Biogeochemical Cycling of Platinum
Paula Johnson In her book about Platinum introduces platinum discussing its properties, occurrence, extraction and purification. Platinum is one of the many chemical elements that exist with 78 as its atomic number and Pt chemical symbol. Some of its properties include high density, malleability, ductility and� �g�r�a�y�-�w�h�i�t�e� �t�r�a�n�s�i�t�i�o�n�.� �I�t� �i�s� �a�l�s�o� �a� �p�r�e�c�i�o�u�s� �m�e�t�a�l�.� �P�l�a�t�i�n�u�m� �i�s� �a�m�o�n�g� �t�h�e� �r�a�r�e�s�t� �e�l�e�m�e�n�t�s� �t�o� �b�e� �f�o�u�n�d� �o�n� �e�a�r�t�h� s� �c�r�u�s�t� �a�n�d� �h�a�s� �a�n� �a�v�e�r�a�g�e� �a�b�u�n�d�a�n�c�e� �o�f� �f�i�v�e� �¼g�/�k�g�.� �S�o�u�t�h� �A�f�r�i�c�a� �a�c�c�o�u�n�t�s� �f�o�r� �8�0�%� � �i�t�s� �p�r�o�d�u�c�t�i�o�n� �i�n� �t�h�e� � �w�h�o�l�e� �w�o�r�l�d�.�
�P�l�a�t�i�n�u�m� �h�a�s� �a� �u�n�i�q�u�e� �p�r�operty of being non-reactive. This places it in two categories; the platinum group of elements and group 10 in the periodic table. It is known as a noble metal due to its ability to resist corrosion even under high temperatures. Consequently, it is normally found as native element, uncombined with other chemicals.
Platinum finds its use in several appliances such as thermometers, dentistry equipment, catalytic converters, electrical contacts and electrodes, laboratory equipment and jewelry. It is considered a highly precious and valuable metallic commodity due to its scarcity in production. Only few hundreds of tones produced annually. However, this metal has a disadvantage. Just like other heavy metals, it causes health hazards upon its exposure to it by people. Luckily, it is not toxic since it does not corrode. In fact, certain compounds containing platinum , for example cisplatin, are applied during chemotherapy against various kinds of cancers.
In the platinum group of elements are six elements ; Palladium, Rhodium, Platinum, ruthenium, osmium and iridium. There symbols are Pd, Rh, Pt, Ru, Os and Ir respectively. All the six elements are rare in occurrence and hence most precious. However, the elements that have commercial use are platinum, pallidum and rhodium. These elements tend to occur as metal in their state or bonded with sulfur or any group Va or Via ligands. Their occurrence normally is as trace minerals in rocks. These elements existed in the early stages of the evolution of solar system, planets formation and its differentiation as well as the biogeochemical cycling. Their purification was initially fulfilled in the late 1700s. At this time , some of their properties were realized, for example, their high melting point, unreactiveness, and ability to catalyze reactions. This led to their heavy industrial use in fuel production and engine emission control. The PGE has become a highly valued commodity.
As discussed earlier in this paper, platinum rarely forms compounds but occurs as native platinum in rocks where it has been held by magnetic forces and processes. During the early stages of magnetic processes, platinum is seen to occur as rare disseminations in deposits . When erosion takes place in such deposits, platinum placers are formed. Examples of these placers are found in Ural Mountains, Russia, Alaska and Colombia. In terms of its scarcity, platinum placers surpass gold by almost 90% of its annual production. The platinum placers occur in different sizes ranging from small grains to large ones of about 20 pounds in weight. They find their use in jewellery and other equipments.
In 1926, platinum placers were discovered in an area south of Goodnews Bay, Southwestern Alaska. They were worked on for seven years beginning in 1927. The methods used were small-scale mining. Later, dragline excavators and dredge were put into use. Being the only commercial source of platinum in the United States as well as being of high grade, these deposits are of great importance. Recently, the district has had interest in it revived following another discovery and commercial exploitation of the platinum placers. According to a geological survey of 1937 into the area showed that the principal placers lies in two streaks, the valley floor of Salmon River and in the ancient stream channel east of this valley.
Platinum occurs as an extremely rare metal at a very low concentration of only 0.005 ppm within the earth’s crust. It is sometimes confused with silver (Ag). Since platinum is generally not reactive, it mostly found uncombined with chemical elements but as native platinum. It is normally alloyed with iridium to obtain platiridium. More often than not, platinum is found in alluvial deposits together with other platinum group of elements. Since the time of the pre-Colombian people in the Choco department in Colombia up to date , the alluvial deposits are used as a source of platinum group of metals. Another huge alluvial deposit is found in the Ural Mountains, Russia (CRC contributors 20072008).
Platinum occurs mainly in South Africa and Canada as well as other former USSR countries. In Canada, extraction of deposits of a mixture of ores associated to volcanic rocks is carried out. This contains copper nickel sulfides. Platinum and palladium occurs in equal portions in the same while gold and silver are residual. In south Africa, the deposits are located in Meresky, which is in the northwest of Johanesburg. The platinum here occurs in rocks as pyroxene in the order of 4 to 10ppm. It is always associated with copper, iron. or nockel sulfides. In Norilsk, Siberia, Russia, deposits of this metal occurs in minerals like peridotite. In smaller amounts, platinum can also be extracted in Colombia and in Alaska. Its abundance in the earth’s crust is about 0.01 gram per ton.
Platinum group metals occur as sulfides (PtS, pdS), tellurides (PtBiTe), arsenides (PtAs2) and antimonides (PdSb) as well as alloys with copper or nickel. Another major source of platinum in nickel ores in theSudbury Basin deposit in Ontario, Canada is the Platinum arsenide, sperrylite (PtAs2). Alaska was another source of platinum but ceased operation in 1990. About 545,000 troy ounces had been produced between 1927 and 1975.
Biogeochemical cycling of Platinum
Associated with the existence of platinum ore are certain microorganisms. These microorganism, examples of bacteria and archae are concerned with the biogeochemical cycling of platinum. Platinum exhibits negative oxidation at surfaces trimmed down electrochemically (Ghiliane et al. 2007).They are involved in the formation of a secondary mineral, dissolution, precipitation and mobility of platinum. While in the biosphere, various biogeochemical reactions takes place that causes transformation of platinum. Under the influence of microorganisms, weathering occurs leading to the mobility and the dissolution of platinum entangled in minerals (Helmut & Sigel 2005, p. 304).
Following the destabilization of platinum by microorganisms, together with its precipitation and mineralization leads to formation of secondary platinum. These occur as microcrystalline as well as nano-particles. Their existence on services of platinum grains indicates biogeochemical solubility as well as re- precipitation of platinum, which in turn results in its mobility in surface environments. This has been reported to be witnessed in Brazil and Australia. The process is reported to have contributed majorly to the formation of secondary platinum deposits.
Studies show that microorganisms cause various processes to take place within the platinum ore. The first being solubility through excretion of metabolites such as cyanides, Aminoacids and thiosulphates. The second event is the precipitation of platinum forming its precipitate internally and extra cellularlly hence forming a secondary mineral. Thirdly, biochemical responses have been developed to deal with toxic pt complexes.
Comparison of biogeochemical cycling between gold and platinum in the surface environment
The biogeochemical cycling of gold and platinum has been discovered to be a major contributor in the formation of deposits of secondary platinum (pt) as well as gold (Au). To compare the cycling 0p of the two elements, we will refer to an experiment that was carried out in New South Wales, Australia. This was done to establish a comparison in mobility of Pt and Au as one process in the biogeochemical cycling of the two. The materials included collected soils, ground water, and nuggets containing platinum and gold. They were then analyzed using x-ray tomography, synchrontron-XRF, as well as thermodynamic modeling.
The formation of micro crystals and the presence of nano-particles of platinum or gold on the surfaces of gold or platinum grains indicate biogeochemical dissolution and precipitation within the cycling process. This promotes the mobility of Pt and Au within the surface environment. These were also supported by an X-ray tomography of embedded Pt and Au grains on deep lead materials such Fe-oxides, silicates and clays. Synchrotron XRF indicated differences in Au and Pt mobility. Data from groundwater and thermodynamic modeling showed a lower reactivity of pt compared to au, which translated to lower mobility in surface environments (Thomas & Canuel 2011).
CRC contributors 20072008, “Platinum”. In Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 4. New York: CRC Press p. 26.
Ghilane, J, Lagrost, C, Guilloux-Viry, M, Simonet, J, Delamar, M, Mangeney, C & Hapiot, P 2007. “Spectroscopic Evidence of Platinum Negative Oxidation States at Electrochemically Reduced Surfaces”. Journal of Physical Chemistry C 111 (15) 5701.
