Smartphones comparisons: iPhone versus Galaxy
Mobile phones have turned out to be integral part of human life. Advancement in technology has transformed mobile phones from huge brick-like shape to small and stylish Smartphones, which are vastly becoming the leading computing devices in the world. There are over one billion users of Smartphones in the world and the market is still growing. This has prompted a war between Apple and Samsung. Apple used to be leading mobile manufacture with its products such as iPhone attracting a great number of consumers but the death of icon founder Steve Job’s has coincided with decline of its volume of sales. On the other hand, Samsung Galaxy series has boasted increase in volume of sales. A number of consumers are torn between the superiority of the two Smartphones. They are compared in terms of form factor, operating system, internal storage, and display resolution (Carare 294). I believe that Galaxy series are better than iPhone series.
Galaxy series S1 to S4 are made up of polycarbonate (plastic) which enhances swapping out battery. IPhone series are made up of aluminum and glass that makes them very fragile. The plastic material of Galaxy series makes them better because it can accommodate rough usage. S4 has a 5.8Super AMOLED screen with more pixel density of 441 pixel per inch compared to iPhone which has 326 pixel per inch. This provides the galaxy series with a high-resolution effort. Furthermore, Samsung colors are visible and more saturated. With the 1080p screen, Galaxy offers a better option of watching movies and playing games (Magid para. 2). S4 has a longer battery life when compared to iPhone 5. Galaxy has 14 hours of talk time and iPhone 8 hours.
Galaxy series uses Android operation system, which is more popular with Google Maps application. Google maps have been available for a very long time and it offers comprehensive and accurate mapping information with complete features such as voice-guided navigation and street view mode. Google map also offers pedestrian navigation and public transport. Galaxy series such as S3 and S4 offers Near Field Connectivity (NFC), which iPhone series do not offer. The NFC connectivity facilitates expedient short-range communication between electronic devices thus easy connection to other consumer devices. The NFC connectivity makes Galaxy series better than iPhone series. S3 and S4 have a pop up play features, which enables users to watch video through a minute floating window. This is normally located on top of other applications that are being used. This feature is not found in any of the iPhone series making Galaxy series better than iPhone series (Sharma 1965).
Galaxy series has standard mass storage and USB host capacity that facilitates easy transfer of photos. iPhone series do not have mass storage mode meaning that individuals do not have an access to file systems of connected storage. In addition, Galaxy series operating system allows third party browser engines to run the system in total contrast to iPhone series, which does not. Chrome is a third party browser engine for android; it is very fast in benchmarks and provides several user interfaces. The other browser engines are Firefox and Opera. The three browsers allow individuals to synchronize tabs between desktop and phone. Galaxy has a quad-core Snapdragon while iPhone such as iPhone 5 is dual-core. This means that Galaxy is twice as fast as iPhone (Sharma 1965).
Carare, Petru. “Unfair Competition: Samsung versus Apple.” International Journal of Innovations in Business 2.3 (2013): 293-297.
Magid, Larry. First Impressions of Samsung Galaxy S4. Forbes Magazine, March 14 2013. Web 21 October 2013 < http://www.forbes.com/sites/larrymagid/2013/03/14/first-impressions-of-samsung-galaxy-s4/>
Sharma, Kavita. “Android In Opposition To Iphone.” International Journal on Computer Science & Engineering 3.5 (2011): 1965-1969.
Insert Surname 1
Summary: Creating a Role Constantin Stanislavki
A role is played by an actor seeking to emulate physical actions being undertaken by an imaginary character in a play. The play does not have to be written as the plot episodes can be summarized in writing down play’s main points. An actor’s creativity depends on their experience, creativity, feeling when on the stage and alertness to all influencing elements. A detailed studying for a play is therefore unnecessary as an actor needs to understand a playwright’s essential ideas in order to acquire an intellectual analysis. An actor’s role is successfully achieved when one is able to direct emotions, desires and all their inner creative state. Grisha argued that studying for a play is crucial. However, Tortsov believed preparedness, attitude, physical and spiritual sensations as well as feelings in an actor when approaching a role in a play are more crucial than studying (Constantin 213).
Several students in Tortsov’s acting class however could not comprehend how actual and spiritual feelings determine an actor’s role. In order to ensure these students understood his comments, he asked them to execute a role from a play they had hardly studied. They were required to play the role based on their little knowledge they had on the play. Tortsov taught them that, an actor playing a part based on what is available, they know and believes should be enough to execute a plot’s physical objectives. An actor should therefore avoid complicating a play role by executing more than they can because; going beyond one’s power can encourage overreacting to the present nature thus go astray. An actor should therefore confine their physical powers and actions to logic and consecutiveness as well as simple objectives as the plot will unfold as a play continues (Constantin 215).
An actor has the ability and responsibility to create and kill imaginary characters. Just like in real life, when playing a play’s role, the actor should be fully aware of the phases and periods as they stimulate an action. According to Tortsov, a written play is just like a rubber stamp conventional form. It restricts an actor from executing their independent ideas and images as the authors instructions, parrot lines and actions will confine and ensure the actor plays out a role blindly. It is therefore important for actor to collaborate their ideas and images with those of the play author in order to execute a play’s objectives with the right approach and terms. The role of khlestakov according to Tortsov does not require an actor to read a script in order to execute it as expected (Constantin 220).
An actor is a human being before they are awarded a role to execute. A person has a natural way of holding communication processes. Being natural when communicating a role requires the actor to talk and engage in physical movements. Consequently, the public attention is drawn to the physical movements thus, they feel entertained. Each episode in a play should be called to an actor’s mind and assist in realizing their actions. Their actions however ought to comprise of logic and consecutiveness. An actor’s initial role does not compare with the repeated action or physical movements. This is because; secondary physical objectives and details omitted in the first stage are rehabilitated by any actor willing and seeking to achieve higher success. A trial without props can be challenging to an actor. However, with enlarged and enhanced personal imagination coupled with honesty and simplicity, it should be easy to act a role as one will decide what to do and say as the play unfolds (Constantin 221).
An actor’s actions especially communicative and physical movements should be truthful and useful. According to Tortsov, achieving these two qualities requires having a purpose, listening and acting out inner impulses as well as being prepared to apply creativity. For example, a play with an imaginary character called Khlestakov requires an actor to see the future. In reality however, Khlestakov can neither know nor tell what the future holds. An actor is obliged to be prepared in creating a future as soon as the first scene in a play is complete. Based on the created circumstances, all consecutive scenes will be executed based on the actor’s imaginary future, concentration and attention into the play’s future. This forms two differences in a role; judging and approaching a role as an own individual and as a different person. The play’s author, director and drama critic do not play a major part in an actor’s ability to execute a role as one is required to interpret their objective as an individual. Based an individual’s ability, they grasp the concept into their mind in order to develop feelings, desires and inner personal elements required to execute a role as needed. Imaginary characters are therefore created from physical and spiritual willingness of an actor (Constantin 231).
