A Uniform Criminal Code
Having a uniform criminal code passed in the Unites States would mean that the states lose their opportunities for evolution and change in matters concerning the criminal laws. They would lose their rights to make state based laws in order to abide by the federal law generated. According to the United States constitution, they would be going against the 10th amendment. However, it is possible for the states to come together for a discussion about the criminal law and come up with a consensus concerning with the law. On the other hand, the unifying of the criminal law would stifle the freedom of thought, since the counsel would focus on the criminal code to run their criminal cases in their states. This would mean repelling insight. That is why it is best to serve the law using the empiricism approach and not unifying the code. When adoption of this code materializes, research arguments would turn futile because the intended reasoning would be already laid out by the uniform code.
The main advantage of having a uniform code in the United States would be the application of the Patriot Act. Therefore, there would not be state-to-state jurisdiction without the Patriot Act, which is responsible for allowing different states and jurisdictions to cross lines in cases where national security is associated with crime cases. Adopting the single code for the crime cases would mean that the state courts would be in a position to process crime charges quickly for many offenders in many jurisdictions, with the support of the Patriot Act.
Currently, the United States enjoys the system that allows each state freedom to try different things and try them out as far as they correspond to the constitution. Therefore, switching to a single criminal code would mean that the possibility of such innovation would be eliminated. In addition, all the states Penal Codes regarding criminal cases would need to be rewritten to accommodate the new changes of incorporating the uniform criminal code into the law. This will be very expensive and the state population would suffer the burden of meeting the cost by paying their taxes.
Likelihood That All States Would Favor Its Adoption and Implementation
The decision of whether a state would adopt the idea varies greatly because people have different perceptions, understanding and ways of interpreting laws. According to the United Nation on the Declaration of Human Rights, it is a violation of human rights to cause someone’s death. When a criminal commits murder, it becomes a challenge to decide whether such a person would be given a death penalty or pardoned and imprisoned for life. Many states would adopt this unified criminal code for this reason but may also reject it for lack of flexibility and innovation in their state laws. Many states would also choose not to adopt the uniform criminal law code and hold on to their Penal codes because they allow their governments to define the appropriate actions for punishing lawbreakers. The governments are in a position to define the type of punishment for the criminals and thus would not want a code that would limit them to just follow the laws.
Many states would be in support of humanitarian interventions that support the use of force in cases that criminal offenses are performed. In attempts to prevent, stop or remedy Human Rights Violations within a state, the humanitarian intervention would opt to use force and therefore would opt to use a death penalty for murder crimes. Therefore, it would be difficult convincing all the states to adopt the uniform criminal code.
The Legalization of Prostitution in the U. S
The social construction of crime in the United States of America and other countries Affect the legalization of prostitution. Prostitution can be categorized with other social issues affecting the society today. This means that people should do away with the vice and any attempts of legalizing it thwarted earnestly. Legalizing crimes, such as abortion, and homosexuality in the United States of America have immensely encouraged prostitutes to demand their own recognition.
Advantages of not Legalizing Prostitution
Making prostitution illegal will combat unlawful immigration of girls and women who are smuggled into the country to perfect the practice. This is because prostitution generates avenues for crimes where unsuspecting people are forced by their clients to participate in inhumane sexual activities. This unsuspecting people are recruited by agents from other countries who promise them jobs only to realize very late the nature of jobs. Some of those who engage in the act are young girls and although money is involved before the sexual act, the girls are not mature enough to make their own decisions.
Illegalizing prostitution minimizes chances of acquiring diseases, such as HIV/AIDS. This is because prostitution remains one of the major ways in which the virus is spread in the society.
The Disadvantages of not Legalizing Prostitution
Some people heavily rely on prostitution for their daily needs. Upon making prostitution illegal, such people are likely to lose jobs. Children whose parents provide for their needs through this act can drop out of school. Street families can easily increase when the prostitutes do not have money to cater for their needs. The criminalization of prostitution can only mean that the prostitutes will do it secretly and this can make the situation worse. Those who are ill-treated in the act cannot report to the authorities because of fear.
Gender and class inequality affects prostitution in the sense that most of those who are forced into prostitution are females. The males are rarely forced to engage in prostitution and forcing the females, who have always seen as weak, is a confusing trade. Children from wealthy families are not forced to participate in prostitution. The poor people are the most affected by this act and banning prostitution helps to strike a state of equilibrium between the rich and the poor.
Since time immemorial, prostitution has always been considered as an immoral act. This is why it should not take a lot of energy to make it unlawful. In the contemporary society, most people are of the idea that prostitution encourages moral decadence in the society. Prostitution is not popular with most people and this means that it should be criminalized.
LEGALIZATION OF PROSTITUTION IN THE U. S. 3
Running head: LEGALIZATION OF PROSTITUTION IN THE U. S. 1
NATO and Peace Organizations
Following the international threat that has been facing many regions of the world, there has been the introduction of many international peace organizations. These organizations have been critical in ensuring that peace prevails in many regions of the world. One of the most prominent organizations is North Atlantic Peace Organization (NATO). World Peace has been recognized as being ideal for the international development. It is in this respect that many countries have come up to form peace treaties. Some of the notable international peace organizations include Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, New Commonwealth Society, Common Dreams, Peace Action, and Stop the War Coalition (Hyde-Price 333).
World peace is an ideology that all countries and regions in the world should have happiness, peace, and freedom. World peace calls for international non-violence. Countries cooperate through a virtue of governance and voluntarily to refrain from engaging in armed conflict. Violence has been identified as one of the most disruptive actions in the world. Violence has led to many deaths and at the same time ensuring that economies and socio-economic welfare are negatively affected (Alex). Since the end of World War II, the United Nations Security Council and five permanent members have been working to resolve conflicts without necessarily escalating the war into an armed conflict. However, many countries have been engaged in armed conflict numerous times. It is also critical to note that some of the leading countries that advocate for international peace have also been engaged in various conflicts. Some of the most notable conflicts that have featured these countries include the US invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq under the tutelage of War against Terror (Renee).
International peace organizations play a critical role in promoting peace throughout the entire world. These organizations have been noted to work with different groups and initiatives in addressing pertinent peace and security issues throughout the world. Developed countries, most notably, the United States, France, and United Kingdom have stepped in to promote peace in different regions. These peace efforts work in collaboration with different groups that are found in different nations where there are peace issues and risks. For instance, NATO has been very instrumental in the peace efforts that have been tried in the Middle East. The United States have also played a critical role in making certain that insurgent groups in East Africa, most notably Al Shabaab are contained and do not interfere with the peace process in the region.
Faced with increased radicalism and extremism, world peace has been faced with many challenges in different regions. In the Middle East, it has been found that many organizations have cropped up that have tried to disrupt peace. This is one of the fronts that the United States, NATO, and other international peace organizations have played a critical role in ensuring that peace efforts are improved and that insurgents do not wreak havoc on the society. However, this has also been found to have a negative effect on the peace efforts. Many radicals and extremists have citied the interference of their governments and administrations affairs. This has led to an increase in the number of insurgents who have posed as a threat to both their local communities and the countries behind the peace efforts in the country. It is also critical to note with increased radicalism and extremism, the role of international peace organizations has been elevated to ensuring that civilians all around the world are protected from the possible harmful effects of the confrontation between the radicals and peace keepers.
NATO is an international military alliance that was created after the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty in 1949. The constitution of the treaty mandates member countries to mutual defense in the event that a member country is attacked by a country that is not a member of the country. It is headquartered in Brussels and has 28 member states from Europe and North America. There are an extra 22 member states and another 15 countries that are involved in dialogue programs (Renee).
The organization has been noted for its relevance in the international peace efforts in many regions around the world. For instance, it intervened in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia, there was an armed conflict that led the United Nations Security Council ordering a no-fly zone over Yugoslavia and central Bosnia. NATO was very influential in enforcing the no-fly zone. NATO forces were noted for their shooting down aircraft of Bosnia Serbs that has contravened the order. Other notable interventions include Kosovo and Afghanistan wars. In recent history, NATO has been noted for Iraqi training mission, fighting pirates in the Gulf of Aden, and intervention in Libya after the Libyan uprising. However, NATO has faced criticism over allegation that its decision is heavily influenced by the United States. Many world leaders have highlighted their concern that the United States has used the organization to further its interests in the international forums. Despite these concerns, many world leaders have endorsed the peace efforts of the organization (Solana 54).
NATO has been identified as one of the leading peace organizations in the world. It is critical to note that although the organization is primarily concerned with the peace efforts of the member countries, it has also extended its mandate to protect people from different regions who have been put at risk by various conflicts that have been noted to affect different countries. For instance, in its intervention in Libya, the country was solely enforcing a no-fly zone that had been put in place by the United Nations Security Council. It is in this respect that NATO has been found to be increasingly relevant in the international peace efforts in the 21st century. This can be attributed to the verity that the United Nations Security Council has requested NATO to intervene in different conflicts on its behalf. NATO has also been critical in ensuring that there is enhanced political stability in different countries. This is particularly witnessed in the Middle East and North
One of the profound threats to international peace has been found to be terrorism. There are numerous international peace organizations that are fighting this vice in different fronts around the world. The Al Qaeda that is primarily based in Afghanistan has been put on the spot by NATO and other forces. NATO has been very vocal in ensuring that the Afghani forces are trained to fight Al Qaeda and other hostile groups. This has been critical in ensuring that the threat of terrorism is contained. It is also critical to note that NATO forces have been fighting another radical group of terrorists in Pakistan and Afghanistan. The Taliban has been found to be problematic to the international peace process and has been attacked and contained throughout the Arab world by NATO forces. Most notable NATO country that has been fighting these groups is the United States. Through collaboration and partnership, NATO forces have been instrumental in training government forces that fight the insurgents. However, this has been met with profound criticism by the radical who claim that NATO under the tutelage of the United States has been instrumental in ensuring that they put in place governments that will be influenced by the United States in its international diplomacy agendas.