Sigel, H & Sigel R 2005, Metal Ions in Biological Systems, Volume 43, p. 304.
Thomas S, Elizabeth A. Canuel 2011, Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems Page 328.
Wheate, Walker, S, Craig, G & Oun, R 2010, “The status of platinum anticancer drugs in the clinic and in clinical trials”. Dalton transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003) 39 (35), 811327
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Work and Energy
Work can be defined as the amount of energy transferred from one object to another and is measured in units called joules. The amount of work done is dependent on the magnitude of the force and also the distance over which it acts. This form an equation where work is expressed as work = force * displacement or W = Fs (BW 3).
Mechanically, work involves force and motion. This implies that even if force is applied all day long and there is no motion, there is technically no work that has been done. Work that is done by constant force acting on an object is the result of the magnitude of the force and the parallel distance through which the object is moved when that force is applied on it. Work can therefore be represented in an equation where it is a function of force and distance such that work (W) done is equal to the force (F) applied multiplied by parallel distance (d), that is W = Fd. It is important to note that the force applied and the directed distance should be parallel to each other and the force acts through the parallel distance. Work is a scalar quantity and there is association of direction to both force and the parallel distance but no association to work that is the product of such force and parallel distance. Work is only expressed as a magnitude, a number of proper units. Since force and distance result to work, the units of work are similar to those of force multiplied by length. Force is measured in newtons while distance is measured in meters thus the standard unit of work is newtons/meter but this combination is referred to as a joule (J) (Shipman, Wilson and Todd 79).
One joule is equal to the amount of work done by a force of one newton (N) that acts through a distance of one meter, but in the British systems, the product of force and length is pound-foot but their units are commonly listed in the reverse order and thus work is expressed in foot-pound (ft-lb). Work is usually done against a force such as the force of gravity and friction. Work is done when something is lifted up as there must be a force that is applied to overcome the force of gravity. This means that works is done against gravity and is given by the equation W = Fd wh – mgh where h represents the height to which the object is lifted and mg represents the force of gravity as expressed by an objects weight. Similar to the force of gravity, friction opposes motion and thus work is also done against friction. This implies that for an object to be moved on a surface in a real situation, force must be applied and the work done is expressed as W = Fd (Shipman, Wilson and Todd 80).
Work may also be defined as the change in mechanical energy of an object as it travels from one position to another. When the change is equated in energies, it allows the calculation of the final velocity of the object after it moves a certain distance (Kurtus 174).
Power is the rate of doing work. The higher the rate at which work is done, the higher the amount of power is required to do that work. Work is accomplished once there is release of energy and it is a product of moving force multiplied by the distance through which the force acts in overcoming opposition. Foot-pounds (ft-lb) may be used to measure work done where one foot-pound is equal to the work required to lift 1 lb a distance of 1 foot though there is no reference that has been made to time (Rosenberg 151). Inertia is a property of matter by which it remains at rest or in a uniform motion in the same line unless some external force acts on it. Inertia of an object is a resistance to motion and can work for you as well as against you and is a characteristic that defines human behavior (Nash 158).
As work is done against gravity and the object is lifted up, heat is produced. Similarly, when work is done against friction, heat is also produced. The concept of energy helps unify all the possible changes. Once work is done, there is basically a change in energy and the amount of work that has been done, is similar or equal to the change in energy. However, it is somewhat difficult to define energy because it is abstract and similarly to force; it can be easier to define it in terms of what it is capable of doing rather than in terms of what it is. Energy is among the most fundamental concepts in science and may be referred to as a property possessed by an object or a system. Energy can therefore be defined as the ability to do work. This definition implies that if an object or a system has the ability to do work if it possesses energy. If a system does any work, it losses energy but if work is done on the system, the system gains energy (Shipman, Wilson and Todd 81).
According to Britannica Workbooks, energy which may be denoted as E, is defined as the ability to do work and is measured in joules (J) after an English physicist known as James Joule who studied heat and electric energy. One joule is the equivalent to the amount of energy required to move an object over a distance of one metre (m) by the use of a force of one newton (N), towards the direction of the force. There are two broad categorization of mechanical energy where it is classified into kinetic energy or potential energy such that all types of energy which include chemical energy, sound, nuclear, heat, electromagnetic and also electric energy are categorized either as kinetic energy or potential energy (BW 3).
Rosenberg defines energy as the ability to do work and states that it cannot be created nor destroyed. However, energy can be transformed from one form to another and such kind of conversion is accompanied by a form of loss. Energy can either be in a stored form or in motion. Stored energy is referred to as potential energy and a good example is energy stored in a battery while Energy in motion is referred to as kinetic energy. Once energy is released, it is capable of doing work. Thus work is the ability to overcome an opposition through a distance. The amount energy possessed is usually equal to the amount of work such energy is capable of performing less some losses (Rosenberg 151).
Forms of Energy
Energy occurs in many forms such as mechanical energy, chemical energy, heat energy, electromagnetic energy, nuclear energy, sound energy and electrical energy, can be broadly categorized into kinetic energy and potential energy. Kinetic energy is referred to as energy in motion while potential energy is termed as stored energy. Potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy when its status changes from being stored to being in motion (BW 3-4). Kinetic energy can also be referred to as movement energy and the faster an object is moving it gets heavier and gains more kinetic energy. Potential energy can be referred to as the ability of a system or an object to do work because of its position or internal structure (Oxlade 11).
Heat energy can as also be referred to as thermal energy and is defined as the energy contained in an object because of its temperatures. Temperatures and energy are directly related such that the hotter an object is, the higher the amount of energy it has. When heat energy is added to an object, it becomes hotter and vice versa (Oxlade 10). It is a form of kinetic energy transferred from one body to another as a result of difference in temperatures (WB 3).
Electricity is another form of energy and involves electric current which can be defined as a flow of electrons through a conductor for example a copper wire (Oxlade 11), and is a form of kinetic energy. Other forms of kinetic energy include electromagnetic radiation which travels through free space or through a material medium in the form of waves and sound energy that also travels through a medium in form of waves (WB 3).
Chemical energy is a form of potential energy and is the energy contained in a substance and can be released the substance is involved in a chemical reaction, while light energy is energy in the form of electromagnetic waves and it carries light from one place to another (Oxlade 11). Another example of potential energy is nuclear energy which is stored in the nuclei of atoms and is released once the nuclei break apart (WB 4).
Energy can be changed from one form to another, for example a solar cell turning light into electric energy, through a process known as transformation of energy. The devices that are used to change energy from one form to another are known as energy converters and include batteries and power stations. The efficiency of an energy converter is calculated by dividing the amount of energy transformed into the required form by the total energy from source then multiply by a hundred (BW 4-5).
Sources of Energy
The sources of energy can be renewable or non-renewable. Renewable sources are those that are continuously replenished by nature for example by wind, water and solar power while non-renewable sources are those that once exhausted, they cannot be replenished and include coal, petroleum and natural gas which are also referred to as fossil fuels (WB 5). Renewable sources will never run out as they are always naturally replenished. Fossil fuels were formed millions of years ago from plants and animals’ remnants and contain chemical energy which are burned to release energy as heat or light (Oxlade 13). The relationship between kinetic energy and work is that work done on an object by a force is equal to the change in the kinetic energy of the object. This relationship is referred to as the work energy theorem (WE 2). The law of conservation states that energy cannot be made nor can it be destroyed. This means that even though it seems as if has been lost when work is done, it is never lost but it changes form (Oxlade 11).
Work can be defined as the amount of energy transferred from one object to another and is measured in units called joules. The amount of work done is dependent on the magnitude of the force and also the distance over which it acts (BW 3). Mechanically, work involves force and motion. This implies that even if force is applied all day long and there is no motion, there is technically no work that has been done. Work that is done by constant force acting on an object is the result of the magnitude of the force and the parallel distance through which the object is moved when that force is applied on it. Work is a scalar quantity and there is association of direction to both force and the parallel distance but no association to work that is the product of such force and parallel distance. Work is only expressed as a magnitude, a number of proper units (Shipman, Wilson and Todd 79-80).
Energy is among the most fundamental concepts in science and may be referred to as a property possessed by an object or a system. Energy can therefore be defined as the ability to do work. This definition implies that if an object or a system has the ability to do work if it possesses energy. If a system does any work, it losses energy but if work is done on the system, the system gains energy (Shipman, Wilson and Todd 81).
