Lesson/Training Plan on Victimology
Introduction: The Issue
The objective/goal of this training process is to equip members of the victims’ assistance unit at the police department with skills, knowledge, and awareness about the various victimization crimes to which various at-risk sections of society are susceptible. The purpose of these lessons is to promote the unit members’ proficiency and knowledge of the plight and issues that such victims encounter, to enable the assistance unit members to provide effective and quality service and aid for the victims. The purpose of this lesson/training is, consequently, to enable and enhance the unit’s members’ efficiency in their provision of help and handling of the cases of victims, to afford such victims effective comfort, rehabilitation and compensation against crimes, and welfare (Karmen, 2009, p. 148-154). The anticipated product of this training process involves the prevalence of specialized skills, high-level and productive skills, and proficiency in the special victims’ assistance unit’s services, aid, and handling of various victim crimes in the society, to promote the victims’ and the community’s welfare.
Nature of the Problem and Role of the Police
The victims of unique crimes such as rape, abuse of the disabled and elderly, culture-based victimization, and other exceptional crimes face unique circumstances and problems in society. These include discrimination in social settings, adverse effects and harm to their psychological, physical, and emotional health and welfare, social injustice, and damages to their lives, ambitions, and capacities as society members. Some of the victimization involves long-term, life-long, and deep effects: rape, abuse of blind people and the aged, and female genital mutilation involve victimization activities with unique psychological, social, and physical effects with potential to harm the lives, welfare, and psychological wellbeing of individuals deeply. Such crimes involve effects on significant components and aspects of human life, such as psychological being, motivation, self-concepts, self-esteem, social outlooks, and personal value within a society (Brown, 2006, p. 7-19, 88-92, 113-117, 188-194).
They involve violations of individual human rights, esteem, and value, which are key foundations for welfare and development within societies. The ignorance and inadequate handling of such crimes and their victims thus present difficulties and losses for community welfare. The handling of such crimes needs unique and professional skills and processes, in conjunction and cooperation with the society and experts on various humanity and social issues, due to their unique effects. The handling of such crimes by the police department needs to involve specialized skills and procedures to guard and promote the welfare of victims. Traditional police actions and procedures in the handling of crime cannot be effective and productive in addressing such unique crimes as rape, abuse of the disabled and elderly, culture-based victimization, and others, due to needs for the observance and assurance of certain personal welfare aspects and dimensions.
These include privacy, restoration of personal dignity, provisions of professional help, and protection of victims from the potential for psychological, emotional, and physical losses and dangers (Karmen, 2009, p. 148-154). These factors promote requirements for specialized skills, awareness, proficiency, and crime-handling methods among the members of the police department’s special victims’ assistance unit.
Traditional police roles in the handling of such crimes have involved little and ineffective action or the use of unproductive and inefficient methods. The lack of specialized skills and awareness about the problems of such crimes’ victims and the effects on their lives, among the police department’s members charged with handling the crimes, has promoted the application of ineffective and unproductive methods and actions. Their methods and procedures have involved little regard for victims’ welfare, ineffective application of professional assistance methods for victims’ welfare, inadequate cooperation with communities, and inadequate consideration of victims’ psychological, physical, social, and emotional wellbeing in the context of the crimes’ effects. Victims have, as a result, suffered preventable damages, inconveniences, and losses, psychologically, physically, and emotionally, even with police action (Karmen, 2009, p. 148-154). It is such inconveniences and losses that this training process aims to address, through equipping the victims’ assistance unit members with specialized skills for effective and productive handling of such victims.
Discussion of the Victimization of various Populations
The victimization of various populations in society involves the exploitation of situations and circumstances that such victims have in their lives criminally. It involves social injustice, violations of individual human rights, esteem, and value, and unique psychological, social, and physical effects with potential to harm the lives and welfare of victims. Victimization of the disabled involves discriminative tendencies in social settings and the ignorance of their rights and welfare. Actions and behaviors such as neglect and abandonment, where persons responsible for disabled individuals disregard their welfare, mistreatment, denial of education and career opportunities, and confinement are common forms of victimization in the case of the disabled.
The disabled also suffer physical and verbal abuse in social settings, largely due to their dependence on others for their welfare and their lack of some physical capacities (Brown, 2006, p. 133-137). The lack of friendly services and structures in educational, public, and other environments, such as wheelchair ramps in buildings, and discriminative service delivery in hospitals, libraries, and other amenities are other forms of victimization that the disabled suffer in the community. Such victimization violates their social, psychological, and personal development and welfare, against their human needs and desires.
Similar victimization is observable for the elderly: some members of the society abandon the elderly in homes and fail to provide adequate health, nutrition, and physical care for them. They also suffer physical, psychological, and emotional abuse from younger society members, who regard them as dependents. Others suffer financial fraud in cases where criminals take advantage of their deteriorating alertness and physical and psychological capacities to gain resources and advantages unfairly, through signature forgery, identity theft, and impersonation. Other victimization involves discrimination and disregard of their welfare and desires in social and family settings, rape, and spousal and parent abuse (Brown, 2006, p. 133-137; Waller, 2011, p. 11-28). This victimization involves the oppression of the elderly based on their deteriorating physical, psychological, and emotional capacities in society.
Homeless persons suffer victimization based on their lack of safe environments as homes. This promotes insecurity and the lack of personal welfare amenities in their lives. Common victimization of the homeless involves rape, theft, abuse, discrimination in the delivery of health, education, and other services, and neglect of their human rights. Immigrants suffer discriminative victimization and alienation within the society, due to their lack of effective identification and integration within the society. Some society members regard immigrants as competitors and rivals, rather than fellow citizens, in the contexts of the consumption of public infrastructure and services and economic factors, such as employment. The victimization of immigrants, in this context, involves a variety of hate crimes, such as target physical, verbal, and political attacks, alienation in social, economic, and political settings, and the sabotage of their businesses, personalities, and families (Brown, 2006, p. 74-80, 88-93).
Individuals who show unique sexual orientations, such as homosexuals (gay men and lesbians) and bisexual and transgender individuals suffer victimization in the forms of attitudes of disapproval towards their orientations. They suffer hate crimes, alienation, and discrimination in social settings, including discrimination in schools, hospitals, and public services, business sabotage, slander/personality assassination, personal and family discrimination/alienation, hate attacks (physical, verbal, and psychological abuse), and disregard for their human rights and merits as society members. The victimization of these three groups involves the application of negative attitudes and exploitation and application of circumstances and situations in their lives within the society (Waller, 2011, p. 11-30; Brown, 2006, p. 87-97). It involves violations of personal welfare and lives based on circumstances in individual lives within the society.
Culture-based victimization in the society involves the oppression, abuse, and unfair treatment of individuals with unique traits based on such traits’ opposition or non-alignment with cultural values and concepts. Such victimization occurs with the objective of ridding the society of such traits, or minimizing their significance, for the sustenance and promotion of culture. It involves social injustice since most of the traits are neither the will of individual members nor their faults in terms of alignment with cultural values: most of them are biological traits and do not pose any active threats to the preservation of culture. In this context, such victimization originates from ignorance and irrational belief systems in society (Brown, 2006, p. 88-105).
Female genital mutilation involves victimization of females through the removal of genitalia parts, since there are no medical and personal welfare reasons for such removal. The process is painful and unnecessary, but some cultures involve requirements for the subjection of females to the process. The process involves much pain and could have disastrous effects on females’ health (through infections), life (through excessive bleeding, sometimes to death), and psychological and physical welfare (through trauma and effects on self esteem). It also involves victimization in the context of gender relations, through the oppression of females and effects on their welfare in society.
Rape and sexual abuse are oppressive crimes that affect the physical, psychological, and emotional welfare of victims. They involve the violation of an individual’s self-esteem, human rights, and psychological strength, threatening the effectiveness of his/her interaction and participation in social processes and normal human life. Such crimes’ psychological effects involve trauma for the victim, contributing to difficulties in socialization, family and social life, and self esteem and image concepts. Victimization through rape and sexual abuse occurs as a part of normal criminal activity or in premeditation and deliberately. Cultures contribute to such crimes through depictions of one gender or individuals with some traits as weaker and subjective to the other, or through the prevalence of values that promote dominance and violations of such groups, such as sexualization and male chauvinism (Brown, 2006, p. 188-202; Waller, 2011, p. 11-30). Such victimization involves the oppression of individuals based on values, perceptions, and concepts that originate in culture.
Honor killings involve the oppression and murder of members of certain genders and groups in a society based on cultural interpretations of their traits, beings, or lives as ominous or unfavorable. Such murders also happen when communities regard the actions or behaviors of some members as unforgivable and abominable, such as incestuous behavior and the births of female and autistic children or children with deformities. Such actions result from ignorance and cultural irrationality since the causes of such behaviours and circumstances are biological, and the abominable actions are punishable through other rational ways. Culture contributes to such oppression through the perpetuation of irrational values and norms. Gang violence involves organized oppression and abuse of individuals in society, through the formation of criminal groups with ill motives. Such violence occurs due to psychological and social problems such as memberships to mobs, rebellious activities, and anti-social groupings (Brown, 2006, p. 74-90).
Frustrations and psychological reactions to society problems such as unemployment, social alienation, and political problems contribute to gang violence. Such victimization in society involves a combination of abusive and oppressive activities with psychological, physical, and social effects, such as rape, arson, property theft, homelessness, joblessness, and social instability. Crimes against unique sections of the population, such as the blind, the homeless, gay people, and transgender individuals involve targeted hate crimes against individuals whose traits and orientations some society members regard as abominable or opportunities for exploitation for private financial, welfare, and other gains (Waller, 2011, p. 11-30). All these oppressive and abusive activities contribute to instability, slow development, and deteriorations in social welfare among societies.
The victim assistance programs shall involve cooperation between the police unit and professional bodies, experts, and the community to meet the needs of victims in recovery and rehabilitation. The unit shall engage with professional organizations and experts in counseling, care for the aged, psychologist care, health care, and disability care, relevant government departments, and justice/law organs and structures to assist the victims comprehensively and effectively.
This shall involve assessing and availing services to handle and satisfy their psychological, physical, emotional, nutrition, health, and other needs that result from victimization. The programs shall include provision of protective measures/security for victims against crime perpetrators and the provision of logistical and financial help to alleviate pain and welfare losses after victimization (housing, food, financial help, disability aids, etc.). They shall also involve facilitation of psychological, health, emotional, and counseling help, in conjunction with professional organizations and experts, and the facilitation of rehabilitation and recovery (Siegel, 2008, p. 77-81; Waller, 2011, p. 98-104, 116-130). The unit shall apply skills in liaison and cooperation with the community, professional organizations, and government structures to secure facilities and resources for these programs, including setting up a fund for victims’ assistance.
Recommendations and Strategies for Help by Police for Crime Victims
It is recommendable for the unit to introduce and operate two other programs for effective assistance of victims and their protection from future victimization in society. These programs include a community policing program and a civil education and sensitization program. The community policing program should aim at encouraging community members to look out for potential problems and difficulties that could contribute to victimization, and actual victimization cases, and report them for handling by the unit.
The program should encourage community involvement in the effort to rid victimization in the society, through reportage and participation in rehabilitative and recovery programs. Such a program shall offer the unit an effective background to facilitate and offer sustainable assistance to victims. The civil education program should involve sensitization of the community on the causes, features, and effects of various abuses, crimes, and oppressive activities against various sections of the population and their adverse effects on community development. It should aim to educate society members on the benefits of peaceful, non-oppressive, and non-abusive relations and interactions in their society. It should also aim to teach the effects of adverse cultural values that contribute to abuse and victimization. The unit should operate this program in conjunction with professional organizations, government structures, and experts for effective social education (Siegel, 2008, p. 77-81; Waller, 2011, p. 134-145). These programs would be effective in minimizing victimization in society and aid the police unit in assisting victims by protecting them from future abuse and oppression.
Brown, S. (2006). Counseling Victims of Violence: a Handbook for helping Professionals. Hunter House, Alameda, USA
Karmen, A. (2009). Crime Victims: an Introduction to Victimology. Cengage Learning, Stamford, USA
Siegel, L. (2008). Criminology. Cengage Learning, Stamford, USA
Waller, I. (2011). Rights for Victims of Crime: Rebalancing Justice. Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, USA
Lesson/Training Plan on Victimology 10
Is imprisonment an effective way of dealing with most violent offenders?
Crime is a key issue in all societies of the world. A crime is an act committed in violation of the existing laws of a state. Criminal punishments are measures, designed to be unpleasant that are imposed by the governmental authorities to the individuals convicted of violating the applicable criminal laws. Each crime has its level of punishment and response. Ensuring that proper punishment is administered for each crime committed it is paramount in insuring that an individual will not commit the crime (Plous, 1993).
To deal with something is the process of taking action in doing something. Crime is a social problem that needs the government intervention in solving and prevention. Crime and punishment are vital to the peaceful coexistence and harmony of a state. The aim of every community is to ensure that every individual pursues his aspirations and interest without having any fear or hindrance from another person. In securing this, every society has put in place rules and norms regulating the interaction of people.
