Potassium – Too Much of a Good Thing Can Kill You
The human body is highly specialized with cells and tissues with the capacity to protect the body as much as possible by using the available resources with the body to fight intruding pathogens and disease causing agents. This is usually the basis on which disease causing agents that get ingested in the body at times get attacked by white blood cells and their products after ingestion get engulfed by these blood cells to reinforce the body’s immunity against that particular pathogen (Doria & Wigge, 2003). It is on this premise that, for instance, the venom from a snake can kill and also be used by the human body under controlled conditions to reinforce the body’s immunity against such it. When the venom is in high quantity however, it is lethal and causes death within minutes or days depending on the type of snake. The Black Mamba’s venom is studied in this paper to establish its nature, chemical content, lethality and whether it may be used for any pharmaceutical or medicinal purposes.
Black Mamba (whose botanical name is Dendroaspis polylepis) by description is a narrow headed snake with a black interior and can grow up to 4.5 meters in length making it the second longest venomous snake after the king cobra (Doria & Wigge, 2003). It is the fastest snake able to move at 4.32 to 5.4 m/s with a slender and agile body preferring to live on the ground most of their lives. They are commonly found in the grasslands of Africa and is considered the most venomous land snake according to an LD50 study done on mice (Håkansson & Madsen, 1983).
Research shows that black mamba’s venom is highly chemical that contains a high amount of potassium used to immobilize its prey upon injection. Its exact chemical composition according to Nhachi & Kasilo (1994) is dendrotoxins, and 59 amino acid neutrotoxins, which block specific subtypes of potassium channels in nerve membranes in the process facilitating neurotransmitter release (Nhachi & Kasilo, 1994, p. 192). The venom also contains the three-finger snake toxins family called the fasciculin which works to inhibit the way the acetylcholinesterase and in the process enhances the effects of neurotransmitter cholinesterase causing generalized muscle fasciculation that is muscle twitch (Håkansson & Madsen, 1983).
The venom of a black mamba has a low molecular weight and this makes it rapid acting especially because of the highly potent neurotoxins, calciseptine, and cardiotoxins it contains. Research done by different scientists give black mamba’s venom varying subcutaneous LD50 values ranging from 0.0k mg/kg to 0.12mg/kg with a 0.185mg/kg average making it among the deadliest and most venomous snakes in the world (Håkansson & Madsen, 1983).
Inasmuch as the human body easily succumbs to about 10 mg to 15 mg of snake venom, the black mamba delivers about 100 mg to 120 mg of venom in an average spit although it can produce as much as 400 mg of venom in a single bite (Nhachi & Kasilo, 1994). Previously before the discovery of antivenom, the mortality rate of black mamba’s bite was 100% where its severe envenomation potentially kills under 20 minutes depending on the fatality of the bite and the area bitten (Marais, 2004). There are many neurotoxicity processes that occur after a black mamba bite which manifest rapidly through neurological, cardiovascular and respiratory symptoms within ten minutes or less. Some of the commonest symptoms usually include dizziness, coughing and breathing difficulty, drowsiness, erratic heartbeat and convulsions which fast escalate into neuromuscular symptoms such as shock, hypotension, ataxia, loss of consciousness, pallor, limb paralysis, ptosis and nausea and vomiting (Zug, 1996).
The toxicity of black mamba’s venom is made lethal largely because of its constituent toxins not common in most of other snake venoms. It is mostly constituted by dendrotoxins like toxin K, toxin 1, toxin 3, toxin 7 among others. These toxins disrupt the exogenous process of muscle contraction by what Nhachi & Kasilo (1994) calls the means of a sodium potassium pump where Toxin K specifically blocks voltage-gated potassium channels, Toxin 1 inhibits the potassium ion (K+) channels at the pre and post-synaptic level in the intestinal smooth muscle (Nhachi & Kasilo, 1994, p. 194). In addition to this, these toxins further inhibit calcium ions (CA2+) sensitive potassium (K+) channels from what are called the rat muscle that are contained in the planar bilayers Kd = 90 nM in 50 mM KCl (Marais, 2004). M4 and M1 receptors are inhibited by Toxins 3 and 7 respectively while calciseptine being a 60 amino acid peptide inhibits cardiac contractions and relaxes smooth muscles where it blocks the contraction in the aortic smooth muscle blocked by K+ and in the process contracts the uterine muscle and the portal vein (Zug, 1996). In this case therefore, it can be seen that black mamba’s venom is very specific and highly toxic.
Extensive research by the South African Institute of Medical Research (SAIMR) and other researchers (see), it has been found that because of the potency and specificity for each subtypes of the receptors, the venom’s toxins have been used in pharmacological tools to elaborate the structure function of the channel proteins (Zug, 1996, p. 46). These findings demonstrate that snake venom is not only useful for pharmaceutical industry but also plays an important for carrying out investigations on the structure and function properties of general physiology (Zug, 1996, p. 69). From these research for instance, SAIMR was able to come up with an antivenom to treat black mamba bites which has helped to save many victims of this snake’s bite. Successful antivenom therapy requires rapid treatment and administration of the antivenom in massive doses of about 10 12 vials (Zug, 1996).
In this regard therefore, it is clear that it is possible to moderately use the venom from black mambas to serve medical and pharmaceutical purposes to enhance the success of its treatment and reduction of its lethality of the snake’s bite. The different chemical constituents of the venom and their respective toxicity to different body organs and parts creates an interesting area of study that allows for greater opportunities to understand how they can be used for pharmaceutical and medicinal interventions (Nhachi & Kasilo, 1994). Excessive injection of the venom is lethal and causes death eminently but moderated use of the venom can be used to be beneficial in medicine and for treatment.
Doria, B. & Wigge, D.J. (2003). Snakes of Zambia: An Atlas and Field Guide. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Edition Chimaira.
Håkansson, T. & Madsen, T. (1983). On the Distribution of the Black Mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) in West Africa. Journal of Herpetology, 17 (2): 186187.
Marais, J. (2004). A Complete Guide to the Snakes of Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Struik Nature.
Nhachi, C.B. & Kasilo, O.M. (1994). Snake poisoning in rural ZimbabweA prospective study. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 14 (3): 191193.
Wolf-Eberhard, E. (1981). Snakes: Biology, Behavior, and Relationship to Man. New York: Leipzig Publishing.
Zug, G.R. (1996). Snakes in Question: The Smithsonian Answer Book. Washington D.C., USA: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press.
POTASSIUM – TOO MUCH OF A GOOD THING CAN KILL YOU 5
How important is society in influencing the differences between men and women, or is it biology that rules?
Human beings are exclusively unique. Sociologists emphasize that the uniqueness of humans is due to the fact that they are social and cultural. By being social means that humans depend on other humans for their survival. It can also mean that what human beings become is largely driven by socialization. Through socialization, men and women adapt to customs. Other animals essentially depend on biological instinct for survival.
Socialization is solely responsible for fashioning the individual qualities. Different people have different biological predispositions. Human beings tend to be shaped by how they are treated by others in society. Families, political leaders, religions and schools teach men and women how to behave in society. Prejudice in the economic arrangement also played part in determining what is expected from both gender. This is the work of society. Biology is only responsible for the physical traits that are unique to each gender.
The roles of women and men, in any relationship, are structured by society. Before the World War II, women were men’s properties. After the war, women became men’s partners in raising the family. They also engaged in paid labor force. Socialization influences what children become in later life. Today, opportunity and socialization have made society to be indifferent concerning the gender. Socialization shapes individual behaviours, to match the person that one respects.
Society starts molding individuals from the time they are born. Biology differentiates the gender. It is through interaction that people change their characters. At every stage of human life, there is a lesson to be learnt. Early socialization separated men from women, but later reinforced earlier views to new ones. Individuals cannot be separated from social beings.
Society and Human Behaviours 1
Introduction for proposal paper
Melatonin is a hormone produced typically by the pineal gland in the head and is most well recognized for controlling sleep, as the nonexistence of light leads to less destruction of melatonin production and its comparatively high intensities enable sleep (Altun 836). The main objective of melatonin is to stabilize irregular sleep habits and thus it is taken half an hour before going to sleep in order to prompt sleep and sustain the person on program.
Melatonin functions primarily through decreasing sleep dormancy, which is the time that is need to fall asleep immediately a person rest and desire to fall asleep. An effective sleep dormancy will lead to falling asleep immediately a person`s head hits the pillow, a prolonged sleep dormancy will lead to the subject needing half an hour or more to fall asleep. It is noted that melatonin functions only by this mechanism, but may indirectly result into an improvement in sleep quality it allows the person to get more sleep. Accordingly, melatonin has other benefits, which include functioning as anti-obesity over a lifespan, not prompting loss of fat bulk, but decreasing the degree of weight increase.
Obesity is a healthy condition in which extra body fat has amassed to the level that it may have an adverse consequence on health, resulting into reduced life expectancy, or amplified health issues. Individuals are considered obese when their body mass index, exceeds 30kg/m2. As it is known, an obese person has the potential of encountering several diseases, especially heart diseases, certain kind of cancer, and type two diabetes. Obesity issues are encountered because of a mixture of excessive food energy consumption, without having physical exercises.
Purpose of research and current knowledge
The main purpose of this research is to help inspect if there is any direct linkage between melatonin and loss of weight in humans. Various researches have indicated that, there could be a direct connection between melatonin and weight loss (Reiter 89). Research has proved that melatonin forms part of a collection of hormones that are used to regulate the human sleep wake cycle in conjunction with the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the central nervous system (Barni 59). Melatonin is a natural hormone produced in the pixeal glands and melatonin lances commonly rise in the dark at nightfall. Therefore, for those people who have difficulties in sleeping, melatonin has been recommended in supplement form (Lissoni 57). Melatonin appears to have metabolic benefits may counter obesity also could be prevention helpful in the prevention of diabetes and other diseases that appear because of metabolic problems. This research and the existing knowledge serves important role because it helps in scrutinizing if it is true that melatonin help in reducing or solving the challenge of weight loss.