NATO has also been instrumental in protecting governments from unconstructive coups. For instance, most recently, French forces were called in to protect the constitutionally elected government of Mali from being taken over by Islamist militants. Although acting on its own, France had received blessings from other NATO members and it also received considerable assistance from the United States. Kenya’s fight against Somali militants Al Shabaab received considerable efforts from the United States. The United States offered logistical and technical support to the Kenyan Defense Forces. NATO member countries have also been critical in offering their intelligence sources to other countries to avert imminent terror attacks. However, one criticism that has been directed towards NATO is that it is primarily concerned with neutralizing Islamist militants. This has been viewed as though the organization is against Muslims in particular. However, it is critical to note that the intervention of the organization has been to promote peace in Islam countries and enhance stability. This is one of the rationales behind many NATO members seeking to intervene in the Syrian conflict that has affected many people in the country. This furthers the justification that NATO is still a formidable force and very relevant in the 21st century.
Other International Organizations
There are a number of international peace organizations. Some of the notable peace organizations include African Great Lakes Initiative. This organization promotes, supports, and strengthens peace efforts in Africa. Amnesty International is an international initiative that seeks to enforce and promote human rights in all regions of the world. Amnesty International has been noted for its collaboration in running Control Arms Campaign. This campaign is run by Oxfam and IANSA. Its main objective is to diminish arms trade in all parts of the world.
There are other organizations that seek to promote international peace through enhancing other aspects of human life. For instance, there are organizations that are dedicated to ensuring that they offer material, medical, and financial assistance to regions that have been affected by violence. One of the prominent organizations is the Red Cross that has been noted for its efforts in offering assistance to areas that have been affected by armed conflict. Red Cross is also noted for its effort in calling for peaceful resolution of conflicts. There are also organizations that seek to alleviate armed conflict resolution. Alternatives to Violence International (AVP), has been noted for its effort in avoiding violence resolution of conflicts. It offers training programs that enable participants to come up with creative and new means of dealing with situations that have potential of becoming violent (Michael 216).
Other notable peace organizations include Human Rights Watch, an organization that seeks to defend and protect human rights internationally. The Halo Trust is an organization that seeks to remove debris of war and land mines in all parts of the world. These organizations and others such as Peace and Collaborative Development Networks, Seeds of Peace, and Mercy Corps have been very critical in enhancing international peace. These organizations have been found to be critical in ensuring that many lives are protected from violence and the society is protected from the atrocities that are resultant of armed conflict.
Alex J. Bellamy, “The Responsibility to Protect and the Problem of Military Intervention,” Chap 8 in Politics of Global Governance.
Hyde-Price, Adrian. European Security, Strategic Culture, and the Use of Force. European Security, 13.4, 2004.
Michael Cox, “Beyond the West: Terrors in Transatlantia,” European Journal of International Relations, 2004.
Renee de Nevers, “NATO’s International Security Role in the Terrorist Era,” Chap 9 in Politics of Global Governance.
Solana, Javier. “A Secure Europe in a Better World the European Security Strategy.” Civilian Perspective or Security Strategy? 2004.
Insert Surname 1
Behavioral Analysis Unit of FBI
Criminal procedures involve sets of rules that governments employ in enforcing criminal laws. Criminal law varies depending on the federal government, the state governments, and the municipal authorities. According to the U.S. Constitution, the federal court systems make interpretations and procedures that every person or organization should follow. Failure to follow these procedures may amount to repression of evidence of the accused person or organization. A criminal process incorporates a crime, crime investigation, prosecution and pretrial, adjudication, sentencing and sanctions, and finally corrections. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) exploits the Behavioral Analysis Unit (BAU) to carry out criminal investigations by linking the suspect to a crime. The FBI’s profiling activities are nowadays controlled by the National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime (NCAVC). The BAU utilizes behavioral sciences in conducting investigations after receiving a request from the FBI. This study will cover on the Behavioral Analysis Unit of the FBI in handling violent crime.
History of FBI
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agency was founded in 1908, when Charles J. Bonaparte, the U.S. Attorney General, selected an unnamed group of Special Agents to carry out an investigative duty in the Department of Justice (Holden 11). Before the creation of this agency, the Department of Justice used to hire private detectives only when the federal government needed an investigation to be carried out for a federal crime. In 1909, this force was named the Bureau of Investigation. In 1920, the Bureau of Investigation was restructured to a crime-fighting machine with an established training school, a crime laboratory and a centralized fingerprint file.
In 1935, the Bureau of Investigation agency was changed to FBI, and this title has not changed so far. The new law enforcement agency started with only 34 agents. Initially, the FBI had only one duty: to safeguard peace of the American people from within and outside the borders, while honoring and protecting the U.S. Constitution. However, the FBI has been criticized, in several occasions, for abusing its powers, but this has not interfered much with its mandate. Today, the FBI has recruited more than 10,000 agents who carry out investigations on violations of federal criminal laws, collect evidence on civil cases, and offering internal security. The FBI has requested services of behavioral experts to solve some of its critical cases, which has lead to restructuring of the agency to cater for behavioral aspects of violent crimes.
FBI in curbing Violent Crime
In the U.S., violent crime occurs after every 22 seconds while an aggravated assault happens after every 34.8 seconds (Roberts and Springer 279). Violent crimes such as murder and rape have continued to haunt the society, and the law enforcers have been compelled to formulate new ways to catch the perpetrators. For a long time, law enforcement agencies have endeavored to read the mind of criminals to establish what drives criminals to commit an offense. They also tried to classify unknown lawbreakers once a felony has already happened. Several agencies are charged with enforcing criminal laws and crime investigations. Almost 20,000 federal, state, and local agencies are involved in carrying out law enforcement and crime investigation (J. M. Scheb and J. M. II. Scheb 21). The federal government relies heavily on the FBI to investigate violations of criminal laws at the national level. The FBI’s investigative command is the most extensive unit of the federal government in terms of law enforcement. Its personnel are dispersed all over the country, as well as in international offices where the country has opened its embassy offices.
The success of the FBI in carrying out criminal investigations to curb violent crimes has led to increase in law enforcement agencies all over the globe to initiate and establish their own behavioral analysis units. These units are responsible for investigating crimes that touches on violation of human rights, terrorism, among other offenses. However, there has been a change in the nature of violent crime over the last few decades, which resulted to the law enforcers to fail in apprehending the real perpetrators of crime (Douglas, W. Burgess, and G. Burgess 4). Before the formation of behavioral analysis units, a training division called Behavior Science Unit (BSU) was charged with establishing and supplying programs in research, training and consultations in behavioral sciences in the law enforcement units. The BSU, which was created in 1972, contributed immensely to formation of specialized units in the FBI.
For the FBI to work effectively, it requires a help from other professional bodies that deal with various types of crime investigations. The National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime (NCAVC) is a body charged with investigative and operational support tasks, research, and training, in an attempt to offer assistance to the federal state and foreign law enforcement groups that investigate frequent violent crimes (Federal Bureau of Investigation 99). The NCAVC was established in 1984, and its principle responsibility was to present behavioral-based investigative support required by the FBI and other federal and state agencies. The NCAVC may be requested to investigate cases of serial murders, kidnappings, homicides or inexplicable disappearance of children. This body utilizes training programs, as well as research to sustain its operational services.
After the terror that hit the U.S. in 2001, the FBI established a new behavioral analysis unit to transact terrorism threat assessments. The Behavioral Analysis Unit (BAU) was established to assist the law enforcement agencies to review and assess the facts of a criminal act, interpret offenders’ behaviors and interact with victims during the crime investigation (FBI’s Behavioral Analysis Unit n.p). After 9/11 terrorist attack, the BAU involved itself with matters pertaining to counter terrorism. Today, the BAU performs thorough analysis of crime, in addition to offering suggestions, strategies and expertise to investigators. The three distinct responsibilities of BAU include counterterrorism (Unit 1), crime against adults (Unit 2) and crime against children (Unit3). The NCAVC was incorporated into the BAU as it offered almost the same services as the BAU. The BAU was restructured to curb violent crime, rather than take its responsibilities to all parts of the country, as its personnel had specialized training, which was crucial in handling such crime.
Almost all types of crimes have three things in common: a lawbreaker, a victim and a scene. When the federal authorities are informed of a certain crime, a federal law enforcement agency assumes the responsibility of investigation to establish whether a federal offense has taken place. If a crime has really occurred, it is for the interest of the agency to know who committed the crime. It is vital to understand that not every crime is a federal offense. For instance, robbery is a criminal offense in all states, but it does not qualify for a federal offense if there is no direct association with the federal government. FBI agents can only investigate a felony when they gather enough reasons to declare that indeed a federal law was violated.