Punishment is the process of imparting the consequence, given after behavior, and it serves to reduce the intensity or frequency of occurrence of the behavior (McGuire, 2005). The consequence can be in the form of providing an undesirable stimulus or removal of the desirable stimulus. Punishment decreases the probability of the behavior occurring again. Recidivism is the tendency of slipping back to a previous criminal behavior pattern.
Purposes of Prison
The purposes of prison include deterrence, retribution, incapacitation or reparation and rehabilitation. The purposes are aimed at providing correction and punishment to the offenders.
Retribution is the process of punishment that based on the eye for an eye concept. The punishment given to the offender is equal to the offense committed. In some countries, for instance, if an offender steals the punishment administered is cutting off the hands of the offender. The forms of punishment in retribution are; imprisonment, losing vital body parts and jail terms. Imprisonment is the common universally accepted form of punishment. In this form, the criminals are removed from the society and locked in prison which has strict regulations in place.
The influential nature of retribution is applied in the law of talon. A crime penalty matches the crime committed, and virtuous deeds usually bring about good rewards while evil deeds lead to a punishment (Spohn, 2007). Retribution punishment is effective given when a person commits a crime they are obligated in paying the price of crime. However, research suggests that retribution is not an effective force in punishing the offenders. The main contention is that imprisonment and other forms of punishment may not work the same way as other forms of punishment.
Deterrence is described as the evasion or avoidance of some actions through the fear of the related perceived consequences. In the perspective of the criminal law, it is expressed as avoidance of form of criminal actions through the fear of the possible punishment (Fox & Freiberg, 1999). Individuals usually have the choice of whether to commit an offence or not. When individuals are deterred, they deliberately avoid the offence at commission the fear of punishment. Deterrence seeks to bring to the individuals an effect upon consequent offending. Incapacitation, on the other hand, is out to prevent violent offenders from reoffending through imprisonment. Imprisonment ensures that the offenders lack the capacity to commit further offences in the society. Deterrence, alternatively, seeks to prevent people from committing an offence through threats of punishment.
Deterrence is composed into individual and general deterrence. Individual deterrence is anticipated in ensuring that offenders do not reoffend. This is achieved through an individual having the fear of future punishment. General deterrence is aimed in preventing the potential offenders from engaging in crimes (Plous, 1993). They are both aimed in reducing the occurrence of future crimes.
There exist some problems with using deterrence as the form of punishment. The effectiveness of deterrence usually depends on the ability and chances of being detected. Deterrence will not prevent the occurrence of some crimes if chances of being arrested are low.
For deterrence to be effective, the offender must consider the action and the associated consequence. This is unlikely to take place as the crimes committed are usually on impulse and individuals live on the moments of opportunities.
Rehabilitation is designed to reform the offenders and aid in rehabilitating them back into the society so that do not engage in committing criminal offences in the future. Rehabilitation is conducted through training; education and helping the offender learn to note the harm that they are causing the society. The process looks into providing the offender with a good future. Rehabilitation has the hope that the behavior of the offenders will be changed from the penalty imposed to prevent future offences. Rehabilitation tries to change the offender views on the crimes committed.
Plous (1993) argues that the noblest and humane aims of punishment in any criminal law are usually rehabilitation. When an offender is rehabilitated, the criminal tendencies are will disappear. The offender becomes a productive society member and hence, then society is protected from any future harm through the crimes committed.
There are few arguments against rehabilitation in reforming criminal offenders. According to Varma and Doob (1998), rehabilitation should not used as the only form of punishment. In 1996, over 55% of the criminal offenders pardoned from Australian correctional facilities were detained again within two years or few years. The high rate of recidivism provides a powerful contention against the success of rehabilitation in the criminal law. The process is usually time consuming and costly to the tax payers.
This involves the protection of the society and public. The main idea behind this form of judgment is that the punishment should serve a useful purpose to the society and the individual. Incapacitation refers to making the offender incapable of being able to reoffend. The offenders are locked in prison so as to remove them from the society and protect the community. Incapacitation is among the highest form of punishment, besides capital punishment that is given to crime offenders. Incapacitation is the best option when dealing with highly dangerous offenders but an expensive way of dealing with the prevention of crime.
According to McGuire (2005), imprisonment seems to be counterproductive as prison provides the grounds where criminals develop techniques and new ideas on crime. The ultimate incapacitation method is the death penalty, where the violent offender has no room of reoffending. Incapacitation in some countries involves cutting off the thieves’ hand to prevent recidivism.
Empirical Evidence on the Effectiveness of Imprisonment
The Sentencing Advisory Council conducted a statistical analysis on the effectiveness of prisons achieving the correction purpose. Imprisonment is among the available sanctions and it is the severest form of punishment imposed by the court when sentencing a violent offender in Victoria, Australia. During the period of June 2008 to June 2011, the number of offenders imprisoned in the state of Victoria increased by 4.7% (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010, p. 13).
While Victoria recorded the third lowest imprisonment rate in the Australian jurisdiction, the increase in the number of offenders reflected a long term trend in crimes. Since 1980, the imprisonment rate has been on a continual growing trend (1999). During the decade, between 1998 and 2008, the imprisonment rate in Victoria increased by 26.9%, from 80.3 per a population of 100,000 adults to 105.2 per a population of 100,000 of the adults (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010, p. 17).
At the same time, local and global economic pressures have compelled several jurisdictions to reexamine the effectiveness of imprisonment. They are also examining the ability of imprisonment in achieving its purposes of sentencing offenders. In light of the state of Victoria, the increasing rate of imprisonment, it is vital to explore all empirical evidence in suggesting the effectiveness of imprisonment and its ability to achieve the deterrence practice.
A 2010 study on recidivism in Australia suggested that, the offenders who were released from imprisonment in 2003 to 2004, over 35% of the offenders were convicted of further crimes and taken back to prison within three years of their release (Varma & Doob, 1998, p. 13). The proportion of violent offenders who returned to prison was highest among the young offenders. It was found out that 56 % of violent offenders aged 18 to 21 years returned to prison within three years (Spohn, 2007, p. 39). In Victoria, 48% of the adult offender in custody as of 30th June 2011 had a prior experience of imprisonment. At the national level, nearly 55% of adult prisoners in the state custody had also served a prison sentence prior to the current imprisonment (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010, p. 39). The empirical evidence from Victoria suggests that imprisonment has not been effective in dealing with the most violent offenders.
Why Imprisonment is not Effective When Dealing with the Violent Offenders.
Imprisonment is not the effective way of dealing with violent offenders. The prison experiences for most offenders usually result in a greater chance of reoffending rather than the imprisonment experience having helping them to live according to the norms. According to McGrath (2009, p. 55) there are three main reasons why imprisonment is not effective when dealing with the violent offenders.
The prisons are the criminal learning environment. In the prisons, there are prison subcultures that act to oppose the rehabilitative and pro-social environment that the state intends. The offenders learn from each other, and this encourages the reinforcement of their criminal behavior. According to McGuire, (2005), prisons are characterized by a variety of cultural values that are supportive of crimes. These traits can be easily be transmitted among the offenders through the daily interactions. The criminal orientations among the offenders will be potentially reinforced.
Secondly, the prisons usually exert a labeling effect to the offenders. The offenders face public stigmatization of being labeled as criminals. This reinforces their criminal identity with the successive reaction from society. The consequences that the offenders face due to the labeling effect are: denial of future employment opportunities, enforcement of prolonged association with other offenders and the erosion of the social family ties to the conventional social order. The severing of social ties reduces the offender’s stakes in conformity’ resulting in a reduced incentive for law-abiding behavior (Spohn, 2007, p. 32).
Thirdly, the prison setup is an unsuitable response to the criminality of most offenders. Imprisonment usually fails in treating the main reason for any criminal behavior and activity. Researches in identifying the form of treatment that address recidivism suggest that imprisonment and incarceration are inappropriate interventions. This is because imprisonment fails to achieve any meaningful reductions in recidivism (Varma & Doob, 1998, p. 168). Imprisonment may be fitting for the violent offenders. Their imprisonments have several negative effects such as imposing of the criminal effect on the low risk offenders. The low risk offenders develop unusually low chances of transforming into abiding citizens due to their association with the violent offenders in prison.
Additionally, McGuire (2005) singles out that some responses from the offenders to imprisonment may result in recidivism. The offenders may engage in committing additional crimes in lashing out at what may be perceived as unjust, or unfair justice. The violent offenders may think they are more experienced from their imprisonment experiences. They also have low perceived certainty of being detected in their subsequent offending. According to the recent Victorian study on recidivism, Spohn (2007) discovered that particular groups of offenders were at a greater risk of reoffending within few years of their release. These results were confirmed by McGrath (2008) in the argument that imprisonment increases recidivism among criminal offenders. The higher rate of recidivism among the offenders point out that imprisonment is not creating any deterrent effect or improving the offenders’ perception to crime. From the above arguments, it can be noted the imprisonment is not the effective way of dealing with the violent offenders.
Imprisonment of violent offenders imposes high opportunity costs on the government through taxes that are used in their imprisonment in the state prisons. The deterrent effect that is associated with imprisonment is simply overrated. The process of imprisonment fails in deterring violent crime because usually crimes are committed impulsively, under the influence of drugs or during the heat of passion.
Evidence from empirical studies proposes that imprisonment usually produce inadequate deterrent effect to deal with the offenders. However, the studies show that increasing the severity of punishment and penalties, such long imprisonment terms, do not deliver a corresponding increase in the effectiveness of imprisonment to the offenders (Varma & Doob, 1998). These empirical evidences are vital reasons for the offender punishment to be independently considered. More caution should be exercised when justifying imprisonment as a means of preventing all crimes and the violent offenders.
In conclusion, imprisonment is not the effective way of dealing with violent offenders. The prisons provide a favorable environment for the physical deterrence, but it fails in the process of rehabilitation. The government should look into finding better ways of punishing offenders than just using imprisonment. The government should introduce literacy programs to the offenders, provide skills and training and provide support to the offenders after their jail terms so as prevent recidivism.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (2010). Corrective Services, Australia. Cat. No.4522.0. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.
Fox, R. and Freiberg, A. (1999). Sentencing: State and Federal Law in Victoria. 2nd ed., South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
McGrath, A. (2009). The Perceptions associated with the Sentencing Process: A Study of Deterrence and Stigmatization in Wales Children’s Court. Australian Zealand Journal of Criminology, 43(2), 3267.
McGuire, J. (2005). Deterrence in Sentencing: Handle with Care. Australian Law Journal, 79: 440446.
Plous, S. (1993). The Psychology of Decision Making and Judgment. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Spohn, C. (2007). The Effect of Deterrent of Imprisonment and Offenders Stakes in Conformity. Journal of Criminal Justice Policy, 19(1): 2949.
Varma, K. and Doob, A. (1998). Deterring Economic Crimes: The Case of Tax Evasion. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 40(2): 165184.
Is imprisonment an effective way of dealing with most violent offenders?
Running Head: Is imprisonment an effective way of dealing with most violent offenders?
Non-Traditional Threat: Cybercrime
Overall Threat Assessment
Cybercrime is the biggest threat to the US than even terrorism because it threatens to paralyze the economy. The banking sector is the most affected sector since approximately $100 billion is lost through various key logging scams and efforts by the government to fight the scam. Given that the banking sector has shifted to cloud computing, whereby the Internet has become the main banking platform, it has become a target for a number of terror groups who are driven by sophisticated technology and a well coordinated worldwide support. As a result of increased cybercrime, the banks are no longer a safe haven for savings if cybercrime groups such as the cyber-Fighters of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam continue to affect the banking sector.
History of the Threat
Since the introduction of cloud computing, it has become possible for myriads of organizations to perform functions within the same cloud. The financial sector is among the biggest beneficiaries because the sector has linked its services using cloud computing technology, such that it is possible to effect financial transactions in any part of the world. However, technology in the financial sector has resulted in various challenges, and the major one is computer crimes. Computer crime varies, and this paper tackles the case of keylogger scam.
According to Betteridge, the Hi-Tech Crime Unit of Britain unearthed a scheme that would have led to a theft of $420 million. In this scheme, a group of thieves broke into one of the Branches of Sumitomo Mitsui, a Japanese bank in London using keylogger programs. Through the keylogger programs, the thieves managed to access passwords for various accounts they could have used to transfer the money. This was just the beginning of a series of crimes on the banking sector, which was later directed to the Americans.
The cyber-Fighters of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam
The cyber-Fighters of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam are modern-day keyloggers whose focus is to paralyze the financial institution in the US. The group derives its name from Izz ad-Din al-Qassam, a Muslim preacher who once led a fight against the French, the Jews, and the British nationalists in 1920s and 1930s in the Levant. This group was later linked with the name Operation Ababil, which is the name of the military operation that took place in Pakistan in 1984. However, the operation failed and was forgotten, but the name has been a driving force behind terrorism.