The importance of the question to the field and possible importance to human health
The question of melatonin and weight loss is important as a possible intervention in obesity and therefore influence public health. A substantial number of biological influences of melatonin are produced by initiation of melatonin receptors. However, others occur because of its function as a universal and strong antioxidant with a specific function in the defense of mitochondrial. Therefore, the question is vital because it helps in provision of relevant information that is beneficial for researchers interested in studying more on the issue in question. Consequently, the question has various possible importances to human health and they include weight control thus resulting into reduction of various health diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and heart attacks among others.
For instance, it has been demonstrated that there are different forms of fat in the body and white adipose is the one responsible for storing calories base or fat while brown fat helps body weight by burning calories rather than storing them(Ghielmini 29). Research has established that ingesting of melatonin enhances brown fat (Boutin 75). It was also found that melatonin amplifies the effects of workout, as brown fat contains the protein in charge of producing warmth and oppressing calories. The availability of research on such issues like melatonin and weight loss is very essential in human health because various individuals dealing with weight loss difficulties are now in a position to use the melatonin supplements to help them cut off the unnecessary weight hence living a healthy lifestyle from diseases associated with obesity.
The existing status of the previous research done to address this question
The previous research showed that melatonin has metabolic advantages, but studies have not investigated bastille mechanism (Altun 90). Health care providers have recommended sleeping as dark conditions possible, consuming food rich in melatonin and possibly taking melatonin supplements helps to reduce obesity. Melatonin is classified as a nutritional supplement, but not a drug.
Current research demonstrates that the melatonin produced by the body has importance in the day-to-day pulses of disruptive alertness (European Medicines Agency 36). It has been discovered that individuals who work night shifts may be at increased risk of cancer, which could be connected to actual melatonin levels in the body (Therapeutic Goods Administration 67).
Current researches also shows that there has been clinical experiment seeking cancer-connected weight loss and melatonin. Even though none of the subjects gained weight on these substances, four of the ten clients in the melatonin group did not lose extra weight over the one-month trial time (Lewis 34). Unfortunately, this experiment was limited by its small size and short time of follow up may have been responsible for the additional weight stability in these patients. Therefore, from this research, some dispute chorea of melatonin in weight loss and argues that a well and balanced nutrition and daily physical exercises are responsible for any weight loss. Nevertheless, melatonin contributes a small percentage for the loss of weight (Lewis 46). A few researchers carry a significant number of current researches reporting positive outcomes from melatonin are small and carried.
Altun, Ugur-Altun . “Melatonin: therapeutic and clinical utilization”. International Journal of Clinical Practice 2007,61 (5): 83545.
Barni,Ardizzoia . A randomized study with the pineal hormone melatonin versus supportive care alone in patients with brain metastases due to solid neoplasms. Cancer. 2004;73:699-701.
Boutin , Audinot V. “Molecular tools to study melatonin pathways and actions”. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 26 (8): 4129.
European Medicines Agency (EMA). “Circadin, melatonin”. European Public Assessment Report (EPAR). European Medicines Agency. Web October 05, 2013.
Ghielmini, Pagani . Double-blind randomized study on the myeloprotective effect of melatonin in combination with carboplatin and etoposide in advanced lung cancer. Br J Cancer. 1999;80:1058-1061.
Lewis, Alan. Melatonin and the Biological Clock. McGraw-Hill. p. 23-31. 1999. Print.
Lissoni, Paul. Is there a role for melatonin in supportive care? Support Care Cancer. 2002;10:110-116.
Mirick, Davis. Circadian disruption, shift work and the risk of cancer: a summary of the evidence and studies in Seattle. Cancer Causes Control. 2006;17:539-545.
Reiter, Robert. “Pineal melatonin: cell biology of its synthesis and of its physiological interactions. Endocr. Rev. 12 (2): 151180. May 1991. Web October 05, 2013.
Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). “Australian Public Assessment Report for Melatonin”. Department of Health and Ageing, Australian Government. Web October 05, 2013.
Aquatic ecosystems form a home for many animal, and plant species which have different adaptations that allow them to survive in the water. The plants have spongy leaves that have air spaces and this factor allows them to float in water. Another factor that makes them float in water is then fact that stems are filled with air. Another adaptive characteristic in the leaves is the fact that they have large leaves that are flat. This serves to increase the surface area on which the water’s upward force acts on. Another factor that allows the leaves to float is the fat layers and oil droplets that appear on the plant leaves.
The water animals also have various features that help in the reduction of friction between the body surface and the water. These include the light bone structure that helps them to float in the water and to easily move within the water. The aquatic animals have fins that are large and flat and fin rays that serve to increase the area on which the water force acts. Other adaptive mechanisms include scales that point towards the tail and the existence of a muscular layer in the animals.
The aquatic animals are also adapted to allow them to appropriately have the right gas exchange. The brown algae have blades that are long and flat and they help in increasing the surface area which contacts the water. The water insects are also adapted by having a bubble of air under their wings. They breathe form this bubbles anytime they are in the water.
Shells also help the animals to prevent water loss and to avoid exchanges in the animal’s environment.
Alford, D., (2004). Biology. Sydney: Pascal Press.
Aquatic Ecosystems 3
Artificial neural networks for data mining
The concept of neural networks
According to studies concerning the basic concept behind neural networks, various issues of great importance surface and are worth for discussion. To begin with, a neuron is a small body component that operates by receiving signals that come from other neurons through connections that link between one and other neurons. Studies indicate that a combination of such signals in excess of certain set levels results in what may be termed as neuron firing, which causes signals to be sending on to other neurons connected or linked to it.
It is believed that some signals act as inhibitions concerning neuron firing while others act as exciters in the same manner. Studies indicate that what is referred to philosophy is a real joint progression or effect of the occurrence or nonexistence of the shootings in the configuration of contacts (synaptic) between neurons.’ The brain of a human being has hundreds of billions of such cells, which form a complexity in their interconnections that enable complex functions; thinking being one of the many complex result or action signified. Like any other cell, neurons have bodies and importantly, receptors, which called dendrites that, receive signals from other neurons. Studies indicate that when a neuron fires, an electrical impulse is generated, which stimulates part of the neuron cell, causing an electromechanical activity that transmits the generated signal across the synapses to other neurons connected to it. Studies reveal that when a neuron fires an electrical impulse is generated because of a change in potential, where the impulse travels at about a hundred meters in a millisecond.
In this regard, artificial neural networks are in real sense biologically stimulated computer platforms designed to simulate the way human brains processes information. Thus, artificial neural networks collect their knowledge through detection of patterns and relationships in data; they get training or learning through experience as opposed to programming. Studies show that an artificial neural network’ is formed from hundreds of solitary components; simulated neurons or dispensation rudiments that get coupled with constants or masses, establishing the neural construction prearranged in stratums. It has been found that the command of neural calculations is derived from the manner of linking neurons in a system. In this process, every processing element (artificial neuron) has what is known as weighted inputs, consisting of transfer functions together with an output.
Accordingly, studies show that the behavior of a neural network is majorly determined by the transfer function regarding its neurons. This is in accordance with the learning rule aided by the architecture itself. Since the neuron masses are modifiable bounds, the neural system is therefore parameterized as arrangement; in this regard, the subjective sum of inputs of neurons institutes neuron initiation. Studies indicate that, artificial neural network represents an increasingly interesting modeling technique; for data sets that have nonlinear correspondences, especially in pharmaceutical processes. It is important to point out that artificial neural networks do not require any knowledge of the data source; however, they require large training sets because of their many weights. In this regard, artificial neural networks can be used in combination of both literature and experimental based data in solving problems. Thus, artificial neural network is an important scientific advancement in terms of technological power.
Learning in Artificial Neural Networks
Studies indicate that, learning in neural network in actual sense refers to the process of training; it may be literary likened to athletics training. A vital consideration in artificial neural network concerns the use of proper learning algorithm, mostly referred to as training algorithm. Through the learning algorithm, specification is made concerning the process by which a neural network learns underlying relationships between inputs and outputs. There is a classification criteria that categorizes learning algorithm in artificial neural network as either supervised or unsupervised learning.
It is important to note that training in neural network a coach is required; this is a director or instructor, who directs the neural network on what it should produce as a response. Basing on this, supervised learning uses a set of inputs where the appropriate or desired outputs are known. For instance, this may contain a past set of credit submissions with the attainment or failure of entities to recompense the credit, may have a set of participation bounds together with supposed known yields. Accordingly, from the variance between the anticipated reaction and actual reaction, the inaccuracy is dogged and then a share of it spread regressively through the system.
At each neuron, the inaccuracy is used to regulate the masses and then inception standards of the neuron, thus the next time the inaccuracy in the system reaction will be less concerning the same responses. In essence, this process or corrective procedure is backpropagation; is applied continuously and in a repetitive manner for each set of inputs and corresponding set of outputs produced as a response to the inputs. The procedure continues depending on the set or specified level and this is dependent on whether the total errors in the responses exceed such predetermined level. The repetition may continue until at such a point, when there will be no measurable errors. This point signifies a level where the neural network has learned the training material and it is the most appropriate time to stop the training or learning process.