The nature of an offense is the key factor in determining which type of agency to undertake an investigation. In case of terrorism attack or violent crime, the FBI takes the center stage in carrying out the federal duty. This allows relevant agencies to enhance their expertise in performing particular tasks and avoid duplication of responsibilities. The special agents are the only people who can make an arrest once the FBI agents wrap up their investigation. The special agents identify the suspect and make an arrest with or without an arrest warrant. The special agents may acquire an arrest warrant indicating the name of the suspect. In some cases, they may decide to wait for additional investigation to be carried out so that the suspect may be proven guilty.
It is the dream of every FBI agent to work in the BAU. Working in the BAU is quite preferable to many FBI agents because one rarely go to the field. The BAU are not involved in catching the law offenders. Most of their work involves analyzing crime scene photos, writing reports and establishing witness statements. The BAU agents depend on the crime scene detectives to bring the photos of the crime scene so that they can analyze them.
Understanding the Criminal Behavior
It is the FBI’s responsibility to collect information, which can prove that the offender indeed committed a certain crime. The intelligence collection is carried out according to the directions given by the attorney general. The FBI agents should be well trained in understanding different personalities, as they are expected to perform a number of duties, which include field work and research. The study of personality trait theory is quite crucial in understanding criminals’ mind. Trait theory covers on human personality through measurement of traits, which touches on habitual patterns of behavior, thought and emotion (Barrow and Rufo 27). FBI agents can be dispersed to check the activities of certain individuals or groups for a prolonged period, thus, they have to adapt to other people’s personalities in order to achieve their mission.
Criminal investigative analysis attempts to examine crimes from both behavioral and undercover standpoint. Criminologists have developed several theories to study causes of crime. One of the common theories of crime is the rational choice theory. In most cases, a person who commits a criminal offense is always rational, since he/she calculates the benefits accrued from the behavior, as well as the costs that could be involve in such behavior (Edney 253). The human nature under the rational choice theory is self-interested and greedy, and the only way to regulate such behavior is through punishment by the law.
A Special Agent in the BAU should have an excellent ability in reading people’s mind accurately. He/she should be a good listener, who can relate people’s voices with their behaviors. FBI profilers are usually taught on how to read criminals’ behavior by observing and listening to people. Talking for most of the time would make an investigator miss much of the information that he/she needs. A criminal investigator should not spare anyone due to his/her profession, as professions and positions usually impede people’s judgments. Anyone can be a criminal, regardless of his/her position or religious alignment.
The personnel in BAU utilize the forensic evidence and organization of the crime to develop an operational theory of how and why the crime took place. Throughout the process, the BAU personnel endeavor to put themselves in the offenders’ mind, with an aim to comprehend how, why, who, what and where the criminal mind is stimulated (63). Behavioral measures allow investigators to understand how criminals act in a certain manner, or why they have acted in that way. Nowadays, people have established new forms of communication through adopting new technology. The new technology has contributed enormously in changing people’s behavior. Use of mobile phones, social networks and Internet has changed the way people understand each other, as well as their interactions. What could be more challenging for the BAU personnel is to understand why criminal chose to commit certain crimes and not the other.
According to Ainsworth, an understanding of why an individual opt to commit a crime at a certain time, in a particular place, and in a conscientious way, can only be known when all factors that functioned at that time are considered (182). Several researches on crime have unearthed various factors, and still more research is needed to increase the knowledge of causation. Living in horrible neighborhood where crime is rampant can compel individuals to turn into crime. According to General Strain Theory, experienced strains may lead to negative emotional states that amplify the possibility of crime as a probable response (Kayaoglu 36). The law enforcers should understand that collective reactions are due to social changes, and individuals are bound to change due to their environment.
Becoming an FBI Profiler
Although there is not title such as profiler’ in the FBI, the supervisory department in the NCAVC creates profiles of unknown criminals and proceed to offer a case management advice to special agents. FBI profilers usually work in the BAU, rather than the police department. According to Holden, an individual who wish to join the FBI Special Agent in BAU must be a U.S citizen aged between 23 and 37 years at the time of appointment (14). Strong analytical skills, coupled with an interest in the study of criminal minds, can help in working in this field.
A bachelor’s degree in any field is essential, but degrees in either criminal justice or psychology are more preferred as they can help in understanding the law, as well as the human mind. Out of many disciplines that deal with crime and its cause, psychology appears to be the best option for investigators who want to understand behaviors of people who commit serious crime (Ainsworth 184). An applicant must have a working experience of three years, and should have a clean valid driving license. Before joining the BAU, one is required to work in the FBI as a special agent for a period of three years to gain experience in investigation of violence and abductions. Having critical skills necessary for working as an FBI agent requires a person to refrain from misusing drugs, in addition to having no criminal record.
FBI profilers are responsible for analyzing, interviewing, responding to the public and evaluating human behavior. Many FBI agents prefer to be employed in the BAU because it is a prestigious and competitive responsibility. Once an agent joins the BAU, he/she has to undergo a training process for about three years before qualifying to become an FBI profiler. However, no more qualifications are needed to attain a promotion to the BAU. Going for further studies is a personal choice, and would depend on individual’s level of finance, family demands, personal condition, among other factors. Initially, the FBI profilers were concerned ob collecting behavioral information, but today, their mandate include analyzing offenders’ actions to understand the types of individual who are most likely to commit a felony.
Traditionally, criminal investigators depended on material evidence to capture the crime suspects. The FBI agents concentrated only on understanding the physical drive of criminal behaviors. Today, the BAU has transformed this process to psychological aspects of crime, as this has assisted in understanding the patterns of criminal behavior. The BAU is an investigative unit in the FBI which is responsible for identifying personality traits and other features that an offender can possess on the crime scene. The BAU works together with the NCAVC to present behavioral-based investigative support required by the FBI and other federal and state agencies. Working as an FBI agent requires a thorough understanding of criminal behaviors. The study of personality trait theory is essential in understanding how criminals behave the way they do. The BAU usually works on cases that are very sensitive, as it focuses on the offender rather than the crime. To qualify in the BAU requires a person to have a bachelor’s degree, preferably in criminal justice or psychology. Many FBI agents prefer working as FBI profilers because they would be restrained in an office environment, rather than moving around to catch criminals.
“FBI’s Behavioral Analysis Unit Assists in Virginia Tech Shooting Investigation.” US Fed News Service, Including US State News. Apr 20, 2007. ProQuest. Web. 4 Nov. 2013 .
Investigations and operations support. Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2010). Web. 4 November 2013. http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cirg/investigations-and-operations-support/investigations-operations-support
Ainsworth, Peter B. Offender Profiling and Crime Analysis. Devon: Willan, 2001. Internet resource.
Barrow, Lauren M, and Ron A. Rufo. Police and Profiling in the United States: Applying Theory to Criminal Investigations. , 2013. Internet resource.
Douglas, John E, Ann W. Burgess, and Allen G. Burgess. Crime Classification Manual: A Standard System for Investigating and Classifying Violent Crimes. , 2013. Internet resource.
Edney, Richard. “Models Of Understanding Criminal Behaviour And The Sentencing Process: A Place For Criminological Theory?.” Journal Of Criminal Law 70.3 (2006): 247-271. Academic Search Premier. Web. 4 Nov. 2013.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Academy Handbook. Washington, DC: International Business Publications, USA, 2002. Print.
Holden, Henry M. To Be an FBI Special Agent. St. Paul, Minn: MBI Pub. Company, 2005. Print.
Kayaoglu, Mustafa. Terrorism and Strain: An Exploratory Analysis of the Impact That Individual Strain and Negative. S.l.: Proquest, Umi Dissertatio, 2011. Print.
Reich, Brian. Shift Reset: Strategies for Addressing Serious Issues in a Connected Society. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. Internet resource.
Roberts, Albert R, and David W. Springer. Social Work in Juvenile and Criminal Justice Settings. Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas, 2007. Print.
Scheb, John M, and John M. I. I. Scheb. Criminal Procedure. Sl: Wadsworth Pub Co, 2011. Print.
Writing Assignment 1
Plain view searches refer to incidences where police officers have the right to seize evidence without warrants, if such evidence is available for plain view. However, the police officer must be present during the event that will lead to a search without a warrant. His/her presence also acts as evidence regarding the event. Non-searches, on the other hand, refer to events and evidence that law enforcement officers discover out of observation, and that are not covered under the Fourth Amendment searches (Hess & Orthmann, 2009, p. 78).
Therefore, plain view searches qualify to be non-searches because officers use their senses to discover sources of evidence. Under plain view searches, officers use their mind, eyes and other body organs to conduct searches or gather evidence without warrants, as required under the Fourth Amendment Searches. Plain view searches can occur under conditions when a law enforcement officer is at a scene where evidence is clear legally. The other situation that can guarantee a plain view search is where the character of an individual/object under investigation is clear and incriminating in nature. The last condition is when a law enforcement officer has the right to access an object, as stipulated by the law (Becker, 2009).
The Fourth Amendment protects the privacy of individuals in their homes by making them immune to searches without warrants issued out of a probable cause. Under the act, a person can lose possessory interest in a property, through a seizure. However, this law does not cover abandoned property (property for which the owner has lost possessory interest). The physical and emotional elements determine whether property is abandoned under the Fourth Amendment. One can physically abandon property or intend to abandon property, all of which qualify for abandonment under the Fourth Amendment (Hess & Orthmann, 2009, p. 123).