In 20112, the cyber-Fighters of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam launched a series of attacks on the financial institutions in the US. The group carried a number of cyber attacks in three phases, and this was preceded by similar coordinated criminal attacks on various financial institutions in the US. In November 2009, thieves hacked into the online banking system at Owen’s Firm. They used a Trojan horse malware to hack into the system of the company, which is based in Texas. The Trojan horse program swiped the passwords of the company’s online banking system. The criminals thereafter transferred more than $800,000 using several accounts in foreign countries. According to Rooney, about 60 criminals were involved in the scam, and were linked to the cyber-Fighters of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam. In September 2010, 37 criminals were nabbed for stealing about $3 million from various bank accounts in New York. The hackers used phishing techniques, through which they sent phony emails to some people and obtained their passwords.
In October 2010, the FBI agents nabbed 36 criminals who had conned various individuals and corporations in Manhattan. About $860,000 was stolen. The criminals used a type of malware called Trojan Zeus. The malware hacked into the accounts of the unsuspecting victims, enabling the criminals to effect the cash transfer. Cobb links these attacks to the cyber-Fighters of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam whose influence was later felt in 2012, when the group decided to launch a series of attacks on various financial institutions in the US. During the 2012 attacks, the group targeted the New York Stock Exchange and a number of banks that included the J.P Morgan chase bank. During this time, the group did not steal anything, but rather chose to disrupt the operations of the banks through tampering with the websites.
How the Threat Came About
The cyber-Fighters of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam is a cover-up for a number of cybercrimes involving financial losses across major banks in the world. However, the cyber-Fighters of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam came in to the scene after it emerged that a movie titled the innocence of Muslims had been uploaded to the YouTube channel. The movie was uploaded on 12th July 2012 and it was a 14 minute thriller that depicts Islam as a religion that fights Christians. The movie depicts various characters in the Quran, including Mohammad and his wife Khadija. The depiction of Mohammad irked the Muslims, and since the production of the movie was under the control of the US censorship, the cyber-Fighters of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam assumed that the movie had been produced with the approval of the US and film board. Thus, they resorted to cyber attacks in a bid to have the movie removed from YouTube, and at the same time revenge against the filmmakers.
Although the operations of the cyber-Fighters of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam are based on the video uploaded on the YouTube, it is not the main reason why there is an increased cyber crime targeting major financial institutions in the US. According to Cobb, the US has been a target of a number of criminals and the cyber-Fighters of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam is among the gangs that have been robbing people of their money. These people are driven by their hate for the US, as well as the fact that the US is among the most developed nations in the world.
The improved information and technology, lack of employment among the elite youth, the demand for funds to finance terrorism activities, the coordination of the terrorism network across the world, and the quest for revenge on the US anti-Islamic activities have been the drive behind the formation of a cyberspace network of gangs. The Internet has revolutionized the learning process, such that people can access knowledge on hacking, and this has helped the gangs to regroup and plan high technology attacks. In addition, terrorism has become a global network, whereby one cyber gang is linked to the other, which aids them in issues such as funding and planning attacks. For instance, in October 2010, the FBI agents nabbed 36 criminals who had conned various individuals and corporations in Manhattan. About $860,000 was stolen from the scum and the criminals used Trojan Zeus malware. These criminals came from various countries, including the US, Mexico, Iran, and Europe and they were linked to various networks of gangs, including the cyber-Fighters of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam and the Al-Qaida terrorist group.
Membership and Leadership
Cybercriminals have an organized leadership and draws its members from various nationalities. According to the Bolo Report, the cyber-Fighters of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam have their base in Iran whereby they get their command from an undefined source. However, they have access to training and own various facilities, including a number of servers and workstations. The membership is uncountable, but most of them are based on the third world countries, and help in transferring funds to their accounts whereby they claim that such funds are from their relatives abroad. The majority of the gangs are qualified engineers who have given up hope of finding a decent job. At the same time, some members are kidnapped to offer expert advice.
The cybercriminals are very effective in their work, and their main goal of attacking the US is due to the US’s ailing foreign policy. The US has a history of interfering with the affairs of the other sovereign states, and this has caused the anguish and suffering among the people in such countries. For instance, the US sent its soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan to oust the Sadam and Taliban rules respectively, but this has not helped the two nations, but has rather increased the anguish of the people. In addition, the US has backed Israel in all occasions ignoring the plights of the Palestinians in the existing Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
Structure or Organization
The cyber criminals have a well-organized structure that enables effective coordination of their activities. They have a leader who coordinates all activities. The leader has an array of advisers and strategists who help coordinate the activities of the group. The strategists are based on various key bases that also acts as controls for the activities of the group. One major base is in Estonia and it has an array of computers that are linked to other millions of computers worldwide. The FBI revealed that there are about 400 million computers linked in a network of cybercrime, and the cyber-Fighters of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam is part of this network. Each individual at the workstation is also linked to a number of people from third world countries that assist in transferring stolen money.
Current Goal and Motivation
The cybercriminal gangs are driven by the desire to attract the attention of the world, and at the same time the temptation to acquire wealth in the current inflated economy. The cyber-Fighters of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam was driven by religious duties that demands they fight to protect the blaspheming of the name of Mohammad, their Prophet. At the same time, their goal is to cause the US some pain as a result of its foreign policy that has caused pain to thousands of Arabs nationalities. Furthermore, the cybercriminals are motivated by the fact that their activities enables them acquire funds in the current economic hardships. The criminal activities enable them to get rich quickly and with little efforts.
Tactics and Capabilities
The cybercriminals own millions of computers that are equipped with sophisticated hacking software and employs a number of keyloggging tactics that enables them get access to bank accounts of unsuspecting individuals or organizations. keyloggging scum employs various types of tactics and the first one is privilege escalation. In this case, the criminal gain limited access into the computer system, and thereafter, uses the limited access to gain full access by escalating the limited privileges. Most computers have the guest accounts, which have no securities, but have limited access to the main system. Once one gains access to the guest account, he or she manipulates any weakness in the system to gain access to the main account.
The second category of keylogging tactic is the use of spyware. Spyware finds its ways in a target computer via the Internet and monitors all aspects of the user’s computer. The spyware can send certain information to a certain computer with a given IP address or in a given email. In this case, important information, such as passwords for a given computer or bank accounts, medical information, and financial information can be accessed using a spyware.
Phishing is another type of computer crime tactic used to defraud unsuspecting people of their money. The criminals use various ways to get victims send them personal information that can be used to fraud them. For instance, one can send hundreds of emails to random email addresses, instructing the recipients to log into a given link for certain benefits. To access the link, one is required to fill in some information, including some passwords, which are captured by the criminals and used to steal from the victim’s bank accounts.
Another type of computer crime tactic used to defraud unsuspecting people of their money is social engineering crime. It involves befriending people and later attempting to defraud them of their money. For instance, one can study the website of a given company and note the name of the IT manager. Thereafter, the thief can phone the secretary pretending to be the IT manager and request for important information, including passwords that can be used to defraud the company. Password cracking is also another form of computer crime tactic that relates to the keylogging scam. It involves the use of software to compromise the victim’s password, such that the criminals are able to access one’s account after cracking its password.
Threat To The National Security
The cyber-Fighters of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam together with a wide network of cybercriminals can paralyze he financial institutions any time and prevent key functions of the government. They have mastered the art of attacking masking websites thereby preventing some key operations. If the group decides to attack the intelligence websites, as well as key government websites, they are likely to stop key functions of the government and this will affect the national security. In addition, by paralyzing the functioning of key financial institutions, the economic security of the nation will be at stake.
Funding and Connections
The cyber-Fighters of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam was funded by key politicians in the Iranian government, but they are connected to a wide network of hackers who call themselves hacktivits working for their organization. The cyber crimes have a base in Estonia where they coordinate all their activities. The cybercriminals fund themselves from the millions of dollars stolen from hacked accounts.
The cyber-Fighters of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam are based in Iran and Estonia, but they have a network that covers some parts of Europe, America, and Asia. Their network consists of more than 400 million computers.
Countering the Threat
There exist a number of technologies that can be applied to the deter or reduce the threat of types of computer crimes. Privilege escalation is deterred using various techniques and the first one is keeping all the accounts logged out all the time. In this case, it will be possible for one to notice if anyone is logged into the system because the IP address will be noticed. However, this method is not reliable because one has to be always on the lookout, which may at times be tedious. The second method is to patch the system and update it, such that no one can detect any flows to use for privilege escalation. Patching the system is effective as it will bar anyone from escalating the privileges.
Spyware can be deterred using an antivirus. One should run a strong updated antivirus regularly to detect and remove spyware. Antivirus are effective if they are updated and scanning done on a daily basis. Phishing is a common crime on the internet and fortunately, many people are realizing its scheme. Unfortunately, there is no technology to deter such a crime. The only solution is public education, whereby people should be advised not to yield to any tempting offer that suggest they reveal some personal details to obtain certain offers.
Social engineering cannot be deterred using technology. The only method is education, whereby employees should be advised not to give out company’s information. Social engineering crime is treated like normal criminals, thus, investigations are launched in the same way as normal crimes.
Password cracking can be deterred in two ways. First, one should use a very strong password. Password cracking software uses the concept of combination and permutations, and thus, it will be impossible to crack a given password if it is long and mixed with digits and alphabets. Second, the account should be set to reject any attempts to open it more than three times. These techniques are effective.
Betteridge, Ian. “Police Foil $420 Million Keylogger Scam.” e-Week. 2005. http://www.eweek.com/c/a/Security/Police-Foil-420-Million-Keylogger-Scam/ (accessed December 18, 2013).
Cobb, Michael. “How Cybercriminals Operate .” Dark Reading. 2013. http://www.darkreading.com/perimeter/how-cybercriminals-operate/240157738 (accessed December 18, 2013).
Easttom, Chuck, and Jeff Taylor. Computer Crime,Investigation, and the Law. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning, 2011.
Javers, Eamon. “Cybercrime may cost US economy $100 billion, says new study.” CNBC. 2013. http://www.cnbc.com/id/100904224 (accessed December 18, 2013).
Krebs, Brian. “U.S. Charges 37 Alleged Money Mules.” Krebs on Security. 2010. http://krebsonsecurity.com/2010/09/u-s-charges-37-alleged-money-mules/ (accessed December 18, 2013).
Moore, R. Cybercrime: Investigating High-Technology Computer Crime. Cleveland, Mississippi: Anderson Publishing, 2005.
Rooney, Ben. “‘Zeus Trojan’ zaps $3 million from bank accounts.” CNN Money. 2010. http://money.cnn.com/2010/09/30/technology/cyber_crime_charges/index.htm (accessed December 18, 2013).
The Bolo Report. “FBI takes down largest cybercriminal organization in history.” The Bolo Report. 2012. http://boloreport.com/fbi-takes-down-largest-cybercriminal-organization-in-history (accessed December 18, 2013).
Javers, Eamon, Cybercrime may cost US economy $100 billion, says new study, 2013, derived from: http://www.cnbc.com/id/100904224
Javers, par. 2.
Betteridge, Ian, Police Foil $420 Million Keylogger Scam, 2005, derived from: http://www.eweek.com/c/a/Security/Police-Foil-420-Million-Keylogger-Scam
Javers, par. 5.
Rooney, Ben, ‘Zeus Trojan’ zaps $3 million from bank accounts, 2010, derived from: http://money.cnn.com/2010/09/30/technology/cyber_crime_charges/index.htm
Krebs, Brian, U.S. Charges 37 Alleged Money Mules, 2010, derived from: http://krebsonsecurity.com/2010/09/u-s-charges-37-alleged-money-mules/
Cobb, Michael, How Cybercriminals Operate, 2013, derived from: http://www.darkreading.com/perimeter/how-cybercriminals-operate/240157738
Cobb, par. 9.
Javers, par. 8
The Bolo Report, FBI takes down largest cybercriminal organization in history, 2012, derived from: http://boloreport.com/fbi-takes-down-largest-cybercriminal-organization-in-history
Javers, par. 9.
The Bolo Report, par. 4.
The Bolo Report, par. 6.
Easttom, Chuck, and Jeff Taylor, Computer Crime,Investigation, and the Law, (2011, Boston, MA: Cengage Learning) 19.
Easttom and Taylor, p. 23.
Easttom and Taylor, p. 27.
Easttom and Taylor, p. 29.
Easttom and Taylor, p. 39.
The Bolo Report, par. 6.
The Bolo Report, par. 7.
Easttom and Taylor, p. 38.
Moore, Ray, Cybercrime: Investigating High-Technology Computer Crime, (2005, Cleveland, Mississippi: Anderson Publishing) 18.
Moore, p. 27.
Easttom and Taylor, p. 43.
Easttom and Taylor, p. 57.
What do I think about juveniles charged as adult?