Energy occurs in many forms such as mechanical energy, chemical energy, heat energy, electromagnetic energy, nuclear energy, sound energy and electrical energy, can be broadly categorized into kinetic energy and potential energy. Kinetic energy is referred to as energy in motion while potential energy is termed as stored energy. Potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy when its status changes from being stored to being in motion (BW 3-4).
Energy can be changed from one form to another through a process known as transformation of energy and the devices used are referred to as energy converters. The sources of energy can be renewable or non-renewable. Renewable sources are those that are continuously replenished by nature while non-renewable sources are those that once exhausted, they cannot be replenished and are also referred to as fossil fuels (Oxlade 13). Both work and energy are measured in units called joules. One joule is the energy required to move an object over a distance of a meter with a force of one newton in the direction of the force (WB 4).
Work energy theorem is the relationship between kinetic energy and work where work done on an object by a force is equal to the change in the kinetic energy of the object (WE 2).
Britannica Workbooks (BW). Work and Energy Science. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan, (n.d).
Kurtus, Ron. Gravity and Gravitation: Derivations, Equations and Applications. : Ron Kurtus, 2011.
Nash, Edward.L. Direct Marketing: Strategy, Planning, Execution. Columbus: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2000.
Oxlade, Chris. Energy. Mankato: Black Rabbit Books, 2004.
Rosenberg, Paul. Audel Electrical Course for Apprentices and Journeymen. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons, 2004.
Shipman, James., Wilson, Jerry. D and Todd, Aaron. An Introduction to Physical Science. Independence: Cengage Learning, 2012.
Work and Energy (WE). Kinetic Energy and the Work Energy Theorem. Retrieved on March 19, 2012 from http://theory.uwinnipeg.ca/physics/work/index.html
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Toxic and Hazardous Materials in Consumer Products
It is approximated that 85% of the 100,000 ingredients that are used in the modern workplace are dangerous to health (EPA). In addition, it is considered that 500,000 individuals die across the world each year due to coming into contact or consuming products with dangerous ingredients according to the findings by (Addy). She further notes that another 350,000 suffer from harmful effects caused by the hazardous chemicals in the consumer products annually. Industrialization and production have had tremendous positive benefits for mankind, but the repercussions of dangerous by-products (chemical contamination) to personal health and the surroundings are less well recognized. A major occurrence such as Bhopal is an unequivocal example of a disastrous harmful material used in the production of consumer goods by industries. However, personal health issues can emerge as a result of contact with material and industrial items containing dangerous materials ranging from agricultural sector, consumer items, production to medical resources.
Chemicals from commercial resources have been found in the ground, water, air, food and different tissue. Due to enhancing technology, even small amounts of possibly harmful ingredients can be recognized. Some exposures guarantee helpful action, but in others the health impact may be negligible: the toxins, dosage, path and length of visibility must be considered. Of course, there are possibly harmful ingredients that have been found to present little or no harm to personal health, but there are many more for which the health effects are unidentified. A significant knowledge gap prevails in that the repercussions of many material agents have not been fully analyzed. Consequently, extensive monitoring and evaluation to ensure potential health results are reduced or prevented is necessary.
Substances like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) can continue to persist in the environment or living people long after the item was drawn from the market, making it essential that full and extensive examining of new and current chemicals is performed. Lastly, research is needed to determine whether growing problems, such as the use of medication in clean water, present a genuine risk to human health. Substances, properly handled, can and will continue to provide tremendous benefits to the community, but a warning is guaranteed because of the possible health repercussions.
Breast sarcoma, prostate malignancy, learning problems, sterility, and obesity are just a few of the 180 illnesses and health challenges that are currently on the rise as researchers have connected their root causes to exposures to dangerous chemicals available in consumer products. Despite the widely known risks of these chemical substances, thousands of risky and poorly examined chemicals are regularly used in daily items and components development during the manufacturing process. Thousands of dangerous chemicals have intruded into our houses and systems and can be found everywhere from the cable blood of infants to household dirt. The lack of complete information on ingredients used to manufacture various consumer products and the safety solutions have made parents disappointed in their initiatives to secure healthy families.
A large amount of recent customer recalling of products like toys and games, children’s items, and other items containing risky chemicals, such as lead has brought up public concern about the safety of the items we use every day. Customers are asking whether these items are safe for us and our children. Despite the fact that most consumers believe that daily items are thoroughly examined for risky chemicals and identified to be safe by nations, the reality is that current regulating systems leave important holes in their potential to effectively secure consumers from substance risks in these items. Although problems of supply sequence reliability and use of poor raw components are important in guaranteeing safe items, a key factor of the problem is insufficient government control and policy to ensure that produced in items are safe.
The laws and rules controlling harmful ingredients in toys and games and other customer items are complex and, in places, uncertain as to requirements and required government departments and market. In general harmful ingredients used in customer items are controlled by three different agencies: the US Ecological Protection Organization (EPA), the Foods and Drugs Administration (FDA), and the Consumer Item Protection Percentage (CPSC). The EPA manages the examining and manufacturing of ingredients and their threats in use and disposal; the FDA manages ingredients in food, beauty products, and food get in touch with materials (such as lunchtime containers or ceramics); and the CPSC manages substance exposures from customer items. However, the lack of quality regarding which organizations are in charge of which ingredients and items can cause to jurisdictional arguments between organizations and hence slow health safety activities.
These actual obligations present problems when an item passes across jurisdictional limitations. For example, any customer product or toy that includes getting in touch with food would be controlled by the Food and Drug Administration(FDA) under the Government Foods Medication and Cosmetics Act. But in the case of course discovered in vinyl fabric lunchtime containers, the inside of the lunchbox would fall under the FDA’s power while the outside of the lunchbox would be CPSC’s liability. Given issues regarding substance threats in children’s toys and games and other customer items, this review concentrates in particular on the Consumer Item Protection Percentage and the laws and rules it utilizes. It is helpful, however, to provide some background on the rules and positions of other laws and rules and organizations involved in customer product safety (European Commission).
The improvement of the substance market in the past millennium has provided the world with a large amount of ingredients. At the moment approximately 100,000 ingredients are used, and more than 500 new ingredients are presented yearly. From these, several are known to cause negative effects to man and creature life. The best recorded are probably the chronic natural contaminants (POPs), such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and the way to kill pests DDT. Although the use of ingredients as PCBs and DDT is not allowed for some time, it is still possible to evaluate these ingredients in the environment globally.
Meanwhile, new ingredients have been developed and some of these, like phthalates, alkyl phenols and alkyl phenol ethoxylates and brominated fire retardants (BFR) are produced and used in plenty. Due to the development and use these ingredients are discovered in sediments and surface rich waters. A recent TNO study, performed for Greenpeace and concentrated on the use of dangerous ingredients in rainfall, revealed that phthalates, alkyl phenols, alkyl phenol ethoxylates, synthetic musk ingredients and fire retardants were existing according to the findings of (Peters).
Definition of terms
TermDefinitionConsumer Productsconsumer product means any article, or element thereof, created or allocated (i) on the market to a customer for use in or around a lasting or short-term family or property, a college, in entertainment, or otherwise, or (ii) for the personal use, intake or entertainment of a customer in or around a lasting or short-term family or property, a college, in entertainment, or otherwise as described by (Herc )Consumer Product Safety Commission
(CPSC)This refers to the independent body that has been established to regulate the safety of consumer products. The officials are appointed by the President of the US having been advised by the Senate (Herc )Hazardous and Toxic substancesHazardous and toxic substances are described as substances that are present in consumer products that are likely to cause harm to the body when used (Occupational Safety & Health Administration ).
Objectives of this study
This study aims at;
Establishing what the toxic and hazardous materials are that are often present in the consumer products.
What effects and threats they pose to human health when consumed
Measures being put in place to reduce cases of harm on consumers
The appropriate recommendations on what can be done by state and federal governments to minimize the production of hazardous chemical materials that are harmful to the people.
Hazardous chemicals in consumer products
Contemporary technological innovation has led to developments with a beneficial effect on the high quality of individual life. While more recent customer items have advantages over previously components, their use is not without adverse reactions. Both the substances used to make these items and those that type key elements of the items themselves may be dangerous.
That such substances are existing in our atmosphere is verified by some research and is becoming progressively well recorded. However, only few people understand that many of these substances are used as preservatives in customer products we buy and use in our home every day. This contains fabrics, carpeting and drapes, television and personal computer devices and also cosmetics.
Phthalate esters and alkyl phenol ethoxylates are used to make softer PVC polymers used in toys and games and certain printing on fabrics. The same substances and synthetic musks are used in individual maintenance systems.