The neural network at this point can be used or employed in producing responses to new input data. On the other hand, unsupervised artificial neural network learning is a process where only input stimuli are shown to the network.
Studies show that concerning the unsupervised learning, the network is self-organizing, where it organizes itself internally so that every hidden processing element responds strategically to a different kind of stimuli. However, there is no knowledge supplied about the type of classification, that is, outputs are correct. This means that those outputs that the network derives may or may not be relevant to the network developer; this means that the unsupervised learning can find its great use in cluster analysis processes.
To overcome such system outcome, there is need to set model parameters, which allows the control of the number of categories into which a network classifies the inputs. Regardless of such learning being referred to as unsupervised learning, a person must examine the final categories to assign meanings and in the end determine usefulness of results. This finds great application in adaptive resonance theory, a neural network architecture that imitates brain unsupervised functioning. Finally, studies indicate that there are many different and distinct neural network paradigms do exit, suitable for various decision-making domains.
Developing neural network-based systems
The development process of a neural network-based system is always unique with some unique aspects even though is similar to the structured design methodologies of traditional computer-based information systems. The process of developing a neural network-based system includes various stages including the gathering of the information to be used for testing and training the network; where dynamic trepidations are that definite problem is agreeable to neural system resolution and that satisfactory statistics is available and can be achieved during the emergent technique. Additionally, it is significant to identify training data and a plan made for testing the enactment of the network. The process of developing a neural network-based system includes the selection of network architecture as well as a learning approach. The accessibility of a particular technique or the abilities of the enlarging workforces may regulate the form of neural network to be created. Accordingly, some forms of problem have illustrated great accomplishment rates with certain structures; thus, vital concerns are the actual number of neurons and the number of layers.
In some correspondences, inherent algorithms are applied in the process of selecting the network scheme. Another stage in developing a neural network-based system includes initialization of the network masses and strictures, followed by the amendment of the strictures as training enactment response is established. Frequently, the primary standards are vital in defining the efficacy and extent of training; however, some approaches alter the strictures during training in order to improve the performance. Another step in developing neural network-based system involves transforming the application data into the form and format needed by the neural network. This in most cases may need writing software to preprocess the data or carrying out these procedures openly in an artificial neural network-based system. Therefore, it is essential that the storage of data, as well as operation techniques and processes be designed for expediently and proficiently retraining the neural network when required. It is noted that the application data illustration and gathering frequently affect the proficiency and probably the accurateness of the results.
In another step of developing an artificial neural network-based system, there is the conducting of training and testing iteratively through the performance of feedback and anticipated or known production of information to the set-up. The set-up computes the productions and makes necessary adjustments to the weights until the calculated productions are within a satisfactory forbearance of the recognized productions for the cases of performance. The anticipated productions, as well as their associations to performance data are derived from chronological data. In the final stage of developing an artificial neural network-based system, a steady set of masses is acquired. This allows the system to create the anticipated yields when given contributions such as those in the teaching set. At this point, the system or the network is ready for use independently or as part of another software system, permitting new data input presentation, and where the output will be a recommended decision. Accordingly, the first two steps in artificial neural network development involve collecting and separation of data into a training set and a testing set. Moreover, the training sets are used to form adjustments on weights while the testing castes or sets are ultimately used for network validation purposes across the network system.
Application of artificial neural network
Studies indicate that, artificial neural network has been applied in many domains, for instance, applications in finance. There have been several tests concerning neural networks in financial markets. Accordingly, neural networks have been successfully trained to determine whether loan applications should be approved. In essence, neural systems can envisage mortgage claimant creditworthiness better than mortgage critics can. Again, neural networks have been applied in the prediction of rating of corporate bonds and attempting to predict their profitability. At this stage, neural networks have been found to outperform other mathematical modeling tools in the process of predicting bond rating and profitability. This is because neural systems deliver a more broad charter for linking monetary figures of a firm to the respective bond ranking.
Neural network finds another application in fraud prevention especially in bank business; where neural networks are employed in dealing with credit card fraud, and this gave a great output performance against traditional regression approaches. Furthermore, neural networks have been applied in the validation process involving bank signatures to analyze and identify forgeries in a better way more than any human expert. This means that it neural networks have increased accuracy of signature validation process in banks. From studies, it is was found that, since neural networks have been a subject of intense study from as early as the 1980s. This has prompted many applications and experiments as well.
In addition, other pertinent requests do exits; live intrusion tracking,’ web content filtering,’ exchange rate prediction,’ and hospital bed allocation.’ In all these three instances of application, it was found that the rate of accuracy is beyond any human expertise. In practice, artificial neural network have been proven to be an important tool concerning pattern recognition in many areas like engineering and more important ion clinical medicine. Studies indicate that, magnetic resonance spectroscopy has an important role it plays concerning investigations in cell biochemistry, which provides a reliable method for detection of metabolic changes in breast tissue. However, scarcity of data and the complexity of interpretation concerning essential physiological information seem to impose extra demands that inhibit the applicability of most machine learning and statistical techniques. On the other hand, knowledge based artificial neural networks have been found to prevail over such difficulties.
Knowledge based artificial neural networks combine knowledge from the domain; this are simple rules with connectionist learning. Through this combination, the network is trained through use of small sets of data. The primary structure bases on the dependencies of a set of known domain rules where the rules must be refined for proper functioning. Further still, knowledge based artificial neural networks process involves tow algorithms; rule to network algorithm. Rule to network algorithm has its main task that involves translation process between a knowledge base that has information concerning a domain theory and the initial structure of a neural network. Through this algorithm, mapping of a structure of an approximate correct domain theory is facilitated by using all the rules and their dependencies into a neural network structure. This allows the teaching of the distinct system through the backpropagation’ learning procedure. In conclusion, artificial neural network finds its application in almost every day`s area of life. As the technology advances, artificial neural network is becoming more useful in creating better ways of achieving results.
Fadlalla, A., and Lin, C. (2001). An Analysis of the Applications of Neural Networks in Finance. Interfaces,31( 4).
Lee, P. (2002). Neural Networks for Web Content Filtering. IEEE Intelligent Systems.
Principe, J. (2000). Neural and Adaptive Systems: Fundamentals through Simulations. New York: Wiley.
ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR DATA MINING 6
Running head: ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR DATA MINING
Insect Vectored Diseases Summer 2012
The human animal without a doubt dominates the world in its wide-ranging effect upon the earth. Biologically, the class insecta can assert to be more significant than a human being. Insects are a human race most rivals for food resources directly by eating the plants cultivated for food and indirectly as vectors of disease-causing organisms. As far as evolution is concerned, the insect pests have kept humanity at a continuation level for thousands of years. As humans evolved, they developed skills in agriculture, medicine, and chemistry as well as many weapons that can attack the insect hordes and the parasite they transmit. Disease and parasitism play an important role in an organic life. The search for food on the part of one organism be it micro-organism, insect, or human becomes for another either death, disability, or a nasty disease.
With respect to human diseases, insects may not be directly involved in the transmission of the diseases for example measles and small pox. Moreover, insects can play an important role as vectors. The most common insects that act as vectors are cockroaches, fleas, black flies, mosquitoes, and tsetse fly. The paper will describe malaria, West Nile Virus, and Lyme disease and comparison of the three diseases.
Malaria is caused by a parasite that lives in human and mosquitoes. The disease remains one of the killers of humans in the whole world. It threatens more than one third of the world population. Malaria flourishes in the tropical areas of Africa, Asia, and Central as well as South America. The disease strikes millions of people. The cases of malaria that takes place globally each year are approximately five hundred million but miserably, more than one million of its victims die, and most of them are children. The disease has been there ever since ancient period. The invention that malaria was spread by mosquitoes gave a free rein to an outbreak of determined public health measures intended to beat out malaria. The measures were targeted at the larval and adult stages of the insect (Yee 1).
Causes of malaria
Malaria is caused by a single-celled parasite from the genus Plasmodium. There are more than one hundred species of Plasmodium that are known. They produce malaria humans. There are four species of Plasmodium that commonly infects humans and each of the species has a characteristic form when inspected under the microscope. The different species produces diverse symptoms. Plasmodium falciparum is to blame for malaria deaths in Africa. The contagion can build up swiftly leading to life-threatening complications. Plasmodium vivax is the most far and wide spread species save for its less severe signs and symptoms. These species are generally found in the tropics particularly Asia. Plasmodium Malarie produces distinctive malaria symptoms that can carry on in the blood for very long duration may be decades with no symptoms. A person with this species can infect others through a mosquito bite or blood transfusion. Plasmodium ovale is capable of causing relapses and occurs mostly in West Africa (Goldsmith 58).
Malaria infection in the human host normally begins when the sporozoites are introduced to the blood stream by an infectious mosquito. There are thousands of sporozoites that are injected by the mosquito, but it is understood that even a single sporozoite able to initiate infection in men. The bigger the sporozoites load, the shorter the incubation period leading to severe symptoms. The sporozoites usually stay behind in the incubation period for a short time may be sixty minutes at maximum prior to entering the liver of the host (Yee 1).
More often than not, the parasites invade the hepatocytes leading to the asexual exo-erythrocitic schizogonic cycle. The liver strophozoite may appear as a mononucleated round body in the cytoplasm of the host cells. After some time, it begins to enlarge and reproduce asexually. The length of each schizogonic liver cycle is invariable for each plasmodium species. The liver cycle ends when the mature schizont ruptures and releases the merozoites to sinusoids of the liver. Within twelve to twenty four hours, the parasite grows, and they cytoplasm expands. At the end of this phase, the trophozoite has a single nucleus and variable amount of pigment. Temperature has a powerful effect on the speed of the cycle in the mosquito (Yee 1).
