remember the song because of its usage as an advertising song for the football extravaganza. This is an indication of how advertising helps in shaping the tastes of consumers to other products other than the intended item.
Apart from shaping the values of society, advertisement also reflects the values of the society. Advertisers shape the images as a mirror of the characteristics of the society and design them differently to appeal to different audiences. The focus is to influence consumer behaviors based on the emotions, cultures, and trends that define this society. That is why different advertisements are made for different targeted age groups, education levels, and even financial status.
Social media, and particularly the use of Facebook and Twitter has encouraged businesses to develop social profiles to engage with their clients, fans, and the general public. This indicates how advertising follows the trends in society. People around the world have made social media part of their daily lives. This new platform indicates how advertisement blends into the society, adapting to new concepts and pushing them forward.
Advertisement also shapes our moods. When people watch an advertisement of a happy person taking a drink at a sunny beach, they tend to think that using the drink induces a happy feeling no matter the circumstances. While there has not been proven medically or psychologically, they tend to put themselves in the happy outlook depicted by the advertisement whenever they are taking the drink. This shows how advertisement can change the moods of a person, even when there is no proof the effect is caused by using the product.
Advertisement has been used to shape the political landscape. People associate the amount of money spent in advertising to better political appeal and hence a higher likelihood to win a political office. Apart from running political campaigns through advertisement platforms, from print, billboards social media, television, and newspaper features among others, politics has established platforms of being associated with celebrities to sell their brand. The most significant contribution of advertising to the political landscape occurred in the 2012 general elections in the United States. The total spending on advertising in the election hit $ 5.2billion. According to Blair & Lioz (20), in the 2012 elections, 83.9% of House candidates and 66.7% of Senate candidates who outspent their general election opponents in advertising won their elections. Simply put, the more advertising money, the most likely a candidate is going win the elections. The present leadership, and in turn the policies being formulated and implemented are a result of aggressive advertising by candidates.
According to Stuart Ewen et al (Pg 63), the values of the society are inbred in the depictions of advertisements. Advertisers study cultures, establish practices and develop features based on their significance to the society. The bigger goal is to encourage consumption, but this is built around those things that matter to the targeted audience. It is an advertisement that shapes the culture of the society, apart from borrowing from the values of that same society. Apart from borrowing from the society, it is an advertisement that normalizes’ trends, values, practices, and culture as a whole. It should be noted that the targeted result of advertising is to raise awareness of a product or service. It is at the discretion of the consumer to make up their minds on whether to perform the behavior depicted in the advertisement or not. It should also be noted that the laws and ethical practices of the land bind the advertisement industry. This article has proven how society is indeed influenced by advertising. On the other hand, it has also been shown that advertising also reflects the values of the society.
If advertising really circumvents the thought processes, denying people the chance to make free choices, that it subtly encourages selfishness, debt and capitalism and does not encourage morals in the society, is it rational to call it evil and do away with it? The truth of the matter is that advertising depicts the epitome of the society. Therefore, a religion eloquently points out; let the one who is free from sin cast the first stone. Alternatively, if that seems a little bit too dramatic, then let one should lobby to change the society before there is a call to the change the nature of the advertisement. After all, advertisement is just but an image of the society
Berger, Arthur Asa. Ads, fads, and consumer culture: advertising’s impact on American
Character and society. 2nd ed. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Pub., 2004. Print.
Bowie, Blair, and Adam Lioz. Billion-dollar democracy: the unprecedented role of money in the
2012 elections. New York: Demos.org, 2013. Print.
Hovland, Roxanne, Joyce Marie Wolburg, and Eric Haley. Readings in advertising, society, and
Consumer culture. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 2007. Print.
Kellner, Douglas. “Illuminations: Kellner.” Illuminations: Kellner. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Nov. 2013.
Stuart Ewen, Ritch Goldstein, Fred Irwin, William M. O’Barr, Cynthia Round, Juliet Schor, &
Linda M. Scott. “Roundtable on Values in Advertising.”Advertising & Society Review 3.1
(2002). Project MUSE. Web. 7 Nov. 2013. <http://muse.jhu.edu/>.
Waugh, Jacqueline. “Does advertising shape or reflect popular culture?.” Credos. Org. N.p.,
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How can the Web give a company a competitive advantage?
The world is ever changing and the social, political, economical , and technical environments are demanding constant connectivity. In this regard, technology transformation seems exponential. The growing technology and the internet connectivity have developed an environment whereby organizations and individuals can create and enhance their competitive advantage. Although , some firms continue s to underrate the significance of website usage to gain and enhance their competition advantage to their rivals,. mMany organizations only use websites as a way of presenting their profile, showing their list of products , and providing contact details. This paper examines ways in which a business can enhance its competitive advantage by the use of internet particularly the websites.
Businesses can use the internet to do promotions. The number of people accessing the internet continues to grow and businesses need toshould take the advantage of this to promote themselves. Establishing a strong web page that have a good rank and that features on other similar sites can be a powerful way of by reaching out new customers both domestically and internationally. Advertising in the internet especially in popular websites have proven to be a successful venture. For instance, if one considers the campaigns that led to the second re-election of president Obama, internet marketing played a crucial role where the internet was used to disperse political messages to the targeted audience. In a similar way, it can be used to target customers by an organization. Email marketing listing is another enormous way of keeping in touch with customers. It can be an important marketing strategy and information canal. In this case, the organization can strengthen its brand understanding and awareness and at the same time toughen its relationship with the customers. Availing newsletters to the clients and potential customers can be a good way to of providing information and awareness of new products and services that the business is offering and as well as provision of other important information in the sector. In line with this, itsit’s important for a business to noticeably draw the privacy and anti spam policies so that it does not violate the set laws. ItsIt’s important to have the authorization of the customer and have link for unsubscribing in case the customer does not want any further communication or more newsletters.
Businesses can set up a knowledge base whereby clients can access information concerning on the products and services provided by the business and how to access them. Furthermore, the customers can ask questions and leave their opinions. Businesses can also provide a feedback form on their websites to allow those who visit the site to bring in their input and suggestions according to their needs. This information is critical to the business’s success. In case a business provides products that require expertise to use and operate, sites can be a good place to offer support to the clients. It is also a good way to offer forms for making orders online to simplify the work of the client.
The web allows the businesses to automate some of their operations, which allows them to reduce cost of operation. A business can promote this by offering discounted services to the online users in comparison to the others. Effective use of online transactions will significantly reduce the overall sales cost. The revenue savings can be utilized to enhance quality and in both research and design. Businesses can enhance their distribution strategies by use of websites. This can be achieved by establishing a e-commerce site where customers carry out all their transactions, do payments and give details on how the products will be distributed. Business can also create a referral program where clients direct other potential customers to the site and be able to get information on the products and services offered by the business. It’s important for a business to do online research when designing and implementing the e-commerce sites and systems for it to be competitive to its rivals.