In order to reduce and eliminate clichés in a play, an actor is advised to revise the entire play severally. Replaying scenes, units, objectives and all elements an actor has accessibility to will ensure; actions correspond, an individual gets accustomed to them and through logic and consecutiveness, execute their role from the beginning to the end from an external physical being. This is because; an imaginary character physical being, objectives, movements and circumstances are similar to an actor. They should therefore be justified inwardly and externally, reinforced by an actor’s faith and completed parallel with physical actions, emotions and subconscious (Constantin 232).
Actors should always remember that; a play author utilizes living resources, human nature, past experiences, feelings and actions in order to create an imaginary character. Accomplishing the role therefore requires creativity, intellectual spiritual, physical and emotional nature that is practical and not theoretical. An actor’s role should be purely based on their ability rather than creativity powers that are beyond their authority. Meanwhile, a director’s position is to guide enthuse and stimulate an actor based on their abilities into executing a role under the right appetite (Constantin 240).
An actor is a real person executing physical movements and speeches from a play’s character who is conducting similar physical movements and objectives imaginarily. Although majority of plays are written, Tortsov does not believe one has to read and rehearse in order to grasp the concept of a role although he believes rehearsing eliminate clichés. He also believes being prepared; human and creative is crucial in executing and accomplishing a role easily and magnificently. How a person reacts to real life happenings is similar to a play’s plot. It is neither complex nor impossible for any individual to execute a role without acquiring proper training or rehearsal. All they require is playing imaginary character’s actions into real life like they lead their natural lives. Rehearsals are therefore performed to perfect a role without necessarily changing an actor’s physical and spiritual preparedness and creativity.
Constantin, Stanislavski. Creating a Role, New York, Theatre Arts Books, 2009. Print.
How does the Global Political Economy’ affect you in your professional lives and personal lives of a movie producer?
Global political economy affects professional and personal lives of all individuals whether they are in employment, business, retired or unemployment. However, the effect varies from one group to another depending on the nature of economic activities they participate in. the global political economy affects the lives of individuals because of the relationship between income and prices, consumption and saving and savings and interprets rates. There is also the issue of inflation, which influences prices of commodities and interest rates. All these changes affect the decision making of a consumer, which in turn influences the market demand for goods and services (Møller 2009; World Bank 2009). The entertainment industry has witnessed major effects of global political economy due to its international outlook and popularity across all cultures.
This paper is questioning the effect of the global political economy, GPE concepts on my personal and professional life as a movie producer. The paper will narrow down to the impact of global competition as a result on the professional lives of actors and movie producers, the influence of culture and hegemony on the content of movies, and the effect of commodification of movies on individual freedom and self interest of actors. The impact of the claims are discussed and analyzed in the paper to help derive solutions for the potential problems or challenges posed by the new economic order as explained by GPE concepts. The argument in this discussion is that global political economy has more negative than impact on the personal lives of movie producers than positive effects (Levy 2008, p.957). On the other hand, global political economy tends to influence the lives of the producers more positively.
Claim One: Global Political Economy Concepts
Global political economy has increased in relevance with increased integrations and integration in the international community. Its concepts affect all aspects of economy, but more influence is felt on the aspects of economy that touch on culture, globalization, technology and international trade (Levy 2008, p.945). Globalization process can bring both negative and positive effects on professional life of a movie producer.The main GPE concepts discussed in this paper are internal competition from social interset versus society and individual freedom versus society needs. Globalization process involves global integration through movement and exchange of opinions, technology, aspects of culture, ideas, people, goods and services.
Globalization has affected the entertainment industry especially in terms of competition, distribution of movies and income effect on the professional life of movie producers (Kamat 2011, Guo 2013, p.4). Globalization is a key concept in political economy as it enables economies and producers to diffuse its products and enable communication between players in the economy. Technology is one of the most important resources that is transferred from one economy and which determines the level of globalization in an economy (Jackson 2009 p.128). GPE can affect the work of movie producer both as a channel of distribution production and diffusing information to the rest of the world.
Culture is one of the most contentious concepts of political economy, which causes difference in the way people define globalization (Viner 1948, p.10). The point of departure is between cultural diversity as transmitted in the borderless economies while another argument stands for uniculturalism where the whole world is headed towards achieving a common culture in spite of the cultural differences. The modern globalization process is based on capitalism and free trade. Capitalism promotes self-interest and individual freedom in decision-making, ownership and production without interference from government or the society. Capitalism has offered some of the major prompts and has figured in a number of the chief effects of globalization. In every economy there is a question of societal welfare and this brings a concept of individual interest versus society, and individual freedom versus common good (Mayall 1990). Many theorists suppose that people do not live in a globalized world but instead in a progressively more internationalized and inter-reliant world.
Claim Two: The Relationship between the GPE Concept and the Professional and Personal Life of a Movie Producer
The relationship between the GPE concept and professional life of a movie producer can be based on neoliberalism of a movie producer. The movement toward the neoliberal of a perfect and pure market for movie producer is made achievable by the GPE. International competition after globalization benefits producers and actors from developed economies. Globalization has enabled free movement of labor, technology and capital through free trade. Neoliberalism tends on the entire to favour cutting the economy from professional life of movie producer and thus construct an economic system that conform to its account in pure hypothesis, that is a sort of rational mechanism that presents itself as a series of constraints regulating movie producers.
The neoliberalism, when connected with the development of information technology, guarantees an exceptional mobility of capital. This gives the movie producers concerned with the short-term productivity of their investments the likelihood of permanently comparing the productivity of the prime corporations and, as a result, penalising relative setbacks of professional lives.
Competition in the movie industry within an economy has become stiff overtime, but globalization has facilitated acceptance of movie production to other economies of the world as a part of exchanging culture. Movie production in a developed economy where there is advanced technology has gained popularity in the other parts of the world that is lagging a little bit behind in terms of technology (Saull 2012, p.325-328). Movies have been used to diffuse war technology, information technology, automobile technology and medicine technology among other forms of technology around the world (Bakan 2004, p.8). The effect of this technology sharing has been a sense of increasing responsibility on the part of the movie producers as active agents of globalization. Neoliberalism has highly influenced the entertainment industry.
Neoliberalism has benefited movie producers from developed economies for three reasons: the acceptance of western culture that has been diffused through globalization, free movement of labor in a way that allows the developed economies to tap more talent and advancement of technology in such economies gives an edge in production (Jackson 2009 p.122). With the advent of technology, movies can reach to almost all corners of the world and this has seen increasing popularity of movie producers.
Claim Three: The content of movies must display culture and hegemony in the real world.