Unprovoked flight at the sight of a police officer in a high crime area amounts to reasonable suspicion. The United States Supreme Court holds that an individual standing alone in a high-crime area does not provide sufficient reasons for suspicion. However, if the individual flees at the sight of police officers, and without any form of provoking from the officers, then this is sufficient evidence for reasonable suspicion that justifies a stop/search (Becker, 2009).
A custodial arrest occurs when an individual is arrested under the full conditions of the law. The process of arresting an individual lawfully constitutes the characteristics of a custodial arrest. The officer must inform the suspect that he/she is under arrest; the suspect is then put in a police car and taken to the police station. In the police station, officers photograph and take fingerprints of the suspect, search him/her and lock him/her in their cells. The officers interrogate the patient and may take him/her to a court of law depending on the nature of evidence discovered (Becker, 2009, p. 78).
The main difference between being a custodial arrest and a stop is that a stop arises out of suspicion while a custodial arrest arises out of evidence discovered after the stop. Arrests can take place in a large confinement/area, which qualifies to be a zone and not a point (Becker, 2009).
Reasonable suspicion occurs when an officer uses his evaluation skills and standards to determine whether and individual is about to engage in a criminal activity. Therefore, reasonable suspicion depends on the inferences and facts that a law enforcement officer uses to make his/her decisions.
On the contrary, probable cause is a legal process of applying logic to determine whether and individual has committed a crime and thereby issuing a warrant of prosecution. Unlike reasonable suspicion, probable cause has some standards that guide the whole process. Probable cause must balance the interests and rights of the accused individual as well as the interests of the police. The right of the accused is an immunity from wrong accusation while the police have the right to question the accused individual (Hess & Orthmann, 2009, p. 109).
A neutral magistrate is the first element of an arrest warrant. The magistrate decides whether police officers can arrest a suspect pursuant to the conditions of probable cause. An affidavit is the other element of an arrest warrant. The law enforcement officer must swear an oath about observing the conditions and requirements of probable cause. The name of the suspect to be arrested is the other element of an arrest warrant. The warrant has to include the specific name of the suspect before the officers can engage in the arrest itself (Becker, 2009).
Becker, R. F. (2009). Criminal investigation. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Hess, K. M., & Orthmann, C. M. H. (2009). Introduction to law enforcement and criminal justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
CRIMINAL LAW 5
Running Head: CRIMINAL LAW 1
The Militarization of Urban Police Forces
The power and technology utilized by the United States has increased rapidly over the recent decades, thereby increasing their degree of resemblance to military organization, especially in urban areas. Most people argue that the militarization of the urban police forces is aimed at reducing crime levels to make the people safe from criminal acts. The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence supporting the presence of increasingly militarized urban police forces, and examine its impact on crime levels. The paper also highlights the criticisms of this militaristic approach to policing, and examines whether the trend will likely continue into the future.
The militarization of the police forces is more evident in the specialized Special Weapons And Tactics (SWAT) unit that was formed to deal with the emergence of violent crimes. The evidence of an increased militarized police force was evident on October 25, 2013, when the Alameda County Sheriff Department hosted the annual Urban Shield training event that for 150 local, state, federal, and international law enforcement agencies. During this event of SWAT team training and weapons expo, vendors promoted their most recent law enforcement technologies, such as automatic and semi-automatic weapons, surveillance drones, most of which have been traditionally associated with military organizations. These police forces also possess assault rifles and armored personnel carriers that were previously reserved for the military. Surveillance drones have largely been used by the United States military in monitoring activities of suspected terrorist groups in foreign countries, and have sometimes been used in conducting attacks on suspected terrorist. The United States Department of Homeland Security claims that the purpose of the advanced training event and weapon purchase is to ensure that law enforcement personnel are prepared to fight terrorism. The SWAT unit has been employing militaristic tactics, such as violent and frightening home invasions, most of which have targeted innocent families that pose no threat to anyone. The main forces behind this militarization of police forces are the war on drugs, crime, and the antiterrorism campaign that followed the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack in the United States. The nature of the militarization of the police force was evident after the Boston Marathon bombing when the police searched people’s homes under the point of a gun; and those who resisted the search were forced out of their homes and placed under temporal custody (Purcell, 2013).
Reports released by the Federal bureau of Investigations (FBI) reveal that the militarization of the police has been successful in reducing crime rates in the United States (qtd. in Chen, 2013). The report indicates that the number of reported violent crimes per 1000, 000 people has declined from 758.2 persons in the early 1990s to 403.6 persons in 2010. During the same period, the number of police officers killed by gunfire has dropped from 70 to 50. It is however difficult to prove that these crime rates have declined as a result of the increased militarization of the police force since the federal government does not keep close track of these statistics
The militaristic approach to policing has been criticized of ineffective, unnecessary and dangerous to liberty. Most people feel that the approach is creating a culture of fear among the citizens, thereby compromising their liberties. Innocent civilians, including children have been traumatized, and even killed by this violent and frightening confrontation, such as guns being pointed directly to their faces. This approach to policing is considered unnecessary because no police officer in America has been killed by a machine gun in the recent decades. There however exist several cases where the police have killed citizens with machine guns and other assault rifles. The killing of unarmed James Rivera Junior Stockton police on July 22, 2010, by use of an assault rifle AR-15 is an indication of the harm that this policing approach can have. The explanation for the shooting is that Rivera’s car matched the description of a carjacking. The approach has also been criticized of targeting the minority groups such as the Blacks, Latinos, and the urban underclass that are often suspected of engaging in illegal drugs and weapons trade (Meeks, 2006, p. 35-38). Although this approach to policing has made most Americans feel less safe, the minority groups have largely felt that the strategy is biased against them. The militarization of the police force is also an expensive undertaking that has the United States taxpayers millions, if not billions of dollars (Hall & Coyne, 2013, p. 488). The latest surveillance equipments and weapons are usually expensive to purchase and replace once their relevance enhancing policing declines (Shank & Beavers, 2013). The advanced training events for police militarization are also expensive to organize and undertake. All these activities are considered unproductive economically, thus do not significantly contribute to the well-being of the people. The shopping frenzy in the militarization of the police has encouraged wastage of resources due to lack of accountability since the Department of Defense and that of Homeland Security are the only unaudited government departments. If this policing approach continues, citizens will continue feeling that the police are more dangerous to the public than criminals are (Roberts 2013).
The militarization of the police force will likely continue into the future because of the growing threat of domestic terrorism in the United States (Kraska, 2001, p. 42-43). The effectiveness of a militarized police force was evident during and after the April 14, 2013, Boston Marathon bombing when they combed the neighborhood of the suspected terrorist and managed to arrest him in his hiding. Drug trade that is conducted by heavily armed persons is still prevalent in the United States. Possession of illegal firearms that have been used in mass shooting is also common. To counter such incidences, the United States security organs will likely continue justifying their increased militarization of the police force in the future.
Chen, K. (2013). ACLU investigates the militarization of the US police forces. Center for Investigative Reporting. Retrieved from: http://cironline.org/blog/post/aclu-investigates-militarization-us-police-forces-4240
Hall, A. R., & Coyne, C. J. (2013). The militarization of U.S. domestic policing. The Independent Review, 17(4), 485-504. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1335091815?accountid=1611
Kraska, P. B. (2001). Militarizing the American criminal justice system: The changing roles of the armed forces and the police. Boston: Northeastern Univ. Press.
Meeks, D. (2006). Police Militarization in Urban Areas: The Obscure War Against the Underclass. Black Scholar, 35(4), 33-41.
Purcell, T. (2013, April 26). Police state on full display during Boston marathon bombing. The Brenner Brief. Retrieved from: http://www.thebrennerbrief.com/2013/04/26/police-state-on-full-display-during-boston-marathon-bombing/
Roberts, P. C. (2013, Sept. 16). Police are more dangerous to public than criminals: The biggest America faces is from its own government. Retrieved from: http://www.counterpunch.org/
Shank, M., & Beavers, E. (2013, Oct. 7). America’s police are looking more and more like the military. The Guardian. Retrieved from: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/oct/07/militarization-local-police-america
MILITARIZATION OF POLICE FORCES 6
Running head: MILITARIZATION OF POLICE FORCES 1
A prison defines a facility within which individuals that are perceived to violate the rule of law are often confined while being deprived of varying types of freedoms under the command of the state a way of punishing them. According to Richard, (2012), prisons are commonly used as a continuity of the judicial system where criminals convicted of certain offenses are usually confined until they complete their term of incarceration to which they were vindicated, or until they are brought to a court of law where they are often tried to determine whether they are guilty or not. Apart from being used as avenues for punishing criminals, jails can as well be used as an avenue for political repression where individuals convicted of certain political crimes are often confined without being tried in court or following any legal procedure. The use of prison for this purpose is however perceived to illegal in most types of international laws that advocate for the fair execution of justice. Prisoners of war can also be confined in military prisons while huge groups of civilians can be detained in internment camps, which are often characterized by confinement of inmates that are often chosen in generalized criteria within the limits of space or a country without a trial.
The doctrine of prisonization, which has overly been used to define the process through which inmates are often assimilated into the prevailing culture of the penitentiary, was established in the 1940s when various scholars sought to study the prison community. As a result of this establishment, the various dynamics as well as social relationships that characterize the prison culture have extensively been studied as well as documented. Although studies mainly concentrated on a generalist approach in conducting these investigations, they have recently started to adopt a more specific approach in studying the prison culture in order to promote the creation of theoretical models through which the doctrine of prison community can be analyzed. The scholars linked the concept of prisonization to the sociological aspects that were used by ancient scholars to describe the process through which individuals are often assimilated as well as socialized in varying communities within the larger society. Just as community members within any given society have to assimilate to the traditions, values, norms and customs of their respective communities, inmates equally have to assimilate to the norms, values, beliefs, and conducts of the minor prison community (Richard, 2012).