Signs and symptoms of the disease
Malaria typically produces a string of recurrent attacks each of which has three stages chills, followed by fever and sweating. The person is likely to have headache, malaise, muscular pains, fatigue, vomiting, nausea, and diarrhea. After one or two hours, the body temperature rises and the skin feels hot and dry. After some time the body temperature falls and sweating begins. The victim feels tired and weak. These signs and symptoms appear ten to sixteen days after the infectious mosquito bite, and they coincide with the bursting of the infected red blood cells.
Disease treatment and prevention
The efficiency of ant-malarial drugs differs with the different species of the parasite. Medical treatment should be sought after without delay. The most common drugs are: primaquine, quinine, chloroquine, and mefloquine. The prevention of malaria is based on evaluating the risk of exposure to the infection, prevention of mosquito bites by use bed nets, mosquito repellent, and preventive medications.
Overall impact on human life
The spread of malaria has lead to economic as well as social devastation. The economic cost is great, and it can be compared to the cost it has on the quality of lives. There are direct individual economic impacts that malaria has produced, the most common ones are, the value of time that the victim and those involved in caring loose to the sickness, the value of lives lost, and expenditure on medical care, prevention, and treatment. Furthermore, the indirect costs are change of human settlement and labor patterns.
West Nile Virus
West Nile Virus is a dangerous virus that can cause diseases leading to fatalities in some species of mammals, birds, and reptiles. Most of the medical cases take place in horses and humans. West Nile Virus is an arbovirus in the flavivirus genus of the family Flaviviride. There are two genetic lineages of West Nile Virus. Lineage 1 viruses have caused the most recent outbreaks, and they contain powerful and attenuated viruses. Lineage 2 viruses cause asymptomatic infections as well as placid disease. West Nile Viruses are widespread in many parts of the world. The prevalent regions are Asia, Europe, and Africa, Mediterranean region, America, Australia, and Middle East.
Cause of West Nile Virus
West Nile Virus infection is caused by an infected mosquito bites. Mosquitoes become infected with West Nile Virus when they feed on infected birds (Lee xii).
West Nile Virus transmission
West Nile Virus is transmitted by mosquitoes. The common vectors of the disease are culex pipiens, culex nigriplapus, and Aedes vexans. The inactive mosquitoes that can stay alive during winter may also harbor West Nile Virus. Birds are generally considered as the primary vertebrate reservoir hosts for West Nile Virus. The level and duration of viremia varies with species. In the regions that are considered prevalent, the virus is sustained in an enzootic cycle linking culicine mosquitoes and birds. When the environmental conditions favor high viral intensification, there are more mosquitoes that will feed on mammals and birds. This increases the number of the infected mosquitoes spreading the virus to humans. Migratory birds carry West Nile Virus into new areas. West Nile Virus is not spread by a person to person contact like touching and caring for someone who is infected (Lee xx).
Once the virus’ genetic material is released into the cytoplasm of targeted cells like lymphocytes and endothelium, it acts as a premature messenger ready for conversion of proteins. These proteins are to blame for the processes that replicate. The strand of the genetic material is converted into a particular polypeptide. The polypeptide will then be cut into a number of proteins that are needed to put up the viral capsid that obstructs untimely viral fusion and the glycosylatted envelope protein that intercede viral membrane fusion as well as attachment. The new virions are released from the infected cell and carried by the bloodstream to the lymph and the central nervous system.
Signs and symptoms of West Nile Virus
Most people who have West Nile Virus do not have symptoms. When the symptoms appear, they appear three to fourteen after the mosquito bite. The mild symptoms include: fever, headache, body aches, and pain in the eyes, rashes on the chest, arms, and back. Furthermore, the patients feel tiresome, lacks appetite and swollen glands which is a rare case. The severe cases of West Nile Virus involve problems with the brain and spinal cord and can cause confusion, reduced attention to surroundings, and muscle weakness.
West Nile Virus treatment and prevention
The best way to avoid West Nile Virus infection is to prevent mosquito bites. There is no human vaccine available but vaccine against West Nile Virus has been licensed for horses. There is no specific treatment that is available for the disease. People with mild West Nile Virus symptoms are advised to rest in bed, drink plenty of water, and take medication that can alleviate fever and uneasiness. In severe cases, West Nile Virus requires supportive care in the form of good nursing care, prevention of the secondary infections of the disease, intravenous fluids, and medications to prevent brain swelling, nausea, and vomiting (Sfakianos 78).
Overall impact on human life
West Nile Virus impacts the life of the human beings in various ways. This can be social or economically. There is a lot of time that is lost to sickness, and more money will be spent in taking care of the patients and medication. In the, this will strain the individual economically. Lives are lost through West Nile Virus. There are direct social costs that are caused by West Nile Virus to the government. The government expenditure on the disease control and prevention increases. The indirect costs of the disease: the consequences of disease on the fertility, trade patterns, and demography.
Lyme disease is caused by bacteria. The diseases can affect many body parts such as the skin, joints, heart, and nervous system. The course of Lyme disease varies from one person to another, and the progression can take weeks and months. The disease is commonly found in the northern temperate regions of the world. In United States, the disease has the highest incidence in northeast from Massachusetts to Maryland.
The progression of the disease is not always easy to foretell. Lyme disease normally involves three stages and each of the stage is based on the symptoms of the disease. At the early stage, the disease starts with skin rash at the site of the bite from an infected tick. The rash starts as a small red bump that is raised. The rash expands after a period of days, and it may be large enough to wrap the whole of the thigh or back of the victim. At the disseminated stage, the signs of the disease appear suddenly. It gets worse and spreads to other parts of the body. This stage usually takes place several weeks after the tick bite. The last stage of the disease is called chronic or late disease. This affects various parts of the body. At this stage, Arthritis becomes common and may cause one or more of the joints to become swollen and stiff. The muscles become damaged leading to stiffness and pain. Moreover, nerve damage develops causing the skin to tingle. The nerve damage may lead to sleeping problems (Peterson 8-10).
Causes of Lyme disease
Lyme disease is caused by bacteria that are carried mainly by deer ticks. The ticks are brown and frequently not larger than the head of the pin, and this makes them impossible to spot. The ticks attach themselves to a host and feed on the blood until they are puffed-up. During the feeding, ticks that carry the disease producing bacteria can transmit the bacteria to a healthy host.
Transmission of Lyme disease
When the victim is bitten by the infected deer tick, the bacteria make its way to the blood stream. Before the bacterium is being transmitted, the tick must take a blood meal for more than forty eight hours. The life cycle of these ticks require two years to complete. The adult ticks feed and mate on deer. The female ticks drop off the deer to lay eggs on the ground. The eggs produce larvae that feed on mice before they become nymphs. The nymph feed on rodents. Both the larvae and the nymph become infected with Lyme disease bacteria. The infected nymphs transmit the Lyme disease bacteria into human. The tick transmitted pathogen is Borrelia burgdorferi (Mehlhorn and Armstrong 575).
Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease
At its localized stage, Lyme disease has symptoms like chills, fever, headache, muscle pain, and stiff neck. At the early disseminated stage, the symptoms are: heart problems, paralysis in the muscles of the face, swelling in the knees and other large joints. At the late disseminated stage, the symptoms of Lyme disease are: speech problems, abnormal muscle movement, and numbness and tingling.
Lyme disease treatment and prevention
Anyone who has been bitten by a tick has to be watched for at least thirty days. If diagnosed in the early stages, the disease can be cured with antibiotics. Preventing Lyme disease involves taking precautions to avoid direct contacts with ticks.
Overall impact on human life
Ticks play a crucial role in the human economy because they cause major losses in animal production through their own effects and the transmission of disease. The direct effects of tick action include paralysis and mechanical lesions. Lyme disease hampers the quality of life of individuals. More time will be lost to the sickness by both the patient and those that are involved in taking care of the patient.
Comparing and contrasting malaria, West Nile Virus, and Lyme disease
All the three diseases are arthropod borne. In addition, they cause an enormous number of morbidity and death in the whole world. They cause economic and social devastation. The economic implications of the three diseases are great just like the cost of life that they cause. The direct individual economic impacts of malaria, West Nile Virus, and Lyme disease include: the value of time lost to sickness, the value of lives lost, and expenditure on medical care, prevention, and treatment. The direct social costs are government expenditure on malaria, West Nile Virus, and Lyme disease control and prevention. Malaria, West Nile Virus, and Lyme disease have indirect costs in the form of the consequences of disease on the fertility, trade patterns, and demography. Furthermore, the indirect costs are change of human settlement and labor patterns.
Malaria kills over eighty percent of people with the parasite, and it is spread through mosquito bites. The most vulnerable people to this disease are children, and pregnant women. Malaria is not age restricted. On the other hand, West Nile Virus is fatal to those who are fifty years and above. The disease is not gender specific as it affects people of all genders. Lyme disease affects every individual, but it is not as fatal as malaria and West Nile Virus. Lyme disease is common in temperate regions whereas malaria is most prevalent in tropical regions. West Nile Virus is a common disease in the Mediterranean regions.
Both malaria and West Nile Virus are carried by mosquitoes, but the mosquitoes are different breeds. Lyme disease is carried by tick. West Nile is a virus whereas malaria is a parasite. On the other hand, Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium. Those people who are infected with West Nile Virus do not always know that they have the disease because the symptoms are the same as those of flu. The symptoms of malaria are known straight away therefore, people with malaria are familiar with disease symptoms. Individuals with the Lyme disease will easily understand that they have contracted the disease even at its early stage. Lyme disease progression is not easy to predict because it passes through three stages. At the early stage, the disease starts with skin rash at the site of the bite from an infected tick.