A juvenile delinquent refers to a young personality beneath the age of eighteen years and is engaged in prohibited activities. In diverse countries where minors are considered as still lacking accountability, the judgment to juvenile delinquents may not be so unsympathetic. Amongst the crimes frequently performed by juvenile delinquents are those attached to sexual acts like rape.
Males are found to be more incriminated in youth crimes with experts pointing to their masculinity as the reason behind such unauthorized acts. Lack of a sovereign position that is competent of assembling tough and crucial choices greatly impacts on the person’s capability. This directs to the person’s lack of enduring demands from engaging in criminal deeds. Young offenders are rehabilitated in special institutions so as to avert future criminal episodes. Such a common stand is destined to recommend sound principles so as to administer a shift from a quandary to an accomplishment. Can juveniles really be charged as their adult counterparts? How will the adult courts handle the sensitive issue of pardoning juveniles on the basis of their age despite the horrendous acts that they may have committed? (Melton, 2007, p475).
How I suspect others will view my topic
Most people will treat such an argument as a retrogressive measure since they wouldn’t understand why the individual committed the illegal act. Most individuals will argue that regardless of the person’s age, he/she should be locked up in a prison like other adults so as to institute a mentality of responsibility amongst the youthful populace. Majority of the individuals will not want to associate with dreadful characters despite their age. They would prefer a full blown charge against them. The reason why most people will not support an establishment where young offenders are rehabilitated in other correctional facilities is because they perceive them to use the age aspect as an excuse so as to execute heinous acts (Roberts, 2003, p114).
Two sides of a controversy surrounding this topic
Young offenders have different competencies than adults and hence merit to be tried in a separate kind of environment. They also exhibit a diverse potential for change than their counterparts and therefore they deserve a second chance and trial at rehabilitation. Conduct of the young offenders should not be instituted as the main determinant of judgment since most of the delinquent acts executed by the youth emanate from the adolescent characteristics which are hard to control.
Conversely, young offenders should also be tried in adult courts since culpability ought to be determined by maturity and not numerical age. This is because there are many mature and calculating adolescents and immature adults. With such a setting, culpability determines the severity of the punishment and not age. In an adult court, the juveniles are able to access jury trial which is not available in juvenile courts (Hile, 2003, p36).
Which side of the argument I feel is right
Young offenders should be tried in adult courts since it serves as a warning to potential young offenders. Pardoning them to juvenile setups only helps to aggravate delinquent acts since they know that they will be treated differently than other offenders. With such an assurance, young offenders have every reason to execute diverse atrocities since they know that the worst that can happen to them is a friendly juvenile setup as opposed to the intimidating adult court that may hand them severe punishment (Parker, 2005, p19).
Concrete measures have to be instituted so as to comprehensively address the issues surrounding juveniles and illegal acts. Such setups will be able to address the complexity associated with such groupings.
Hile, K. (2003). Trial of Juveniles as Adults. New York: Infobase Pub.
Parker, A., Human Rights Watch (Organization). & Amnesty International. (2005). United
States, the rest of their lives: Life without parole for child offenders in the United States.
New York, N.Y: Human Rights Watch.
Roberts, J. V. (2003). Penal populism and public opinion: Lessons from five countries. Oxford:
Oxford University Press.
Melton, G. B. (2007). Psychological evaluations for the courts: A handbook for mental health
professionals. New York: Guilford.
What do I think about juveniles charged as adult? 2
Trauma behind juvenile delinquency
A juvenile delinquent refers to a youthful being under the age of eighteen years who is occupied in unlawful behavior. This being might have committed a crime sometimes but being of trivial age, might not be punished in the equivalent way as grown up persons. Various states where minors are measured as still lacking responsibility, the verdict to juvenile delinquents might not be so harsh. Nevertheless, there are states that have implemented guidelines allowing teenagers as young as fourteen years who have executed severe crimes or who have a tendency to perform delinquent acts be criminally liable. These states usually have juvenile custody centers where youthful offenders are incorporated after being detained by authorities. Such centers cater for the upkeep and rehabilitation of the culprits. This format is usually executed with the help of national agencies and other interested groups.
A juvenile delinquent might have unlikable or traumatic past experiences that occasioned their unlawful behavior. Some may even be distressed by mental disorders and behavioral challenges. These comprise post traumatic stress disorder and behavior disorder. Among the offenses commonly executed by juvenile delinquents are those connected to sexual acts like rape. Males are found to be more implicated in youth offenses with specialists pointing to their maleness as the cause behind such unlawful acts. Due to the faith that they’re extra authoritative than females, males are inclined to become hostile, manipulative and convinced that they can liberally connect in antisocial and illegal acts. Psychologists also trait the unconstructive behavior to the handling these youthful people experienced from their close relatives as well as demeanor confusion. Behavior confusion can initiate in early upbringing and is diagnosed as soon as an adolescent personality endlessly shows disrespect to the wellbeing of populace and belongings.
Causes of juvenile delinquency
Juvenile delinquency has been a hot topic among criminologists, sociologists and psychologists. It confounds the basic behavior all over the world and hence provides a wide range of complex issues that need to be addressed. Researchers and different interest groups have come up with diverse theories in a bid to address the composite issues that revolve around juvenile delinquency. It usually occurs when the motives of an individual in a resolution scenario disregards the relevant evaluation of critical options. The individual who is supposed to make a resolution tries to reduce contention and make unpopular decisions that are not in concurrence with the real situation.
This happens without critically evaluating the other laudable ideas. The individual’s resolute, simulation lapses and situational scenarios negatively impacts on the proper decision making process and hence leads to different delinquent acts. This in turn affects all the models of fields that constitute critical and analytical thinking. This in turn leads to the degradation of mental judging capacity, moral opinion and reality detection in the individual. Individuals that engage in such negative acts are mainly constituted by members who have been abused or influenced into the different negative social acts by the divergent forces involved (Martin, 2005, p.65).
When individual engages in such acts, there are sufficiently no guidelines for positive decision making. Lack of an independent stand that is capable of making strong and decisive decisions heavily impacts on the individual’s ability. This leads to the individual’s lack of withstanding pressure from engaging in delinquent behavior. Such common stand is meant to offer sound guidelines so as to oversee a transition from a predicament to an achievement. A scarcity in norms that involve practical measures in an individual leads to a deficient of apparent concepts and objective hence leading to negative engagements that encourage delinquent behavior. This is partially caused by the diverse settings of the components in a group that engage in delinquent behavior. The individual hence is secluded from positive ideas from outside. The theories that try to explain the juvenile delinquency include:
Peer influence. This focuses on the link of social bonds in encouraging delinquent behavior. Young people who tend to engage with individuals who have positive agenda engage less in delinquent behavior. This is exhibited by the lack of a long term commitment to the said cause. Issues like smoking, drinking beer and other negative aspects have the fundamental likelihood of triggering delinquent behavior. This is mostly caused by the lack of long term initiatives and ventures. This happens when a group of people exert pressure on each other to form a common approach on certain issues. The presence of deviant friends in such a setup propagates the situation to a perfect setting for the breeding of juvenile delinquency.
Family influence. Effective parental methods are useful in developing the right state upon which juvenile delinquency is disapproved. Parental control, supervision and discipline play a vital role in determining someone’s behavior. The level of parental monitoring heavily influences the closeness, rejection, acceptance and closeness of a personality to his/her parents. The family heavily influences the outcome of the perceived personality in the diverse individuals. Deviation from the traditional modes of parenting to the modern ways have been attributed as one of the major contributors of juvenile delinquency due to the non committal methods of parenting associated with it.
The race based slavery led to Africans and their descendants in America being subjected to a permanent underclass and being treated with contempt by the Europeans. The connection between race and racism leads to the different circumstances that propagate juvenile delinquent. The different classes that make up the society seem to classify the main issues on a basis of race. This in turn leads to the projection of racism as a vital component in the eradication of juvenile delinquency since the affected groups and individuals seem to treat to the different races they are from. This is more significant in issues that affect the youth. Most of the crime in metropolitan regions that are inhibited by diverse members and communities are pegged on a race basis. Different races feel that some races are more superior to others while others feel that certain elements are more associated with crime than others. This is so mostly due to the association of race with the slave trade and the need to have concrete human rights that can guarantee fairness and equitability. Research shows that most of the youth who are engaged in the juvenile system are either Latino/Hispanic or African American. However it is not yet established if their white counterparts engage in delinquent acts more than them.
Social context. Low self esteem and other social factors heavily contribute to the rise in delinquent cases. Although not all individuals who have low self esteem fall prey to such a situation, majority of them end up participating in acts that lead to delinquent behavior. Individuals want to feel good about their social being and hence will participate in any setting that executes acts that make them perceive their characters as being super and heroic. The involvement in such negative delinquent ventures provides a perfect defensive response to the low esteem.
Trauma. Individuals who have been abused and traumatized tend to engage into delinquent activities as a response to the feeling within them. Such abuses may vary from physical, psychological and sexual nature of the situation. Mostly children who are maltreated usually engage in delinquent behavior later in life. This later develops into a complex situation that affects the individual and mostly causes suicide, impaired relationships, substance abuse and other forms of delinquency. This mostly occurs in individuals rather than in groups. The abused individual results into delinquent behavior so as to seek solace in the activities associated with it. This is evidenced by the rise of individuals who are being rehabilitated in different correction facilities.
Criminology as a discipline has always been the domain of male in the society. This explains the fact that many explanations to female delinquency only reflect people’s perceptions. Most of these perceptions evolved from viewpoints about innate sociological and biological differences between women and men. Theories emerged from studies on boys and girls who are supposedly delinquent. The relative inattention given to female delinquency is because of the fact that criminological theories are policy driven; men comprise a large number of delinquent populations in correctional institutions and courts. Consequently, the theories formulated later sought to address crimes committed by boys and men. Later, as more women entered the field of delinquency, it brought more interest to nature and causes of female delinquency. Female delinquency forms the focus of this paper. The central research question is; Are delinquent behavior caused by trauma? There are presuppositions that this behavior may be a result of bad choices (Martin, 2005, p.69).
It is vital to explore the causes and prevention of trauma in order to gain an insight of the trauma behind juvenile female delinquent behavior; first it is necessary to understand the meaning of trauma and juvenile delinquency. Trauma is a terrifying occurrence whose nature is overwhelming. It is a perception accompanied by feelings of distress that may be a threat to life, sanity and well-being of a person. During this time, one feels very susceptible and ineffective to danger. Trauma is both destructive and disruptive for instance physical attack, sexual abuse, torture, a fatal accident and natural disasters. This is a basic understanding in modern day health studies. However, trauma remains one of the most unobserved, ignored and misunderstood cause of human suffering. Today, it is common knowledge that traumas are devastating to children’s emotions, cognitive development, physical fitness and overall behavior. It is important to focus on traumas that young girls experience during growth and development. The definition of trauma in this study is therefore narrowed down to represent sexual violence, physical attack, rape and negligence.
Sexual violence in relation to juvenile delinquency
Sexual attack has an extreme repercussion on the endurance and familiarities of the affected people. Ever since the early 1990s, investigations, mainly from a feminist viewpoint, have been dedicated to identifying the gender-specific wants of delinquent girls. Different researches regarding the matter explore racial disparities between girls and how these differences may influence the commission of aggressive behavior and self-injurious actions. Self-report statistics were composed from 163 girls confined in Ohio in 1998. The data was composed from a wide variety of variables, including potentially illegal quarters such as mistreatment, antisocial approaches, drugs usage and style of parenting, self-esteem, relative’s experience, and mental fitness.
The results signify that various variables vary considerably by race. In addition, these criminal areas are examined in order to check their relationship with self-reports of aggression, self-injurious conduct, suicide endeavors and general delinquency. The models are afterwards examined by race with results that reveal the erroneous belief of representing girls as a harmonized assemblage. Of exacting interest is how another way of how girls respond to exploitation founded on race. In spite of divergences in style and instrumentation, several studies and research conducted over the past ten years have recognized towering rates of intellectual and emotional confusion amongst the youth in the youthful impartiality scheme, together with soaring rates of traumatic nervous tension (Neumann, 2010, p.227).
Whilst some individuals endure oppression with comparatively few undesirable consequences, a lot of studies demonstrate that discrimination can interrupt the course of a youngster’s progress in very basic ways and can add to crisis over the course of the life duration. Various studies since the 1990s have exposed a comprehensible association connecting youth discrimination and an array of quandaries in later life, as well as mental fitness problems, substance misuse, damaged social associations, suicide, and delinquency. Aggressive ill-treatment at some point in teenage years is recognized as a peril feature for vicious offense victimization, marital aggression perpetration, and drug use in adulthood. Whereas nearly all professionals concur that no distinct risk aspect or experience guides a youthful personality to delinquency, the likelihood of offending undoubtedly amplify when an adolescent is a witness to or casualty of violent behavior and familiarizes with traumatic strain as a consequence.