Studies have shown that prisons like the open communities within the global society have unique cultures existing within their jurisdictions (Donald, 2006). While it is obvious that the values and norms of the prison society tend to be discordant with the norms and values of the wider society, the prison culture demands that prisoners have to conform to the norms, values, and behaviors that are coined in the inmate code of conduct. Although it has overly been argued that prisonization process impacts every prisoner finding his/her way behind bars, it is obvious that different variables greatly determine the degree at which the prisonization process impacts an individual’s experience in the institution. This thus portrays the fact that prisoners often get prisonized at varying degrees depending on the various prisonization variables to which they are often exposed. While it is evident that these variables lie within the prisoner as well as the institution within which they are confined, the approach through which they get orientated into the institution often influence the way the prisonization process affect their overall conduct.
According to Christopher (2001), inmates serving in treatment-oriented institutions often portray a lower scale of prisonization compared to those serving in discipline-oriented facilities. The degree of prisonization can further be influenced by varying intrapersonal experiences, which can range from social interactions, work experience, and admission to the various roles that other inmates might bestow upon an individual. It is obvious that inmates with shorter periods of incarceration, stable personal attributes, and positive relationships with members of the wider society as well as those inmates that resist from engaging in undesirable behaviors prevailing within the prison jurisdictions often portray a lower degree of prisonization. Conversely, prisoners serving longer incarceration periods, as well as those having unstable personal attribute and unhealthy relationships with other inmates portraying undesirable behaviors tend to be highly prisonized. While the characteristics influencing the degree of prisonization may be distinct between as well as within the inmates, the process of assimilation into prison values and norms often occurs at different rates among various inmates. Although different studies have gained a great deal in significance in explaining varying aspects of prison community, they have greatly been criticized for lack of rational basis to explain the historical origin of prison culture within which the concept of prisonization is founded. Such criticisms have given rise to different theoretical models that have been coined within the contemporary penology to explain the possible origins of the doctrine of prison culture, which helps to understand the process of prisonization.
The deprivation model explains that the doctrine of prison culture originates from within the prison as well as the distinct experiences that different inmates serving in these institutions may have acquired. According to Donald (2006), such experiences originate from the wide range of deprivations that prisoners face as they pursue to handle experiences for each day. The provision of this model however proved insufficient since they could not explain the varying types of deprivation that the inmates faced. A study conducted by Adetula (2010) however sought to address these deficiencies by outlining the various deprivations that prisoners might face thereby paving way for the development of prison culture. He explained that prisoners are often deprived of freedom, access to material goods and services, enjoyment to heterosexual relationships, security, and autonomous freedom. He views deprivation of liberty as going beyond simplistic denial of civil rights in that a person is often denied the right to decide about the most basic things of life including when to eat, take a bath, sleep or recreate. This portrays how prisoners can adjust to varying patterns of life that are distinct to that which might be governing interaction in wider community thereby paving way for a unique culture of the prison.
He also defined deprivation of material goods and services as including the overall inability by inmates to access or use certain goods or services that are available in the community in the same manner that they could freely access and use if they could have been free. This explains the fact that such individuals may tend to express their authority over the resources that might be readily available within the prison, which may subsequently trigger the development of certain values, behaviors, and beliefs that are characteristic of the prison culture. Adetula further defined the denial of the freedom to engage in heterosexual relationships as involving the inability of male inmates to enjoy female companionship while serving behind bars. He explains that the only available intimate companionship for the males serving behind bars is that which can be offered by other men, and this may lead the male victims who may often be involved in heterosexual relationships to question their manliness. While is it obvious that heterosexual men may tend to define their sexuality through the interactions they develop with women, deprivation of this type of relationships may lead to these inmates losing some sense of their self-concept, which may subsequently trigger their ultimate decisions to assimilate certain values, beliefs and behaviors that are unique to the prison culture. He further views deprivation for independence as emanating from denial of liberty in that inmates may realize that the state as well as the legal authority in prison has taken complete control over their lives, which denies them the freedom to make basic decisions relating to their lives. This often lowers inmates to a level of childlike helplessness, which may subsequently influence their overall ability to express their capabilities in varying aspects of life upon release. Deprivation of security has equally been used to explain the varying aspects of life behind bars that can attribute to development of prison culture. Adetula has defined deprivation of security as involving the overall inability by inmates to be guaranteed of personal safety while serving behind bars.
The importation model, which views the unique values, beliefs, behaviors and conduct that are often expressed by inmates as having originated from the collection of varying characteristics that inmates bring into the prison upon admission has equally been used to explain the origin of prison culture. While the deprivation model has received a significant level of criticism as scholars seek to develop a theoretical framework through which the origin and development of prison culture can be explained, scholars have adopted the inmates’ behaviors and conducts before incarnation as the core factors that contribute to the development of varying dynamics as well as relationships that give rise to the prison culture. This model does not perceive prison as an overall cultural system that has common values, but on the contrary, it views prison as having several subcultures that tend to conflict with one another on the basis of values and norms. The subcultures often emanate from the multiple subcultures that develop within the wider community as well as the individual characteristics that different inmates might have. While these subcultures are often imported within the prison walls, they violate the common processes prevailing in the institution as each of the conflicting cultural groups seek to strengthen their values, beliefs, norms and behaviors.
According to Smaal (2007), the conflicting prison subcultures can include the robber, the criminal and the straight subcultures, which may prevail in constant competition as each one of them seek to express itself above other subcultures. He explains that prisoners professing to the robber culture within the prison walls tend to submit to the norms, values, and behaviors that are often adopted by robbers in the criminal world. While these may often develop the basic values of interdependence and trustworthiness, they tend to use other robbers serving behind bars as their basic reference group. They thus adhere to the norms, values, and codes of these groups rather than the inmate code, which may be used to describe the wider culture of the prison society. Inmates adhering to the convicts’ subculture on the other hand adhere to the inmate code of conduct, as these include prisoners that have been brought up in the prison system. The values of this subculture are however imported from the external community particularly following the varying influences rendered by individual inmates who bring with them distinct characteristics upon admission. The straight subculture is characterized by normal values, behaviors, and beliefs that are mostly expressed by first time offenders who tend to find it challenging to assimilate the deviant behaviors that are inherently intertwined within the prison institution. These tend to identify with the compliant values of the administrative officers within the prison, which gives them a significant opportunity to access educational and rehabilitative services while serving behind bars.
The integrated model has also been employed to explain the concept of prison culture since it has been perceived to integrate the deprivation and imported models, which scholars have perceived as being complementary rather than opposing each other. The model recognizes the fact that while inmates may undergo painful experiences in their attempt to assimilate the life behind bars, they may as well cause significant influence upon the values, beliefs, and behaviors of those serving behind bars, which may often be attributed by their conflicting personalities as well as past experiences that find their way into the institution. According to Drain (2013), the integrated model states that prison culture may as well be influenced by additional factors including prison environment, family visits and prisoners’ coping behaviors.
Although a keen analysis of the various models that seek to explain the origin of prison culture can help to understand the social structure within the prison institution, it is obvious that such models were formulated within limited circumstances, which did not address various aspects of the contemporary inmate subculture. While the deprivation, importation, and integrated models of prison culture may have been formulated within a limited context where they only explain the development of social structures within the male prisons, contemporary scholars have conversely studied women’s institutions in order to understand the social structures prevailing within the contemporary prison culture. According to Grekul (2009), social structures within the female prison institutions often prevail in the form of pseudofamilies, which are often characterized by development of close ties between the inmates. Although the pseudofamilies are often characterized by close sexual relations between the female inmates, they may sometimes include close emotional relationships that do not portray any aspect physical or sexual contact. The pseudofamilies are often used to address the various types of deprivation that inmates may experience during their term in prison, thereby easing the painful experience of imprisonment. Grekul (2009) explained that women can use the pseudofamilies to gain some sense of autonomy that they may have previously been deprived while on the other hand promoting some sense of security and trust among their fellow inmates. Relationships in the pseudofamilies may as well be used to ease the pressure that inmates might experience from the deprivation of enjoyment in heterosexual relationships. The pseudofamilies are often used as avenues for practicing gender roles that inmates may have derived from the external environment, which paves way for the rapid expansion of pre-prison identities that inmates may carry into the prison.
Scholars have also analyzed varying characteristics of prison culture in order to understand the values, beliefs, and norms that govern relationships within the prison institution. According to Michael (2003), the prison subculture is characterized by a fluid code of conduct, which is a pre-determined standard of behavior to govern relationships between the inmates as well as with the institution’s authorities. The code of conduct, which is sometimes referred to as the convict code defines the desirable behavioral characteristics accredited to a true convict. While the convict code defines the type of respect that ought to be given to the prisoners that prove worthwhile to be called a convict, it defines the oppositional values that convicts ought to portray towards the conformist society in general and the prison rulers in particular.