Discussion of GPE concepts cannot be complete without going into the relationship between economic and politics, because economics influence politics. Movies are a reflection of the real world society or the ideal real world situation (Taylor, 2005). (Fairbanks 2006, p.276). Movie producers find themselves in a difficult place as they have to accommodate power struggles in society. In some incidences, movies have banned the production and showing of some movies due to contradiction of power structure between the economies of the world (Giddens 2002). As a result, movie producers are becoming increasingly aware of the content of the movies.
It is upon the producers to put together a quality movie that cuts across all cultures of the world, and its economic returns will be sourced from the world (Taylor 2005, p.1030). It is also challenging to appeal to all cultures of the world, but at the same time, it gives the producer a creativity challenge by taking consideration of global issues and promoting cultural sensitivity in movie production. However, movies that are in line with western culture are more popular because globalization has enabled diffusion of culture across all economies of the world (Dannestam 2008, p.361). Both personal and professional life of a movie producer may face a setback due to cultural differences of the audience.As the producers try to fit into diverse cultutres, they are more likely to endure a chain of constraints affecting professional and personal life.
Some economic researchers argue that the concentration of markets threatens cultural diversity that should be exhibited in movies (Sheppard 2012). As a movie producer, am also faced by a challenge of understanding who to produce for and how to target the audience in the international market. Is cultural diversity extinct due to free flow of information and concentration of markets in a global village? (Callahan 2012, p, 55). What and how should I display culture in these movies? What is the effect of producing a monocultural production without being sensitive to the needs of different cultural groups? These are challenges that have come with GPE concepts in the entertainment industry. Focusing on one group can be seen as promoting one culture westernization over other cultures of the world (Foley 2012, p.252). Generally, the content of the movie must reveal the struggle of power and diffusion of culture from one society to another. In this regard, producing responsible content affects the private life of individuals
Claim Four: Commodification of Movies and Its Effect With Relation To Globalization and Culture
Movie production plays a very significance role in both culture and globalization. The movie industry is a multi-billion sector globally whose popularity grows by day with the expansion of the global village. As movie producers attempt to cater for an international audience, they also need to address a specific culture of a certain population. As mentioned earlier, movie producers have been said to be one of the most agents of diffusing and sharing culture in the global village. This in turn has had a huge impact on the private and professional lives of movie producers. For instance, what side do they lean to in term of glocalization (promoting local culture in movie production) and globalization (promoting common culture across the globe). Second, it is also important to establish the impact of both culture and globalization on their personal and professional lives.
In spite of globalization, cultural diversity is still rife in the world as many societies of the world hang on their cultural practices even as they try to modernize their way of living and borrowing new culture. Movie producers have to learn a new culture every time a movie is produced because culture is part of humanity. As producers explore different cultures, they have learnt to become more cultural sensitive in both their personal and professional lives. For instance, sometimes it involves learning new language and cultural practices. It has an impact on the behavior of movie producers and how their interaction with the rest of the world.
Producers with better understanding of cultural diversity are better placed in promoting entertaining and cultural awareness at the same time. At times, movies are used to highlight some weaknesses in cultural practices that undermine the development and well-being of some sections of the society. In this light, the movie producer goes beyond his professional duties to serve a more important function in the society that will have a positive impact on other people.
Claim Five: Challenge to the Status Quo
Culture as a GPE concept has the greatest influence on both professional and personal lives of movie producers. As much as cultural integration is part of GPE, the question of cultural diversity in the content of movies and whether the producers should give content that promotes one culture or one that recognizes all cultures has loomed for a long time (Krasner 1976, p.4). Movie producers have been criticized for glorifying western culture and exhibiting it as superior than other cultures of the world (Bakker, 2012, p.323). This can be challenged by promoting cultural diversity and cultural sensitivity in production. Although the use of culture depends on the theme of the movie of the movie, it is important to avoid a notion that westernization is akin to globalization.
Self-interest versus society and society versus individual freedom also creates a difficult and personal environment for movie producers. Self-interest and individual freedom in movie production can be expressed through protection of intellectual property. While this a protection like any other, society considers it as commodification of societal environment and hence property rights are not respected (Krugman 1947). This challenge can be addressed by creating awareness on intellectual property and strengthening property rights across the globe. The U.S. and the U.K have made great strides towards this effort but remains a big challenge for other players in the political economy.
GPE concept also is indicative of uneven development emanating from the movie industry in different economies of the world. Producers from developed economies that have advanced technology tend to benefit more compared to those from less developed economies (Callahan 2012). Movie producers from less developed economies can import technology from developed economies to keep at par with producers from developed technology. Alternatively, they can also import talent from developed economies.
International competition due to globalization, culture, technology, individual freedom versus society and self-interest versus agreed are major factors affecting the professional and personal lives of movie producers, while some affect their lives positively, others have negative effect on their lives. International competition and technology have a positive influence. Culture and self-interest versus have a negative effect on the private and professional lives of movie producers. these changes can be addressed through cultural sensitivity in production.
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Global Political Economy Concepts 5
Violent Video games and Aggression in Children
Play is an important part of a child’s life. Most of the traditional types of game that involved the physical activity of a child have been replaced by modern day games that mostly engage the mind. Examples are the video games. Children’s video games have been in the market for the last 30 years, and with each passing year, they are becoming much more sophisticated and demand much of the players’ active participation, as opposed to passively watching the game as though one was watching a movie. This active participation creates an avenue through which the children become violent because the script requires violence if the participant is to move on to a higher level of the game.
Since the aggressive behavior is constantly repeated in the video game, it is understood that the child playing the game will in one way or another, consciously or unconsciously pick the clues and patterns of violence (Signorielli, 2005, p. 36-37).
It is therefore categorically correct to say that it is through repetition that the acts of violence are reinforced within an individual’s mind as a way of learning. This is known as a first-person video game, in which the players imitate a certain character, and therefore have the free will to make decisions on what they may want to imitate. Many children will not have the moral capacity to decide not to imitate acts of violence, as out of curiosity they may want to experiment and find out how it is like to be violent. This violence is acquired through mechanically major aggressive thoughts.
One of the positive impact video games are said to have on children is that they may improve a player’s manual agility and computer prowess. The new and many developments in technology also provide video game users with improved graphics that offer a more practical playing exposure. This feature makes the video game production business a powerful venture that is influencing forcefully in many adolescent lives. Contrastingly, several studies show that there is a strong correlation between violent video games, and aggression in children and teenagers. Many studies have been conducted, since there is a growing concern on the manner in which children are turning out to be aggressive because of too much exposure to these games. These studies also show that there is a constant increase in violent behavior in children, which can comfortably be associated with the amount of time children exposed to and participate in these video games (Kirsh, 2006, p. 245).