Systematic trauma evaluation with kids and youngsters is a requirement to thwarting the potentially unending and relentless harms in bio-psychosocial performance that can transpire when PTSD and other behavioral wellbeing turmoil go untreated. Even though, like adults, nearly all kids who experience a distressing stressor do not contract PTSD although unsettled post traumatic pressure can lead to grave enduring costs into and all through adulthood. These lasting consequences can consist of, although are not partial to, troubles with interpersonal execution, cognitive performance, mental fitness confusion including PTSD as well as substance misuse mess, sentimental disorders, nervousness disorders, consumption disorders and conduct disorders (Neumann, 2010, p.234).
A number of advances and mechanism are obtainable for the clinician and examiner on the lookout for PTSD evaluation with children and youngsters in juvenile impartiality setting and their caregivers. Comparatively not many instruments have been used let alone methodically assessed, with juvenile justice populace. Moreover, no studies have analytically scrutinized impending discrepancy by consideration arrangement or respondent sexual category, age, or ethno cultural conditions in the evaluation procedure or conclusion correlated to trauma history or PTSD in juvenile justice situation. Given the lofty pervasiveness of trauma revelation and PTSD in juvenile populations, cautious clinical submission and methodical learning of the trauma history and PTSD evaluation mechanism are significant steps toward improved services and results for this huge, high-risk, and characteristically underserved populace.
A number of efficient trauma-focused management have been planned or modified for teenagers. Regrettably, not many of these trauma-focused actions are used a lot in juvenile justice situations due to lack of clinical assets in these backgrounds, low detection of trauma signs and a superior spotlight on behavioral supervision matters.
Investigations conducted in the juvenile justice populace over the previous ten years demonstrate generally that the majority of efficient series with these inhabitants are extremely controlled; highlight the enlargement of fundamental ability and offer personal analysis that frankly tackles performance, approaches and insights. Cognitive behavioral advances have been revealed to be predominantly efficient with youth in the youthful justice scheme, and more commonly, for kids with rage and troublesome behaviors. Juvenile justice amenities have a chance to elevate the level of concern for youth by granting effectual trauma-focused management and family-based involvement.
Moreover, in view of the fact that some youth articulate trauma signs behaviorally, treatment that tackles distress indications can also be projected to help juvenile justice personnel with matters interconnected to behavioral organization.
For youth who have been distressed, the system can offer an evident logic of wellbeing, control, and configuration that is frequently absent from their existence. It discourages gang participation as a risk aspect for interpersonal trauma and other disturbances. This variety of establishment describes traumatic pressure, clarifies why trauma is so widespread amongst gang-involved youth and grants tips for societal associations and volunteers on working with this populace. Personal rejoinders to trauma differ considerably. What is demoralizing to one adolescent might not be as much of for another. A teen’s prejudiced reaction to a traumatic occasion depends on a number of issues such as personal character, survival technique, earlier trauma, civilization setting and surroundings. This then sought to define traumatic anxiety, explicates the appeal of mob participation for distressed youth and presents guidelines for parents on how to help their offspring deal with traumatic episodes (Neumann, 2010, p.273).
Physical attack in relation to juvenile delinquency
Juvenile transgression is a persistent community worry, even though public discernment of juvenile offense is habitually fashioned by fallacy and unjustifiable reservations rather than through objective essentials. For instance, in 1996 the wrap of a public publication (Newsweek, March 10) made the disturbing assertion that “Juvenile violence is increasing and it’s getting worse.” In disparity, a 1999 national description by Howard Snyder and Melissa Sickmund cited nationwide detention figures and other information showing that vicious juvenile transgression peaked in 1993 and began a firm decline. Beginning 1995 to 1999, juvenile apprehensions for brutal offenses declined by 23 percent and murders declined by an astonishing 56 percent, notwithstanding an 8 percent enhancement in the populace of juveniles. The murder rate for juveniles in 1999 was the lowest ever since 1966.
Nonetheless in 1999, public nervousness over a sequence of school shootings increased when two adolescent boys killed twelve classmates and a trainer at Columbine High School in Colorado (Kim & Kim, 2008, p.20).
The Surgeon General’s Report on Adolescence Brutality, released by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in 2000, recognized abundant communal myths concerning youth aggression.
Amongst these delusions were: (1) the belief that the United States was intimidated by a new and aggressive variety of adolescent super-predators; (2) nothing labors in treating or thwarting juvenile brutality; and (3) juvenile offense could be restrained by impeaching juvenile criminals as adults. In actuality, there was no verification that juvenile lawbreakers in 2000 were more cruel or heartless than preceding age groups, only that the accessibility of economical and deadly weapons resulted in extra murders. Supplementary, restricted scientific studies established that reorganized anticipation and intercession curriculums do diminish aggressive conduct and unlawful recidivism amongst the youthful population. As a final point, studies established no transgression diminution linked with transferring adolescents to adult court; in disparity, adolescents convicted as adults were further probable of being physically and sexually ill-treated in adult establishments. Therefore they were more prone to obligate supplementary faults upon discharge to the society.
Juvenile offense conventionally refers to unlawful acts executed by individuals under age eighteen. If one comprises status crimes such as consuming alcohol, smoking, being an absentee from school, running away, and contravening curfews, then the bulk of adolescents in the United States may at several junctures be classified as criminal reprobates! Non status crimes are much less frequent. According to Snyder and Sickmund’s 1999 report, only about 5 percent of youthful wrong doers are ever detained and more than 90 percent of the detentions are for non aggressive misdeeds. Of course, apprehension statistics undercount the factual figures of offense given that an unidentified number of crimes committed by juveniles go unnoticed. Self-report studies in general disclose higher occurrence rates; for instance, among high school seniors, the yearly pervasiveness of obligating an attack with damage to the casualty was 10 to 15 percent and the occurrence of theft with a weapon was at 5 percent. Juveniles account for just about 16 percent of severe sadistic offenses, but virtually one-third (32%) of possession crimes, according to FBI arrest figures from the Uniform Crime Reports (Kim & Kim, 2008, p.24-26).
Juveniles are implicated in the preponderance (54%) of arson captures and inconsistent statistics of destruction (42%), motor vehicle larceny (35%), and break-in arrests (33%). Of the 2.5 million juvenile detentions in 1999, the most recurrent allegations were larceny-theft, effortless attacks, drug misuse contraventions, curfew and loitering, unruly demeanor and liquor regulation infringements. Arrest figures are complex to deduce, since they do not match up directly with the number of youth detained or the number of wrongs committed. Several youths may be detained for the identical misdeed, a particular youth may be arrested various times in the same year, or a youth may be apprehended once, but charged with compound crimes. However, evaluations of adult and juvenile criminals, again as recapitulated by Snyder and Sickmund, signify that juveniles are in general not inclined to felony, and even though they obligate a disproportionate quantity of trivial wrongs, they are much less probable than adults, particularly youthful adults, to commit severe and brutal offenses (Kim & Kim, 2008, p.27-34).
Rape in relation to juvenile delinquency
Even as there is a mounting body of proof that psychopathology is frequent among imprisoned boys, moderately little is identified about the occurrence and demonstrations of mental fitness setbacks among imprisoned girls. Diverse research has shown the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in an illustration of 96 pubescent feminine delinquents and its relation to socio-emotional regulation. The outcomes signify that the pace of PTSD among imprisoned feminine criminals is not only higher than in the general populace but exceeds the occurrence of PTSD among imprisoned male offenders. In accumulation, those who experience PTSD also have a tendency to display superior altitudes of suffering and inferior levels of self-control. These results grant a preliminary point for more comprehensive explorations of the relations connecting trauma, psychopathology, and violent behavior. It also offers a new insight to the effect that the study of distress may tender a new technique of looking at connections between the casualty and executor (Barbaree & Marshall, 2008, p.130-134).
A lot has been written in current years as regards the amplification in the confinement of girls in the juvenile scheme, and many people express grief that they are witnessing more and more girlsand more “aggressive” girlsgo through the scheme, even while the countrywide juvenile delinquency is on the decline. The report directs us in understanding that any services for schoolgirls in the juvenile organization and any options to confinement and temperament should have an intended focal point on family and society. They should also be all-inclusive, authorizing, relational and secure. This concept of wellbeing must not center exclusively on physical security but must also comprise the emotional and cultural security for all girls. Cultural security refers not merely to tribal/racial safety but also to sexual orientation wellbeing and spiritual/religious safety. Girls should be secure from religious embarrassments or insensitive decisions; they should feel secure to articulate and explore their personal spirituality.
Approximation of occurrence rates of PTSD amid the youth in the juvenile scheme ought to be measured with vigilance as they differ appreciably depending on the kind of model, the computation used and the time frame assessed. Furthermore, not many studies have exclusively scrutinized PTSD among feminine juvenile wrongdoers, which also formulate generating dependable approximations that are liable to challenges. Generally, PTSD has been found to be more widespread amongst youth in the youthful justice classification than youth in society models, and more universal among imprisoned girls than boys. In spite of declining transgression rates, additional juvenile girls are detained and imprisoned in the United States in current years than before. Virtually three quarters of a million girls beneath the age of 18 were detained in 1997, hence composing 26% of juvenile detentions. In the 1990s, the number of youthful females detained for aggressive offenses increased by 25%, even though there were no increases for male juveniles for the similar crimes. The rising number of girls in the juvenile system and the elevated rates of coverage to cruelty among these girls pose extraordinary confrontations for juvenile justice amenities and series (Barbaree & Marshall, 2008, p.137-139).
Female delinquent behaviors
Female delinquent behaviors: This study will focus on female behavior. We cannot disregard the impacts of trauma when discussing the source of delinquency in girls. Many female juvenile reprobates have backdrops of exposure to trauma. A research conducted by Dixon recommended that sexual abuse, physical attack and witnessing crime are widespread traumas correlated with female delinquent behavior. One explanation offered to boost understanding of the connection between delinquent behavior and trauma in girls is that, girls who have encountered trauma are likely to overreact when faced with a traumatic circumstance. Girls who have a record of mistreatment exhibited high levels of delinquent behavior (Miller, Leve & Kerig, 2012, p.43).
Gender disparities may partly explain the noteworthy distinctions in delinquency rates. In a research conducted in the United States of America, its findings signify that elements that express the flight of delinquency in males are quite dissimilar from that in females. There are assumptions that men are more aggressive and less interested in forming attachments in their relationships. It is a means to gaining elevated communal status. There is a high likelihood of boys mingling with their nonstandard peers and when this occurs, they exhibit character persona that make them extremely vulnerable to delinquency. On the other hand, females are less aggressive; established levels of social support manipulate their behavior and not untimely incidences of anti-social behavior. Early misbehavior in men is an indication of potential misdeeds. What is professed to be an intrinsic difference in deeds may be a consequence of peer socialization. It is a verity that boys recognize their roles to be more prevailing than those of girls during growth and maturity, as a result of peer pressure (Kerr, 2011, p.141).
Many other communal factors clarify gender differences in juvenile delinquency behavior such as misinterpretations of power by males and freedom to interrelate with friends. Many juvenile and grown-up males are apprehended for severe aggressive offenses such as murder and theft. Nevertheless, offenses among females is escalating hence lessening the gap that existed earlier between men and women. In 1995, the female apprehension rates stood at a quarter but at the moment, it has supplementary lessened to a third. The unlawful acts described above were smoking marijuana, using counterfeit identity cards and trivial theft. In the modern world, girls are committing supplementary severe crimes leading to arrests and protracted legal processes. This interest on feminine delinquency has risen since female crime rates are continually increasing while male delinquency rates are gradually waning (Siegel & Welsh, 2011, 150).
Delinquency and confidence are interconnected. Traumatic familiarities in the life of many girls correlate to delinquent behavior. In a survey, The National Child Traumatic Stress Network designated that traumatic proceedings have unpleasant repercussions on delinquent behavior. This is regrettable because juvenile abuse is frequent all over the world, some transpire on daily basis. Trauma is psychological while abuse is physical, sexual or an amalgamation of the two. It is apparent that trauma has long-lasting and deep effects to a girl’s life. It is sad close inhabitants usually inflict that childhood trauma; teachers, caregivers, siblings, relatives or parents. The contravention of trust provides to reproduce the effects of trauma particularly when the offenders are identifiable. Mandel argues that studies over 10 years indicate that childhood discrimination lead to adulthood problems such as suicide, mental problems, damaged social connections and drug misuse.
Trauma does not have to be in a child’s home, it may be the neighborhood. Children particularly girls are susceptible to abuse and trauma since they are not aware of impartiality, equality, suitable behavior and inappropriate actions. Girls who end up in delinquent actions are less probable to have established timely involvement. Child abuse and neglect is therefore a solemn offence. Consequently, authorities have the liability of deciding where to arbitrate and grant necessary support to curd juvenile delinquency (Mandel 2008, p.1).