Malaria typically produces a string of recurrent attacks each of which has three stages chills, followed by fever and sweating. At its localized stage, Lyme disease has symptoms like chills, fever, headache, muscle pain, and stiff neck. At the early disseminated stage, the symptoms are: heart problems, paralysis in the muscles of the face, swelling in the knees and other large joints. The mild symptoms of West Nile Virus include: fever, headache, body aches, and pain in the eyes, rashes on the chest, arms, and back. West Nile Virus is a dangerous virus that can cause diseases leading to fatalities. Lyme disease can affect many body parts such as the skin, joints, heart, and nervous system.
The common similarities between malaria and West Nile Virus are that they are both spread through mosquito bites. Malaria, West Nile Virus, and Lyme disease do not have vaccine to prevent them. The three diseases are potentially life threatening. Both the diseases involve taking precaution to avoid contact with the vectors.
Insects are a human race most rivals for food resources directly by eating the plants cultivated for food and indirectly as vectors of disease-causing organisms. As far as evolution is concerned, the insect pests have kept humanity at a continuation level for thousands of years. Insects can play an important role as vectors. The most common insects that act as vectors are cockroaches, fleas, black flies, mosquitoes, and tsetse fly. Malaria is caused by a single-celled parasite from the genus Plasmodium. The disease remains one of the killers of humans in the whole world. Malaria is caused by a single-celled parasite from the genus Plasmodium. The three diseases cause enormous number of morbidity and death in the whole world. They also cause economic and social devastation. The economic implications of the three diseases are great just like the cost of life that they cause.
Goldsmith, Connie. Battling Malaria: On the Front Lines against a Global Killer. Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books, 2011. Internet resource.
Lee, Margaret C. West Nile Virus: Overview and Abstracts. Hauppage, N.Y: Nova Science, 2003. Print.
Mehlhorn, Heinz, and P M. Armstrong. Encyclopedic Reference of Parasitology. Berlin: Springer, 2001. Print.
Peterson, Judy M. Lyme Disease. Mankato, Minn: LifeMatters, 2001. Print.
Sfakianos, Jeffery N. West Nile virus. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers. 2005. Print.
Yee, Yazoume. Environmental Factors and Malaria Transmission Risk: Modelling the Risk in a Holoendemic Area of Burkina Faso. Farnham: Ashgate, 2009. Print.
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The spinal cord is the road by which messages pass through from the brain to the body and back. Spinal cord consists of nerves, and any damage to this passageway stops the movement of information. Spinal cord may be hurt whereas the fetus is still developing in the mother’s womb. In the fetus, the spinal cord develops from a small piece of tissue known as neural tube. The top part of this neural tube forms the brain of the baby while the rest of the tube will make up the spinal cord. The neural tube will stop forming and closes before the first month of pregnancy ends. The neural tube in every one thousand babies, fails to close properly. This failure leads to a defect in the spinal cord as well as the small bones of the spine. The defect is known as spina bifida (Watson 5).
This paper will describe spina bifida and its types, causes of spina bifida, prenatal detection, prevalence and incidence, signs and symptoms, effects of spina bifida, prognosis, prevention, and treatment.
Describing spina bifida
Spina bifida is the second most widespread birth defect in the United States. It affects one out of one thousand pregnancies. Spina bifida believed to be caused by the combination of genetic and environmental factors. In this case, normal development of the fetus is broken up everywhere between the brain and the end of spinal cord. Spina bifida can also occur when the neural plate folds in the wrong way leading to an unusually formed part of the spinal column. The affected part of the spinal column can be simply recognized at birth. One or more bones of the spines may be in some measure formed, and the nerves in the vertebrates protrude from the back. This will damage the nerves that transmit messages from brain to other body regions. The spot where the spinal cord sticks out from the back is lesion and the location where the anomaly occurs is lesion level (www.spinabifidamoms.com 1).
Types of Spina bifida
According to Salvo, there are three types of Spina bifida; two are readily diagnosed at birth while the third one is usually discovered later in life (166).
Spina bifida occulta
This type of Spina bifida is discovered later in life. It is often called hidden Spina bifida because it is so mild that it does not cause any obvious symptoms frequently. The only way of finding out occulta is through X-ray test. Spina bifida occulta, there is a small opening in the vertebrate of the spinal column but no damage to the spinal cord itself. The only outward sign of Spina bifida occulta is a small patch of air or a swelling in the skin over the affected vertebrae. These markings are often seen on the lower back over the sacrum; a flat set of bones just above the buttocks. Since the spinal cord itself is not damaged, Spina bifida occulta does not need any treatment (Salvo 166).
Meningocele is a rare type of spina bifida. The spine is open, and Meningocele (sac) pokes out through the hole. The sac contains meninges (coatings) that protect the spinal cord and spinal fluid but the spinal cord itself is not affected. The sac can be removed with surgery. People with Meningocele have only mild disabilities (Salvo 166).
Myelomeningocele is the spina bifida. The sac contains fluids, covering tissues, and nerves of the spinal cord. Babies born with Myelomeningocele have an opening in the back from which both the protective coatings of the spine and the nerves of the spinal cord jut out. The skin may cover the sac or sometimes the spinal cord is exposed. Babies with Myelomeningocele may survive after surgery as opposed to the earlier days that they could die from infection shortly after birth. Myelomeningocele affects the nerves of the spinal cord and can leave the legs paralyzed. This type of spina bifida may make it hard for children to urinate and have a bowel movement because they are not able to move the muscle that control these functions (Salvo 166).
Causes of spina bifida and Risks factors
Benson (2009, 267) claims that muscle imbalance has been conventionally considered as the major cause of deformity in patients with spina bifida. The muscle imbalance may be due to lower and upper neuron lesion. Most researchers agree that combination of genes and environmental factors can cause spina bifida. Lack of folic acid triggers spina bifida before and during early pregnancy. The other risk factors include specific drugs used to treat kidney, epilepsy, alcohol abuse, dialysis, diabetes, obesity, or high temperatures during early pregnancy.
Spina bifida diagnosis
There are a number of tests accessible to detect spina bifida. They can be performed before and after birth.
There are diagnostic tests that can be carried out during early pregnancy to assess the fetus for spina bifida. The most common ones are;
Maternal Serum Alpha Fetoprotein (MSAFP): This test can be done on the blood of the mother in the 16th week of pregnancy. It tests out the level of protein leaking out of the developing brain and spinal cord to the fluid covering the fetus.
Ultrasound: Ultrasound employs a high frequency sound waves to create images of the fetus and in so doing, it can detect spinal cord defect.
Amniocentesis: This test is suggested to women with high levels of Alpha Fetoprotein that cannot be clarified when ultrasound is used. The procedure involves taking little amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus.
Extreme cases of spina bifida are evident at birth when there is a fluid filled sac that protrudes at the baby. Visual indicators of the spina bifida occulta include dimple or hairy patch down the spinal column (www.childrenshospital.org.).
Prevalence and incidence
According to Spina Bifida Association of America, there are more than seventy thousand persons living in United States who have spinal bifida. The birth defect occurs in seven out of every ten thousand live births.
Signs and symptoms of spina bifida
The signs and symptoms of spina bifida differ extensively depending on the type of spina bifida. The defects of closed neural tube are regularly identified early in life because of unusual tuft of hair, birthmark, or small dimple on the skin at the location of the spinal abnormality. In meningocele, there will be a sac-like protuberance found down the backbone region. If the spina bifida is Myelomeningocele, nerves and spinal cord will be exposed. Extreme spina bifida has symptoms such as poor bladder control, paralysis, loss of sensation and movement of legs and feet, and poor bowel control. Moreover, spina bifida may lead to lower back pain, and general weakness in the legs (Fraser 800).
Effects of spina bifida
According to (Spinabifida.ie), the effects of spina bifida differ extremely depending on the type, location of the cyst, and seriousness of the condition. The notable effects are; varying degree of paralysis, Hydrocephalus, pressure sores, malformations, loss of sensation of the lower limbs, social and sexual issues, sex and reproduction, and bowel and bladder incontinence.
Pressure sore is a sore on the skin that reduces the flow of blood and finally eroding tissues. People with spina bifida are prone to developing pressure sores due to insensitive skin.
Sex and reproduction
The reproductive parts of those with spina bifida develop normally, but the nerve damage may affect the function of the reproductive organs.
Paralysis and loss of sensation
In the case of Myelomeningocele, the spinal cord protrudes from spine all the way through the pregnancy and can be closed by surgery soon after birth. This may damage the spinal cord making the nerves to be broken and disorganized. Paralysis, muscle weakness, and loss of sensation occur at the level of the lesion and downward. Lack of sensation leads to pressure sores that later break down the skin tissues.
Spina bifida leads to hydrocephalus, which is a dangerous condition that involves too much accretion of spinal fluid within the brain. The accumulation is due to either too much production of the fluid or by hindrance to its usual circulation.
Lack of bladder and bowel control
Nerves that usually control the bladder and bowel are situated in the lower parts of the spinal cord. Lack of bladder control leads to infection and backpressure in the kidney, lack of appropriate supervision can lead to renal problems.
Non-medical issues that affect individuals with spina bifida
Spina bifida affects social, educational, and psychological development of individuals with the condition. Affected individuals have poor short-term memories and poor organizational skills. In most cases, infants and children with spina bifida entail early and recurrent hospitalization, which can barge in their normal social development. Children with extraordinary needs frequently rebel against their disability, and they become depressed as a result hampered psychological development (Spinabifida.ie).