The social media isprovides gooda good platform for businesses to enhance their competitive advantage . Social media as it creates a platform where a person interacts, gives , and gets information at any given time. Through social networking, a business can initiate a forum where clients will be expressing their views, asking questions , and getting feedback from the business concerning the products and services. In this way, the business is in a good position to adjust according to the information from consumers and improve its competitiveness. The emergence of cloud computing is a great achievement in enhancing business competitiveness. In this case, the computing resources are provided and stored remotely by the vendors. Businesses do not n’t have to invest heavily on the computing resources but rather subscribe to use the cloud services according to their usage and demand. Business can now invest the extra revenue that could have been used to set up the IT infrastructures in enhancing and promoting the brand name.
In conclusion, there is no doubt that the web is a good tool that businesses can utilize to enhance their competitiveness by use of the explained means. With an effective online system, a business can save its overall cost of doing business and in fact make it a revenue generator.
The 14th Amendment
The 14th Amendment is a five-section amendment to the US constitution ratified in 1868 in the wake of the American Civil War. In the periods before its ratification, slavery was a major issue in the nation pitying the antislavery north against the proslavery south. The result of this continued animosity between the South and the North was the American Civil war, which threatened to divide the nation. After the end of the Civil War, the Southern states were forced to adopt the Amendment to get back their representation to Congress. While the southern states hugely contested the Amendment, the conditionality placed on it forced them to accept the Amendment as it were, therefore expanding the rights and citizenship of individuals born and living in the united states at the time of its (14th Amendment) promulgation.
The end of the civil war had left a torn country. To start the reconstruction process especially of the Southern states, it was important that certain laws be put in place not only to prevent the occurrence of such an event, but also to streamline civil rights in the nation. A collection of amendments was therefore passed to ensure that such an occurrence does not happen. Although Lincoln had declared free all slaves at the end of the war, there were many unanswered questions regarding the former slaves and Confederates status in the US. The collection of Amendments, collectively known as the Reconstruction Amendments and comprised of the 13th, 14th and 15th modifications, were passed to settle the lingering questions.
While the 13th Amendment had declared slaves as no longer people’s property, therefore effectively putting an end to slavery, it was not clear on the rights that were bestowed upon these slaves. The Fourteenth Amendment was therefore ratified to settle any doubts on the rights of the former slaves. The first and most controversial section that was heavily contested by the Confederates states:
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law, which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws (Lee, 2010, p. 5).
Although most of the Southern states rejected the Amendment largely because they had an agricultural economy that depended on the slaves for labor, the Amendment was ratified as the threshold three-fourths of the congressional representation voted for the passage of the Amendment. The Amendment not only forbade the denial of the right by any state to a fair chance to due process of the law, life, and property, but also offered equality to all citizens regardless of their skin color.
The design of the 14th Amendment was to ensure the upholding of the Civil Rights Act voted for in 1866. Its passage (14th Amendment), however opened a leeway for restrictions by the Supreme Court on the Equal Protection Clause. Therefore, although the Constitution preamble declared that all men are created equal, in relation to Thomas Jefferson’s declaration of independence (Peterson, 1970, p.9), in practice, this was far from the truth. The Jim Crow laws, crafted in 1876 had spelled out that although men were equal they had to be separated. Therefore, there were separate carriages for colored and whites, hotels, and even washrooms. In effect, the colored were discriminated against on employment, schooling and even neighborhoods, as well as other important facilities. In an 1896 ruling of the Plessy vs. Fergusson case, the judge had declared that although the constitution regarded all men equal and that no state could abridge individual privileges, states could in fact enact laws, constitutionally, that necessitated people of different races to be equal but separate.
The 14th Amendment was instrumental again in overturning the Plessy v. Fergusson ruling in the Brown v. Board of Education case of 1954. While the Jim Crow laws had held the idea that citizen can be equal but separate under the US constitution, the claim of the plaintiffs in the Brown v. Board of Education held that the ruling was in contravention of the 14th Amendment under the Equal Protection Clause. The plaintiffs’ argument to the Supreme Court in regard to the Equal but Separate ruling was that segregation of schools for the whites and blacks was not equal, and in essence deprived the black students equal protection as provided for by the law. Further, the plaintiffs argued on the need for the availability of education in public schools on equal terms, as it was a right of every US citizen.
Further argument concerning the case pointed to the fact that in light of the role of education in the American society, and not concerning the Fourteenth Amendment, it was necessary for a level playing field for all in access to education. Additionally, the plaintiffs argued that the separate but equal ruling of the Plessy v. Fergusson case had no bearing in education. The plaintiffs made it clear to the Court that the separation of the blacks from the white in education generated feelings of inferiority among blacks, and therefore dented their motivation to learn. Worse, the plaintiffs argued, was the sanctioning of segregation by the law, which would hamper the mental and educational development of the black children in addition to their deprivation of benefits that accrue in an integrated education system. With reference to the 14th Amendment therefore, the court rejected the Plessy v. Fergusson ruling.
This ruling opened the doors to a wide range of lawsuits as well as fueled the Civil Rights Movement. Before this however, the 14th Amendment had been used to settle a case of citizenship in the United States v. Wong Kim Ark case of 1898. The debate had been on whether Kim, whose parents were Chinese aliens in the United States, was a citizen. The court therefore ruled, in reference to the 14th Amendment, that the law secured automatic birthright citizenship for all persons born in the United States and subject to its jurisdiction (Lee, 2010, p.8). Therefore, because of his birthplace, Kim was fully a United States citizen even though his parents were not. The 14th amendment therefore confers citizenship to any child born on the United States soil regardless of its parents being aliens or illegal immigrants, with the exception of diplomats’ children since they are not subject to the jurisdiction (of the United States) thereof (Lee, 2010, p. 10).
The passage of the 14th Amendment was also instrumental in overturning the controversial Dred Scott v. Sandford case of 1857 in which the Supreme Court had ruled that being an African American and a non-citizen, Dred had no right to litigation in a federal court (Dyer, 2010, p. 166). By the ratification of the 14th Amendment therefore, African Americans gained the standing of citizenship and ultimately the right to litigation in a court of law whenever they felt their rights were being infringed on (Ho, 2011).
In a ruling over the right of a woman to procure an abortion, the Supreme Court ruled on the decision of procuring the abortion as belonging to the woman. The 1973 case of Roe against Wade relied on the 14th Amendment’s right to privacy contained in the due process clause to make the ruling. In the ruling, the Supreme Court had indicated that the woman had the right to decide on whether to procure the abortion or not, since she was protected under law to exercise personal liberty, the states restrictions notwithstanding. The Court however affirmed the existence of competing interest between protection of the woman’s right to health and guarding the prospective of a human life. With these two pertinent issues however, the woman’s right to privacy, and ultimately the right to terminate the pregnancy, was given to the woman only in the first trimester of the pregnancy when it is safe, and fetal viability was low. On reaching fetal viability however, the decision to procure an abortion, the court ruled, was left with the physician who would determine the probability of the fetus’ survival, but with consideration of maternal life (McCorvey & Meisler, 1994).