Inmates perceive corporation of any prisoner acting as a snitch with the prison authorities as the most volatile act that can violate the convict code of conduct. A major undertaking that a snitch can portray in the effort to violate the convict code can include revealing the deviant behaviors and activities of other inmates to the prison authorities in exchange of certain personalized favors. According to Michael, a snitch is thus considered to be the lowest individuals in the prison community, and as such, they cannot be afforded any kind of respect. These are often treated as the greatest enemies of deviant inmates, and they are often targeted during riots, as these present a significant opportunity during which the deviant inmates can mistreat them. While snitches are often perceived to threaten the survival of inmates that pursue to gain control of the prison institution by leading deviant gangs in varying noncompliant behaviors, they tend to be singled out as well as rejected.
Language equally marks a distinctive attribute of the prison subculture as prisoners often have a unique language that distinguishes them from members of the wider community. According to Michael (2003), inmates often use colorful terms to refer to weapons, people in authority, snitches, incarceration, and sentences among other prison-related terms. The prison argot that is often used to define various categories of inmates particularly defines the varying roles that different inmates play in perpetuating the prison subculture. While inmates tend to interact with each other on the basis of the distinct roles played by different inmates, the prison argot can as well provide a basis upon which prisoners organize themselves in order to perpetuate certain activities within the prison. A study carried out by Drain (2013) showed that distinctive roles between two groups of inmates defined as the merchants and the gorillas in the New Jersey State Prison played an important role in promoting the prison subculture in the institution. While the merchants perpetuated the trade culture within the institution by selling as well as buying contraband by use of cigarettes as the medium of exchange, the gorillas perpetuated the culture of robbery by stealing desirable goods from weaker inmates. Drain further identified a common argot that was used within the prison to describe major players in promoting sexual relationships. The term wolves was commonly used to describe older prisoners that played an aggressive role in coercing weaker victims that would commonly be referred to as punks to engage in sexual relations. The wolves and punks would thus engage in homosexuality, which was perceived to be a situational adjustment to the severe deprivation of enjoyment in heterosexual relationships. The term fags was commonly used to describe inmates that were practicing homosexuality prior to their incarceration, and as such, they continued to perpetuate the practice within the institution.
Rape among other forms of sexual abuse is equally a major attribute of the prison subculture. According to Adetula (2010), female inmates report high rates of rape and sexual abuse while serving behind bars, which has been attributed to varying forms of aggression portrayed by prison officials. A study carried out by Bureau of Justice in 2008 showed that more than 216,000 inmates were sexually abused in various prison institutions in the United States (Richard, 2012). While female inmates often face severe sexual violence expressed through rape, battering and groping, prison staff equally violates their rights to privacy by observing them while they undress or go to bathroom. This renders the female inmates to assimilate the sexual misconducts since they get conditioned to respond to this form of coercion through acquiescing so as to avoid further harassment.
Prison subculture can equally be characterized by the illegal trade expressed through the exchange goods and services by the most influential inmates that are commonly referred to as the swag men. According to Michael (2003), the swag men often dominate the most significant prison ventures including drug smuggling and gambling that is often perpetuated by the use of force and coercion. The swag men often work single handedly or in the company of other inmates where they can purchase, sell or smuggle luxurious goods including drugs and food. While the swag men tend to have a clear track of the various people they engage in their trade with, inmates tend to categorize themselves into different groups of thieves, drug addicts, and con artists. The prison culture can equally be characterized by certain categories of disorganized criminals, including criminals that tend to lack any form of specialization or distinctive role through which they can be identified.
Although prisoners have primarily been established with the central aim of promoting reform among individuals perceived to violate the law, evidence indicates that it might be difficult to control influx of deviant behaviors as inmates portray certain behaviors, beliefs, values, and conduct that contribute to the development of prison culture. While the concept of prisonization has continued to gain significance as the prison population continues to grow, varying models have been put in place to describe the origin of prison culture. Different models have shown that factors contributing to the development of prison culture can be triggered by varying types of deprivation including deprivation to autonomy, security, liberty, sexual relationships, and access to material goods and services. Importation of different attributes expressed by individuals prior to their incarceration can contribute to development of prison culture as conflicting subcultures seek to gain dominance within the prison institution. The integrated model was established to further explain the development of prison culture in that it states that the various factors contributing to this development can emanate from within the institution as well as from the wider community. Different attributes expressed in the form of language, values, behaviors and attitudes have been closely related to prison culture since inmates adopt their varying aspects to portray certain characteristics that are distinct to the prison community.
The Prison Subsystem Culture: It’s Attitudinal Effects on Operatives, Convicts, and the Free Society, 18(1):40-60.
Christopher, D. (2001). Forecasting Sexual Abuse in Prison: The Prison Subculture of Masculinity as a Backdrop for Deliberate Indifference, Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 1(1): 58-80.
Donald, R. (2006). Theoretical Studies in Social Organization of the Prison, Social Science Research Council, New York.
Drain, E. (2013). The Meaning of Imprisonment, The Yale law Journal, 122(7): 12-32.
Grekul, J. (2009). Pluralistic Ignorance in a Prison Community, Canadian Journal of Criminology, 41(1): 29-61.
Michael, S. (2003). Profiles from Prison: Adjusting to Life behind bars, Praeger, Westport, CT.
Richard, W. (2012). Situational Prison Control: Crime Prevention in Correctional Institutions, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Victoria, D. (2008). Living Inside Prison Walls: Adjustment Behavior, Praeger, Westport, CT.
PRISON CULTURE 5
Running head: PRISON CULTURE 1
Canadian Criminal Law and Canadian Family Law
Part 1: Criminal Law
One of the major factors that keeps attracting public debate and raising concerns in the Canadian Judicial system is the sentencing and punishment given to those who have been convicted as offenders by the courts. This has always been in the forms of offenders being sentenced to jail custody, being released of being pardoned due to various reasons as will be evident in this paper. A clear analysis of the sample cases provided on criminal law reveals that the judicial system in Canada is more categorical when dealing with those offenders who are either repeating a crime for the second time or those who have committed what is regarded as a serious crime even for the first time. This is evident from the various verdicts passed that seem to indicate prolonged periods of incarceration for the offenders.
The cases on Ferguson and Readhead also provide an insight to the key purposes of sentencing those convicted of criminal law offenses in Canada, and across the globe. To begin with, it is clear that offenders are sentenced for purposes of denunciation. This is done to ensure that the type of punishment or verdict given by the judge actually reflects some level of proportionality with the kind of crime done. The Canadian Criminal Code also sentences crime offenders to promote deterrence. This implies that the judicial system, by sentencing criminals to custody aim at reducing the levels of crimes being committed in the society as the accused, their family and all other citizens are likely to learn lessons from those sentenced and keep off repeating similar mistakes that could land them on the wrong side of the law. The other concern that makes judges to sentence the accused like in the Readhead case is to protect the public. This is often achieved through the process of incarcerating the offender or even imposing certain conditions to exercise control over their conduct within the community especially in cases where their behavior is perceived to be dangerous to the well being of the people and safety.
Another reason for sentencing offenders is rehabilitation, perceived to be for their own good, so they may have an opportunity to transform and become better persons whose activities can be productive and contribute to the economic development of the nation. The Canadian Code also outlines two extra reasons for sentencing to be those of reparation and demonstrating responsibility. Offenders are sentenced to reparation so as to provide a platform to have the community and the victims involved compensated for the loss they have encountered or harm experienced. For responsibility, sentencing makes the offender accept and be more accountable for the wrong committed against the victims and families involved or the entire community. The section below gives a deeper analysis on the cases and expands on these purposes of sentencing in reference to the actual cases in line with the judgments given by the courts.
The Readhead Case
The case between Regina and Ross Readhead was presented before the Court of Appeal in 2006 before a bench of three judges. He was accused and convicted of not only being in possession but also producing Marijuana with the sole purpose of drug trafficking. An initial verdict is given that he should be jailed for two and a half years. The judge initially mentioned that the offender deserves a higher period of being sentenced in prison compared to the outlined maximum two years. The judge’s argument was that this would serve the greater good in deterring similar offenses from recurring. Another argument is that the accused had previously been accused of drug substance farming. I disagree with the judge’s logic reasoning that the average sentence for Readhead ought to be longer than the set two years. To begin with, the judge erred by acknowledging that the different approaches of the sentences encroached for similar offences, and the repeated reference in most of the court powers regarding the sentences infringed by the courts did not seem to have been adequate in deterring those propelled by greed from committing similar crimes in the communities. This implies that even the sentences issued by the courts were less effective in serving the very purpose of sentencing criminals like Readhead thus there was no need to give him a longer sentence. I also disagree with the decision of the court to later reduce his jail term from 2.5 years back down to 2 years less a day. This means that Readhead should have simply served the sentence in jail as expected. Prior to taking such a consideration, the court ought to have reviewed the past criminal record of the offender, which indicated that he had also been accused of growing marijuana and evidence found in his home compound by detectives before. The defense leveled by his counsel that he had been engaged in that business several years ago due to his state of unemployment is weak because he could not use the same defense of lacking a job 12 years since his last conviction of a similar crime (Court of Appeal for British Columbia, 2008).