Individuals with spina bifida can look forward to living a normal life supported by devices like wheelchair for mobility. These individuals experience problems transitioning from adolescence to adulthood. There is very little information regarding the current life expectancy of individuals with spina bifida. Prior to the introduction of shunts, individuals with spina bifida lived shortly. With the wide spread of shunt technology, the life expectancy of individuals with spina bifida lengthens every year.
Spina bifida has no cure. Damaged nerves cannot be replaced. Before birth, intrauterine fetal surgery to close the defect early in the pregnancy can be done. Children with spinal bifida need a surgical repair of the lesion soon after birth to prevent further nerve damage. Separate surgeries may be required for installations of a shunt to control any Hydrocephalus and correct any abnormalities present. Body brace may be necessary to support suitable alignment of the spine for example, leg braces may be essential to support proper development of the legs. Wheelchair may be essential for mobility. Glasses may be required to correct any eye and vision problems. Good hygiene is needed in the treatment of spinal bifida. This is because good hygiene helps to avoid infections and skin scores. Individuals with spina bifida have a reduced sensation in their lower limbs, this means that it is mandatory to check bruises and skin damage regularly. For individuals that are allergic to latex, any latex product should be kept away from them (Fraser 800).
Folic acid and vitamin can prevent approximately seventy percent of spina bifida. Folate can be naturally found in green vegetables orange juice, and beans. The United States food and Drug Administration ensures that all cereal grain products are fortified with folic acid. The move increases the amount of folate consumed by the general population thus reducing the incidence of spina bifida (Fraser 800).
Spinal cord consists of nerves, and any damage to this passageway stops the movement of information. Spina bifida is a birth defect that the spinal cord fails to close. There are three types of Spina bifida; two are readily diagnosed at birth while the third one is usually discovered later in life. Most researchers agree that combination of genes and environmental factors can cause spina bifida. Lack of folic acid triggers spina bifida before and during early pregnancy. The effects of spina bifida vary depending on the type, location of the cyst, and seriousness of the condition. The notable effects are; varying degree of paralysis, Hydrocephalus, pressure sores, malformations, loss of sensation of the lower limbs, social and sexual issues, sex and reproduction, and bowel and bladder incontinence. Extreme spina bifida has symptoms such as poor bladder control, paralysis, loss of sensation and movement of legs and feet, and poor bowel control. Spina bifida has no cure because once a nerve is damaged, it cannot be replaced. Folic acid and vitamin can prevent approximately seventy percent of spina bifida.
Benson, Michael K. D. A. Children’s Orthopaedics, and Fractures. New York: Springer, 2009. Print.
Fraser, Victoria. Diseases and Disorders. Tarrytown, N.Y: Marshall Cavendish, 2008. Print.
Salvo, Susan G. Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby/Elsevier, 2009. Print.
Spinabifida.ie. What Is Spina Bifida? N.p. n.d., Web October 3, 2012 http://spinabifida.ie/uploads/What%20is%20Spina%20Bifida.pdf
Watson, Stephanie. Spina Bifida. New York, NY: Rosen Pub, 2009. Print.
www.childrenshospital.org. Spina bifida (Myelodysplasia) N.p. n.d., Web October 3, 2012 http://www.childrenshospital.org/az/Site1062/mainpageS1062P1.html
www.spinabifidamoms.com. About Spina Bifida N.p. n.d., Web October 3, 2012 http://www.spinabifidamoms.com/english/pdf/about.pdf
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Health Defects Caused By Inbreeding
Inbreeding is reproduction from the copulating of two of a kind who are closely interrelated in genetic terms. The health of a community or a nation may be viewed as the condition of physical and societal welfare of its affiliates in relation to their surroundings. As a topic of action, community health is apprehensive with the analysis of complications concerning the public, humanity or mortality, as well as morbidity, and strategies and programs to upsurge the level of health of a society. The mortality side view for a particular communal of society within the background of their extraordinary demographic and ecological circumstances can help in comprehending the reasonable impact of a number of bio-social factors on human decease.
The level of pre -procreative mortality in a nation is diligently correlated to the potential functioning of natural assortment. Inbreeding influences the intensity of natural selection as its effect is found to be greater on mortality than on fertility. Dangerous retreating genes in heterozygosis are frequently concealed and thus evade assortment, but may be uncovered by inbreeding.
Inbreeding is not merely constrained to vegetation and creatures. Inbreeding was experienced in western nations (during19th and 20th eras) and it is quiet common in some fragments worldwide. Even though Muslims of India, and Africa exercise inbreeding for tribal and spiritual motives, Mennonites may have practiced it because they were secluded.
The high inbreeding figure in Dammam, Saudi Arabia can be credited to philosophies, customs, and the wish to retain material goods within the family. Socio-economic position is also another purpose responsible for importunity of inbreeding practices. This implies that the wealthy people desire to maintain their rank and thus considering in their particular relations for spouses and underprivileged merely being in a position to manage matrimony among themselves. Stimulatingly, some noble nations have also been recognized to exercise inbreeding to defend noble kinship ranks. A case in point is that, the Western Regal household has had countless hemophiliac associates because of inbreeding. Inbreeding was also common in Spanish Regal household as well. Chronological proceedings also stimulate inbreeding. After the United States overwhelmed Nagasaki in Japan, there was an upsurge in the number of inbreeding marriages (paramount cousin close) in the areas surrounding Hiroshima.
The declined genetic multiplicity that results from inbreeding may imply that a sort may not be in a position to adjust to differences in ecological settings. Every single individual will have equivalent immune systems, as immune systems are hereditarily founded. In case a species becomes threatened, the populace may decrease below a minimum whereby the involuntary interbreeding among the remaining animals will lead to extinction. Natural breeding comprise inbreeding by requisite, and most animals only roam when required. In most cases, the closest existing companion is a mother, sister, grandmother, father, brother, or grandfather. In all cases, the setting grants pressures to eradicate those individuals who cannot endure because of disease from the population.
There was a supposition that wild inhabitants do not inbreed; however, this is not what is perceived in some circumstances in the wild. Nevertheless, in species such as horses, animals in wild or regressive situations regularly push off the young of both genders, thought to be a device by which the species automatically evades some of the genetic costs of inbreeding. In general, a significant number of mammal species comprising humanity’s closest primate relations evade close inbreeding probably because of the deleterious effects. Despite the fact that some suggest that long-term exercise of inbreeding can be advantageous to a populace as harmful genes are removal by selection, there have been sufficient studies advising that inbreeding pose threats to the health of a population in a variety of ways just as will be discussed below.
Inbreeding is known to have abundant defect on the health in that it distresses the operation of the immune system. The studies show that the chief destruction experienced as a result of inbreeding is an unavoidable lessening in the efficiency of the immune system. As it is known, a mammal`s immune system is an astounding, complicated, system organized to contest off every possible external intruder. It is unconditionally reliant on on genetic variety. When an animal has duplicate reproductions of its immune system genes, the immune system becomes inadequate in its capability to ward off ailment. The end outcome is an individual that can fight off some illnesses very well, but is tremendously vulnerable to others.
A good example of genes whose function is critical for an individual to be in a position to fight off the various diseases that they may be exposed to is the major histo-compatibility intricate genes. Studies reveal that these are the genes that mark essentially all of an animal’s body cells to help the body`s immune system separate itself from external intruders including bacteria or viruses. Accordingly, these genes also bind to, and exhibit any external particle or antigen to immune system. This exhibition of particles is vital for the immune system cells to see and react to an intruder. Variety of these genes is probably essential for an individual to survive the variety of disease causing organisms that they may be exposed to. Furthermore, another benefit of this system is that with the great diversity of these genes, chances are that in a given family, mother has one set of genes and alleles, father a totally different set, and that all the children each has an exceptional combination. In this case, in case a given illness succeeds to evade one family associate`s immune system, it may not be in apposition to do so with the other family members.
Another study shows that there is a greater incidence of cancer in both men and women in bred populations. The cancers that seems to have increased in various regions are the latent ones; that is the cancers that occur because of recessive mutations in anti-cancer genes. In case a person is homozygous for these genes meaning that reproductions modified, then they will have the cancer. Additionally, it is argued that low genetic diversity caused by inbreeding will make societies vulnerable to new cancers, as well as other infections. Accordingly, it is indicated that having similar DNA through inbreeding leads to acquisition of similar illness. For instance, every individual has forty six chromosomes and every chromosome holds a bunch of genes. Inbreeding leads the risk of carrying similar bad genes transferred by the parents to their children. Every family is likely to have its own kind of disease genes, and thus inbreeding is a chance for two carriers of similar broken gene to pass two duplicates of it to their children.
As a result, their offspring will also carry the same infection or disorder. As it can be seen, it is good for people to have children with somebody that has dissimilar DNA from each other. Then they can give children a varied group of DNA, and they will always have a back-up allele for any broken ones. Nonetheless, this is not the only purpose that parents want to be great diverse genetically. The second motivation for the need each parent to have a variety of genes is to be able to fight off as many diseases as possible. Inbreeding can have the influence of exclusion (eradicating from the DNA segment pool) a fraction of alleles with extremely destructive effects, with clear health and wellbeing benefits. However, in the progression of inbreeding, other alleles with fewer severe effects can become homozygous and can be reserved in the population. Outcrossing to familiarize fresh blood’ can alleviate such effects by introducing greater inconsistency into the gene pool, nevertheless outcrossing does transmit the possibility that the benefits of purging or exclusion are uncompleted by presenting new harmful recessive alleles.