Age factor in delinquency: The law identifies a child’s capability to engage in criminal activities when he/ she reach the age of 7 years. The age of a lawbreaker is a sound justifying aspect during sentencing principally when one is either too old or young. Children under seven years old cannot consequently account for their delinquent actions. In many countries, an individual turns into an adult once he reaches the age of 18. Studies disclose that the aspiration for adult status is the major inspiration for delinquent actions in feminine juvenile and adolescents lawbreakers. Their age limits are usually associated with capacities to low level delinquent conduct such as running away, drinking, destruction and burglary. Young people are less probable to obey the rules and guidelines as they grow up, they tend to defy laws. As children grow, their tendency to rebellious conduct generates resistance in communal relations at home, school and with fellow peers (Kerr, 2011, p.144).
Delinquency is a situation experienced in a child’s early developmental phases, frequently analyzed as ADHD. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a normal neurological disorder that causes complexity in attentiveness and completing customary assignments amongst children. Children consequently are unable to focus on a particular task but are easily abstracted. Usually juveniles suffering from ADHD cannot play peacefully as normal children do. This divergence may cause life- long consequences like shunning and loathing of delinquent juveniles by fellow children, adults, parents and teachers. This pushes the children to more rebellious actions that may culminate in adult offenses in a procedure known as the cumulative disadvantage (Regoli, Hewitt & DeLisi, 2010, 279).
Prevention of delinquency: The solitary prevention apparatus in this study is Across ages. Across ages is a technique established in 1991 by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s Centre for Substance Abuse Prevention in West Springfield and Philadelphia, Massachusetts. Across ages is an efficient system of evading juvenile feminine delinquent activities. As the saying goes, prevention is better than cure. It is a drug avoidance curriculum designed for juveniles between the ages of 9 and 13. Its foremost initiative is to reinforce the link between children and their parents in order to generate a suitable environment for society participation. It is a distinctive but highly successful system of coupling the mentors, mostly elderly adults above 55 years with children at the school and adolescents.
This outline was initially intended as a school and community- based approach. The program’s initiatives include;
To encourage decision- making and problem solving skills
To increase knowledge and awareness of effects of substance abuse on heath, in order to foster positive behavior and attitudes. This is a comprehensive training on drug and substance abuse among children and youth.
To establish and maintain good relationships between peers, children and adults.
To improve social bonds, school attendance, academic performance, attitudes and behavior in relation to school.
Across ages have a number of materials outlined in English or Spanish since the curriculum is multi-culture. Children are paired up with an older adult who contribute in a variety of activities and involvements such as mentoring through individual contact for at least two hours per week. Well-monitored society service events are scheduled for an additional two hours a week and other activities involving supplementary family members. The ultimate stage involves guidance in societal capability and provisions. This is a well-designed problem-solving component made up of 26 lessons per week each lasting 45 minutes. Through this involvement model, children obtain constructive life skills that will allow them to proffer services to the society in future. The curriculum amplifies social defensive importance while decreasing the unconstructive aspects. This is a sociological approach that socialization during a child’s developmental phases can be the key to understanding juvenile delinquent behavior (Siegel & Welsh, 2011, 141).
Crime theories related to female juvenile delinquency: A hypothesis simply seeks to clarify the origin of a school of thought. It endeavors to give a scientific clarification to the continuation of a phenomenon; they attempt to respond to questions such as why and when an occurrence will transpire. Theories are vital because all ideas have outcomes. There are diverse sociological theories underlying juvenile delinquency. This segment will scrutinize how psychological, sociological and biological theories relate to girls using modern and significant delinquency theories. The three theoretical viewpoints to female delinquent behaviors that will be tackled include strain theory, rational choice and social disorganization supposition.
The strain theory: Merton Robert established this sociological theory. It argues that there are institutionalized means to accomplishment in society. The result of poverty is transgression since it is complex to accomplish all social goals in a valid way. A practical contemporary example is the fact that it is hard to attain an estimable social status without securing a well-paying occupation. An individual who is not fortunate enough to achieve his/ her goals will always result to criminal means of achieving them. Agnew extended Merton’s general strain theory jointly with his correlates to account for the discrepancy in nature and the basis of female delinquency behavior. The theorists argued that female children stumble upon diverse types of strains. As a result, their behavioral outcome varies from that of men. Examples of strains experienced by women include; overstated stipulations from members of society, offensive relationships, low status in home and work settings and needless restrictions in the behavior of women. Feminine juvenile deeds are connected to the gender-based variations in self-esteem (Miller, 2011, p.4-6).
According to Agnew, boys experience tensions that may result in brutal offenses and destruction of possessions. On the other hand, the consequence of strain in girls is eloping, domestic aggression and self- inflicted delinquency such as drug and substance abuse. Girls have superior levels of social control while exposed to strain in accumulation to cultural restrictions on engaging in delinquent behavior. Responses to strain amongst girls are usually tied to emotional problems like physical shape, depression, and anxiety that tend to reduce their likelihood of indulging in antisocial behavior. However, the level of delinquent behavior in girls is limited to episodes such as running away from an abusive home. Boys will probably indulge in aggressive delinquent behavior (Regoli, Hewitt & DeLisi, 2010, 237).
Merton clarifies this conduct using five variations; Rebellion, innovation, conformity, ritualism and retreat. Rebellious inhabitants are those people who censure socially satisfactory goals by creating a new framework of tolerable means. Innovators are individuals who confess the communally authorization of goals but use the erroneous means. Conformists are people who are ready to tolerate both the objectives and means of the scheme. Ritualism illustrates citizens that obtain a classification of communally accepted customs but end up losing prospect of the goals. Lastly, retreat refers to a group of personalities who decline both the publicly permitted goals and the way of obtaining them (Regoli, Hewitt & DeLisi, 2010, 237).
Rational choice theory: Rational choice theory gives the clearest insight into juvenile female delinquent behavior. It is a combination of two theorists that were crafted by Clarke Ronald and Cornish Derek. It is a theory from the conventional school of criminology explaining how biological concepts can result in delinquency. As the name suggests, the theory is about choices. It states that juveniles are naturally rational and intellectuals with the ability to make personal choices. Rational choice theory stresses on individual offenders and not the external environment. This theory argues that juveniles review the scope of behavior before acting. Offenders assess the costs and benefits of a criminal activity and deliberate on whether to indulge in it. Young people always imagine that superior benefits come out of breaking the law. It is for this reason that the government and other authorities have systems to punish crimes. The belief is that neglecting crimes encourages juvenile recidivistic behavior. This theory leads to an understanding of the elementary question;
Are offenders’ coherent people? The theme of rationality is complex and dynamic. Research on whether criminals are rational has elicited varied feelings. Some studies designate that thieves, burglars, robbers and drug dealers calculate the risks of being caught before committing atrocious crimes. In addition to that, gangsters are rational decision makers when deliberating who their targets are, business deals and who to recruit into the group. Other offenders however exercise less rationality than expected. Tunnel Kenneth researched on motivations of chronic property offenders and found out that; Offenders do not consider imprisonment, law or arrest. They just act according to their conscience since they never believe in being caught. Some offenders were not keen on the legal consequences of their criminal acts. The concept of being rational is challenging (Miller, 2011, p.27-31).
If being rational implies having a comprehensive access to all the potential results of a particular behavior, then classical theories including rational choice theory are impracticable because predictable outcomes of crimes fail to exist. On the other hand, if rationality denotes making decisions based on the available information then offender’s rationality is limited. These classical arguments lose meaning because free will and autonomy is limited. An individual assessment of the nature of situation may have unauthentic information. In some settings, predatory juvenile crimes are rational for instance robbery. Violence may be both rational and irrational.
Violence is depicted as being rational if it produces positive, desirable results. For example, if rivals engage in a fight, the perceived outcome is a positive image. Reports have it that some children murder their classmates just to avoid bullying. In other words, some juvenile females may sometimes overlook violence as a delinquent behavior as an effective means to achieve what they want. Wilson James believes that another reason female juveniles engage in bad choices is lack of good morals. Parents and teachers who do not instill good morals to their students and children encourage development of anti- social behavior. Children will not have good morals instilled in them. Increased crime rates in the modern world are attributed to moral decadence. It has replaced parental responsibilities with justifying crime (Hawkins, 2009, p.10).
Eysenck Hans a psychologist blames feminine juvenile acts to community’s permissiveness and parental irresponsibility. The nature of modern day’s upbringing yields serious heinous crimes. He further asserts that female juveniles have not developed a conscience because the authority has failed to teach them the connection between misconduct and negative outcomes. Hans concludes that juvenile female delinquent behavior is the reward for parents and societies who do not perform their duties well. This theory has application in everyday life. In the United States of America, the public protects themselves from victimization using lessons drawn from the rational choice theory.
People have improved their public security by avoiding potential areas of disorder and crime, some have gone ahead to alter their lifestyle in order to avoid risks. Crime has an important everyday implication to their lives. Simple daily prevention strategies and routines are the best means to reduce or eliminate criminal activities (Regoli, Hewitt & DeLisi, 2010, 97).
Social disorganization theory: Social disorganization theory is also known as social ecology. This theory is a positivist approach to delinquent behavior. Its focus is on the socio-economic and cultural climate to which a young girl is exposed and how the environment may trigger crime. This contradicts rational choice theory whose concern is on the individual offender. Social disorganization theory argues that environmental factors outside a young girl’s control and power determine juvenile delinquent behavior. Cultural disintegration facilitated the breakdown of traditional values, beliefs and norms that has largely contributed to increased criminal activities. Delinquency among children is particularly common in urban areas whose population is dense and high levels of migration. A combination of these factors weakens family ties.
Competing interests in society increase impersonality. According to social disorganization theory, a well-established and organized community has the potential to regulate its members so that the entire community achieves its goals. A fundamental feature here is therefore social control. Social control describes the ability of social institutions such as the family to influence human behavior. This theory supports the argument that when a father abandons his family, the stress undergone by the girl and probably the mother may expose them to prostitution (Siegel & Welsh, 2011).
In many societies of the world, the justice organism is the elementary agency of formal social control. Children born in unsystematic neighborhoods become delinquent since there is deterioration in the internal control mechanism. Girls brought up in underprivileged homes such as poor families, martially wobbly and violent homes are at high risks of delinquency. This is because they discover from a young age that there are petite signs of success in future. Children consequently become discouraged when they learn that they cannot live a normal and happy life. Individuals born in disorganized homes and neighborhoods are persistently exposed to aggression due to disruptive aspects that amplify their likelihood of participating in juvenile delinquent behavior.
In termination, researchers admit the fact that trauma behind juvenile female delinquency is composite. There is no tangible clarification to the fact that some young girls commit delinquent acts while others deal with the situation superbly and live positively in society. Countless girls endure traumatic occurrences but still manage to resist delinquent behavior. Supplementary research should seek to institute the rationale why trauma affects various juveniles but not others. The enhancement in levels of delinquency is a reason for concern and hence sustainable control systems need to be instituted. Collective verdicts seem to point out that men and women have diverse methods of coping with traumas and the mean appear to be extra antagonistic. Nevertheless, there is a universal conformity that disruptive personality tendencies, survival approach, girls’ sexual ill-treatment and family dynamics are strong contributors to the distress behind feminine juvenile delinquent behavior.
This paper has summarized the aspects contributing to delinquent activities and disparities among girls and boys in coping with trauma. Delinquent conduct has been a preserve for men in the ancient times and for that reason most of these studies targeted men. Modern studies imply that women also engage in delinquent behavior but their intensities’ are inferior and less severe. Age is an important aspect in shaping the scope of delinquency. We can hence recapitulate that trauma behind juvenile feminine delinquent behavior is a multi-dimensional and vibrant occurrence. Delinquent behavior differs with gender, age, civilization and surroundings. There is need to deal with trauma in relation to the aspects delineated above using a human and culture – centered approach.
Barbaree, H. E., & Marshall, W. L. (2008). The juvenile sex offender. New York (N.Y.: the
Hawkins, S. R., & United States. (2009). Resilient girls: Factors that protect against
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Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Kerr, M. (2011). Understanding girls’ problem behavior: How girls’ delinquency develops in the
context of maturity and health, co-occurring problems, and relationships. Chichester,
West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell
Kim, H., & Kim, H. (2008). Juvenile delinquency and youth crime. New York: Nova Science
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Martin, G. (2005). Juvenile justice: Process and systems. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Miller, S. (2011). Delinquent girls: Contexts, relationships, adaptation. New York: Springer.Miller, S., Leve, L. D., & Kerig, P. (2012). Delinquent girls: Contexts, relationships, and
adaptation. New York, NY: Springer.
Neumann, C. E. (2010). Sexual crime: A reference handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.Regoli, R. M., Hewitt, J. D., & DeLisi, M. (2010).Delinquency in society. Sudbury, Mass: Jones
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Principles of Effective Intervention
The increase of crime in the society over time has triggered concerns for effective interventions, which will help bring corrective measures amongst offenders in the society. Following the efforts to find effective measures of intervention, there are four principles of effective intervention that have become organizing concepts of community corrections. They have stimulated what has become known as the what works movement. These principles include Risk Principle, Need Principle, Responsivity Principle, and Dosage and Treatment Principle (Bonta, Andrews, & Hoge, 1990).