The Michael Esty Ferguson case on the other hand involves the offender who was charged with manslaughter by a using a firearm; the minimum penalty for this offense in a normal case is always four years’ incarceration. Nonetheless he was granted an exception to that minimum and sentenced to a 2.5 year conditional sentence. Now this is significant because not only did he get less than a minimum, he got a conditional sentence order, which isn’t actually incarceration it’s an alternative to jail that he was to serve out in the community, kind of like house arrest (Supreme Court of Canada, 2008). Nonetheless the court of appeal actually overturned that sentence and restored the 4 year conviction because they argued that the 2.5 year sentence wasn’t appropriate. In this case, I support the court’s decision to uphold the initial sentence ruling of having him sentenced to four years in prison. Unlike Readhead who case was non-violent and with no arms involved, the accused in Ferguson case used an armed weapon to commit manslaughter against Mr. Varley. This is much dangerous and he needs to be separated from the community, not only for his personal deterrence but also for the protection and safety of the people. The need for community protection against a violent offender surpasses the deterrence objective in this case. His sentence has thus served the purpose of denunciation.
In these two sentences, it is essential that the guiding principles towards the court issuing sentences are all informed by the over-arching objective that the offenders should serve sentences that are directly proportional to the level and nature of gravity of the crime committed, depending on the level of responsibility of the person accused.
Part 2-Family Law
Aspe v. Aspe case (dealing with spousal support) – the issue was that of whether it was appropriate for his spousal support payments to be increased and for him to pay retroactive payments. Final outcome was he didn’t have his support terminated, but he didn’t have it increased either nor did he have to pay anything retroactively (Court of Appeal for British Columbia, 2010).
Bain v. Bain (dealing with child support)- The issue is specifically joint custody, appropriate child support, and access rights there’s a lot of different things that are taken into account in this case think mainly about whether the best interests of the children were taken into account and how the judge took that into account and managed all the different factors (Court of Appeal, 2008). Some of the factors that were put into consideration in this case include the character of the father and the existing relationship between him and the girls. The mother’s confession that the father had never been violent and is unlikely to be further support the decision and stand taken by the court. It was also considered that the custody laws are bound to change as the children grew into adulthood and be able to make their own decisions.
Moge v. Moge (deals with divorce)- this involved the case of the husband and wife’s divorce and the issue of supporting the wife 16 years later after separation. The court dismissed the appeal that Zofia Moge should continue receiving support from her previous husband thus bringing into question the issue of self sufficiency among divorced couples in Canada (Supreme Court of Canada, 1992). It is argued that she has since been unable to financially support herself due to the after effects of her divorce. Another factor considered is her responsibility of single handedly upbringing her child, which is argued to have hindered her efforts of generating income. The major issue arising in this is whether divorce causes economic breakdown of couples after the end of the marriage. It is thus argued that such cases should include thorough analysis of the partners’ financial status before, during and after marriage to determine the effect of separation on families in Canada. The law stipulates that,
While spouses would still have an obligation after the marriage breakdown to contribute to their own support in a manner commensurate with their abilities, the ultimate goal is to alleviate the disadvantaged spouse’s economic losses as completely as possible, taking into account all the circumstances of the parties, including the advantages conferred on the other spouse during the marriage (Supreme Court,2008).
barkley v. barkely (deals with same-sex relationships)
This brings the issue that same sex marriages are a threat to the children adopted by the couple because the environment they live in is regarded as unsafe. Another factor that is strongly portrayed through this case is that the family law in Canada highly favors the legal marriages between members of the opposite sex compared to those of homosexuals. It is highly perceived that homosexual unions are a threat to the marriage institution.
Boyd, N. (2011). Canadian law: An introduction. Toronto: Nelson Education.
Court of Appeal for British Columbia. (2010). Aspe v. Aspe. 2010 BCCA 508
Court of Appeal for British Columbia. (2008). R. v. Readhead, 2008 BCCA 532.
Court of Appeal. (2008). Bain v. Bain, 2008 BCCA 49.,
Supreme Court of Canada. (1992). Supreme court of Canada – decisions: Morge vs. morge. Moge v. Moge,  3 S.C.R. 813,
Supreme Court of Canada. (2008). R. v. Ferguson 2008 SCC 6.
Running head: LAW 1
Crack and Cocaine
The use and abuse of drugs within the society is a vice which it’s legal and health effects are dire to its users, victims, and peddlers. The United States has spent billions of dollars in its war on drugs over the past decade with their efforts having little or no effect. Media campaigns, rehab centers, and societal awareness have been partially successful in reducing the effects and proliferation of the use and abuse of drugs. One drug that the US government has been battling for many decades is cocaine, with its use and presentation changing within the same period. Statistics indicate that in 2012, approximately 12 million people in the US have used cocaine in their lifetime, with 8.6 million users claiming that they have been using the drug within the past year. This shows the expansive nature for cocaine use and trafficking within the US.
Cocaine is a drug that is extracted from the coca plant that is grown in the Andes Mountains located in South America. In its pure state, the drug is white in color and its chemical reference name is sodium hydrochloride (Gwynne, Para 20). Differences between crack and cocaine lie in their mode of preparation for consumption using different chemicals or impurities. The extraction of the cocaine is usually done using a white crystalline substance that is cut to reveal fine white particles. This finished product is usually about 60% to 70% pure. Crack on the other hand is usually processed using salt (sodium hydroxide), baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) and ammonia. After processing, crack cocaine is usually 80% to 100% pure, is usually brown, yellow, or white in color, and has a wax-like solid state (Gwynne, Para 20). The main difference that arises during the processing of cocaine and crack is the removal of hydrochloride from powder cocaine, which leaves an oily substance that is then dried to become a rock-like structure. However, aside from the removal of hydrochloride, the molecular structures of crack are similar.
Crack cocaine derives its name from its mode of processing whereby, when the cocaine is heated before its consumption, it produces a cracking sound. Another difference between crack and cocaine is its mode of ingestion into the body. Crack is usually ingested through smoking the freebased product, while cocaine is usually snorted or sniffed, injected directly into the blood stream, and in some instances smoked. The smoked freebased drug, crack, is absorbed into the body faster through the nose and takes approximately 5 to 15 seconds for the user to get the high’ feeling. The effects of the drug last for approximately 10 to 15 minutes, after which the user is left depressed and with the need to ingest more crack to restore the feeling. This is one of the primary reason why the drug is considered as a hard drug since even first time users can immediately be hooked to addiction levels. Depending on the mode of ingestion into the body, cocaine takes about 10 to 15 minutes for the user to get the high’ feeling.
However, the two freebased drugs, though similar since they come from the same plant, their use is entirely different. Crack is considered as a hard drug due to its instantaneous effects when consumed. Additionally, it has many impurities and is usually packaged in smaller packs (approximately one dose), which makes it cheaper and easily affordable even to teens (approximately $5 to $20). This drug is especially popular among the black community living in the inner city and ghettos, and who are poverty stricken. Contrastingly, cocaine is especially popular among the upper and middle class members of the society, and among celebrities and Wall Street high Enders. Its high cost and lesser impurity makes it an ideal drug for these people, especially since it is lesser likely for one to become addicted to this drug as compared to crack. The differences between crack and cocaine, though its impact is highest among the African Americans and Latinos. This is due to the adverse effects, controversies, and conspiracies that the drug has been associated with since its inception or discovery.
History of Cocaine
To trace the proliferation of the use of crack cocaine, it is essential to begin by tracing the roots and history of cocaine use from its onset to its status. Cocaine was initially used by the local people of south America where it was discovered, who chewed its leaves that was a mild stimulant and had no adverse effects to their physical, mental, or psychological health, and is still used in its basic form among these people. However, it was in the 1850s that British settlers who extracted the cocaine from the leaves of the plant that discovered the drug. In the late 1800s, the drug became useful in various industries with the most widely acclaimed being in medicine and soft drink manufacture (Coke). Cocaine was initially used as an additive for soft drinks made by Coca cola in the early 20th century. In medicine, it was used to relieve pain for various ailments and for surgical purposes. However, in the 1920s, following an outburst of dependence, abuse, and addiction to the drug, the government declared the drug unfit for human consumption hence its application as a medical drug was discontinued. It also became illegal for the use, sale, or peddling of this drug.
The drug’s popularity once again became widely used and abused among the young in the late 1960s and 1970s during the rock and roll revolution. During this period, cocaine was widely abused due to its high’ nature, as well as its association with being cool’. Due to its expensive nature, Caucasian Americans that mainly lived in the urban centers and the suburbs, with its cost ranging from $50 to $100, mainly used it. During this period, the drug was inaccessible to a majority of the black community and was only affordable by the rich African American community (Ousey and Matthew 18).
In 1979, the production and processing of crack was redefined through the poverty stricken Donnell Freeway Ricky Ross, who discovered a simpler and safer method of making consumable cocaine. He used ammonia and baking soda, instead of ether, to process cocaine with the finished product being referred to as ready rock’. Initially, this rock’ was mainly sold to the rich and middle class of the society, as well as the affluent African Americans. However, this period witnessed a reduction in sales volumes of pure cocaine, which necessitated the need to change their marketing structure and increase their customer bases. Therefore, crack cocaine presented an ideal way for the drug dealers to make money.
Integration into the Black Community
This cocaine was packaged in smaller packs that were sold at cheaper prices to its users, which resulted in an increase in volumes of the amount of crack sold, as compared to cocaine. In the early 1980s, it was estimated that profits generated from sales of crack were more than double those of sales of cocaine were. Therefore, this presented an ideal business opportunity for drug dealers. Between 1980 and 1985, the proliferation of the use, sales, and abuse of the drugs among the black community increased considerably. During this period, it was estimated that approximately 30% of the black community was unemployed or underemployed. Therefore, these people were under a lot of stress to provide for their families and were mainly poverty-stricken (Grogger and Michael 524). Therefore, the introduction of crack cocaine presented a form of escape from life’s harsh realities.