The Court’s decision therefore upheld the right of the woman to privacy, freedom of choice and personal liberty as provided for by the constitution. This, along with the Right to Equal Protection Clause in the 14th Amendment has been instrumental in the protection of civil liberties. The Equal Protection clause was also used to overrule the recount of the vote for the 2000 presidential election dispute between Bush and Gore. While the Florida Supreme Court had ruled for a recount of the Florida Electoral College vote, the Supreme Court ruled that this would expose other voters’ ballots to unfair treatment, contravening the provisions of the 14th Amendment. Through the ruling therefore, no recount of votes was done and Bush went ahead to win the 2000 presidential elections.
The 14th amendment was important in granting freedom to the former slaves. However, it did not only stop at that but went ahead and gave these former slaves the right of citizenship. Although manipulations of the 14th Amendment led to the enactment of the Jim Crow laws for the separate but equal clause, it (14th Amendment) was instrumental in ending the ruling in the Brown v. Board of Education case. In essence, therefore, the 14th Amendment protects citizens from discriminatory practices, especially those based on race, color, ethnicity, and gender. The Amendment has thus been used for rulings on important cases. While it indeed did bring a lot of improvement and made considerable steps towards equality, a lot still needs to be done for total equal treatment by the law. There are still a lot of gender issues that require streamlining for complete equal treatment with regard to the law.
Dyer, J. B. (2010). Revisiting Dred Scott: Prudence, Providence and the Limits of Constitutional Statesmanship. Perspectives on Political Science, 39(3): 166-173. Proquest
Ho, J. C. (2011, Jan 04). Birthright Citizenship and the 14th Amendment; Opponents of illegal immigration cannot claim to champion the rule of law and then propose policies that violate our Constitution. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/822267160/fulltext/14221F2E0F813DC010D/1?accountid=1611
Lee, M., M., (2010). Birthright Citizenship Under the 14th Amendment of Persons Born in the United States to Alien Parents. Congressional Research Service.
McCorvey, N. & Meisler, A. (1994) I Am Roe: My Life, Roe V. Wade, and Freedom of Choice. New York: Harper Collins
Peterson, M. (1970). Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation: A Biography. Washington, DC: Oxford University Press
the 14th amendment 2
Running head: The 14th Amendment 1
Capstone Case United States v. Hanousek
Hanousek was employed as a road master, and his duty was to construct and maintain the track road. According to Francois & McIlvanney (2006), 6 mile was one of the projects under Hanousek’s supervision (p. 67). However, a pipeline that carried petroleum ran parallel to the railroad; thus, it was Hanousek’s duty to ensure the pipeline was safe. While using a backhoe to remove some rocks on the railroad, Thoe, one of the backhoe operators, struck the pipeline, causing a discharge of an estimated 1000 to 5000 gallons of heated oil into Skagway River, a navigable water of the US (Francois & McIlvanney, 2006, p. 67).
The court charged Hanousek for negligently discharging oil into the river, as well as conspiring to offer false information to the court. Although the court acquitted him of giving wrong information to the case investigators, it sentenced him for six months imprisonment, six months in half-way house and six months of supervised release, in addition to a fine of $5000 (Francois & McIlvanney, 2006, p. 68). I agree with the court verdict because Hanousek’s action resulted to criminal negligence. Hanousek had gone against the Clean Water Act and his simple negligence led to massive harm to the environment. However, the court should weigh the outcomes of simple negligence before terming it as a criminal offense because there is no law that expound on the extent of negligence.
Francois, D. D. L. R., & McIlvanney, W. (2006). Criminal Liability and the Essence of Crime. Criminal Law Today: An Introduction with Capstone Cases, Retrieved on 14 Dec. 2013 from http://wps.pearsoncustom.com/wps/media/objects/2426/2484551/CJ140_Ch02.pdf
200 WORDS 2
Running head: 200 WORDS 1
Environmental Studies and Forestry
Trends that will influence future environmental laws and policy
In order to ensure a healthy environment, certain laws must exist to regulate individuals operations within the environment. Various countries and organizations have enacted laws that aim at preventing cases of environmental pollution in various perspectives. The need for these laws has significantly increased with the rapid industrialization that has taken place over the years. Industrialization often results into discharge of certain effluents that are not environmental friendly. This therefore has resulted for the need to enact statutes that will govern the industries in their operations. Currently, the need to control environmental pollution has been an international agenda with various laws being enacted in various international forums that control certain activities of nations. Certain societal trends have greatly influenced enactment of these policies and play an integral role in future policy adoptions. Technological advancement in various societies will be a determining factor in various enactments as the use of these machines impact greatly on the environment. Considerations should therefore be placed on technologies used by various sectors in the society in the policy initiation procedures. The rising demand for the aquatic life will form an integral part in the enactments of these laws. Owing to the increasing demand for the aquatic life for various purposes there is need to develop mechanisms to protect this environment owing to the contribution of the sector to various economies. Consequently, due to cases of deforestation that has been manifested in various societies, there is growing need to initiate laws that will protect the forest environment from destruction. This factor will therefore be essential in the enactments of various environmental laws. Certain medical statistics manifests that various human infections are due to consumption of unhealthy food stuffs that are polluted by various environmental aspects. This makes the environmental laws very essential in order to curb these cases of resulting infections.
The part played by U.S in developing international environmental law and policy
The United States has significantly contributed to the adoption of various policies that controls environmental pollution. The United States played a key role in the Copenhagen climate summit in 2009. The summit targeted enactments of various environmental legislations. The United State contributed greatly in the introduction of these laws owing to its key membership in the UN council. Besides, the Congress of the United States has often enacted laws that controls various production processes. These laws enacted by the Congress have barred industrial productions resulting into environmental pollutions. In addition, companies that have continuously indulged in these productions have been subjected to severe punishments. These laws have been adopted by various nations due to the country’s influence on various international issues. Besides, through the Obama’s regime various contributions have been made to the international environmental laws. In May 2011, president Obama entered into an agreement with Russia, North Korea and South Korea that strived to stop the production of nuclear weapons that caused environmental pollution. Despite the violation of the agreement by key partners in the agreement, there has been a reduction in the use of nuclear weapons in various parts of the world.
Environmental laws effective in advancing environmental goals
Certain laws have been enacted that have greatly contributed to effective protection of the environment in the international domain. The Congress in 2010 enacted the Environmental Conservation and Recovery Act. The act allows proper mechanisms to be put in place that allows for conservation and for effective recovery of the waste products from various processes. The act allows for the recovery of the used by products from industrial procedures for re-use. This act has been adopted by various sectors in numerous countries owing the economic advantages of the process. For example, the act has highly been adopted in the United Emirates countries owing to the insufficiency of various vital resources. Similarly, the water regulation act enacted by the House of Congress has significantly contributed to protection of environmental pollution. The act specifically aims at protecting various water sources by preventing the release of harmful effluents into the water sources. The act has been accepted by various nations owing to the essence of the water bodies to various economies. Besides, owing to climatic changes that have resulted into reduction in the levels of the water, various organizations have adopted the act in bid to minimize the usage of the available limited water sources. The act has also played a great role in preventing various infections that are often suffered as a result of water pollution.