Organotin substances are used to secure polymers and are sometimes discovered in printing on T-shirts and pyjamas and in plastic areas of nappies. These preservatives are there for a reason; flame retardants are included to secure customers against flame while phthalates are included to make softer plastic components or as a service provider in fragrances. However, an effect of their existence in customer items is that the customer is regularly revealed to these substances and that they will get into the surroundings during or after use of the items (CMA).
The latter part became obvious in research into the use of these substances in rainfall. While the outcomes for AHTN, a synthetic musk, indicated the use of a nearby exhaust resource, the outcomes for HHCB, another synthetic musk, indicated that dissipate pollutants by the household use of items containing this substance was probably the significant resource of exhaust to the surroundings (Tickner, and Torrie).
Examples of hazardous chemicals in Consumer products
These are just some of the many risky substances of concern that major organizations and businesses are working to eliminate. Fortunately, there is more secure solution available as highlighted below according to (Wilding, and Welker).
BPA in invoice document and processed food
Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to create many typical items, such as refreshments can designs, check out invoice document and rigid nasty thermoplastic. This hormone-disrupting chemical is linked to a variety of health issues such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, sterility, obesity and cancer.
Toxic fire retardants in furnishings, vehicles, electronic devices and child items
An extensive variety of typical home goods appliances, electronic devices, furnishings and even childcare items contain harmful fire retardants, which continue to persist in the surroundings and develop up in our systems. These substances do not prevent fires, and instead create fire fighting even more risky for rescuers and developing residents. Many major corporations are phasing out these risky contaminants.
Hazardous substances in cosmetics
There has been the use of lead in lipstick and chemicals in children’s shampoos hence raising key questions on what the gaps could be in the manufacturing industry. Major problems in U.S. federal law allow the $60 billion beauty products industry to put endless amounts of harmful substances into personal maintenance systems with no required safety testing, no monitoring of health effects and inadequate labelling requirements.
Vinyl nasty and phthalates in developing materials, schools, medical centers and consumer products
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC or vinyl) nasty is discovered in flooring and piping, toys and lunchboxes and even IV bags in medical centers. During its lifecycle, PVC nasty releases extremely harmful substances such as vinyl fabric chloride, mercury, dioxin, phthalates, cause and many other risky contaminants. Safer solutions are available, and the global market is moving away from this unnecessary and extremely risky nasty.
Pesticides in food
Dozens of bug sprays are discovered on our foods, even after washing, resulting in ongoing contact with risky substances that are particularly risky for children.
Furniture & Electronics
Some padded furnishings and electronic devices contain harmful fireproof substances called polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Our daily contact with PBDEs in our homes, vehicles, and offices is particularly concerning because PBDEs continue to persist in the surroundings and develop up in our systems. PBDEs may affect learning, harm libido and harm the thyroid.
Measures being put in place by manufacturers to control presence of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals in Consumer Products
As opposed to public understanding, the CPSA does not usually need any pre-market protection examining of customer items or substances used in these items, such as toys and games. It does not need specific examining for serious threats, and it does not provide for pre-market acceptance of toys and games or other items containing dangerous substances. Rather, it needs producers to make sure that their items are not dangerous or are effectively branded. A significant problem, as mentioned above, is the lack of poisoning information on most substances in business. As such, if poisoning information are not available (particularly for serious threats such as the ability of a material to cause developing disabilities) then it is difficult to make sure that an item is not dangerous or is effectively branded.
Further, guaranteeing proper labelling is even more of a task as companies are not required to reveal the material elements of their items to the CPSC (unless CPSC can show there is an irrational risk of serious injury or death). CPSC is thus accountable for guaranteeing the security of large numbers of family items of usually unidentified structure consisting of substances whose health results are often unidentified. However, the EPA does have the power to need examining of dangerous substances under TSCA (although, as stated above there are significant boundaries on this authority) and CPSC does work with the EPA and other organizations to recognize main issues for such examining. CPSC may precisely test certain item types for limited or banned substances such as basis on a regular foundation. Also, when issues are taken to the CPSC, such as cause in items or phthalates (softeners) in toys and games, the CPSC may start its own examining to figure out whether reasonably expected exposures may result in irrational threats to children. These projects are often motivated by applications from customer categories.
Safety Standards and Regulations
The CPSC has the power to promulgate mandatory government protection specifications for a particular customer items regarded to be unreasonably risky to the community. Most of the customer item protection specifications are set to prevent damage or serious risks such as choking, burns, etc. Some specifications are released under the power of the CPSA while others are released under the FHSA. There are less than 20 compulsory government specifications for harmful substances in toys and games and customer items, the most significant being the cause in colour. Safety specifications and rules can range from overall prohibits to limitations to non-reflex activities, and from published assistance to customer information and outreach (Wilding, Curtis, and Welker).
Clear labelling of the chemical substances
Whether or not an item must be branded under the FHSA relies on its material (if it contains a risky material as described above) and the possibility that customers will come in contact with any risks it provides. To require labelling, an item must fulfil the meaning of a risky substance: poisoning, visibility, and potential for damage. Producers, suppliers, and /or importers make determinations on if and how to brand their items according to FHSA specifications (which needs that risky substances in items are labelled). It is the business’s liability to adhere to CPSC.
This refers to both serious and serious risks. Companies are only required to list the risky substances in their items. The FHSA sets out particular labelling specifications for risky items. If the CPSC discovers that a given item is not efficiently branded, it is regarded misbranded and cannot be marketed. However, administration is mostly restricted to serious risks, such as flammability or serious poisoning. In exercise, few items containing harmful substances need to be branded under the FHSA explanations. If data are available on a chemical’s poisoning or a consumer/children’s contact with a material, then it is difficult to figure out whether it is hazardous product thus needs labelling (Wilding, and Welker).
Implying bans on toxicity substances
While CPSC has the capability to ban items where item labelling and protection specifications will not effectively secure the community from a threat, less than a number of substances in items have actually been topic to overall prohibit. In common CPSC prohibits or boundaries the use of a particular component, not the items in which they are included. Under FSHA banned risky substances include incredibly combustible water repellents; as well as tetrachloride and mixes in which it is an ingredient; certain fireworks devices; fluid strain cleaning solutions that contain 10% or more by weight of salt or blood potassium hydroxide, not packed in child-resistant packaging; items containing dissolvable cyanide salts; general-use apparel containing asbestos; and self-pressurized items that contain vinyl fabric chloride monomer as an element or in the propellant.. In addition, any toy or article designed for use by children that contain one of the substances detailed above is prohibited if a kid can get access to it (e.g. it’s not marketed in a child-proof container).
Under CPSA prohibited substances include certain incredibly combustible contact adhesives; colour and other area coverings containing more than 0.06% cause, and furniture, toys and games, and other articles designed for use by children that are covered with such paint; and customer patching substances and synthetic ashes or sparks used in fireplaces containing inhalable free-form mesothelioma. Some prohibitions such as TRIS fire retardants in children’s sleeping garments and urea chemicals insulating material were overturned in the legal courts, though these substances were gradually eliminated from the market.
Voluntary recalling of poisonous or dangerous products
While the CPSC can follow compulsory protection standards where such standards are necessary to decrease an important threat associated with a customer item, the CPSA guides the CPSC to rely upon voluntary customer item protection standards when conformity with them would eliminate or effectively prevent damage. Beyond the condition and government laws there are voluntary guidelines and standards for corporate item examining methods and the types of risks to examine (for example, through the United states Nationwide Requirements Institute(ANSI), the United states Community for Testing and Materials(ASTM), and the Underwriters Laboratory).
The 1981 changes to the Consumer Product Safety Act need CPSC to delay to a voluntary standard rather than issue a compulsory regulation if CPSC chooses that the voluntary conventional effectively details the threat in question and where there is likely to be significant conformity with the voluntary conventional. These voluntary standards, such as those set by ASTM, do not have the force of law. However, many voluntary standards are widely approved by market and some are tighter than CPSC standards can be because they are not topic to economic controlling concerns. The lifestyle of a voluntary conventional may also create it simpler for CPSC to act when it discovers a problem. Finally, CPSC sometimes problems item specific voluntary assistance records describing item examining, labelling, and style. Such assistance records have been released for baby rattles and metal jewellery.
The Toy Industry Organization, a trade association for toy producers, created a voluntary toy protection conventional in 1971. In 1976, the conventional was already released by the Nationwide Institution of Requirements of the US Division of Business. The United states Academia of Paediatrics, Customers Partnership, the Nationwide Safety Authorities and several national retail organizations and toy market protection experts were definitely involved in creating this conventional (later released as ASTM Standard F963-03, which has been modified at least twice).