However, due to the impurities of the drug, coupled with its immediate high’ effect, the drug became highly popular among this community. Additionally, the community felt represented since it was the first time that they were able to afford the drug that was initially considered as a preserve of the rich members of society especially among the Caucasian Americans. Therefore, crack’s popularity rose considerably in the mid 1980s among the African Americans living in the inner cities and ghettos such as in cities like New York, Miami, Oakland, and Los Angeles. The intense high that the drug left among its users, coupled with its safer production process that used solvents that were not flammable like ether (Ousey and Matthew 27). This meant that the drug made inroads into the ghettos with peddlers and drug barons increasing considerably within these regions.
However, the adverse effects of the use of crack among the black community were dire and negatively affected the society. Within the educational sector, the number of high school graduates between 1980 and 1990 reduced by close to 25%, especially among the male population. During this period, safety of persons living within the ghetto communities was significantly risky due to the high insecurity. The use and addiction to crack meant that its users and abusers needed to look for money, which they sourced through theft that could at times be violent.
This period also witnessed a proliferation of violent gangs whose mandate was theft and causing unrest and insecurity within the neighborhoods, due to the high’ effect of the drug coupled with the adverse withdraw symptoms from using the drug. Additionally, due to the ease of making crack, coupled with its market share, drug dealers and peddlers increased considerably. This resulted in turf wars that were violent and resulted in deaths and injuries to members of society. During this period, cases of homicide and assault increased by close to 50% among the black community. Additionally, the number of arrests increased considerably.
The high unemployment rates within the black community meant that the young were attracted to the fast enriching drug dealing business. Majority of dealers drove flashy cars and had too much money to spend, and this endeared the youth to achieve that lifestyle using all means. This resulted in massive arrests of these youth. During this period, young males had three options for their survival within the society; death, incarceration, or becoming rich through drug dealing (Vaughn, Quan, Perron, Bohnert, & Howard, 187). This can be defined as the lifestyles that the hip-hop culture portrayed through their songs. According to the black American youth, a thug’s lifestyle that was marred with drugs, money, incarceration, and danger seemed interesting and made the ghetto lifestyles to become highly sought. Hip-hop moguls like Snoop Dogg and Master P have confessed to having been endeared to these lifestyles due to the hardships of living in the ghettos. Consequently, they have produced countless songs displaying their ghetto lifestyles, its dangers, and its period of high stakes moneymaking ventures through sales of crack.
However, according to journalist Gary Webb, the proliferation of the use of crack cocaine in the 1980s among the black communities was a CIA conspiracy that was meant at alleviating poverty in the ghettos through exposure to chronic drugs that had the potential to kill people in drones. According to his articles titled the Dark Alliance, the CIA achieved this objective since thousands of blacks died either due to drug overdose or due to homicide occasioned by the turf wars existing within these neighborhoods. These articles implied that the CIA colluded with drug barons to ship and distribute crack especially to the inner cities and ghettos where a majority of African Americans lived. However, a senate hearing and investigation revealed that the CIA was not involved in such a scheme. Additionally, Gary Webb confessed that this article was merely based on personal opinion since there was a lack of concrete to prove his conspiracy theories of CIA involvement. Therefore, the effect of crack on the black community in America has been profound and has resulted in massive deaths and incarcerations. Additionally, it has resulted in the African Americans constituting one of the largest prison populations.
Gwynne, Kristen. 4 biggest myths about crack: For U.S. politicians, targeting drug users in black communities is easier than addressing poverty and unemployment. Salon. 10 August 2013. Web.
Grogger, Jeff, and Michael, Willis. The Emergence of Crack Cocaine and the Rise in Urban Crime Rates, Review of Economics and Statistics, 82(2000): 519-529.
Ousey, Graham, and Matthew, Lee. Investigating the Connections between race, illicit drug markets, and lethal violence, 1984-1997. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40 (2004): 1-32.
Vaughn, G. Michael, Fu, Quan, Perron, Brian.E., Bohnert, S. Amy, & Howard, M.Owen. Is crack cocaine use associated with greater violence than powdered cocaine use? Results from a national sample. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 36(2010): 181-186.
Offense Issues: Homicide and Rape
Offense Issues: Homicide and Rape
This paper will discuss diverse ethical considerations that require to be dealt with when managing homicide and rape investigations. The paper will also discuss how to minimize ethical dilemmas, what prosecution setbacks would arise, and the ethical concerns associated with the prosecutor in the case. Theoretically speaking, the crime of Homicide is the illegal yet unpremeditated deliberate murder of another, which may make the criminal of such a crime a sentence bigger than that of manslaughter (unintentional murder of another), but smaller than that of massacre (deliberate murder of another including premeditation). Alternatively, when an offense of Rape has been perpetrated, it connotes that the casualty was compulsorily entered in a sexual style devoid of mutual assent (M’charek, 2008).
Ethical considerations that require to be tackled when investigating Homicide & Rape
In the lawsuit of a homicide, tremendous compassion and sympathy should be accorded to the family members and companions of the victim, who would possibly be exceedingly saddened that the victim was murdered, and who might take steps as witnesses and perhaps informants for the suit. For the inquiry of an offense of rape, the investigator must be very sensitive to the rape victim, realizing that victims may be in a condition of psychological distress, and sensitively solicit the victim for the facts crucial to investigate the suspects, and for their statement which may afterward be employed as evidence when the trial proceeds to court of law (Osterburg & Ward, 2010). Additionally, beyond the interrogations and cross-examinations, an aspect of sensitivity must be in position for the compilation, conservation, and broadcast of evidence from the commencement of this practice at the sight of the offense. conscientious care ought to be employed to keep away from ruining or corruption of the proof, let alone in its compilation, but also while channeling the evidence to the relevant labs where it would be further scrutinized by evidence experts, as well as fingerprint experts, forensic diagnosticians, and DNA consultants particularly the latter when it pertains to the investigation of genetic proof of a rape (Ruscio & Holohan, 2006).
Ways of minimizing ethical problems associated with the investigation of Homicide and Rape
For homicide and rape lawsuits, the defendants should certainly be handled as not guilty until confirmed culpable in a law court. suspects should not be pressurized disproportionately for information, but should certainly be notified of their Miranda cautions before the beginning of the questioning, establishing that they comprehend that any admission of culpability and/or acknowledgment that they give the investigator during the practice of the questioning can and will be applied against them in a law court, and also that they bear the right to stay quiet, and that they bear the right to have an legal representative in attendance, even though they are not able to pay for one, and have the mandate to stop the interrogation any time once it has commenced. In the event of a rape, the injured party must not be doubted, and their testimonial proof should be handled as one stride of preceding the case down the trend in the direction of the performer’s ultimate sentence (Ruscio & Holohan, 2006).
Prosecution problems that happen when Homicide and Rape cases are presented for trial if the investigator was unethical
Whenever the investigator was unethical, several prosecution difficulties could occur. The prosecutor may possibly file a pretrial proposal for the censorship of charges, if he believes the accusations were mistaken. If not, for homicide, the prosecutor can commence an appeal deal for the reduction of accusations from the magnitude homicide to that of manslaughter. In the lawsuit of rape, when the prosecutor discovers that the investigator was unethical, he can affirm that the sexual contact was not rape, but was mutual, and the accusations could be expended, if the proof were to guide in such a direction. Concerning demographics, whenever the prosecutor of a homicide or rape lawsuit were to accuse a suspect who was mistakenly associated with the case, merely for the reason that they were close by and corresponded the demographic of a type who the investigator may have supposed would be more probable to have perpetrate the offense.
Ethical issues that are directly related to the prosecutor in Homicide and Rape cases
In respect to the prosecutor of the lawsuit, several ethical matters exist in a comparable manner to the manner that ethical matters take part in the investigator’s work. Concerning the lawsuit of homicide, the prosecutor should analyze all the facts, and where the proof is not composite, refined, or comprehensible enough to expressly point to the suspect as the perpetrator beyond reasonable shadow of doubt, he may deem it right proposing to the judge to reduce the charges, or to subdue them in total. In the lawsuit of a rape, alternatively, the prosecutor should take into consideration, in a parallel way that the lawsuit should only be brought to court on the principles of the facts available and not prosecuted founded on an individual prejudice against the suspect of the case (Williams & Johnson, 2006).
When ethical principles are not preserved, the consequences could be immense, innocent people can waste decades in prison or be emotionally injured enough that it makes them to perpetrate suicide. If we as a country fail to uphold these doctrines, our citizens will have not confidence in the country’s justice framework (Williams & Johnson, 2006). Blameless citizens will be subjected to imprisonment and suspects will enjoy the liberty to perpetrate offenses, with no panic for condemnation.
M’charek, A. (2008). Silent witness, articulate collective: DNA evidence and the inference of visible traits. Bioethics, 22(9), 519-528.
Osterburg, J. W., & Ward, R. H. (2010). Criminal investigation: A method for reconstructing the past. Elsevier.
Ruscio, A. M., & Holohan, D. R. (2006). Applying empirically supported treatments to complex cases: Ethical, empirical, and practical considerations. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 13(2), 146-162.
Williams, R., & Johnson, P. (2006). Inclusiveness, effectiveness and intrusiveness: issues in the developing uses of DNA profiling in support of criminal investigations. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 34(2), 234-247.
HOMICIDE AND RAPE 2
Running head: HOMICIDE AND RAPE 1