Whilst inbreeding is generally seen as being unwanted, the debate has become extra nuanced in latest years. By no means all hereditary diseases are carried by single pairs of genes. Many hereditary ailments ascend from the alliance of the yields of numerous genetic factor. If one or more of these genes backing the hereditary disease is removed by genetic implication or by practiced breeding, it is possible, although still theoretical, that the disease will no longer be seen in the children
It is indicated in plants, animals, as well as human that inbreeding is related with or leads to loss of biological health. Statistics show that the children of inbreeding couples indicate morbidity and mortality levels higher than in the children of unrelated parents. It should be noted that inbreeding interrelates with a range of socio-demographic proportions of mortality during early stages and early babyhood. However, even after controlling factors including maternal illiteracy, maternal age at birth of than twenty years, as well as a birth interval of less than eighteen months, children of inbreeding matrimonies had statistically noteworthy probability ratios for neonatal, post-neonatal, and infant mortality compared to offspring of unrelated parents.
The outcome of current study intensely advocates that inbreeding may play a key role as far high proportions of prenatal, infant, and pre-reproductive mortality and they must be taken into account for genetic counseling in some areas. Consequently, the genetic illnesses currently account for a snowballing ratio of morbidity and death. In this condition, health-care workers, obstetricians, family physicians, and pediatricians, need to be aware of the possible effect of inbreeding on pregnancy results, so that the best potential genetic and antenatal care could be delivered, understandingly and non-judgmentally, and the best conceivable outcomes attained.
Therefore, inbreeding leads to health issues including decreased fertility and increased child mortality, as well as morbidity. For instance, from a research carried out to assess the defects of inbreeding of the fertility of adult women illustrated that harmful recessive alleles got from inbreeding can reduce the fertility rates of grown-up womenfolk. Another research investigating five effects of inbreeding such as fertility, mortality, and morbidity of the offspring, reproductive performance of the children, and the attributes of the children recognized that there is no adverse defect on the fertility of the marriages. Nonetheless, the outcome of the research demonstrated that inbreeding significantly increases childhood mortality in the first year of life, increases morbidity and significantly augments numbers of disabled children in the society.
Inbreeding is highly criticized because it lessens the adult size of the animals. A majority of breeders have the feeling that one reason inbred animals are smaller than their counterparts is that inbred animals are smaller at birth. Therefore, inbreeding has great defects on health both on human beings and in animals. Accordingly, inbreeding leads to slower growth rates; for instance, inbreeding in cattle caused a reduction in weaning weight by triggering a slower pre-weaning growth rate. Inbred calves are smaller at birth and tend to grow more slowly until about the sixth month than the outbred calves, although the inbred calves grow faster than their counterparts calves after the sixth month up to the twelfth month of age. Inbreeding has little effect on birth weight but tends to decrease the feed consumption and growth rate as a result of poor feeding.
In conclusion, research has shown that there are a number of reasons that a populace would practice inbreeding that span from religion to geography to royal bloodlines. A significant number of readings have discovered that inbreeding can source upsurges in death and morbidity. As people become more well-informed to these potential defect levels of inbreeding, tend to decrease. Nevertheless, there are other societies that are less informed to the possible undesirable outcomes of inbreeding, and it is possible that the defects of inbreeding will not be noticeable or perceptible.
Therefore, if there are damaging recessive alleles present in the populace, the genes and features still have the likelihood of developing and damagingly affecting a society, but it is very likely that the population will never see any damaging defects because of the incest. In fact, some specialists have the belief that in some circumstances inbreeding can be useful to a society by continuously revealing destructive recessive genes to selection. By regularly revealing these genes to selection, the damaging alleles can become eternally removed from the society. Inbreeding is a very sensitive and debatable topic when it concerns humans, and there is still a lot that researchers do not know about the likely defects of inbreeding. It is very hard to run tests to define all the potential health defects of inbreeding in humans, because there are just too many variables to control. Furthermore, ethics makes it hard and many times intolerable to achieve studies on humans. Conversely, a significant number of specialists would approve that performing outbreeding will offer society with the greatest chance to accomplish a high level of health. Therefore, this research paper has demonstrated that there are various health defects of inbreeding in animal, as well as in human beings.
Bittles, Mason. Analysis of Inbreeding. Human Biology. 2007, Vol. 73, No. 4, pp. 533-545.
Dorsten, Hotchkiss. The Effect of Inbreeding on Early Childhood Mortality: Twelve Generations of an Amish Settlement. Demography,2009, Vol. 36. No. 2. pp. 263-271.
Fisher, Ronald. The theory of Inbreeding: Second Edition. New York, NY: Academic Press Inc, 2008.
Fuster, Jimenez. 2001. Inbreeding in Gredos Mountain Range (Spain): Contribution of Multiple Consanguinity and Intervalley Variation. Human Biology. 2001, Vol. 73, No. 2. pp. 249-270.
Gonzalez, Martin. Inbreeding, Isonomy, and Kin-structured Migration in the principality of Andoria. Human Biology.2005, Vol. 74. pp. 587-601.
Hedrick, P. 1991. Fertility, Health, and Consanguineous Marriages. Science. 2009, Vol. 254. pp. 143.
Ober, Hyslop. Inbreeding Effects on Fertility in Humans: Evidence for Reproductive Compensation. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009, Vol. 64. pp. 225- 231.
Schull, Neel. The Effects of Inbreeding on Japanese Children. New York, NY: Harper & Row, 2010.
Spence, Hodge. The “Circular” Problems of Calculating Risk: Dealing with Consanguinity. Journal of Genetic Counseling, 2002, Vol. 9, No. 3. pp. 179-201.
Thornhill, Neil. The Natural History of Inbreeding and Outbreeding: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives. Chicago, CA: The University of Chicago Press, 2011.
Bittles, Mason. Analysis of Inbreeding. Human Biology, (2007, Vol. 73, No. 4, 533-545).
Dorsten, Hotchkiss. The Effect of Inbreeding on Early Childhood Mortality: Twelve Generations of an Amish Settlement, Demography,(2009, Vol. 36. No. 2. pp. 263-271).
Fisher, Ronald. The theory of Inbreeding: Second Edition, (New York,NY: Academic Press Inc,) 2008, 89-96.
Fuster, Jimenez. 2001. Inbreeding in Gredos Mountain Range (Spain): Contribution of Multiple Consanguinity and Intervalley Variation, (Human Biology. 2001, Vol. 73, No. 2) pp. 249-270.
Gonzalez,Martin. Inbreeding, Isonomy, and Kin-structured Migration in the principality of Andoria. Human Biology, (2005, Vol. 74. )pp. 587-601.
Hedrick, P. 1991. Fertility, Health, and Consanguineous Marriages. Science. 2009, Vol. 254. pp. 143.
Thornhill, Neil. The Natural History of Inbreeding and Outbreeding: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives. Chicago, CA: The University of Chicago Press, 2011.
Ober, Hyslop. Inbreeding Effects on Fertility in Humans: Evidence for Reproductive Compensation. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009, Vol. 64. pp 225- 231
Spence, Hodge. The “Circular” Problems of Calculating Risk: Dealing with Consanguinity. Journal of Genetic Counseling, 2002, Vol. 9, No. 3. pp. 179-201.
Schull, Neel. The Effects of Inbreeding on Japanese Children. New York, NY: Harper & Row, 2010.
Studies indicate that BioPure Corporation is a surreptitiously possessed biopharmacological firm, which was founded in mid 80s by two entrepreneurs Rausch and Judeslon. The establishment concentrates in the ultra-refinement of protein’ for humanoid and for veterinary usage. It was in late 90s that BioPure engineered the growth of oxygen therapeutics’ through the usage of hemoglobin. This represented a fresh class of analgesics, which are intravenously directed to supply oxygen to body tissues. BioPure as a company has two products, Hemopure, which is administered in human being at critical moments to deliver oxygen to tissues in a person (Riviere 28). The second product is Oxyglobin, which is ultimately produced for veterinary use on pets and other like animals in people`s homes. The two products are made or derived from bovine hemoglobin generated from bovine of cattle blood cells as opposed to other competitor substitute products (Kahn 25). In general, Oxyglobin is produced purposely for the solving animal veterinary issues by overcoming various shortcomings that the existing solutions have on the processes.
The Potential Market (in units/in $) for Oxyglobin
Initially, Oxyglobin obtained the FDA`s authorization for profit-making issue, which confirmed it innocuous and operative for therapeutic or veterinary use. Even if blood transfusions in the veterinary’ marketplace are rare and the arcade opportunity seems limited, Oxyglobin has high potential of becoming a profitable investment for BioPure. This statement is based on the fact that there is a record of approximately three hundred and fifty-five thousand blood transfusions that was previously performed on animals in mid 90s. This purely designates that there is a certain chance for Oxyglobin that occurs inside the veterinary plasma marketplace. In essence, the blood transfusions conducted in mid 90s only represented about two and a half percent of faunas affected by severe plasma forfeiture. Thus, augmented obtainability of faunae plasma might have the possibility of stimulating the market (Kahn 33).
Evidently, Oxyglobin is the lone plasma supernumerary permitted by the FDA for minor animal veterinary marketplace. Accordingly, expectation of rivalry from identical merchandise in the marketplace is very minimal. This is attributed to the fact that it may take two to three years for additional plasma supernumerary manufacturer to convey a merchandise to the veterinary’ marketplace, a period through which Oxyglobin as a product would have matured in the market. Consequently, the preparedness and capacity of the veterinary marketplace to agree to take a high rate for the produce is less than that of the humanoid curative bazaar. Oxyglobin has a high market potential, since the existing basis of plasma for faunae transfusion,’ which comes from donor animals includes a method that is not so efficient. The method used in this process does not comprise plasma grouping and cross corresponding; this has a negative influence on the animal under treatment since it prolongs the recovery of the animal based on the lack of preparation (Riviere 45).