According to the Toy Industry Organization, this voluntary conventional includes specifications for toy protection and examining and considers US controlling. Requirements for toys and games. However, this conventional concentrates on protection and damage problems rather than those of serious poisoning. With regards to the latter in toys and games (art components have tighter requirements), the only examining needed is in conformity with which states surface-coating components shall not contain substances of antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, cause, mercury or selenium and which states pacifiers, rattles, and tethers shall not deliberately contain di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Tests also needed to figure out if labelling for content of a dangerous material is needed. However, if a material is not recognized as a dangerous material under the FHSA, there is no need to analyze. What to analyze for is usually left up to the maker. Further, there is no need that producers stick to these voluntary standards, nor is the conventional required except when a particular producer or store needs certification of conformity.
Recalling hazardous products
The CPSC has the power to remember items either because they contain a problem, which makes them risky, or because they breach a current customer item protection concept. Non-reflex remembers are the CPSC’s recommended method of administration given the legal problems of giving compulsory remember rules, and the point that many remembers are due to technical violations where, for example, boundaries are breached but there may be a little protection issue. When an item is remembered, the maker and the CPSC settle a Remedial Action Strategy which CPSC must accept.
Book of a joint news release, such as which news channels and/or print media may report the story is a common element of such plans. Manufacturers are needed to inform suppliers that the item has been remembered and should then be eliminated from store racks. However, producers are not needed to the remembered items or to show that they have been coming back to the organization or otherwise taken out of use. In the situation of a voluntary remember, there are no tight requirements as to the exteoutreach an organization must perform to consumers regarding remembers, and organizations may even keep selling an item topic to remember. Actually, restoration rates for remembered items float around 15-20 percent, showing that children may keep being at threat even after remembers occur from unsuitable sales.
Reducing Harmful Materials in Consumer Goods: A Case Study of California
The country’s government toxic ingredients law, the Harmful Substances Management Act (TSCA), has a number of important disadvantages. Among other things, it does not usually need organizations to analyze ingredients for possible health effects before using them in customer items. And though the government Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act boundaries the amount of cause and prohibits certain ingredients known as phthalates in children’s items, it does not limit the use of other toxic ingredients in customer products. To reply to this gap in dealing with the use of toxic ingredients in customer items, Florida implemented new rules on Oct. 1 developed to create more secure alternatives for dangerous ingredients in items sold in the condition.
In addition to decreasing customer exposures to toxic ingredients and thus improving health, the goal of the rules is to also create new perform at home opportunities in the growing more secure customer items economy and decrease the pressure on consumers and businesses having difficulties to recognize what exactly is in the items they buy for their families and customers. The rules are a result of California’s Green Chemical makeup Law, specifically Set up Bill 1879, which required the Safer Consumer Products Regulations and approved the execution of the Safer Consumer Products System.
Four-step Process of implementing the safety product measurements in California
The rules need a four-step procedure for controlling toxic ingredients in customer items
Development of a record of possibly damaging ingredients by California’s Division of Harmful Substances Management (DTSC) in accordance with the performance already done by other reliable organizations.
Evaluation and prioritization of blends of toxic ingredients and the items they are used in to create a record of Priority Products for which studies must be performed to see if more secure solutions are available. A material that is the foundation for an item being detailed as a Concern Product will be particular a Chemical of Concern (COC) for that item and any substitute regarded or chosen to substitute that item.
Responsible organizations (i.e., producers, importers, assemblers, and retailers) inform the Division of Harmful Substances Management when their item is detailed as a Concern Product. Manufacturers (or other accountable entities) of an item detailed as a Concern Product must then execute a solutions research for the item and the Chemicals of Concern in the item to figure out how best to limit exposures to, or the stage of negative community health and ecological effects presented by, the ingredients in the item.
The Division recognizes and utilizes controlling reactions developed to protect community health and/or the environment, which increase the use of appropriate and feasible solutions of least issue. DTSC may need controlling reactions for a Concern Product (if the maker chooses to maintain the Concern Product), or for a substitute item chosen to substitute the Concern Product. The rules need the organizations that produce customer items to inform the DTSC that their items contain a material that is detailed on a fourth-coming record of priority items. On September. 26, the DTSC released an informative record of approximately 1,200 individual and groups of candidate chemicals produced by the DTSC from details developed by other authoritative organizations. Manufacturers can willingly evaluation whether their items contain any of the ingredients on the record to evaluate whether more secure ingredients are available and to avoid alternatives in which one toxic material is replaced for another.
A record of 164 preliminary Applicant Chemicals that meet the requirements for the Initial Concern Products List was developed from this larger record of ingredients depending on both the poisoning information of the material and details on the prospective for human visibility. The DTSC will then evaluate and focus on product/Candidate Chemical blends to create a record of Concern Products for which studies of prospective solutions must be performed. By Apr 1, 2014, the DTSC will create available for community evaluation and opinion up to five items suggested on an Initial Concern Products List. In analyzing an item for addition on this record, the DTSC will evaluate the prospective negative effects of its candidate chemicals and negative effects due to prospective exposures during the life-cycle (i.e., from produce through to use and disposal) of the item by considering various aspects detailed in the rules for which details is reasonably available.
The DTSC will also recognize the chemicals) from the preliminary candidate ingredients record involved in the item for each preliminary priority item. A material that is the foundation for an item being detailed as an important item will be particular a Chemical of Concern for that item and any substitute regarded or chosen to substitute the item. By Oct. 1, 2014, the DTSC will create a Concern Product Work Strategy to recognize and explain the item groups they will evaluate in the future. For items classified as Concern Products, the accountable enterprise must execute a solutions research for the item and the ingredients of issue in the item to figure out how best to limit exposures to, or the stage of negative community health and ecological effects presented by them.
A two-phase substitute research procedure is described in the concept. Safer Consumer Products Regulations needs the producers to compare the current product-chemical mixture that contains a material of issue with a prospective substitute (e.g. material replacement or item redesign) using 13 aspects analyzed at each stage of the item’s life-cycle. Centered on this research, the maker (or another accountable entity) will select a substitute material component or substitute item style, or decide to maintain the current product-chemical mixture. A DTSC assistance papers on performing a solutions research is currently being developed.
As has been the situation for a variety of ecological medical problems (e.g., air contamination, material threat assessment), Florida is taking a national power role in creating a controlling system to decrease community contact with toxic ingredients in customer items, a major source of community contact with toxic risks. As Florida benefits experience with this new program, other states will be looking at this model to create similar programs. However, market is expected to task California’s program and problems remain that pre-emption of condition material rules could be involved in initiatives to change the Harmful Substances Management Act, the countries obsolete and usually worthless control for material control.
Substances are universal in our everyday lifestyles. There is no doubt that they contribute to an improved total well being and many substance discoveries have fundamentally changed
the way that we stay our lifestyles. The reliance on chemicals to effect change and generate innovation is positive. However, the down side to this dependency is the negative results that some chemicals can have on individual health and the environment at large. It is impossible to reside in the present world Without being exposed to hundreds of chemicals. Studies performed by the Centers for Illness Management and Prevention (CDC) have documented this visibility for decades, and the more chemicals the CDC tests for, the more they discover in people. And the more we study these chemicals, the more we discover they are linked to illness and disease.
Medical professionals, particularly nurses, are at improved threat for substance and pharmaceutical visibility and so are medical proper care patients. Decreasing exposures is an essential step as the medical proper care industry fulfils its pledge to first do no damage.In the present dynamic industry progressively green credentials, provenance and traceability, social and moral conformity and guarantees concerning the protection of leather are essential considerations and often a condition of the company. Satisfying such requirements is becoming progressively expensive for our industry and relies on rigorous supply chain control. Decreasing the chance of substance visibility is not always easy and must be addressed at a variety of levels. The medical proper care industry is beginning to identify the need to create extensive substance visibility guidelines. Health producers have developed a variety of materials to help hospital staff choose safer items and substance alternatives.
But the medical proper care industry cannot manage this problem alone. Government departments such as Food and Drug Administration, the Ecological Security Agency, and the CDC need to create substance control a higher concern, and conduct more analysis on the health results of environmental substance exposures. Companies and substance producers need to be attributed for the protection of their items, and be required to offer full reports of the contents of their items and any health hazards they might pose. Customers need to have access to information to create purchasing choices.