In a certain study, it was established that many parents are too busy to take note of these setbacks and hardly take time to impose a time limit on the length of time their children and teenagers are allowed to get involved with these video games. The study also exhibited that many guardians and parents are usually not conscious of the substance of the games or what the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) recommends as the normal rating of a child’s involvement or engagement in these video games. In another study, it was established that girls in their adolescent ages participated in video games for at least five hours every week, while their counterparts, teenage boys, averaged thirteen hours a week.
The researchers on the study also put forth that children or teenagers who play violent video games for a long continued period have the tendency to become very hostile and aggressive in a negative fashion, compared to their counterparts who do not play violent games. This aggression is in many cases exhibited through constant fights with peers, sometimes for no apparent reason. Such children and teenagers also tend to be confrontational with authority figures, teachers especially. Since these children are always bitter and develop a negative hostile attitude towards teachers, there is in many cases a clear evidence of decline in academic performance and other extra curricula achievements. Studies show that anyone who has previously been exposed to episodes of violence is more likely to respond with an increased level of aggression when confronted by life circumstances, be they physical or psychological (Gentile, 2003, p. 134-135).
Many parents and guardians may want to argue that violent video games are not solely to blame for aggression in their children. Some may want to blame this on genetic factors, probably even claim that their children have acquired the characteristics of violence and aggression from them. While this may be true, there is need to acknowledge that violent video games contribute a given percentage, which can be curbed if children are monitored and restricted on the amount of time they can spend on such games. A number of associations have come together and are strongly advising parents to take control and be in charge of the games that their children play. They caution parents that this kind of exposure can have long-term irreversible effects on children, which may render them incapable of having normal healthy relationships with peers and the society as a whole. These associations include American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Child and Adolescence Psychiatry and the American Medical Association.
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Violent Video Games 2
Promotion Strategy for Vimto Drink Product (GCC)
The promotion strategy used by Vimto consists of promotion objectives, message and creative strategy as well as promotion mix.
Promotion objectives are particular goals which have to be attained by the company through a variety of marketing activities.
The new products from the company are more often than not unrecognized to the market and it means that the company is needed to make use of promotional hard works that can focus on setting up the characteristics of the new products. The person concerned with marketing of the company has to make certain that they reach customers and tell what they have to offer. Since there is no company that can survive with no awareness for itself and brands, Vimto is using all forms of advertising like print media, television, radio, and direct marketing to build awareness. See the exhibit below
Adopted from (www.roseconfectionery.ie)
Vimto designs its promotional activities to help out their customers in the hunt period of the buying process. While introducing the Vimto juice for kids, the company realized that they had few competitors and launched new bottle to make the indispensable consciousness to produce high sales at some stage in the back to school days. In the other circumstances where the company products compete in the existing market, the company uses in sequence promotion to help in product placing strategy (dubailynx.com, 2012).
Vimto is using promotion to help in establishing a well-built relationship to their customers who purchases their products and make them to become loyal. The company launched in national television campaign that is intended to strengthen the brands taste testimonials (www.grocerytrader.co.uk).
Message and Creative Strategy
The focal point on generating messages that can induce customers that necessitate subsists has been the trademark of marketing with promotional pleads embattled at fundamental human characteristics like fears, humor, emotions and sex. The company has designed a new advertisement that reinforces the brand feel recommendations. The advert illustrates a new creative implementation of the Shlurple the Purple campaign. This advert shows emotional add-on whereby Vimto drinkers have unique taste and fun in drinking the company. By reflecting the sense of fun in the advert, there is the adventure of school boy called Billy during swimming pool trip. Billy gets himself in an awkward state when he packed underpants for his father as an alternative of his own swimming suit. Subsequent to a speedy Shlurple of his Vimto, the boy emerges the win of the day when he used the pants as a spur-of-the-moment parachute while making his way off a pitching board. The advert settles factual to the idiosyncratic principle that has set the trade name at a distance amongst its family viewers (www.grocerytrader.co.uk).
In order to market their products, Vimto is employing advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, public relations, sponsorship, and direct response. The promotion mix that is there is seen when the company is using sales promotion. The consumers of the company drinks will not decide to buy the company products just on the basis of advertisement. Under such situation, the company will prefer to employ personal selling. But in other circumstances when the customers buying the drinks from the company have less or no contact with the company sales persons, they will be influenced very much by the advertisements (hubpages.com, 2012).
Mix of push and pull
There is a mix of pull and push strategy for Vimto products
The push strategy is quite appropriate with low brands awareness
The pull strategy is suitable for high involvement in category and customers looking for product difference.
dubailynx.com. (2012). Winners & Shortlists – 2012 Media retrieved May 28, 2012 from
hubpages.com. (2012). Elements of Promotion Mix or promotional mix retrieved May 28, 2012 from http://youcanwin.hubpages.com/hub/Promotion-Mix
www.grocerytrader.co.uk. (n.d.). Vimto Reveals More Shlurping Secrets in new national advertising campaign retrieved May 28, 2012 from http://www.grocerytrader.co.uk/News/May_2006/D_Vimto.html
www.roseconfectionery.ie. (2012). Vimto 2012 retrieved May 28, 2012 from http://www.roseconfectionery.ie/_pdf/Vimto2012v1.pdf
Promotion Strategy 4
Film Review: The House I live in
Summarize the overall message of the film The film has been directed by Eugene Jarecki and focuses on how the system of criminal justice in America, and the overall drug policy of the country is dealing with the social political challenge of drugs in line with human rights implications. The director uses a more personalized way of storytelling by portraying the story of one African American who is working as a mere house keeper that eventually loses her son to drugs, heroin in this case. The documentary explores the various risks that prohibit the people’s freedom and the human rights violations that those regarded as addicts and suspects undergo.
The movie implies that the war on drugs has been actively perpetuated for over the last four decades since 1960s and a climax from the 1970s, which has seen millions of drug addicts get arrested, convicted and even jailed. The irony is that the arrests and prosecution seem only to worsen the matter because for drug addict that is jailed, the result seems to be a family institution that is destroyed. This also portrays the loopholes in the system because despite the prisons being flooded by drug addicts, the business of selling illegal drugs is booming and has even been extended to the school yards of minors. Jarecki, through the characters in the film is implying that the challenge is not in the selling of illegal drugs but on the war being propagated against drugs that has resulted into worse situations. This is because it is being done in a draconian way that tears families apart rather than provide lasting solutions, especially to the minority groups and the poor population like the African-Americans.
Authorities used in the film, and their institutional affiliations
Jarecki tries to highlight all the sides that are engaged in the challenge of illegal drug business. The family as an institution suffers a big blow when their members, in this case, sons are lost to drugs. They literally lose them as a result of being locked away in prisons to serve long sentences despite having committed non-violent crimes but by simply being drug addicts. The judiciary is another institution that gives sentences to those arrested to serve in prisons. He portrays the institution as almost inhuman for issuing long sentences to non-violent drug addicts. The law enforcers or the police force is another institution that is portrayed as one that carelessly makes arrests of petty offenders with a motive of boosting their records of arrest and come across as active, an initiative that may get some police drug officers promoted due to their commitment’ to the fight against drugs.