Risk Principle of intervention aims at prioritizing the resources of treatment and supervision for offenders who are at high risk. High-risk offenders are those criminals who are highly subject to recidivism. This principle, therefore, seeks to enhance efforts towards preventing them from reoffending the society. Crime usually builds around the habits that an individual has formed over time. Most criminals today who have become a nuisance to the society formed their habits from their early life. They probably engaged in crime without being disciplined, and this formed into habits, which they cannot avoid. These formed criminal habits categorize such individuals as high-risk offenders (Ward, Mesler, & Yates, 2007).
In most societies, there are individuals who have been a long time criminals, who have not reformed despite the measures given by the law enforcers. These people most likely survived all alone without proper parental guidance in early childhood. Therefore, they seemed to have spent their whole livelihood in criminal habits. Such individuals cannot be easily rehabilitated by being jailed or severely punished. There are high chances that they can relapse into crime as soon as they are released into the society. That is why the risk principle was developed to aid such individuals. This principle seems to suggest that such individuals, who are highly susceptible to crime, should be identified and singled out in the rehabilitation centers. Thereafter, they should be monitored and followed up closely to ensure that they are helped, to unlearn some of the worldviews of crime, they have formed over time, before learning some new societal norms, which will help them become good citizens.
The Need Principle of intervention targets the criminogenic needs. These needs are viewed as being dynamic factors. That is if they are handled well enough; reduce the risk of the offender for recidivism. Some examples of criminogenic needs include antisocial attitudes, criminal peers, low self-control, criminal personality, values and beliefs, dysfunctional families and substance abuse. Some of the antisocial attitudes, values and beliefs may include denial of responsibility, minimization of crime, rationalization, criminal thinking, low educational levels and poor self-control. These needs are significant contributors in the enhancement of crime amongst offenders. They are genuine needs that are often neglected by other members of the society, who have never been caught up in crime (Ward, Mesler, & Yates, 2007). When these needs are effectively handled, the high-risk offenders can undergo quick rehabilitation.
For instance, an individual with a criminal personality, from a dysfunctional family, and is surrounded by criminal peers, is most likely to be caught up in crime without any intentions. This is because, over time, they develop low self-esteem that makes them have poor self-control. Therefore, they cannot easily retrain themselves from crime. They may even develop some criminal attitudes that totally bind them up in crime. Consequently, it becomes terribly hard to break some of the habits of crime that such an individual has acquired, unless interventions target at addressing the needs of such an offender.
Responsivity Principle of intervention is concerned with the interactions of offender’s personality and learning, and their setting. Often when an intervention is being engaged to assist an offender, they respond in a given way according to their strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, this intervention principle aims at looking at the response of an offender from a given intervention and helping him from that point. This principle alludes to how plants and animals respond to different stimulus according to their own needs. They will always move away from harsh stimulus but positively respond to stimuli that favor their survival.
In a similar manner, offenders in a given rehabilitation program will respond in certain ways, to interventions that favor them and those that do not favor them, interventions that seem to work for them and those that do not work for them (Ward, Mesler, & Yates, 2007). Therapists should not neglect the fact that interventions programs do not work in a similar manner for all offenders. Therefore, it is wise to look at the responsivity of the individual as an intervention program is being engaged.
For instance, there are programs of intervention that may require intensive reading or journaling. Such programs may not work for offenders who have limited literacy. When the therapist engages such an individual, he should be quick enough to realize from the responsivity of the offender that such a program is not working. Therefore, the therapist should change their approach of the program and use a more friendly approach like verbal communication, than the literal written approach. This may work for such an individual, who is literally limited. Therefore, many offenders are likely to be helped if their responsivity is considered closely.
Lastly, the dosage and treatment intervention principle focuses on the actual measures taken, to rehabilitate an individual. Some interventions will require an offender to adhere to a given program as a dosage or treatment measure. It is recommended that, within three to nine months of post-release, an offender’s 40% to 70% time should be engaged with delineated routine and services. Scholars state that, for one to break from a certain habit, he or she may be needed, to unlearn the habit and learn a different, admired habit over a period of twenty-one days. This is derived from the fact that when one practices a given action over a given period, then it develops into a habit. When the habit is then practiced continually, it then develops into a character, which is essential at determining how one behaves or does his things.
Some interventions will require one to be medically treated after diagnosis, to assist them in the process of intervention. This is often the case for offenders who have been deeply involved in substance abuse. The use of drugs may be a main motivating factor for one to commit crime (Andrews & Dowden, 2005). This is because some drugs cause hallucinations; therefore, one may feel good and powerful in committing a crime.
In conclusion, the principles of intervention are vital in enhancing effectiveness when an offender is being rehabilitated. When interventions are being done, it is vital to remember these four principles. This will alleviate the entire society by eliminating the vices that have crippled criminals. These interventions will also help the society, to understand the needs of offenders and assist them rather than neglect them. Once a criminal has agreed to undergo rehabilitation, it shows his commitment to change, but this cannot be attained without the involvement of the society.
Andrews, D. A., & Dowden, C. (2005). Managing correctional treatment for reduced recidivism: A meta-analytic review of program integrity. Legal and Criminological Psychology , 173-187.
Bonta, J., Andrews, D. A., & Hoge, R. D. (1990). Classification for effective rehabilitation: Rediscovering psychology. Criminal Justice and Behavior , 19-52.
Ward, T., Mesler, J., & Yates, P. (2007). Reconstructing the Risk-Need-Responsivity model: A theoretical elaboration and evaluation. . Aggression and Violent Behavior , 208-228.
Principles of Effective Intervention
Offender Reintegration: Barriers
Once offenders are convicted of their crimes, they are seen as a bad omen or outcasts by the society. This is because the society does not believe that offenders can be transformed through the correctional centers. This being the case, it becomes difficult for the offenders to be accepted by the society for fear of the harm that they can inflict. The government, volunteers and the society have a role to play in the reintegration of offenders back to the society. It is the role of the relevant personnel to advise, educate and inform the public that the offenders being reintegrated into the society are reformed. This creates many difficulties as they mingle with the public and as they seek employment opportunities.
Ex-offenders face challenges including discrimination from potential employers because their criminal details are easily available. This makes it difficult for them to secure employment in many fields. Some statutes of the federal and state governments have prohibited the employment of a person with a criminal record in certain positions especially those related to the crime. This minimizes the chances of their successful reintegration and in most cases, most of them end up committing crimes. Due to the duration that the offenders have stayed in correctional service, they may have little or no experience, limited education, and mental problems due to substance abuse. These issues may pose challenges for them as they look for employment (Holzer, 2003, p. 4-7).
Many offenders face rejection in the employment sector in the United States. This being the case, the state should introduce correctional based employment programs to address the issues of ex-offenders’ high unemployment rates and to prove to the society that they have become transformed (Wodahl, 2006, p. 39). At the same time, the state should introduce ex-offenders antidiscrimination laws so that the paroled can be better integrated into the community. The state can also offer formal, informal and vocational education to the inmates before they are released.
To reduce the stigma that a paroled offender may face in the society, some steps including community service schemes, inmate teacher project, restorative justice approach and Skill Support and Safe Reintegration Project (SSSR) can be taken by the parole officers. They are all aimed at helping the paroled to accept the societal views they face in order to move forward. The role of the parole officer to the released prisoners is to enforce the conditions of release. This may include prohibition on drug use, association with known criminals and the requirement that the offender finds and keeps a job (Petersilia, 2000, p. 3). He/she also helps the offender to participate actively in fulfilling his/her correctional plan. For the correctional officers, correctional centers are available to help them monitor the paroled offenders.
Victim offender mediation (VOM) is effective for petty crime offenders, as it helps to create a relationship between the victim and the offender, and helps the victims heal psychologically and emotionally (Wellikoff, 2003 Para). It also helps the offender to understand justice in the correct form unlike retribution. Despite VOM being effective, it is not appropriate for some offenders like those who have committed murder, arson and such serious crimes.
Offender reintegration exercise is a challenging undertaking as the public notion holds that offenders are bad people/dangerous in the society. This creates many barriers, as they try to reintegrate into the society. The state ought to address this issue by informing the public of the changed behavior of the paroled. The state should also introduce alternative employment measures to the paroled as well as enacting laws against discriminating the paroled. The state should prepare the paroled as they prepare to return the society of the expected opposition. Finally, VOM should be applied discreetly as it is not appropriate in all circumstances.
Holzer, H. J., Raphael, S., & Stoll, M. A. (2003). Employment barriers facing ex-offenders. Center for the Study of Urban Poverty Working Paper Series.
Petersilia, J. (2000). When prisoners return to communities: Political, economic, and social consequences. Fed. Probation, 65, 3.
Wellikoff, I. (2003). Victim-offender mediation and violent crimes: On the way to justice. Cardozo J. Conflict Resol., 5, 1-247.
Wodahl, E. J. (2006). The Challenges of Prisoner Reentry from a Rural Perspective,”. W. Criminology Rev., 7, 32-47.
OFFENDER REINTEGRATION: BARRIERS 4
Running head: OFFENDER REINTEGRATION: BARRIERS 1
Illegal Immigration in USA
Illegal migration can be defined as the act of foreign nationals entering the United States without the express permission of the authority of the government thus violating the United States nationality laws. Illegal immigration can occur when an individual enters a country without permission or when he overstays in a foreign country. In this case, staying beyond the period, which one was expected to stay as, indicated on the visa amounts to illegality. Though there has been a declining trend in the number of illegal immigrants in the United States, illegal immigrants remains many, and their immigration remains one of the most divisive issues the United States have to tackle. Statistics that have been carried out in the United States indicates that illegal immigrants make up to 28% of all the foreign-born United States residents and are slightly less than 4% of the total population of the United States (Johnson 2). The state that has the majority of the illegal immigrants happens to be California and this being the case, the need to understand the notions of illegal immigration ought to be studied so as to understand its impacts, the causes and the various ways that illegal migration can be prevented. The 2008 estimates from the center for immigration studies indicated that the immigrants were in excess of 11 million peoples down from the previous study done in 2007 which indicated that the illegal immigrants was 12.5 million people. The illegal immigrants emanates from other continents and states including Africa, Europe, Canada among other places. The aim of this paper is to identify who the immigrants are, their origin, the reasons that triggers them to migrate illegally to the United States, their effects on the country and the ways in which they can be reduced or their causes addressed.
Composition of the illegal immigrants
Though there have been reported cases of decline in the United States, the decline can only be attributed to various factors like the stiffening laws on illegal immigration, and the recession that led to reduced employment rates in the United States. In the 2009 statistics, the United States had over one million fewer illegal immigrants as there were in 2007. In terms of composition, the illegal immigrants from the Latin America are the majority; preferably, from México, which accounts for 60% of the total illegal immigrants other 20% of the illegal immigrants originates from other Latin countries while Europe, Canada and Africa among other places accounts for 4%. Asia accounts for 11% of the illegal immigrants. Though it is difficult to ascertain exactly where each of the illegal immigrant comes from, there is a believe that these illegal immigrants come from within the continent and other continents global and majority of them happens to be adults.
Reasons for illegal migration to the United States
The numbers of illegal migrants in the united are many, though they are considered to be decreasing. This being the fact, several factors have triggered this illegal migration and these generally include the need for economic and personal reasons (Borjas 16-19). One of the fact worth noticing is the fact that globally, America is viewed a highly desirable destination for many people and therefore many people come to the united states because there is a believe that an individual will be free from political oppression, they will be economically enabled as well as other benefits including the medical and educational services. In specific, these factors can be discussed as under the following.
One of the reasons that prompt many illegal immigrants to migrate to the United States is the viable political environment. Some of the illegal immigrants come to America because their countries are not stable and therefore sneak in through various entries to America where the country is politically stable.
At the same time, a lot of illegal immigration comes to America because there is the economic pull. This is to say that many of the employers are ready to hire this illegal immigration because they know that there is cheap labor. Because of the vast majority work, except in the recent depression times, most of the illegal immigrants happen to be in the workforce. Studies done indicate that 90% of the male illegal immigrants are actually in the workforce (Johnson 7). Since there is a higher wage level in the United States than in the illegal immigrants home countries, they tend to seek for employments since they are aware that they will get financing services more than what can be obtained if it was from their home county. This therefore prompts some family members to the United States as from this place; it would be possible to finance expensive purchases.
In the United States, there are inadequate channels for legal migration and this being the case, only a significant number of people is allowed to migrate to the United States legally and become citizen. The limited channels for legal migration and permanent economic migrations especially for the lowly skilled workers make it difficult for them to get work visas to enable them legally gain entry to the United States. This leads to them finding any option available including entering by force/illegal entry so that the low skilled labor persons may lure the jobs with higher wages than what they would otherwise have obtained in their home countries. There has been an increase in the number of the illegal immigration in the United States especially for lower skilled workers who at the time were being given the permission to enter the United States under the bracero program to harvest fruits and vegetables (Butcher 2-20). After the program was terminated, the majority of those who had been legal became illegal and did not wish to return to their home country.