Three factors are driving immediate condition activity on harmful chemicals: increasing medical evidence of damage, the resulting powerful public outcry, and disappointment with the failure of the legislature to act. The increasing body of new medical analysis linking early-life exposures to harmful chemicals to the improved chance of breast cancers, prostate melanoma, learning problems, and other diseases and disorders are too overwhelming to be ignored. It’s not surprising that the latest poll performed by The Mellman Group found that 78% of People in America are seriously concerned about the threat to children’s health from harmful chemicals in day to- day lifestyle. The legislature did not successfully pass control presented in 2010 to overhaul the Toxic Substances Management Act of 1976. This was despite the vigorous resistance of substance industry insurance supporters and the American voters. This marks the third time in the last six decades that TSCA reform Legislation has done not advance in the face of substance industry resistance.
Until the legislature enacts significant TSCA change, more states will successfully pass more laws and regulations to limit specific harmful chemicals and broadly regulate chemicals in items. Until the legislature acts the states that have made declarations will keep leading the way, reflecting the powerful bipartisan agreement for substance plan change. Given latest trends, control to limit harmful chemicals will likely be presented in as many as 25 declare during the upcoming legal session. New substance regulations will be implemented in California, Maine, Washington, and New York to operationalize the major change laws and regulations. More states will likely consider similar extensive change control.
The states that have declared various consumer protection acts should keep successfully pass condition substance control to secure their people’s health and to generate the substance industry to accept a significant change. State lawmakers can demonstrate their concern on local citizen protection by convincing the legislature to act by passing more state-level changes. The substance industry has expressed repeated disappointment with the increasing patchwork quilt of condition laws and regulations and related choices by product makers to stop using harmful chemicals. For this reason, more condition legal activity will help generate Congressional authority and eventual industry approval of wide government change (Belliveau).
The 112th legislature should create TSCA change a top legal concern. The next
Congress should identify the immediate need and bipartisan assistance for fundamental government change. Effective condition plan activity cannot substitute for wide government change that defends the health of all People in America, directly manages the substance industry, and mobilizes government expertise and resources to prevent substance damage.
The substance industry should assistance significant, sensible government change. Such significant change will recover consumer assurance by providing People in America with the security from harmful chemicals they demand. With powerful government plan authority, condition government authorities and companies that use chemicals will discover it less necessary to develop their own substance restrictions; powerful government plan would also offer the substance industry with higher regulating certainty and industry stability. Weak government change or ongoing Congressional inaction, however, will encourage ongoing condition and company choices to end the use of harmful chemicals.
Federal change should keep allowing states to create stronger rights when states determine they need such guidelines to secure their communities. Federal control will lack credibility unless it defends the states’ ability to innovate through condition control of chemicals, synchronized in partnership with the federal Government. By enacting substantial government planning changes, the legislature will protect the health of all the citizens in America, and recover the confidence of customers, law makers, and businesses in the items of the chemical manufacturing industry.
Addy, V. “Giving the consumer confidence.” Leather Technology Centre. (2011): n. page. Web.
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Belliveau, M. “Healthy States Protecting Families from Toxic Chemicals While Congress
Lags Behind.” (2010): n. page. Web.
CMA, . “Determining the Impact of Chemical Contamination on Human Health.” Position
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perception of potential health hazards .” (2009): n. page. Web. 28 Nov. 2013.
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Chemicals in Doctors and Nurses.” (2010): n. page. Web. 28 Nov. 2013.
The difference of the saturation vapor pressure between -25°C and -35°C?
The saturation vapor pressure at -25°C is 0.6mb.
The saturation vapor pressure at -35°C is 0.2mb.
Hence the difference in saturation vapor pressure between -25°C and -35°C is;
(0.6 0.2) mb = 0.4mb.
The difference of the saturation vapor pressure between +25°C and +35°C?
The saturation vapor pressure between +25°C is 31.7mb.
The saturation vapor pressure between +35°C is 56.2mb.
Hence the difference in saturation vapor pressure is;
(56.2 – 31.7) = 24.5mb.
Ability of air holding water at warm temperatures with the ability of holding water at cool temperatures. Is this relationship geometric or arithmetic?
At low temperatures, the water vapor pressure is low while at high temperatures, the pressure is high. The water vapor amount that air can hold is usually related to the specific air temperature. The capacity of air to hold water vapor varies with temperature. Warm air has very large water vapor content, while cold air holds little water vapor.
The relationship between temperature and water vapor content in the air is a geometric relationship. The exponential relationship can be described as, for each ten degrees temperature increase, the saturation mixing ratio increases by a larger quantity.
The air mass at a temperature of 25°C contains the actual water vapor exerting a pressure of 16.2mb. Relative humidity of the air mass is given by?
Relative humidity =The actual water vapor present in the air.
The maximum water vapor capacity the air can hold.
X 100At 25°C, the maximum water vapor capacity of air is 31.7mb.
Relative humidity =
The air mass at 15°C contains water vapor at the pressure of 5.2mb. The relative humidity of the air mass is?
Relative humidity =The actual water vapor present in the air.
The maximum water vapor capacity the air can hold.
X 100At 15°C, the maximum water vapor capacity of air is 17.0mb.
Relative humidity =
The winds in Luis hurricane spin counter clockwise or clockwise?
The Luis hurricane winds spin in the counter clockwise direction. The counter clockwise spin is attributed to the pressure zones.
The rotation of the earth sets up apparent forces that are called Coriolis forces. The forces pull the winds in the Northern Hemisphere to the right while the winds in the Southern Hemisphere are pulled to the left. When low pressure is formed at the north of the equator, surface winds flows inward so as to fill in the low pressure zone. The winds will are then deflected to the right direction and a counter clockwise spin will start. At the south of the equator, the deflection of the winds to the left will produce a clockwise rotation of the cyclones. The spin is caused by the rotation of the earth about its own axis that causes a faster spin at the equator in comparison to the poles.
The Australian north coast is prone to cyclones. The winds in the cyclones of the Australian north coast spin clockwise or anti clockwise?
The winds in the cyclones occurring along the Australia north coast blow in the clockwise direction. The rotation of the earth sets up apparent forces that are called Coriolis force. The Coriolis forces pull the winds to the left of the Southern Hemisphere. When the low pressure level system is formed at the south of the equator, surface winds flow inward so as to fill the low pressure zones. The winds will be deflected to the left initiating clockwise rotation t the south of the equator.
Why the west coast of the United States do not have problems of the tropical cyclones and hurricanes while tropical cyclones cause destructions at the United States east coast.
Tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin to the east of United States to the North Pacific basin located in the west of United States. However, tropical cyclones in the North East Pacific do not hit the United States, while tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin strike United States regularly.
This phenomenon can be explained by two main reasons. The tropical cyclones tend to move along the west and northwest after forming in the subtropical and tropical latitudes. The motion in the Atlantic usually brings about the tropical cyclones to the vicinity of United States East coast. At the Northeast Pacific, the northwest track usually takes the cyclones farther from the shore away from the United States West coast.
The difference in the temperatures of water along the United States West and East coasts is the second factor. Along the east coast of the U.S., the Gulf Stream gives a source of warm waters vital in maintaining the cyclones. However, along the west coast of United States, the ocean temperatures hardly ever go beyond 70°F. The relatively cool temperatures do not have enough power required in sustaining a tropical cyclone.
List the following temperatures in the Fahrenheit scale: 2°C, 12°C, 22°C, and 32°C to the nearest tenth.
The Conversion Formula is as given below:
°F = (°C°1.8) + (32)
°F = (2°C1.8) + (32)
= 35.6 °F
°F = (12°C1.8) + (32)
= 53.6 °F
°F = (22°C1.8) + (32)
= 53.6 °F
°F = (32°C1.8) + (32)
= 89.6 °F
How is the tilt of the earth related to the pattern of ocean heating? Give specific examples.
The tilt of the earth on its axis is related to the ocean heating pattern. The tilt of the earth is different at the equator, the tropics and the Polar Regions. This is due to the tilting of the earth on its axis. At the equatorial regions, maximum amount of solar radiation is received. The ocean is heated at a higher rate. The warm air evaporates and store large volumes of water vapor. The water vapor generates storms and cyclones.
The tropic of cancer and Capricorn regions the ocean receives varied amount of heating during the year. These regions south and north of the tropics experience descending air that creates high pressure belts. The sub polar regions experience low heating pattern of the oceans. The ocean surface temperatures are high at 5°C during the summer period when heating is high. The Polar Regions experience very poor heating levels. Temperatures barely rise above the freezing point and the winds rarely and throughout the year.
What is the optimal temperature for cyclone formation in Celsius?