How much of the problem is a result of profit seeking behavior by businesses. Give four examples
The war against drugs in the film is displayed as both expensive and draconian in nature, which has partly failed. Not only does it target the poor families but the idea of congesting prisons with petty offenders who are non-violent drug addicts to serve very long sentences is a profitable business to the big companies that provide building and supply chain services to the American prisons. Those who are the senior officials and drug barons are also out to make profits by selling the illegal drugs to the low level families due to their own selfish interest of getting rich at the expense of others. Police officers are also making the arrests to boost their personal profiles and get promotions in line of their businesses.
Which President is most responsible for creating the full-blown War on Drugs? To what extent is The War on Drugs a product of political ambitions? Explain
The war on drugs was initiated during the tenure of President Richard Nixon who, launched the initiative during in his first term in office and declared that there was need for provision of medical treatment and possible rehabilitation services to back up the criminal penalties given to the drug addicts. Politicians have since feared to talk against this war on drugs and for the major reason that they may be looked at as having soften their stand on crime. Jim Webb, a Senator from Virginia was opposed to the government’s system of fighting drugs.
Why did California outlaw opium? How does this parallel the outlawing of cocaine and marijuana? Discuss the larger, underlying social evil.
The social evil underlying cases of drug prohibition as portrayed involves the issue of race. California outlawed the use of opium, because the Chinese, regarded as a minority group used it. Cocaine and marijuana were also being cracked down as the African Americans were highly attributed to its consumption.
Personal Reaction to the film
I think the director has used high levels of creativity to give the world a real picture on how the war on drugs is conducted, not just in America but other developed countries. Jarecki uses his characters to put across the point that the war on drugs is being propelled by key personalities and institutions for their own selfish gains at the expense of the poor drug addicts and their families, thus the continued issues of racial hatred and family disintegrations. I think it has highlighted not only the loop holes in the system but also the overall failure of the American government to tackle the issue over the last four decades.
Bill Gates Life, Success, and Creative Products
Bill Gates comes from an entrepreneurship family. He was born in Seattle, Washington on October 28, 1955. Bill Gates’ father, William H. Gates II is a Seattle attorney and his late mother, Mary Gates, was a school teacher. Bill Gates developed an early interest in software. He began programming computers when he was thirteen years. Bill Gates joined Harvard University in 1973 and while still a student, he wrote a version of the programming language BASIC for the MITS Altair microcomputer. Bill Gates enjoyed a normal childhood. He met Paul Allen at Lakeside University and at the age of fifteen, he developed a traffic monitoring computer program (Leslie 126).
Bill Gates dropped out of Harvard University in 1975 and began a career in software design with his childhood friend Paul Allen. The two friends planned to develop software for the up-and-coming personal computer market. Bill Gate’s company, Microsoft, became well-known for computer operating systems as well as business deals. He decided to talk to IBM to let his company Microsoft keep hold of the licensing rights to MS-DOS. MS-DOS is an operating system that was needed by IBM for their newly acquired personal computers. Bill Gates went ahead to make a lot of money from the licensing of MS-DOS. In 1983, Microsoft Corporation officially launched a Microsoft Windows that was supposed to be the next-generation operating system. The year 1994 saw Bill Gates marry Melinda French Gates. Bill Gates and his wife, Melinda, have endowed the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to support philanthropic initiatives in global health and learning (Dearlove).
Bill Gates is actually enthralled with advances in science that are interrelated to computing. Bill Gates studies them with a good eye for seeing how such advances can be integrated together in such a way that could combine software and hardware. What is more, Bill Gates had a perfect vision and one day he told the world, Every business and household must have a computer and must run Microsoft software (Bill Gates). When most of the people in the world were not yet conscious the future of the software industry, Bill Gates trusted on his gut feel and passion and in so doing, he decided to take the vision the furthest possible way. It was this vision that won him a number of laurels, Bill Gates became the richest person in the world for thirteen consecutive years. Bill Gates plays views the entire product portfolio of the company in light of the future directions including the likely competitor moves. In terms of concepts, he is more often than not quick to foresee the direction of competitors.
As a successful entrepreneur, Bill Gates normally places control as his management style. As an executive, Bill Gates meets on a regular basis with the senior managers as well as program managers in the Microsoft Corporation. Bill Gates is an up-to-the-minute business phenomenon. He is the greatest of the cyber-tycoons. Bill Gates is not merely a story of technical brilliancy or colossal wealth; he is one of outstanding business vision and a compulsive yearning to come first. His leadership style is totally different to anything the business world has seen before. Gates believes that there are technological breakthroughs that dramatically change the way people work and live (Thompson and Frank 428).
Dearlove, Des. The Unauthorized Guide to Doing Business the Bill Gates Way: 10 Secrets of the World’s Richest Business Leader. Chichester, West Sussex: Capstone, 2010. Internet resource.
Leslie, Larry Z. Celebrity in the 21st Century: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2011. Internet resource.
Thompson, John L, and Frank Martin. Strategic Management. Andover: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
Insert Surname 2
Problem Formulation and Identification
Decision making around the world is becoming a concern for various stakeholders and in all sectors of the economy. There are several issues to consider during decision making among stakeholders. Major considerations revolve around decision cycle, which brings out clearly events that should occur for any problem to be solved. Internal and external factors need to be considered because they surely affect the output of any decision made. Social work and human services require very eloquent system of decision-making process so that the overall output remains unaffected.
Scholars consider problem solving as a mental process, which involves discovering, analyzing and finally solving problems. Ultimate goals of solving problems are majorly to overcome obstacles and completely resolve the issues at hand by use of the best and viable solutions. In most cases, strategies are used in problem formulation and identification. This will ensure that people get desired platform of understanding the real problems within themselves and finally come up with the best decision styles to solve their problems. For some groups however, creativity and insight are considered the best options towards problem formulation and solution.
Problems will only be clearly addressed if other factors such as commitment, level of skills and presence of knowledge are greatly considered vital to the whole process. Normally, many researchers refer several steps to them as problem solving cycles. The cycle revolves around developing strategies together organizing existing knowledge among problem solvers. Even though, the cycle is pretty clear and sequential, many people do not follow the whole process and eventually end up with unclear results, which may require adjustments among other, needs. Skipping one of the procedure or step is not the best thing to do because it will affect the general output in the end period.
The first step is problem identification; many can view this step as an obvious one but in itself, it is a very difficult process and step compared to others in the queue. People at times can identify the wrong problem and thus ending up solving the wrong issues that were not required at all. A lot of care if need at this first step so that many people can avoid unnecessary expenses and waste of time. The second stage is clearly defining the problem so far identified. However, defining the problem is one way of elaborating it just to enable adequate solutions be made eventually.