Balancing environmental interest and economic interest
Environmental interests can be achieved concurrently with the desired economic goals. Environmental interests are the concerns for environmental conservation and the elimination of the possible environmental pollutants. On the other hand, economics looks at the use of appropriate application and use of natural resources in a way that prevents such resources from depletion. From a wider perspective, economic resources are limited and producing firms must use the resources wisely to allow room for regeneration and future exploitation. Natural resources like fossil fuels, minerals, natural gases and water faces increasing industrial use as raw materials in production of other goods. This would mean that industries must ensure that the mentioned resources are given maximum protection to allow for continuous industrial production processes. Environmental interest recognizes the fact that these resources face human exploitation hence becoming depleted. Formulation of environmental protection and conservation laws therefore give priority to environmental interests just like proper allocation and use of natural resources in the case of economic interest. The combined force of environmental interests and economic interests will give high levels of protection to natural resources as predicted by UNEP since industrial use of resources is the main threat-facing environment today. Apart from the use of natural resource, industries must reduce the level of toxic substances released into the environment in order to conform with some of the environmental protection Acts.
Achieving environmental protection and preservation under increasing economic pressure in the global economy
Under the context of the increasing economic pressure, producing firms must incorporate social ethics in their production plan. The firms must inculcate within themselves the culture of environmental protection without necessarily being subjected to environmental laws. In other words, it is highly critical that multinational corporations who are the main cause of environmental pollution facilitate the use of production processes that are environmental friendly. Similarly, proper application of environmental acts will ensure that producing industries give priority to issues of environmental protection and resource use controls. Today, international organizations have come up with mechanisms of determining the amount of harm caused to the environment and charging firms on the basis of environmental damages. This initiation is one of the methods that will ensure maximum environmental protection and conservation alongside value creation by multinational corporations.
Getting an actual picture of the situation in the job market is essential for a student, especially those in their final years like me who are hopeful of getting career opportunities. One of the ways through which this can be achieved is by sharing experiences by those who are already in the market. As part of the requirement of the course work, I embarked on a mission to interview two professionals in the business and marketing industry.
My first interviewee was Spencer McCartner, who has worked in the marketing insurance sector for the last eight years. He is currently working at the Allstate Insurance Company as a professional in charge of various roles. Melissa Anderson is also in the marketing field, serving along the line of Customer care, that I am so passionate about. I am confident that through their interaction and responses to interview questions, they provide insight that is very essential for success to all students in the marketing field. Details are highlighted in the sections that follow.
I had made my cards ready prior to my first meeting with the two executives. I realized that a business card is the first point of contact after meeting potential networks. It also shows some level of seriousness and professionalism thus mine had the basic details as expected, like the name, contact and email address.
Overall strategy for this assignment
This assignment expected us to get two professionals to be interviewed. To begin with, I drew a plan on what objectives I wanted to achieve from the assignment and the potential people that will be most effective if I was to meet my targets. The on-going debate on healthcare insurance cover sparked my interest in wanting to meet with a professional the selling industry, and insurance products are most effective.
My passion for customer service, wanting to contribute towards improved service delivery, further enhanced my interest to get someone along this line of duty, and I got Melissa. After highlighting the desired objectives, I identified potential companies that would help me meet these various people. I looked up for more information on them via the internet. Fortunately, this exercise coincided with the University’s career fair day. I met many people who had come to market their companies to university students and managers who were giving career talks to people. At the registration desk, I got the names of representatives from Delta Airlines and the Allstate Insurance Company. I noted them down, and then compared with a few contacts I got online.
I then sent out emails explaining in details my goals and objectives and how I expected the companies to provide assistance. Allstate Insurance Company responded after a day while the Delta Airlines delayed. I decided to make a personal visit to both companies. I was given the contact personalities that I would make follow ups with, and were regarded as best placed people to help in the various issues. I had a first meeting with them for ice breaking and then later scheduled interview days.
Personal views on pursuing sales as a future career
From my interaction with them, every career has its own fare share of challenges and so does marketing. The challenge is in remaining persistent and being patient that business will somehow open up and opportunities be realized. I am still determined to pursue marketing as a career. It is a people’s career and my hobbies of meeting new people and interacting, travelling will go in handy. Above all I want to pursue marketing so as to make an incredible contribution and leave behind a mark of impact, by changing the way of service delivery. A job in sales is for the few who are determined and requires essential skills, including persuasive, conflict resolution, communication, writing and negotiations.
I have been motivated to further pursue a career in marketing and sales. Contrary to the initial opinion that money making is very hard in this industry, I think it is manageable if an individual plays his/ her cards well in a well organized way. Companies heavily rely on sales to survive thus the need for me to be ahead of the pack by making myself relevant in the first place. In fact, I am convinced that it is one of those careers that I can determine my own salary based on the revenue I generate for the company. Again from my experience with Spencer and Melissa, it is a gateway to management. Those who have shown determination and hard work have been rewarded into management positions. Both the interviewees have since been appointed to higher positions.
First Interview- with a selling professional
Sales Professional at Allstate Insurance Company
Spencer McCarter is a Sales professional at the Allstate Insurance Company, which is headquartered in Illinois. He holds a Bachelors Degree in Business Administration and Marketing from Central University in Oklahoma. Having joined the job industry in his early 20s, he has gradually developed to be the professional that he is today. His line of duty includes meeting new clients, both within the office environment and in the field to market the insurance products that the company offers.
He also works as an advisor to the company on the market demands of the clients, a role that has helped the organization shape its product design. Handling inquiries from clients and advising them on the best approaches to use is also his role.
Prior to joining the Allstate insurance company, he served at the Newbury Insurance company for two years. He provides more insight on his career in the interview below.
Me: Thanks again for sparing sometime amidst your very busy schedule to have a discussion with me. I am Amanda Gonzalez, the lady who has kept in touch with you via email communication. I am glad to finally meet you. I am from Northern States University, pursuing a major in marketing and currently in my final year of study. Part of the course work involves meeting with those who have had real life experience in the labour industry and sharing their experience through interviews such as this. That is the main reason for my interview with you.
Spencer: I am glad to have you around today. I look forward to answering your concerns.
Me: My focus is on your job and what it entails. I also have the consent form here with me, requesting you to read through and agree to the terms by signing. I assure you that the information you provide in this interview is purposely for class assignment and will not be used in any other way other than the agreed purpose. I will appreciate your corporation.
Spencer: Sure, we can start.
Me: To begin with, would you describe to me what your typical day looks like?
Spencer: On a typical day, my day includes meetings, and many more of them as I provide counsel to both my company and the clients on the best business insurance solutions. When the workload is a bit lighter, I visit the field where I meet clients too.
Me: Would you mind expanding more on your job description?