The optimal temperature for the formation of cyclones is 26.5 degrees Celsius. The tropical cyclones usually form over tropical waters that have surface temperatures of about 26.5 degrees Celsius and above. These conditions are normally found between the latitudes of 30 degrees and 5 degrees North and South of the equator. The warm water creates a warming effect to the air resulting to areas with intense low pressures. This phenomenon allows water to evaporate. When water evaporates, the water vapor rises, condenses and it forms the clouds. When many clouds are formed in one place, they lead to cyclone formation.
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Amino Acid Sequence in Phenylalanyl Chain of Insulin
This paper will focus on the structure of amino acid in phenylalanyl chain of insulin. According to Sanger and Tuppy (1951), partial acid hydrolysis of an untagged chain was used in analysing the latter. It produced many products that were to be separated. However, the problem of separating pure peptides from the complex mixture was a task.
Sanger and Tubby (1951) used several techniques. Firstly, they made use of batch absorption. This was done on ion exchange resins to fractionate acidic peptides. The pH was adjusted in order to enable separation of cysteic acid peptides from glutamate peptide and aspartate. Secondly, Sanger and Tuppy (1951) applied batch ionophoresis in a solution that had in-series compartments with bases or acids. This altered the charge found on peptides. The latter was then subjected to a paper chromatography. The results showed presence of peptides by staining with ninhydrin. Lastly, they characterised 15 tripeptides, 23 dipeptides, 9 tetrapeptides, 1 hexapeptide and 2 pentapeptide by end group analysis and amino acid composition.
In addition, they assembled the amino acids into a longer sequence. The peptide bond N terminal to Thr or Ser is labile to acid hydrolysis and cleaves first. Therefore, no dipeptides were found with C terminal Thr or Ser. The method prevented complete assembly. Nevertheless, they induced and inferred the sequence of two tetra peptides, a pentra-peptide, hexa-peptide and an octa-peptide that had the N terminus.
In conclusion, the end of the sequence made use of proteases chymotrypsin, trypsin and pepsin to create larger fragments. The structure of phenylalanyl chains of insulin is therefore, Phe .Val. Asp-(-NH2). Glu (-NH2). His. Leu . CyS . Gly. Ser. His. -Leu. Val. Glu. Ala. Leu. Tyr. Leu . Val . CyS.-Gly. Glu . Arg. Gly. Phe . Phe . Tyr . Thr. Pro. Lys.-Ala.
Sanger, F., and H. Tuppy (1951), the amino-acid sequence in the phenylalanyl chain of insulin. Biochem. J. 49:481 490
AMINO ACID SEQUENCE 2
Running head: AMINO ACID SEQUENCE 1
Chemistry of Some Oxidizers
Oxidizers are a group of chemical compounds, which take part in oxidation-reduction or redox reaction by accepting an electron from another element or compound. This process yields to reduction of oxidizers. (Linusx et al, 1998)
A number of oxidizers are used in households and sometimes can be very hazardous. Some of them include Sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen Peroxide, Chlorine and Nitrates.
Sodium Hypochlorite is used as a bleaching agent while Hydrogen Peroxide is used as a disinfectant in sinks, bathrooms, and for cleaning wounds. Chlorine, which contains compounds like Dichlorocyanurates, is used to sanitize water in swimming pools and pump houses. Nitrates, especially the sodium Nitrates are used for preserving corned beef and sausages. (Ennier & Allun, 2011)
Household oxidizers if stored and used in the right manner are of great use at homes but can be hazardous if not handled or stored properly.
For instance, Chlorine requires careful handling since it is a very reactive compound, which reacts with other compounds to release toxic gases. Other chemicals should not be in contact with Chlorine. Nitrates like Sodium Chlorite are risky when taken in large amounts. Sodium Hypochlorite reacts corrosively and can burn the skin if used in concentrations, which are over 40%. Hydrogen Peroxide poses a hazard if its concentration is very high as it is prone to combustion. (Linusx, et al, 1998)
A number of government regulations or statutes govern the labeling and registration of the hazardous household products. The first regulation stipulates that household products containing hazardous substances should alert consumers the hazards posed by such products and measures to protect themselves. This is stipulated in Federal Hazardous Substances Act of US. (Ennier & Allun, 2011)
Secondly, before such chemical compounds can be released for the commercial world, they have to be tested and evaluated for the risks they pose to humans and the environment. Only the chemical substances, which have been approved by the right regulatory bodies, can be released to consumers. The third regulation stipulates that such hazardous chemical products should offer training in written form to guide the users. (Ennier & Allun, 2011)
A number of household chemicals are of a great use but if not properly used or stored can be hazardous. This calls for proper usage and storage to minimize such dangers.
Linusx, S. et al. (1998). Advanced Applied Chemistry: Oxford Press: Canada.
Ennier, A. & Allun, X. (2011). Dissecting Chemistry (2nd ed). Brookxie Publishers Inc: L.A
CHEMISTRY OF SOME OXIDIZERS 4
Running head: CHEMISTRY OF SOME OXIDIZERS 1
Biomedical Science Career Options
The modern world has so many challenges, most of which are related to diseases responsible for high mortality rates. At the same time, different persons share different views and passions on what they would like to involve themselves in right from the time they start schooling or maybe during their studies. In as far as students are concerned, most of them would prefer to choose career opportunities that they will enjoy practicing rather than opting for unfavorable careers where they have no interest.
Biomedical science is concerned with the diagnosis of diseases and the consequent treatment of the patients after satisfactorily examining the victim’s body fluids and tissue samples. After my graduation as a biomedical scientist, I would like to specialize in the field of cancer. I intend to engage in thorough research of the disease in a bid to contribute to the current research on the treatment of cancer. Notably, with the modern lifestyle that most of the population leads today, cancer is inevitable. I ardently believe that by carrying out progressive research on cancer and other related diseases, I will be able to come up with a treatment that will save lives.
The chemistry module I study will be valuable in my research for new molecules and substances that may be used in the treatment of cancer. By understanding the chemical component of cancer as a disease and especially cancerous cells, conducting research will be easier.
It is particularly important to understand the human body in terms of its structure and function. As such, the human anatomy and physiology module will play a very important role in the achievement of my objective. The comprehensive study and examination of human cells allows one to develop a better understanding of the cancerous cells and derive conclusive hypotheses in research. Arguably, complex and highly competent techniques are very important since I will be dealing with human beings whose lives are very precious and valuable.
Major Air Pollutants
There are various types of air pollution though the major ones are particulate and gaseous contaminants in existence in the earth’s surface. Gaseous toxins commonly known are nitrogen oxide, explosive organic compounds, sulfur dioxide, ozone, hydrogen sulphide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen fluoride. Major sources of these gaseous emissions are big immobile structures like smelters, petroleum refineries, fossil fuel fired power plants, and manufacturing entities. These pollutants are corrosive to numerous materials that consequently cause huge damages to ecosystems, cultural resources, reduced visibility and aggravated respiratory diseases (Kacew & Byung-Mu, 2012).
Major air pollutants as discussed in the Basic Toxicology (Fundamentals, Target Organs and Risk Assessment) chapter 23 include; Sulphur dioxide, Nitrogen oxides, Ammonia, Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and Particulate matter. Sulphur dioxide is mostly emitted from all burning substances, which contain sulphur. When sulphur and its components burn, they highly contribute to acid deposition, which has adverse effects. Acid deposition significantly and adversely affects the ecosystems in forests, lakes and rivers. The effects to human health are enormous since majority of human consumption components are derived from these sources. When waters are contaminated, plants are equally affected and which forms proportionate livelihood to humans (Kacew & Byung-Mu, 2012).
Nitrogen oxide is mostly generated when fuel combustion is in place. These are mostly attributable to combustion in road transport sector and industrial activities. Besides contributing to acid deposition just like sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide causes eutrophication. Out of the nitrogen oxide components, nitrogen dioxide is the species, which has negative effects to human health.
High concentration of nitrogen dioxide results in inflammation especially of the airways, which consequently reduces lung functions. This is a health hazard in consideration to the essential functions of lungs in human body. Nitrogen oxide is also associated with the formation of secondary and equally harmful inorganic particular material as well as tropospheric ozone at ground level. This contaminates fresh oxygen inhaled by human beings compromising their lung functions and consequently results to lung failure (Frank, 1996).
Ammonia just like nitrogen oxide greatly contributes to acidification and eutrophication. Much of the ammonia emission especially from the European region is generated from agricultural sector. Major sources of ammonia include the slurry spreading, manure storage and use of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers. The effects of ammonia emission is enormous since not only causing lung malfunctions, kidney failure has been associated with eutrophication complications mostly from ammonia emissions (Loomis & Wallace, 1996).