Forming a strategy is third step, which aims at developing clear ways of solving the problem so far defined. Several approaches of problem solution exist but favorable that are understandable to problem solvers must be used to avoid loss of individual preferences. People tend to get motivated if they use those strategies they understand best. Before generating a solution, organization of information is necessary so that available data will become presentable and easy to use. In this way, an accurate solution is possible because all the data will be assimilated without any wastage whatsoever.
Finally, another step is allocation of resources to facilitate complete solution of the problem. Priorities of existing problems require some assessment to confirm their urgency so that adequate results can be directed to it. Problems under review require monitoring and control to ensure that they meet required targets and standards. If there are, deviations then careful control mechanism need to be directed to it as soon as possible to avert further losses. After solution, various decision-making styles such as autocratic, collective and consensus should be considered to bring the desired changes to a given system (Leadership Management Development Center, Inc, 1997).
Leadership Management Development Center, Inc (1997) Decision making styles Retrieved on 8 January 2013 from http://www.leadershipmanagement.com/html-files/decision.htm
PROBLEM FORMULATION AND IDENTIFICATION
Running Head: PROBLEM FORMULATION AND IDENTIFICATION
Creative Thinking and Innovation to Achieve Sustainable Development
Innovation and sustainable development policies are somewhat new policy domains. They share characteristics like heterogeneous actors, complex subject matter, weak institutionalism, and a horizontal approach. Innovation policy developed from linear technology push approaches, which presume that economic performance must follow a research performance to a system approach that is able to indentify innovation process as interactive process. This is where interconnected actors and institutions take on in the production, diffusion, and use of knowledge. Such interactive innovation process offers the essentials and relationship that make up the national innovation system of a country.
The system approach that focuses on the link between the actors and the knowledge flows in the system is well suited to help policy makers to deal with dynamic and complex processes such as innovation but the approach is still very new. The challenge is to develop operational guidelines from the national innovation system approach in order to carry out a successful innovation policy. Furthermore, innovation policy is evolving towards third generation innovation policy stressing the need for integration with different sectors policies. The past experience with environmental policy instruments demonstrates that many institutions have fallen short of stimulating innovation.
Edgeman and Eskildsen (2012, p. 1) argue that enterprises are facing mounting challenges as far as the generic sustainability domains of societal, economic sustainability, and environmental sustainability are concerned. When enterprises are struggling to be economically stable, they may contribute to the social and environmental sustainability or detract from environmental sustainability. This means that sustainability is a multi-dimensional approach with formulations such as familiar triple-bottom-line and BEST models. The existence of a strong tie between competitive intensity and innovation and productivity is a strong indicator of sustainable development in an organization. The integration across social, economical, and environmental sustainability dimensions is very challenging it can be facilitated by broadly construed substantial sustainability. According to Ekins and Medhurst (2006, p. 474), sustainable development has become a broad policy objective at national, sectors, and international levels.
There are four types of people are well known to drive innovation; inventors, super mentors, entrepreneurs, and great individual achievers in their respective fields. However, there are obstacles to innovation, which can hinder internalization. Ekins and Medhurst further argues that firms in industries where external finance is important are more likely to report financial barriers in member states with less developed financial systems. In EU, structural funds are intended to support the balanced and sustainable development of regions. This will make possible for such regions to attain equal sustainable development. Jones and Patterson (2007) believe that sustainability is rooted in the built environment and is naturally holistic getting across environmental, social and economic issues at local and global scales.
Innovative firms in most advanced EU members are more likely to consider small, young, innovative and growth-oriented firms to seriously hamper their innovation activities. However, Jones and Patterson argue that sustainable development is aimed at sustaining a good quality of life for people, now and in the future. The environments created in and around buildings are where people spend the majority of their time and these environments need to be healthy, comfortable and safe.
In the same view as Edgeman and Eskildsen (2012), Jones and Patterson (2007) argue that sustainability requires a holistic approach across sectors and across environmental, economic and social factors. Johnson (2007) claims that innovative cities are very crucial for economic growth and development of nations. On the other hand, social and environmental problems that are directly affects the growth of the city are serious threats to each attempt made in order to fully realize socio-economic contribution made cities. Innovation that backs up the institutional and social arrangements in the city allows technology to work in some certain context.
According to Regeer et.al (2009), sustainable development requires new intervention strategies for it to be successful. New generation of public programs that has emerged and can address in a particular way the complex societal problems affecting sustainable development. A successful strategy requires regulatory rules, legal underpinnings, and investment priorities that emancipate from public programs and has to clearly reflect the needed priorities. The success of sustainable development requires that such priorities are reviewed, overseen, and audited in a clear and accountable way. Vavra et.al (2011) claims that sustainability as a goal, decisions on product or process innovation within a company requires integrating technical, economic, environmental and social aspects of all activities carried out. However, the problem of new sustainable innovations and innovation assessment has to be solved with a methodology meeting all relevant requirements, especially economical, environmental and social requirements.
The evaluation criteria used for the innovation projects may vary depending on some factors but key to sustainable development at national level is the development of broad frame and science policy that puts poverty alleviation, social justice and environmental sustainability at its core. George (2007) posits that sustainable development has become a widely accepted norm yet still presents major problems of implementation. The complexities of reaching sustainable development reflect several internal tensions. Without increased accountability and full transparency at the centre of democratized innovation systems across public and private sectors and at local, national and international levels, sustainable development efforts will still be a problem.
George (2007) has adopted a three-pillar approach to sustainable development, based on its environmental, social, and economic dimensions. The approach identifies areas in which social, economic, and environmental goals interact in a way that environmental issues are fully integrated into development decisions. The model believes that economic, social, and environmental protection development are mutually dependent and reinforcing pillars. This approach disputes the view that the functions of economic development should lead to the social development of a higher quality of life. In reality, the economic growth does not essentially throw in to social development. This may lead to adverse effects on the quality of life. The beneficial ones may yield social results either negatively or positively. With the adoption of this model, sustainable development is going to be difficult to achieve. This is because achieving it calls for a thorough understanding of biological, economic, physical, political, and social processes involved.
Jones and Patterson (2007) claims that environmental sustainability in urban areas can be evaluated and analyzed using Practical Evaluation Tools for Urban Sustainability (PETUS). PETUS intends to make sure that all aspects of sustainability are measured and informed choices are made at the time when built environment project is ongoing. PETUS follows a sector approach in its decision-making. By using the PETUS model, sustainability becomes naturally holistic and this will necessitate the need for cross-disciplinary working to fulfill a sustainable approach. In more than one occasion, the sustainability intentions are good as the project starts but as time goes, they become ignored. PETUS ensures that sustainability is alive all the way through in the time of policies and time implementation.