Chain migration is another reason that has led to the increase of illegal immigrants in the United States today. It should be noted that there are those people who went to the United States in the past and they became citizens. The flow of the Mexicans into the United States has produced a network effect that has further increased the movement of the people to join their relatives and other extended family members. Some of these come as tourists but later hide among their relatives who in other times may be illegal thus complicating the illegal immigrants.
In other situations, neighbors of the United States like the Mexicans are able to cross the border easily and become illegal immigrants. At the same time, low cost of transportation, communication, and information advancements has helped in triggering illegal migration. It should be noted that the possibility of being deported is very low due to the logistics and technological advancement. Depending on the region, the illegal immigrants enter the United for separate reasons but chiefly economic and personal reasons. For example, people from the sub Saharan Africa entered the United States for political reasons and others through the slave trade. Those from Asia entered as a result of economic reasons while those from Europe entered America as a result of economic benefits as well as joining their relatives.
It should be noted that mostly one in every 20 workers in the low skilled occupations in the united states in an illegal immigrant (Passel 2-17). Statistics indicate that most of these illegal workers are concentrated in the manufacturing, retail trading, services and the construction sectors among other sectors.
Economic impacts of the illegal immigrants
Though it is illegal for one to enter/or stay in another country illegally, researchers have indicated that illegal immigration may reduce the economic status of the United States. This is true considering the fact that the illegal immigrants are likely to be exploited thus leading to an increase of the social economic gap between the rich and the poor. This is supported by the fact that the illegal immigrants are willing to work for lower wages and this affects the wages of the legal citizens (The Impact of Illegal Immigration on the Wages and Employment Opportunities of Black Workers 5-9). At the same time, illegal immigrants may dislocate the legal citizens in work opportunities thus inducing/prompting the native born to commit offenses due to joblessness.
In terms of taxes, it is projected that the illegal immigrants pay in excess of $7billion yearly as social security. This therefore indicates that they contribute fewer taxes than they get in the social services. This leads to the illegal immigrants draining off the government and the local authorities, finances that would otherwise been used for other developmental services (Maxwell 342).
Illegal immigrant and crime
Though not fully verified, illegal immigrants are associated with crimes that include the identity theft. This is mainly when the illegal immigrants use fake social security numbers belonging to others in order for them to obtain fake work documentation. At the same time, various cases involving illegal immigrants and drug trafficking this was identified from the 1997 proceeding where drug cartels use illegal immigrants to sell and cultivate drugs. In other instances, illegal immigrants have been involved in gang violence who in 2005 were engaging the border patrols with violence. In this, they even murder border patrol agents so that they can gain access by the United States.
Addressing illegal immigration (prevention)
Illegal immigrants though on the decline do not mean that the illegal immigrants are going back to their home countries. It only means that laws and loopholes are being addressed so that the increase of them may be restricted and reduced. This therefore being the case, various preventive options have been employed, though not completely successful to address the illegal immigrations.
One of the best ways that have been used to wipe out illegal immigrants is through the workplace investigations. The recent audit of the employment records in 2009 by the immigration and customs enforcing agency (ICE), indicated that about 25% of the workers were immigrants’. This was done at a garment manufacturing company in Los Angeles. The act of workplace investigations to wipe out all illegal immigrants’ was started under the presidency of George Bush and has been continued under the current president Barack Obama. Those caught might be deported. This being the case, research indicates that these people have only been sacked or terminated on their workstations, which lead to the circulation of the illegal immigrants within the United States. It should be noted however that the aim of workplace audit is to discourage the employers from hiring illegal immigrants.
Another worry that the issue of the illegal migration can be addressed in the united tastes is through border enforcement. This would deter illegal immigrants who may be intending to enter the United States through the border. At the same time, changing the immigration rules would be vital in addressing the illegal immigration cases since measures would be laid down that specifically defines what ought to be done to the existing as well as those illegal immigrants who may enter the united states.
Apprehension and deportation can also be used to address the illegal immigrant’s cases. Border control has the latest technology that can be used to help capture illegal immigrants who may be in the process of crossing by detaining them or prosecuting them or even deporting them back to their country. In line with such actions, the society can be used to help the authorities in identifying illegal immigrants through collective responsibility.
Complication of the immigration act
By denying the illegal immigrants the opportunity to work, those who are not deported usually finds other jobs to do as well as engaging in anti social activities that include crimes. This therefore complicates the whole process of illegal migration. At the same time, border surveillance may address the issues relating to the movement of illegal immigrants into the United States but it only worsens the matter since those who walk in and out overstays in the united stays until when it becomes clear for them to cross again. This makes it complicated for the government as it has to increase the border patrols and surveillances and this is done at the expense of the taxpayer’s amount. At the same time, detention will only increase the number of prisoners/detainees and this will increase the cost of running the facilities. Addressing the issues related to illegal immigrants is also complicated by the facts that there are hefty law enforcement expenses that are incurred by the federal government in order to address these issues.
Illegal immigration in America started long ago when slave trade was started. Lack of boundaries, economical and personal reasons have all led to many people aspiring to enter the United States. Illegal immigration has various implications and impacts in the social welfare of the people of the United States especially in the labor force and the provision of social services. The composition of the illegal immigrants has the majority of the immigrants from Mexico while others come from various parts of the world. To address the issues surrounding illegal migration to the United States, the federal government should formulate rules that enforce immigration rules within the workplaces. At the same time, border surveillance should be enhanced so that those entering through the border can be arrested and repatriated and deported. Tourism laws should also be addressed so that those who overstay or refuse to leave the country can be dealt with according to the law. This therefore calls for the involvement and enforcement of immigration laws.
Borjas, George J. Mexican Immigration to the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007. Internet resource.
Butcher, Kristin F., and Anne Morrison Piehl. “Crime, Corrections, and California.” California Counts 9.3 (2008).
Johnson, Hans P., and Laura HIll. Illegal immigration. Public Policy Institute of California, 2006.
Louis Uchitelle (“Nafta Should Have Stopped Illegal Immigration, Right?”. : The New York Times, 2007. Internet resource
Maxwell, William E, Ernest Crain, and Adolfo Santos. Texas Politics Today. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
Passel, Jeffrey S., and Senior Writer D’Vera Cohn. Unauthorized immigrant population: National and state trends, 2010. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center, 2011.
The Impact of Illegal Immigration on the Wages and Employment Opportunities of Black Workers: A Briefing Before the United States Commission on Civil Rights Held in Washington, Dc. Washington (D.C.: U.S. Commission on civil rights, 2010. Print.
Sanctions are means deliberately applied to attain compliance with appropriate ways of behaving. Through extreme sanctions, communities and government aim at restoring order and upholding the reputation of the society. The applications of sanctions arise from lower levels, such as; hate and sarcasm, which might stretch to extreme levels like, hate crimes, honor killings and capital punishments (Goode, 2008). Matters relating to the limits and boundaries, the possibility of regulation of such punishments, and their relationship with time place and culture are of concern to criminal justice.
Limits and Boundaries of Acceptable Sanctioning Behavior
Extreme sanctions focus on crime reduction and public protection measures. The aims of sanctions include, incapacitation which When applied from such a perspective, encompasses imprisonment of offenders, which is essential for the protection of the public against serial offenders. The prisoners are transformed by court ordered behavioral restrictions (Criminal Sanctions Discussion Document, 2010).
Sanctions act to deter both the offenders in question and members of the public contemplating similar deviant behaviors. This is because any perception that a crime may go unpunished may lead more people into the risk of committing crimes. This may in turn damage community determination and crime deterrence efforts (Criminal Sanctions Discussion Document, 2010).
The application of the extreme sanction should not only focus on the image and reputation of the society, but also, the rehabilitative impact on the offenders. When criminals of deviant behavior cease to be incapacitated, the question to answer would be the positive impact of the penalty to the offender. Extreme sanctions such as honor killing and capital punishment do not rehabilitate but end the life of the criminal. The objective of punishments for the unusual behaviors should be aimed at repairing and reorienting the society not destroying its members (Criminal Sanctions Discussion Document, 2010).
Sanctions in relation to Culture, Law and Religion
There are laws, cultures and religious beliefs that allow for the application of extreme sanctions in the events of deviant behaviors. These sanctions include honor killings in the Middle East, capital punishment for adultery and homosexuality in Iran, which is enshrined in Sharia law. Deviant behaviors that lead to extreme sanctions take place in different social contexts, develop their own histories, and evolve over time. The understanding of the norms that allow for extreme sanctions and the liberalization of human rights by various bodies play an important role in encouraging states and religious denominations to seek alternative means of punishing deviant behavior suspects (Beirne & Messerschmidt, 2011).
The rise of human rights organizations and the involvement of various stakeholders and governments in educating the masses about the role of punishment have continued to change people’s perspectives on impact of extreme sanctions. Criminalization of sanctions such as honor killing has continued to reduce the prevalence of these types of punishments. This is, therefore, an indication that the society is embracing human’s right to life over the crimes they commit (Beirne & Messerschmidt, 2011).
In conclusion, the prevalence of extreme sanctions on unusual behavior has a basis of the assumption that there is need uphold the image and reputation of the society. However, such sanctions fail to meet the entire objectives of a punishment. Human rights activists advocate for alternative punishments that seek to meet the objectives of sanctions, by improving and maintaining a good reputation of the society and the individuals within it.
Beirne, P., & Messerschmidt, J. W. (2011). Criminology: A sociological approach. New York:
Oxford University Press, 23-24.
Criminal Sanctions Discussion Document. (2010). White Paper on Crime, Discussion Unit
No. 2. Dublin 2. 9-10. Retrieved on 6 July , 2013 from http://www.justice.ie/en/JELR/White%20Paper%20on%20Crime%20Discussion%20Document%202%20Feb%202010%20Criminal%20Sanctions.pdf/Files/White%20Paper%20on%20Crime%20Discussion%20Document%202%20Feb%202010-%20Criminal%20Sanctions.pdf
Goode, E. (2008). Deviant behavior. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall.
DEVIANT BEHAVIOR 2
Running head: DEVIANT BEHAVIOR 1
Books in Criminology
Top of Form
Miller, J. M., Schreck, C. J., & Tewksbury, R. A. (2006). Criminological theory: A brief introduction. Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.
Top of Form
Siegel, L. J. (2000). Criminology. Belmont, California: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
Top of Form
Briggs, S. (2009). Criminology for Dummies. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Top of Form
Adler, F., Mueller, G. O. W., & Laufer, W. S. (2007). Criminology and the criminal justice system. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Bottom of Form
Top of Form
Schmalleger, F. (2011). Criminology: A brief introduction. Boston: Prentice Hall.
Bottom of Form
Books in Sociology
Top of Form
Parsons, T. (1951). The social system. Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press.
Bottom of Form
Top of Form
Ritzer, G. (1996). Sociological theory. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.
Bottom of Form
Top of Form
Sadovnik, A. R. (2007). Sociology of education: A critical reader. New York: Routledge.
Bottom of Form
Top of Form
Kendall, D. E. (2003). Sociology in our times. Belmont, California: Wadsworth/Thompson Learning.
Bottom of Form
Top of Form
Durkheim, E. (1964). The rules of sociological method. New York: Free Press of Glencoe.
Bottom of Form
Journals in Criminology
The British Journal of Criminology
American Journal of Criminal Justice
Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice
Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology Articles
European Journal of Criminology
Journals in Sociology
Journal of Social Structure
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy
The American Journal of Sociology
British Journal of Sociology
Journal of Social Change
Books in Criminology
Miller, Mitchell et al. 2006, Criminological theory: A Brief Introduction,Boston: Pearson / Allyn & Bacon.
Siegel, Larry, 2000, Criminology, Belmont: California Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
Briggs, Steven, 2009, Criminology for Dummies, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Adler, Freda et al. 2007, Criminology and the criminal justice system, Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Schmallegaer, Frank , 2011, Criminology: A Brief Introduction, Boston: Prentice Hall.
Books in Sociology
Parsons, Talcott, 1951, The Social System, Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press.
Ritze, George, 1996, Sociological Theory, New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.
Sadovnik, Alan, 2007, Sociology of Education: A Critical Reader, New York: Routledge.
Kendall, Diana, 2003, Sociology in our Times, Belmont, California: Wadsworth/Thompson Learning.
Durkheim, Emile, 1964, The rules of sociological method, New York: Free Press of Glencoe.
Journals in Criminology
The British Journal of Criminology
American Journal of Criminal Justice
Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice
Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology Articles
European Journal of Criminology
Journals in Sociology
Journal of Social Structure
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy
The American Journal of Sociology
British Journal of Sociology
Journal of Social Change
Running Head: CRIMINOLOGY 1