Spencer: My job description includes helping the company to sell and make promotions of its insurance products to the targeted clients in the market. I achieve this through:
Providing financial advices and support to the customers, maintain the insurance accounts for corporate organizations and families, developing good rapport with our potential clients, helping in the marketing functions that create our market awareness among clients, promoting the various brands of insurance we have from health, automobile to mortgage. I would also like to let you know that I deal with the marketing strategies that have to be consistently re-evaluated to ensure they meet the dynamic needs of the modern customers and are way above our competitors. Then I also deal with overall business development practices and initiatives of the company. I hope that gives you an overview of what I do in my current capacity.
Me: What motivated you to take up this job?
Spencer: I took this job because it is what I love to do.
Me: What are some of the essential skills one must have to be successful in this work?
Spencer: You must be determined, honest enough to tell clients the advantages and disadvantages of an insurance cover, patient to wait for clients to close deals as promised and critical to details.
Me: What role has business networking played in the line of your duty?
Spencer: Networking in the insurance key cannot be ignored. You know it means that am leveraging the business of the company in order to develop a more personal relation or connection with people who will keep us constantly supplied with business. Many times assumptions are made that it is one of those simple processes we develop once we meet people; like you and I. However, it involves more than talking in the first interaction. The number of people we know may not directly turn into insurance business opportunities in this industry, I can almost guarantee you.
This implies that networking goes beyond us shaking hands together, exchanging smiles and taking each other’s business cards. My advice to you is to make the process of networking in the marketing industry to be very systematic and equally strategic. Bearing in mind that not all people you know can be helpful in facilitating your business objectives, you must be careful in who you talk to and spend more time on. I can tell you this with totality because I do have control over who I meet, as I plan my own diary activities. So i have been very proactive in networking process by making plans, focusing on them and remaining consistent. When you get the clear concept, then the opportunities will come flowing your way.
Me: What are some of the challenges you experience along your line of duty?
Spencer: I have to do enough research on what the competitors are offering before approaching clients and persuading them to take cover. I also must understand their needs and demands so that the products are designed in line with them in mind. Stiff competition from other firms is another challenge. Again, some people are still reluctant to take up insurance services based on cultural beliefs, especially the marginalized groups.
Me: Is it true that your work depends on commission? I am not probing into your salary details but would you kindly shed some light on the commission aspect as i hear a lot about that in the insurance industry.
Spencer: We have to talk about the money matters you know, so no worry. Here we have various insurance policies that a client may wish to subscribe to. Most of them are general life insurances like health, automobile, disability, burglary and accident insurances. Our clients also benefit from other packages like the mutual funds and securities. The salary depends on how well you have marketed this and got clients on board to take up our products. Yes, even though there is the commission issue, there is also the minimum salary retainer. That which is constant then your commission is added on to it. I can assure you that the demographics are currently opening up their minds to the insurance concept and on a good day you can generate millions by getting clients on board so no need to worry.
Me: What type of clients do you serve on a daily basis?
Spencer: Even as I remain persistent on clients, I do not apply force on them. Remember that we are dealing with people who are also highly informed and very active in conducting their own research even before they either approach us or we approach them. So I must be very sensitive to deliver exactly what the client desires and respect their opinions. Our main objective is to serve people across all the classes in the society, thus our products are also designed to meet everyone’s needs. Some are well able and thus can afford to pay very heavy premiums while others are low income earners, thus I advise them to take on products that guarantee their satisfaction equally.
Me: What do you like best in your job?
Spencer: I like it when I am able to convince a client to take up an insurance cover or product, which he was sceptical about at first. Then they accept and in fact see the benefits themselves.
Me: Would you encourage a young student like myself to pursue a career along the selling professional service?
Spencer: I definitely love my job! Otherwise, I would have quit many years ago when the going was tough. I love challenges and new opportunities in the insurance field. They keep me strong. You see when a client turns my offer down; I take time to ponder on the possible reasons. Then I approach them again with the same product but with more convincing reasons. You see in this industry, sometimes I refuse to take a No for an answer. I must convince you the more. So for all who are aiming to pursue this line of duty, be informed of the challenges but also the fruits of success if you work hard and persist.
If you do your job well, I can assure you of job security. In this industry, its all about relationships and managers do not fire sales people anyhow as they hold key business relations. This implies that to an extent, you have personal control over your career. You work hard, sell more, learn more from people you meet and you make yourself an expert in the industry. I am not bragging but I have nurtured all these over the years to my current capacity. The job is also full of fun. We visit places, take part in trade exhibitions to market products, meet new people, travel and make new discoveries. In sales, there is no single day that has similar experiences. We never know what tomorrow holds thus the spontaneous nature makes the job interesting.
Me: Thank you Sir for your time. I highly appreciate your feedback.
Spencer: You are most welcome, come again and be a client.
Second Interview- with an official from the marketing area of interest (Customer Care/services Unit)
Melissa Anderson- Customer Care Executive
Delta Air Lines
Melissa Anderson is a Customer Care Executive at Delta Air Lines, one of the largest airlines in the United States. A holder of a Marketing Degree from North Carolina University, Melissa is currently the Assistant Manager in charge of the airline’s customer service department activities and has worked in the organization for five years now. She spent her first four years as a customer care centre representative, in charge of receiving calls and responding to the queries of various clients of the airline. She has since been promoted to an Assistant Manager position and has served for one year in this capacity. She is now in charge of overseeing the duties of other customer service representatives and involved at the decision making level of the department.
Prior to joining the airlines, she served at AT& T mobile services provider in the capacity of a Customer Care Representative. She provides more insight on her career in the interview below.
Me: Thanks again for sparing sometime amidst your very busy schedule to have a discussion with me. I am Amanda Gonzalez, the lady who has kept in touch with you via email communication. I am glad to finally meet you. I am from Northern States University, pursuing a major in marketing and currently in my final year of study. Part of the course work involves meeting with those who have had real life experience in the labour industry and sharing their experience through interviews such as this. That is the main reason for my interview with you.
Melissa: Thank you Amanda, I am also glad to meet you today. I have enjoyed our communication via email, sorry about the delay on the interview scheduled date, its due to my busy schedule that is often unpredictable in nature. I am ready to provide you with as much information as may be of help to you, even though I may be reluctant to share highly confidential reports of the company. I hope you understand.
Me: I understand, nonetheless my focus is on your job. I also have the consent form here with me, requesting you to read through and agree to the terms by signing. I assure you that the information you provide in this interview is purposely for class assignment and will not be used in any other way other than the agreed purpose. I will appreciate your corporation.
Me: Describe to me what your typical day looks like
Melissa: The customer service unit is a 24/7 type of job that requires our attention all the time. Unlike other departments that close off at times, we work in shifts here. Others leave late while others arrive very early in the morning to replace them. My day starts at 4 in the morning. The advantage I have is that I am still single so some family responsibilities have been waived off. I can only imagine how hectic it would have been if I had children who look up to me. I prepare myself and by 5am, I am already at my station of duty.
I first check through the data of the previous day to ensure that all is fine. I then draft the roles of the day for all the junior customer service representatives and prepare some memos to be shared with the manager before distribution via emails to all the staff in the department. We are often busy so we avoid meetings but maintain communication via emails so as not to inconvenience our customers. I read feedback and evaluate the possible strategies through a report that I present to the manager. I then get absorbed into the other roles of the day, including supervision of all the other staff members as they undergo their responsibilities.