According to Edgeman and Eskildsen (2012), Shareholder and Social Added Value with Environment Restoration model can be used to assess the economical, environmental, and social sustainability. This model ensures that innovating for sustainability is part of enterprise vision. It cal also formulate strategies with sustainability at its core. This model also integrates sustainability to each and every part of the business. Edgeman and Eskildsen (2012) argue that there are various ways in sustainability agenda has influenced innovation. The authors have used super cell model to measure marketplace, societal, and environmental performance. In this formulation, creativity and innovation are not regarded as a pre-condition to enterprise superiority but as an enabler of the enterprise superiority. Although innovation frequently occurs swiftly, the way to commercialization is repeatedly capricious.
Evaluation and analysis of the approaches
According to Vavra et.al (2011), creating sustainability evaluating process, calls for effective multi-approach for social assessment and environmental methodologies. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool that is used to ensure that aspects of sustainability are considered inside the business processes. Life cycle inventory (LCI) is obtained from the sum total of material and energy flows. The use of process flow diagrams is to identify environmental aspects as well as social aspects by dividing innovation to suitable activities and processes. This is purposely for environmental and social aspects data collection. Although the model is working, it lacks the experience to appraise environmental and social aspects of innovation projects.
Regeer et.al (2009) argues that a mode-2 evaluation approach can be used to effectively evaluate the sustainable development as explicatory domain. The model uses Program Theory Evaluation, Goal-Oriented Program Evaluation, and Progress Assessment. Progress Assessment evaluates the state-of-the-world in respect to sustainable development by recognizing the trends and facts on the basis of longitudinal measurements.
Indicator frameworks have been developed purposely to aid the quantitative and descriptive status of the environment on global, national, and local level. Even though progress assessment offers a chance to establish a baseline of the existing conditions, and identify progress in the natural world, it has proved to be difficult in accommodating the complex and interwoven nature of various societal. It has also proved to be difficult in accommodating ecological subsystems that are pre-supposed by the mode-2 view on sustainable development.
According to Regeer et.al (2009), Goal-Oriented Program Evaluation approach intends to response to the question, If we want to change our position with respect to the limited capacity of our world, what interventions can be considered appropriate and successful?” (Regeer et.al. 2009, p. 520). The overriding focus of this type of approach is its measurement on the outcome of policy programs. It also aims to corporate initiatives as far as achievement of predetermined goals and objectives are concerned. However, Goal-Oriented Program Evaluation does not accommodate the various and vibrant understandings of sustainable development. Program theory evaluation presupposes a relatively stable program but as mode-2 strategies are characterized by emergent design, appropriate interventions can only be determined earlier to a restricted degree, and they change significantly at some point in conduct.
According to Johnson (2007), there are narrow and broad versions of the innovation systems approach in the world of economic dynamics. The narrow approach focuses on the research and development system as well as on high-tech activities while the broad approach focuses on innovations that are anchored in the daily chores of the company. Such activities include production, procurement, and marketing. In every company, organization, or sectors, innovation activities include small and incremental improvements on the processes and products within the company, sector, or organization. In the broad conceptualization of innovation systems, more than three crucial propositions exist. The first preposition is specialization on trade, production, and knowledge; they are very vital for innovative performance. The second preposition is the elements of knowledge.
They are localized and cannot easily moved from one place to another. The main assumption behind the innovation system perception is that knowledge is more multifaceted than information. The third preposition is the interaction and relationships between people and organizations matter. Such a link serves as carriers of knowledge, and process by which new knowledge is formed and learned. This assumption shows out that the fact that firms, people, or organizations cannot innovate alone.
Ekins and Medhurst (2006) believe that social, economical, and environmental sustainable development has become a broad policy objective at both national and international levels for organizations. There are two key approaches to be adopted when it comes to constructing indicators of sustainable development. These are the framework approach and aggregation approach. Framework approach sets out a variety of indicators that are intended to cover up the main concerns as well as issues regarding to sustainable development. Aggregation approach tries to find a way of expressing development-related changes. This is normally through a common unit to make sure that it can be aggregated. The most common frameworks of indicators for sustainable development are environmental or natural capital, human capital, and social capital. Human capitals are interrelated to employment, wages, and economic growth in a positive manner. Social capital highlights a number of indicators that are essential in signifying the economic sustainability. Aggregations of indicators intended for sustainable development emphasizes scores of aspects of sustainable development in its own stipulations thus addressing the key indicators to the environmental sustainability.
Conclusion and Recommendation
Innovation and sustainable development policies are somewhat new policy domains. They share characteristics like heterogeneous actors, complex subject matter, weak institutionalism, and a horizontal approach. Innovation policy is evolving towards third generation innovation policy stressing the need for integration with policies for every sector. . When enterprises are struggling to be economically stable, they may contribute to the social and environmental sustainability or detract from environmental sustainability. There are two key approaches to be adopted when it comes to constructing indicators of sustainable development. Framework approach sets out a variety of indicators that are intended to cover up the main concerns regarding sustainable development.
Aggregation approach tries to find a way of expressing development-related changes through common unit. There are four types of people are well known to drive innovation. They include super mentors, entrepreneurs, inventors, and great individual achievers in their respective fields. This paper recommends that the current conditions that managers have to build their strategies and the process in which they run their countries must be realigned with police that enhance environmental, economical, and social sustainability.
Edgeman, R, & Eskildsen, J 2012, Viral Innovation: Integration via Sustainability & Enterprise Excellence, Journal Of Innovation & Business Best Practices, vol. 2012, pp. 1-13.
Ekins, P, & Medhurst, J 2006, The European Structural Funds and Sustainable Development: A Methodology and Indicator Framework for Evaluation, Evaluation, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 474-495.
George, C 2007, Sustainable Development and Global Governance, The Journal of Environment & Development, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 102-125.
Johnson, P 2007, Systems of innovation, the urban order and sustainable development, Waste Management & Research, vol. 25, pp. 208-213.
Jones, P, & Patterson, J 2007, The Development of a Practical Evaluation Tool for Urban Sustainability Indoor Built Environ, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 255-272.
Regeer, B, Hoes, A., Saane, M, Caron-Flinterman, F, & Bunders, J 2009, Six Guiding Principles for Evaluating Mode-2 Strategies for Sustainable Development, American Journal of Evaluation, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 515-537.
Vavra, J, Munzarova, S, Bednarikova, M, & Ehlova, Z 2011, Sustainable Aspects of Innovations, Economics and Management, vol. 16, pp. 621-627.
Achieving Sustainable Development 6
The Effect of Online Social Media on Students’ Academic Performance
Globalization trends have led to advancements in different fields of specification. One of the fields that have undergone significant transformations pertains to technology. Technological changes have direct impacts on information flow and sharing. In particular, the internet eases information flow between various facets of the society. Through social networking sites, individuals establish and sustain relationships in a virtual environment. Notably, establishment of virtual communities dissolves the geographical boundaries that confine persons to distinctive places. Just like other facets of the society, the educational sector benefits in different ways from the internet. Emergent research shows that students increasingly use social networking sites for various purposes. Besides using these sites for their social endeavors, they employ them for accessing important educational resources and materials.