Non-methane volatile organic compounds are mostly emitted by road transport sector, paint application, various solvent uses and dry-cleaning. Its components like 1, 3-butadiene and benzene are directly associated with hazardous human health. They have adverse effects to the respiratory system and causes heart problems and failure in extreme conditions. Lastly, particulate matter is emitted from various sources and its complex nature makes it among the worst emissions with greatest health hazards to human health.
It is considered as the greatest and most dangerous pollutant since its emissions penetrate directly to all organs associated with respiratory system. In high concentrated regions of particulate matter, cases of respiratory failure are high, lung infections, heart failures and in extreme cases, it results to death. The analysis has identified major causes or air pollution with their effects to human health. These causes are majorly from human activities hence the mitigation measures are easier as well. Human activity should be controlled to ensure harmful emissions are curtailed hence maintaining a clean and free-air polluted environment (Kacew & Byung-Mu, 2012).
Frank, C. Lu. (1996). Basic Toxicology: Fundamentals, Target Organs and Risk Assessment, New York: NY, Taylor & Francis Publishers
Kacew, S., & Byung-Mu, L. (2012). Lu’s Basic Toxicology: Fundamentals, Target Organs, and Risk Assessment, New York: NY, Informa Healthcare Publishers
Loomis, T., & Wallace, H. (1996). Loomis’s Essentials of Toxicology, New York: NY, Academic Press
AIR POLLUTANTS 2
Running head: AIR POLLUTANTS 1
The word glyconutrient is an ambiguous word, coined by Mannatech and other multi-level marketing firms, thus, there is no universal definition of the word. According to Dittmann, glyconutrients are complex carbohydrates particles that assist communication between cells in human body (593). Scientists have claimed, through discovery, that certain monosaccharides are essential in maintaining proper health in human beings. For excellent communication between different cells in a human body, there should be eight glyconutrients. When glyconutrients are linked with amino acids, they form numerous glyco-proteins. Mannatech is one of the multi-level marketing firms that deal with production and distribution of products made from glyconutrients in the world.
According to Mannatech, medical researchers have discovered eight glyconutrient saccharides essential for optimal immune function. Due to lack of six glyconutients in modern diets, the firm has come up with a solution of these nutrients. Rob Ortramm, an immunologist and research scientist, claimed that glyconutrients are essential for overall health since they can eliminate various disease processes, which include arthritis and diabetes (Barcroft and Myskja 228). Mannatech argued that glyconutrients assist the immune system cells to communicate, and without them, individuals could suffer autoimmune disorders. Some of the essential saccharides include glucose, xylose, fucose, galactose and N-AcetylNeuraminic Acid. The eight glyconutrient sacchrides are beneficial in cellular communication and formation of glycol-protein structure. Ambrotose, Mannatech’s main product, has the capability to supply the body with the missing glyconutrient saccharides. The company suggests that each person in the earth should administer a dose of Ambrotose each day in his or her whole life.
Researchers have come up with a notion that providing the human immune network with certain sugar supplements will assist in correcting the chemical imbalances created by dysfunctional immunity that cause a variety of illnesses (Elkins 8). Among the diseases that glyconutrient supplements are believed to eradicate include diabetes, fibromyalgia, ADHD, asthma, autism, stroke, urinary infections and dyslexia. Doctors advise diabetic patients to add glyconutrients in their diet to enhance their health. Every individual requires all eight glyconutrients to remain in good health. However, many people do not take balanced diet in their daily foods.
Glyconutrient supplements assist in filling the gap created by the imbalanced diet. It is through testimonials, rather than scientific proofs, that glyconutrient supplements gain their popularity. Thus, Mannatech believe that glyconutrient supplements that come from plants are effective in creating a balance of sugar molecules in human bodies resulting to superior disease protection. As a lifetime commitment, Mannatech products will benefit individuals to remain healthy and free from severe ailments.
Glyconutrients are essential for general human health. Different researchers and scientists have proved that glyconutrients have supplements that are fundamental in preventing and healing various ailments. Glyconutrients assist human bodies in regulating cholesterol, minimizing body fat, regulating inflammation, eliminating bacterial infections, and facilitating growth of probiotics in the human gut. There are about 600 trillion cells in a human body, and each cell requires glyconutrients to form healthy tissues. Healthy tissues result to healthy organs, and consequently, healthy bodies.
However, we can be quite sure that, unlike pharmaceuticals, glyconutrients do not have a label to indicate a healthy warning (Fleming 82). They also do not indicate any guarantee information concerning their healing power. Above all, scientist have assured people that they are more likely to remain healthy and free from ailments if they include glyconutrients in their daily diet than having a diet without glyconutrients.
Barcroft, Alasdair, and Audun Myskja. Aloe Vera: Nature’s Silent Healer. London: BAAM, 228, 2003. Print.
Dittmann, Roy. Brighton Baby: a Revolutionary Organic Approach to Having an Extraordinary Child: Book One. Bloomington, IN: Balboa Press, 593, 2012. Print.
Elkins, Rita. Miracle Sugars: The Glyconutrient Link to Disease Prevention and Improved Health. Orem, Utah: Woodland Pub, 8, 2003. Print.
Fleming, Edgar K. Natural Healing: The Breakthrough! : Advanced Medical Science Reveals Why Unique Natural Treatment Can Beat Even the Most Serious Illness. Victoria, B.C: Trafford, 82, 2004. Print.
The Process of Protein Synthesis
Protein synthesis essentially involves linking of amino acids to form a chain. The sequence of linking amino acids takes place in a way that leads into a type of code that distinguishes one protein from another. A genetic code in the DNA is responsible for the type of amino acid code. The process is enhanced by the availability of materials such as amino acids, series of enzymes, DNA, and forms of ribonucleic acids (RNA). RNA is responsible for carrying instructions from the DNA to the cytoplasm. There are three types of RNA used for protein synthesis. They include ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA) that caries amino acids, and messenger RNA (mRNA) that receives the genetic code from DNA and takes it the cytoplasm.
The process of protein synthesis involves several steps. The first step is termed as translation or elongation. Before the start of the process, the components that will be in involved in the process are assembled in the part of the cell called Ribosome. Translation thereafter starts in the nucleus with the synthesis of varieties of nucleic acids called RNA from appropriate DNA. The RNAs created move from the Nucleus to the cytoplasm. Thereafter, a nucleic acid called mRNA is recorded from the DNA gene in the nucleus to complete the first step. The second step is called initiation. This is the beginning of the synthesis of the protein and takes place in the cytoplasm. Initiation is facilitated by a codon called UAG on mRNA. A codon in this case is a series of three adjacent bases on RNA that codes for specific amino acid. This codon (AUG) initiates the interaction of the ribosome with mRNA and at the same time the interaction of Anticodon UAC with tRNA. Anticodon is a series of three nucleotides corresponding to three bases of codon. Thereafter a second tRNA approaches mRNA signaling the beginning of the growth of the peptide chain. The chain is elongated by bonding of amine and carboxylic group in the cell (Ophardt, 2003).
The third step of protein synthesis is called elongation. The process is facilitated by reading of subsequent codons. Various tRNA’s reads the codons. Once the correct code has been found, a peptide bond is formed leading to growth of a peptide chain. At this point, proline (a type of amino acid) has been hydrolysed from tRNA and therefore it (proline) moves to the cytoplasm to reattach to another proline amino acid to complete this step. The fourth step is elongation and termination. During this process, the elongation of the protein progresses until a signal for stopping is reached on the mRNA. At this point, the last amino acid is hydrolyzed from corresponding t-RNA. The peptide chain formed leaves the ribosome. At this point, the process completes and another chain is ready to form (Ophardt, 2003).
During the protein synthesis, some steps can go wrong leading to formation of a defective protein. In the event of such an eventuality, the conversion of the coding sequence into a functional protein is disrupted leading to an error in the protein synthesis. For instance amino acids may fail to be incorporated in the codon during condon translation leading to death of cells, protein misfolding, or aggregation. The misfolding of protein leads to neurogenerative diseases whereas the misincorporation of amino acids during the process of translation leads to multiple sclerosis (Drummond & Wilke, 2009).
Drummond, D. A. & Wilke, C. O. (2009). The evolutionary consequences of erroneous protein synthesis. Journal of Nat Rev Genet, 10(10), 715-724.
Ophardt, C. E. (2003). Protein synthesis. Retrieved Sept 20, 2012, from Virtual Chembook: http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/584proteinsyn.html
Protein Synthesis Process 2
Running head: PROTEIN SYNTHESIS PROCESS