Me: What motivated you to take up this job?
Melissa: I once entered a restaurant and felt very frustrated by the services I got. I spent over an hour without being attended to. When I finally paid for my services, I was served with a different menu from that which I ordered. They also talked very carelessly to me. I was told it is their way of doing business. I got very sad and decided that I would not want others to undergo through such careless people who did not mind the affairs of the clients, even when they know that customer is king. I had experienced s similar poor treatment at the hospital with my mother and vowed to do something. So being in my second year at that time, I decided to specialize in customer service to realize my dream of making a difference in service delivery. That plus my love for meeting new people and interaction propelled me into this job.
Me: What are some of the challenges you experience along your line of duty?
Melissa: working in the customer service industry means that you are dealing with various people and from diverse backgrounds. In fact, out airline is one of the world’s largest thus implies that the nature of our clients is universal and from different countries. One of the challenges I experience is the need to constantly maintain professionalism even when the situation is out of hand. We have had cases of delayed flights, lost or misplaced cargo, wrong tickets issued and errors during bookings.
During such times, I have encountered clients who are difficult to deal with and who get easily angered to the extent of uttering abuses at me. Such circumstances obviously may set my day on a bad note but I have to practise high levels of self-control and remain calm, and above all, still look for the most appropriate ways of helping them out by answering their concerns. On other occasions, some clients would ask for requests that are almost impossible and put pressure on me to help them out.
I overcome this challenge by categorically letting them know how far or just how much I can do to help them and I leave out what is beyond our control. Sometimes in my line of duty, the results may not be instant so you have to be patient and still enjoy your work by providing service to the people. Patience as you have heard before is a virtue that all customer care representatives must have.
Me: what do you like best in your job?
Melissa: I mentioned before that this is a global company thus; we serve people from across the world. I love meeting new people and learning new languages. I also like it when we get feedback from clients about their satisfaction with our services. It makes me feel like I have made an achievement and a lifetime accomplishment. In this company, effort is recognized and rewarded. Thus, those who strive to achieve their targets and make a difference are rewarded as a form of motivation. As you can see in my case, I have since been promoted to a higher position. This implies that there is room for growth in this job and the company too.
Me: what role has business networking played in your line of duty?
Melissa: Oh nice question. I almost forgot to bring it up. Networking has been very critical as the industry heavily relies on who you know rather than what you know. It is the gateway to attracting new clients into the business. In fact from my experience, I have realised that networking comes with various benefits. In the past, I have been able to increase business like I have just mentioned to you, through referrals. This is when one person tells another of your good services and they come to you, or when I am told of a potential client by a colleague then I pursue them for a business deal.
It has also generated opportunities for me. I have just told you of how I get clients through partnerships and other joint ventures, especially in my previous roles. A caution though, you must be very careful on what opportunities are available, as all of them may not be suitable for your business in the marketing industry. Another benefit I have experienced on networking is that you increase your connections of who you know. People may also advice you through networking, especially those who are like minded in the industry or business. Above all business networking has highly raised my profile. I remember the days I worked at AT&T and how I got this current job. It was all through networking and when I saw the opportunity, I gave it a try.
Networking also gives you a positive business influence in your line of duty I must admit. When I see the airline clients satisfied and they recommend us to others who also come on board, I feel very happy. It boosts not only my confidence but also that of the entire team here because our satisfaction is in helping the others. And finally, you won’t believe that most of my friends have come through networking. You see we become friends other than just exchanging our business cards. So we communicate frequently and the bond is gradually strengthened.
Me: Would you encourage a young student like myself to pursue a career along customer care service?
Melissa: Yes, yes this is one of the best jobs. Challenges will often be there but you need to be strong to overcome them. It is hard to breakthrough buy, hey! Here, we are making it big. So will you.
Me: Thanks again for your time and insight Melissa, I have learnt a lot during this session. I will most definitely keep in touch, as this is my intended line of study.
Melissa: Thank you too. I am here for any assistance, and I could help mentoring you as you begin this journey. Thanks again, I am looking forward to hearing from you soon.
Additional Contacts Made in the Networking Process
Name of person ContactedCompanyDesignationTelephoneEmail AddressAlphonsina ArangoWixMix Communications Ltd.Assistant Communication Officeremail@example.comHerman SmithAT&T Mobile ProvidersTechnical Officer+1-800-023-456-675hsmith@at_t.orgJohn MacweberWool MartSales Associatefirstname.lastname@example.orgKrapt ZimmermanPhilipsSales Consultantemail@example.com
Personal Evaluation on this assignment
This assignment served as a revelation for me. I took up to the challenge and I can conclude that it was worth it. I have been so passionate about marketing and especially in the line of duty that is related to the customer care service. My experience and discussions with both Melissa and Spencer have brought out some of the key elements that a successful marketing professional must have, including a resilient spirit, patience, persistence and calmness. Melissa maintains calmness even when she encounters customers that are difficult to deal with while Spencer remains resilient in following up potential clients to take up insurance products and services in the competitive and already crowded market place. These experiences have shaped my career expectations in the real life scenarios.
The process of getting these two professionals for the interview was not easy either. I almost gave up at some point, were it not for the fact that it is a course requirement that is highly graded. In the first stages, I could not even get through using the company contacts I had via the internet. The emails I sent were also too general thus delayed feedback. The recently held career fair that I attended during the University career fair enabled me get some tips on how to get the correct people in companies.
I checked the directories, got the contact numbers of both the companies, called the reception, introduced myself and explained to the secretaries what I needed. The first appointments made me realize sometimes, networking could be hectic and tedious, just like the process of getting a client in marketing. Nonetheless, I was allowed to see both Melissa and Spencer in their respective companies, had an initial discussion of introduction and my goals to break the ice. Through these, the actual dates for the interviews were set and I was able to accomplish my goals. Through this, I learnt that networking is a gradual process that strengthens over time. Having met both professionals for the first time, I felt at ease when I encountered them for the interview. They were also very jovial and willing to talk to me as we had created initial rapport. People are open to those they have met before in terms of sharing information.
In terms of career development, they have inspired me that it is possible to overcome the professional barriers and market challenges to become the very best that one can be. Despite the low profit margins that Spencer used to make when he began his career, he remained hopeful that things will work out well. He had challenges while starting but he is currently reaping the fruits of his hard work and patience. I am prepared to go into the market with determination and resilience. I have also expanded my contact database through this experience. I have realized that there is more in personal interaction than just exchanging business cards. While that may be an essential process, there is need to communicate after the exchange, to keep the communication rolling. I did send a thank you email to both of them after our meeting, which they promptly responded to. I am excited to face the new challenge in marketing.