Through these sites, students relay important information and establish relationships with fellow scholars across the globe. On the other hand, learning institutions use these facilities to share academic information and interact with the student community accordingly. They communicate important educational information through these media. Just like exploration of other forms of technology, use of social networking sites stimulates the minds of students and influences their perception in different ways. Additionally, it presents to them important information that enables them to perform well academically. Depending on the type of activities that they engage in and the relevance of these activities to education, social networking sites can be useful learning tools.
In their review, Alias, Siraj, Daud and Hussin (2013) sought to determine whether Facebook based learning can be improved to increase creativity amongst secondary school students pursuing Islamic studies in Malaysia. With respect to methodology, the researchers used background surveys and experimental method. In particular, they used creativity test forms and questionnaires to generate important data. These were administered to the sample over a period of three and a half months. The findings of the study indicated that the Isman Instructional Design Method is appropriate for improving Facebook based learning. It appreciates the contributions of students to this process and encourages them to explore different spheres of knowledge. This according to the research goes a long way in enhancing the level of creativity of secondary school students in Malaysian learning institutions. The study is important because it offers useful insights that can be used to improve Facebook based learning. It acknowledges the fact that as part of technology, social networking sites contribute positively to the process of learning.
In their consultative study, Junco, Heibergert and Loken (2010) explored the impact of use of social media on the grades and engagement of college students. It was an experimental study that lasted for an entire semester. The 125 participants of this study were drawn from the medical field and specifically pre-health majors. In particular, the authors used Twitter in academic as well as co curricular discussions. Findings of the study ascertained that compared to traditional methods, use of social media in learning enhance student engagement. This has positive effects on student grades and their overall academic performance. The results imply that Twitter can be a useful educational tool in learning institutions. Notably, it can be used to increase student participation and involvement in the learning process. Implications of this study suggest that stakeholders in the education sector can explore other online social networking sites in learning.
In their study, Karpinski, Kirschner, Ozer, Mellot and Ochwo (2013) investigated the impacts of multitasking on the relationship between use of social networking sites and student performance. This was informed by the presumption that technological multitasking has negative effects on efficiency and productivity. It employed a sample of 857 students that were drawn from European universities. The authors relied on the results of analyses of qualitative and quantitative data. The research found out that technological multi tasking has adverse effects on students. The practice undermines learning by reducing efficiency and concentration in classrooms. Because of the related deleterious effects, authors caution the relevant stakeholders to refrain from using social networking sites in the classroom context.
Kirschner and Karpinski (2010) undertook a descriptive and explorative study that aimed at establishing the relationship between use of Facebook and academic performance. Essentially, the authors appreciated that a significant percentage of students use Facebook and other online social networking tools in the classroom environment. Characteristic multitasking has various implications on their ability to concentrate on learning and benefit optimally from the process. They used the survey methodology to access and generate important data with which they would use to address the research question. Findings indicated that use of Facebook during study had negative effects on performance. The practice reduces the time that students use for studying thus impacting negatively on their academic performance. In light of the study, users of this online social networking tool had lower grades than their non user counterparts.
The study undertaken by Paul, Baker & Cochran (2012) concentrated on establishing the impact of using online social networking on the academic wellbeing of students. It was motivated by the increasing use of social networking tools in the academic sphere. The objective of the authors was to determine whether these tools could be effectively used to improve the academic performance of students. To attain this goal, the authors undertook field surveys. They included students pursuing business majors from European universities in their samples. The results of the study showed that use of social networking sites by students in the learning environment impacts negatively on their performance. Although students derive satisfaction from their competency with regards to using these sites, they are not motivated to use them for educational purposes. In addition, the time that students spend on these sites was greatly influenced by attention span that also influences their behavior in different ways
Shih (2011) sought to investigate the impact of using peer assessment and Facebook in instructing English writing in college. The author used twenty three first year Taiwanese students who were pursuing English major in college. To collect data, the study used various research instruments including questionnaires, posttest and pre test English writing skills, and comprehensive student interviews. The results ascertained that in addition to in-class instruction, integration of peer assessment using social networking tools such as Facebook yields beneficial outcomes. Since it fosters cooperative learning, it enables students to improve their knowledge and skills in writing by benefiting from the capacities of their peers. The motivation increases their interest in education and enables them to overcome the challenges that they encounter at different levels. Put differently, use of social networking sites enables students to assume a positive attitude towards education and learning. This makes them aggressive especially with respect to problem solving.
The use of technology and specifically online social networking tools has varied impacts on the performance of students. The technological tools are interactive and therefore enhance student participation in the process of learning. Through these platforms, students access important educational resources and are able to make their individual contributions to the body of knowledge. Using creative and critical thinking skills, they are able to analyze the information that is presented to them and make viable decisions regarding its credibility and importance. The tools allow for information sharing amongst students as well as learning institutions. The platforms of social media encourage active participation in learning through conversations and debates. However, in order to yield beneficial outcomes, these tools should be used responsibly. Notably, students who multi task their use with their studies and other academic activities suffer detrimental outcomes. Irresponsible use of these tools is time consuming and undermines student concentration on academics and efficient performance in other related activities.
Future research should consider the moral implications of use of these tools in education too. In this respect, the behavior of students has direct effects on their academic performance. Students that are morally upright recognize the importance of social values in guiding behavior at all times. Findings from such a study would be useful for determining the effects of use of these tools to students’ discipline. Specifically, the study should investigate how the practice shapes the attitudes and decision making tendencies of the students. Educators should devise effective instruction methods that promote responsible use of these technological tools without impacting negatively on the academic performance of the students.
Alias, N., Siraj, S., Daud, M. & Hussin, Z. (2013). Effectiveness of Facebook based learning to enhance creativity among Islamic studies students by employing isman instructional design model. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 12 (1), 60-67.
Junco, R., Heibergert, G. & Loken, E. (2010). The effect of Twitter on college student engagement and grades. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 1-14
Kirschner, P. & Karpinski, A. (2010). Facebook and academic performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 1237-1245.
Karpinski, A., Kirschner, P., Ozer, I., Mellot, J. & Ochwo, P. (2013). An exploration of social networking site use, multitasking, and academic performance among United States and European University students. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 1182-1192.
Paul, J., Baker, H. & Cochran, J. (2012). Effect of online social networking on student academic performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 2117-2127
Shih, R. (2011). Can web 2.0 technology assist college students in learning English writing? Integrating Facebook and peer assessment with blended learning. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 27 (5), 829-845.
ONLINE SOCIAL MEDIA AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE 6
Running head: ONLINE SOCIAL MEDIA AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE 1