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a medical term that refers to the use of scientific evidence in determining the best treatment option. Providers that use EBM obtain their information from different resources such as up-to-date systemic reviews and past clinical research. The advantages of EBM include cost and time effectiveness, treatment efficiency, and patient satisfaction. Disadvantages of EBM include inaccessibility of strong evidence and undermining personal clinical judgment. EBM should be used universally and reimbursement should be based up on the use of evidence-based protocols (Hammaker & Tomlinson, 2011).
EBM is the process of critically examining, considering, and applying scientific evidence gathered from clinical research to enhance patient treatment. The main advantage of EBM is that it satisfies the physicians’ need for valuable information based on strong evidence, thus enhancing their treatment experience. The process also allows clinicians the chance of integrating evidence from different external resources to their patients, each according to their needs. The practice increases treatment effectiveness since clinicians employ methods that are already proven to offer good results. EBM also offers a few challenges, including overdependence on evidence, and a lack of personalized treatment procedures. EBM should be employed universally in order to allow physicians compare the effectiveness of EBM across the nations. One of the advantages of implementing EBM is a reduction in medical costs. Reimbursement should be based up on the use of evidence-based protocols to enhance the quality of care to more individuals and as reduced costs (Mayer, 2004).
In brief, the implementation of EBM is a crucial factor since it reduces medical costs, saves time, and improves medical efficiency. Although there are challenges concerning its implementation, EBM is a good practice and it should be used universally. It is thus crucial that all clinicians understand the implementation of this practice.
Hammaker, D. K., & Tomlinson, S. J. (2011). Health care management and the law: Principles and applications. Clifton Park, NY: Cengage Learning.
Mayer, D. (2004). Essential Evidence-based Medicine. New York: Cambridge University Press.
EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE 2
Running head: EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE 1
The Confederate Flag in South Carolina
Since historical times, flags have been used by nations across the globe to represent the views of the populations about various concerns. Flags have symbolic meanings that convey the beliefs and values of individuals that they represent. To enhance harmonic co existence and ensure sustainability of these important national symbols, it is vitally important for the developers and framers of the flags to have a unified understanding of the meaning of the respective flags. Besides being used by the national army, the states adopted confederate flags and used them for various purposes.
Just like other states, South Carolina was among the nations that employed this flag to signify various reasons. However, contradicting positions regarding the significance of the confederate flag led to resistance amongst the populations. While the White factions felt that the flag was an importance symbol of heritage, Blacks believed that the flag symbolized racism and social oppression. These contradicting perceptions led to social resistance in the long run. It is against this background that this paper provides a historical review of the confederate flag in South Carolina. In particular, it details the political concerns surrounding the use of the flag from its inception to its removal. To enhance a harmonic consideration, it begins by underscoring the importance of the flag to this population.
The fact that the placement of the confederation flag on the state capital of South Carolina was controversial cannot be disputed. This culminated in a thirty eight year struggle to have it lowered. As aforementioned, a flag is an important representation of the beliefs and values of a population. For this reason, its development, framing, and timing need to be in line with the views of the respective populations. The controversy surrounding the use of the flag in South Carolina can be attributed to omission of important aspects during its framing. Notably, it did not reflect the moral values and perceptions of the entire society. Instead, it placed undue emphasis on the promotion of the purity of European culture. This led to emergence of social movements to address the concern. Nonetheless, the reform process had diverse impacts on the social, economic, and legal facets of the society. In future, the framing of such an important social institution should put in consideration important aspects of social inclusion. In particular, such an institution should be consistent with the views, beliefs, values, and perceptions of the entire society.
The decision to fly the flag on the State House Dome was arrived at in 1962 by South Carolina’s legislature. At this point in time, it was unanimously agreed that the confederate flag was an important symbol that recognized the civil war centennial. However, by 1978, there emerged differing public views regarding the significance of this flag. As such, the anti flag factions presented their proposals to lower the flag. Initially, these were turned down by the legislature. Opponents of this flag at this point in time largely comprised of persons of the African descent. They felt that the flag was used by the Whites to symbolize their power and promote racist practices. In addition, they believed that the flag was a symbol of oppression that undermined the freedom of certain factions of the society. According to Prince, the flag was closely associated with racism, prejudice and slavery.
For this reason, opponents believed that it promoted racial discrimination and intimidation of the African minorities. This was further compounded by the recognition that the flag was placed on the state capital. Raising the flag on this building compromised harmonic living. It is because the flag promoted social inequality in different ways.
The organizations that supported the flying of the flag comprised of the South Carolina Chapter of the Council of Conservative Citizens (CCC), the League of the South, racist groups, and Ku Klux Klan (KKK). According to them, the flag needed to be protected because it symbolized their culture as well as national heritage. They believed that this symbol was instrumental in promoting the culture of South Carolina and accused their counterparts of attacking important national symbols.
The proponents took immense steps to compromise the efforts that were being made by their opposing counterparts to lower the flag. The chairperson of CCC took practical steps to write an open letter. In this, she accused the state legislators, young blacks and communist groups that supported the move of destroying the culture of the southerners. The league of the South was responsible for promoting the political independence and culture of South Carolina. In response to the opponents’ views, this institution considered the efforts to be attacks to the cultural wellbeing of South Carolina. In the long run, it believed that successful removal of the flag compromised the cultural identity of the populations.
According to the KKK, the confederate flag was an important symbol of White Christian principles. By lowering it down, relative values and virtues would be eroded. To counter the attacks of the opponents, these organizations held rallies to educate the masses about the importance of the flag. In these, they maintained that the flag promoted idyllic national values that were reflective of the culture and traditions and purity of the Europeans. To promote their efforts, KKK collaborated with racist groups. This according to Prince had a counterproductive effect on the efforts of the league and the CCC. Arguably, the KKK placed undue emphasis on the concept of race and hence downplayed the important aspect of cultural and heritage.
The opposing groups held nationwide activist groups since 1983. By 1987, a significant percentage of the South Carolina population opposed the use of this controversial flag. Apart from individuals, certain politicians as well as civil society groups were opposed to the position of the flag. Thus activism for its removal increased in the 1990s. In 1993, the concern was raised by the then state Attorney General. According to him, the flying of the flag on the state capital building was illegal.
This is because it furthered racist views that were contradictory to the constitutional provisions. He argued that the budget and control board had the ability to order its removal. However, the chair of this board dismissed the proposition and considered it impossible. In 1994, the African American ministers reported their move to engage in an economic boycott in order to compel the government to lower the flag. These efforts were supported by the NAACP leader who also announced that his group would implement economic sanctions against this state in a bid to push for the removal of the flag. According to Coski, NAACP’s boycott played an instrumental role in pressuring the government to address this controversial concern.
In response to the mounting activism in 1994, some legislators took practical steps to address the concern. In particular, they mounted two confederate flags in state house grounds. Although the senate approved of this decision, the House of Representatives rejected the move and the legislature was adjourned before the decision could be arrived at. Still in 1994, a Columbian Mayor moved to court and filed a suit proposing that the flag should be lowered. This was done in conjunction with twenty three important community and business leaders. The opponents of the flag held various public rallies and demonstrations too. In 1995 however, the General assembly passed a law to protect the flag during the anticipated state house renovations. In 1996, poll results ascertained that a significant 60% of the South Carolinians were against keeping the flag up.
In 1997, the South Carolina House accepted to undertake a special referendum that would allow the voters to make their personal decisions regarding the flag. These efforts were compromised in 1998 when the republicans removed the referendum proposal from the state budget. This same year, NAACP organized a nationwide march to compel the government to lower the flag. This was also supported by the African American church leaders from across the nation. Reportedly, they also staged a protest march in Columbian streets to demand for the lowering of this flag. The winning of Hodges for a governor seat was attributed to his support of the opponents’ views.
As indicated earlier, the opponents of this flag comprised of individuals and groups from the civic, business, religious, and government institutions. In their review, Woliver, Ledfod and Dolan ascertain that almost all institutions of higher learning were opposed to the flying of the flag. This is because it contravened their value system with respect to promoting social equality. The flag symbolized that the White populations were superior to their Black counterparts. In this respect, it contravened the institutional goals and objectives with respect to promoting social equity. It is for this reason that the higher institutions were opposed to the flying of the flag.
Initially, only the South Carolina Chamber of Commerce was opposed to the confederation flag. However, by 1998, county, city and local chambers also supported the move. Further, renowned religious institutions such as the Southern Baptist Convention also supported the removal. In 1997, the protest march during the king’s day demonstrated the unity of all the social institutions in pressuring the government to bring down the flag. Religious groups gathered in Columbia and prayed jointly for the removal of this flag. Undoubtedly, these protests had far reaching implications on the economic as well as social wellbeing of the nation. To begin with, economic boycotts placed had adverse effects on the performance of key economic sectors. Business persons and corporate organizations were reluctant to engage in gainful economic activities because of fear of the implications. In addition, a significant percentage of time was wasted on staging protests and marches. During such times, it was difficult for economic activities to be carried out normally. In addition, important social operations were disrupted.
Social movement activities also had negative effects on the tourism sector. This was because the clients were uncertain about the security scenario in South Carolina. At some point, in 1998, the representatives from the economic sector met with the legal representatives. The meeting was aimed at convincing the later to pass legislation in support of the removal of the flag. Undoubtedly, this was informed by the recognition that the social movements were having adverse effects on the economic facet of the society. At this point, it is worth appreciating that social unrest undermines the security of the affected nation.
The media also played an instrumental role in informing the masses about the controversies that surrounded this issue. Through local as well as international media coverage, the locals were informed about the implications of the flag to various facets of the society. Increased media coverage influenced the decisions of the masses with respect to involvement in activism. The fact that the media is influential at such times cannot be disputed. Based on the information that it presented to the masses, they are able to make vital decisions regarding various social issues. The manner in which the information was presented in this regard directly influenced the decisions of the masses. This can be used to explain why the support for the removal of this flag increased significantly in the 1990s.
In 1999, the NAACP took more practical measures to pressurize the government to act on this issue. In particular, it called for the tourists to boycott the nation until the flag was lowered. Coupled with the pressure from Christian leaders, Governor Hodges decided to meet with the NAACP. Top on the agenda was to devise a plan to address the concern. Specifically, the two factions discussed the possibility of removing the flag from its then position to state house. Public protests continued through 1999 to 2000 when the largest demonstration was staged. According to Firestone, this comprised of approximately 46,000 individuals who marched in Columbia. The position was supported by Governor Hodges who maintained that regardless of the sanctions, it was important for the flag to be removed. In May, 2000, Governor Hodges signed a legislation supporting the removal of the flag. In July the same year, the flag was removed from the dome as well as from the senate and house chambers.
In sum, flags are important institutions that reflect the values, beliefs and virtues of the populations. They are used by the nations across the globe to represent their culture as well as national identity. The confederate flag in South Carolina raised various concerns. As it has come out from the study, these are attributed to the failure to include the views and perceptions of the entire society during its framing. Notably, it triggered social resistance from various facets of the society.
The proponents of the flag maintained that it also enhanced the culture as well as heritage of the Europeans. They also felt that it underscored European purity. However, opponents of the flag protested that it was a symbol of social discrimination, racism, oppression, and intimidation. Thus, besides civil groups, individual politicians, educational institutions, and religious groups advocated for the lowering of this flag. This reform process had adverse effects on the social and economic wellbeing of South Carolina. In the long run, the efforts yielded desirable outcomes as the flag was finally lowered. Nonetheless, the social and economic implications of its raising were adverse.
Coski, John. The Confederate Battle Flag: America’s Most Embattled Emblem. New York: Harvard University Press, 2006.
Firestone, David. 46,000 March on South Carolina Capitol to Bring Down Confederate Flag. The New York Times. 2000. Accessed 6th may, 2013 from: http://www.nytimes.com/2000/01/18/us/46000-march-on-south-carolina-capitol-to-bring-down-confederate-flag.html?pagewanted=print&src=pm
Firestone, David. South Carolina Votes to Remove Confederate Flag from Dome. The New York Times, 2000. Accessed 6th May, 2013 from: http://partners.nytimes.com/library/national/race/041300race-ra.html
Prince, Michael. Rally ‘Round the Flag, Boys!: South Carolina and the Confederate Flag. South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press, 2004.
Woliver, Laura, Angela Ledford and Chris Dolan. The South Carolina Confederate Flag: The Politics of Race and Citizenship. Politics and Policy, 29.4 (2001): 708-730
Laura, Woliver, Angela Ledford and Chris Dolan. The South Carolina Confederate Flag: The Politics of Race and Citizenship. Politics and Policy, 29.4 (2001): 715
Michael Prince, Rally ‘Round the Flag, Boys!: South Carolina and the Confederate Flag. (South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press, 2004), p. 54.
Michael Prince, Rally ‘Round the Flag, Boys!: South Carolina and the Confederate Flag, p. 55
Michael Prince, Rally ‘Round the Flag, Boys!: South Carolina and the Confederate Flag, p. 56
John Coski, The Confederate Battle Flag: America’s Most Embattled Emblem
(New York: Harvard University Press, 2006), p. 73
John Coski, The Confederate Battle Flag: America’s Most Embattled Emblem, p. 82
Ibid, p. 84
Laura, Woliver, Angela Ledford and Chris Dolan. The South Carolina Confederate Flag: The Politics of Race and Citizenship. Politics and Policy, 29.4 (2001): 715
Michael Prince, Rally ‘Round the Flag, Boys!: South Carolina and the Confederate Flag, p. 63
David Firestone, 46,000 March on South Carolina Capitol to Bring Down Confederate Flag. The New York Times. 2000. Accessed 6th may, 2013 from: http://www.nytimes.com/2000/01/18/us/46000-march-on-south-carolina-capitol-to-bring-down-confederate-flag.html?pagewanted=print&src=pm
David Firestone, South Carolina Votes to Remove Confederate Flag from Dome. The New York Times. 2000. Accessed 6th May, 2013 from: http://partners.nytimes.com/library/national/race/041300race-ra.html
The Confederate Flag in South Carolina 1