Majorly, the potential for Oxyglobin is founded on the process of educating the veterinarians’ the potential reimbursements from the use of the product. Essentially, to get the potential market value of Oxyglobin, there is a need to consider the typical numeral of faunas; cats, dogs, and many other animals that this class of practice treats every month. The complete quantity of practices in the class produces the complete quantity of animals the practice indulges in a month and the succeeding yearly prospective of the same. The emergency care is the most efficient approach of analyzing this. Thus, in this segment the potential is around 576,995 animals in a year. A greater proportion of this requires blood that comes from blood banks, while the rest obtains plasma from a very unproductive and overpriced benefactor faunae. Subsequently, this presents a potential market for Oxyglobin, which is clearly above the said three hundred thousand unit animal capacity for Oxyglobin (Kahn 46).
Studies reveal that about sixty-five percent of pet owners and sixty percent of veterinarians are willing to pay for the price that ranges from $100 to $150. In actual sense, if only twenty-five percent of the pet owners and veterinarians are eager to recompense the said charges, there remains a demand of units far exceeding the capacity. Therefore, one could easily base on these facts to say that there is a high potential and the actual units/dollar figures are as indicated below. The estimated total revenue for an assumption based on unlimited production capacity of about three hundred thousand capacity will be as follows. At three hundred thousand capacities, the entire income is made the most of at $150, thus, the selected price for profit maximization is $150. Consequently, at this rating point and volume, the generated revenue would be approximately $45,000, 000, signifying a very high potential in the market.
On the other hand, Hemopure is in an extraordinary market position and about 13.95 truckload units of plasma were bequeathed in mid 90s. Further, there is a need of adjusting this figure for patients and uses for which Hemopure would not serve as a good substitute. Accordingly, by presuming that, Hemopure’ solitary survives in the humanoid structure for a typical period of three and a half days. This makes it not of abundant usage to anemic patients, and since unused units will not have a market potential, the remaining components used for critical plasma would be about seven million units (Riviere 53). Essentially, since Hemopure has an efficiency of a hundred percent; the entire component bazaar probability is approximately three and a half million units in a year. Thus, with this potential, it is assumed that BioPure will sell a hundred percent of its existing annual volume of Hemopure,’ representing 150, 000 units. Accordingly, preliminary studies indicate that Hemopure can be lucrative transversely a variety of rates (Kahn 62). Successively, even at partial, the bulk and a rate of $400, BioPure is anticipated to create uncultured brim of fifty percent.
Evidently, an early approval of Oxyglobin and a possible subsequent early release of the same to the market, there are concerns that this would have on the introduction of Hemopure after approval and completion of the clinical tests. These concerns are that it may be hard for BioPure to rate Hemopure when the merchandise finally obtains authorization. The other obstacle stands from the fact that rivalry from Northfield laboratories and Baxter international impend the viability of Hemopure.’ This is because both of these entrants` merchandises are anticipated to obtain FDA`s endorsement at almost at a matching spell as Hemopure. Additionally, one competitor, Baxter, has an added advantage based on its large size that equates to a large marketing department. This may allow them to influence many delivery passages and quickly advance the mindshare’ of the delivery networks.
The other problem is that there will always be a negative perception from people when they realize that Hemopure was created from bovine sourced from cattle blood cells. No one will seat comfortably to receive cow blood just like that without having other strange thoughts (Riviere 61). This is a huge obstacle and it will call for a big and extensive campaign to educate potential clients on the safety and importance of Hemopure. It will also be through these great campaigns that the negative perception will have to be dealt with; otherwise, ill-minded rivals may use this information to poison potential users` minds. In the same veil, it will be worth an effort to convince medical professionals to start using HemoPure products as a substitute to conventional sources. The other key obstacle is that the current price of donated blood ranges between $125 to around $225 and the recommended price for Hemopure is about $400. This huge difference in price will need a great marketing campaign to help people appreciate the high price and accept it.
Subsequently, it was estimated that the conceivable influence of presenting Oxyglobin as a main merchandise, an assumption was reached that the company would yield and vend its full bulk of 299,995 elements in a year. Such an violent advertising approach has an optimistic uncultured verge of typically 57.5 percent when sold between $100 and $150 per unit. However, this is a must meet target, since if the company was not able to vend as much of its merchandise as predicted, there is a high potential of losing money. Generally, this ultimate target requires a great effort through marketing campaigns, which calls for experienced, and many marketing individuals. The other hindrance that has to be reflected on is the price of Oxyglobin that is set to be influenced by the future release of Hemopure. This obstacle has to be decisively dealt with to alleviate any pricing problems and subsequent marketing (Kahn 89). Since there is no second production line, the introduction of Hemopure will ultimately affect the production capacity of Oxyglobin because a huge constraint will occur, as the production equipment will be shared (Riviere 55). Furthermore, there is a high tendency of vets not to perform blood transfusions on animals; this means that a lot has to be done to win the mind share of the vets for them to start using Oxyglobin products.
Possible reference prices for Hemopure
For customers to accept a certain product, its quality and prices go hand in hand. This implies that customers will consider the quality of Hemopure and its subsequent price compared to conventional human blood. Thus, the possible reference prices that consumers may anticipate paying or consider reasonable will be something ranging from $350 to $400 for each unit. This is because the first range of price of about $350 is seemingly near the highest amount they pay for when acquiring conventional blood transfusion. Therefore, customers will be comfortable at this level, even though it calls for some customer education to create awareness on the product. The second and most beneficial to BioPure is a price rating of $400, at this point, the company is set to make profits even with half its capacity.
This means great campaigns waged for this product at this price rating will meet the target, as customers will understand why the product is rated at this price. Winning the mindshare of customers is the most important thing that BioPure will go for at this point to lay a better foundation for the performance of the product (Riviere 64).
Furthermore, the initial approval and early release of Oxyglobin has consequences concerning the later introduction of Hemopure in the market (Kahn 78). Because Oxyglobin was approved earlier, it means it will be released early enough beyond the days of launching Hemopure in the market. This implies that the first and biggest impression, which will put BioPure on the market is set to come through the introduction of Oxyglobin. Thus, how it will occur sets to offset the balance of things.
From the potential market analysis of Oxyglobin, it was concluded that Oxyglobin would be more beneficial if sold at a price ranging from $100 to $150. Subsequently, the most probable price rating was perceived to be $150 for maximum sell and profit making; this is the price BioPure believed customers were able to purchase the product comfortably. This means that the first impression that BioPure will make with its product will give an impression of a low or affordable price. In essence, this first impression would mean that the price rating of Hemopure has to range anywhere near this margin, since the customers would question the difference in the two. Another thing is that, since Oxyglobin will be launched early, it means that all the production lines will be engaged since the product will be sold at maximum. Thus, a shift in the balance will have to be considered as sacrificing Oxyglobin production would impact on its potential market. It is important to note that, Hemopure faces competition from other products produced by rival companies like Baxter, which has an expansive marketing department based on its size.
The two rival companies will be launching their products after approval by FDA at the same time. This means that BioPure has to do a lot to gain advantage over the two rival companies (Kahn 80). Essentially, to avoid last minute rash and engagement, during the release of Oxyglobin, the company may use this to explore the market in readiness for the release of Hemopure. This is a great strategy that, BioPure may use to prepare the minds of customers for a great and important product to be launched later. Thus, Oxyglobin may act as a messenger angel to pave way for the release of Hemopure in a bigger and better way.
Reasons for Immediate launch of Oxyglobin
An immediate launch is very necessary; this is because the rival companies are both producing a product similar to Hemopure and they will both be receiving approval on the same day. This means that an immediate launch will be required to set things ready by studying the market and preparing entry or penetration routes. Oxyglobin will act as a pioneer product for the later launch of Hemopure as a way of averting competition (Riviere 73).
However, an immediate launch will only make people or potential customers of Hemopure believe that the product is being released at a high price that it ought to be released. This is because, Oxyglobin will go for a very low price compared to what will be offered for Hemopure. As discussed earlier, maximization of the product will occur when the product is offered at $150 for each unit. This is a price that will ensure the profit margin is as high as possible. Eventually, if launched, the product should be distributed directly to consumers; veterinary officers and pet owners. This is because using distributors will increase costs, as commissions will have to be paid for the product to reach intended consumers.
Kahn, Barbra. Introduction to Marketing: Marketing 101 Cases and Readings. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill College, 2004. Print.
Riviere, Jim. Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Washington, DC: John Wiley & Sons, 2009. Print.
Public Health Biology Week 3 Discussion
Cellular and molecular biology of bone outlines the process of bone formation, the structural changes of bone development, bone destruction, and bone repair (Shapiro, 2008).It brings to the limelight how healthy bones are formed during childhood and maintained in adult life. During childhood, bones grow fast and undergo rapid development and as such, bones during childhood recover fast from destruction. As one ages, bones undergo modeling and remodeling processes in which they change their general shape with respect to mechanical forces, biological factors, or chemical processes. Bones can change axis or even widen in old age and this is caused by sensitivity to certain factors or forces directly or indirectly introduced to them(Chanan-Khan, 2012).
Cellular and molecular biology of bone plays a vital role in aging. It enlightens on the potential effects certain factors, conditions, or substances are likely to affect bones or even cause permanent damage to bones. For instance, cellular and molecular biology of bones provides the ground on which pregnant women can decide to or not use certain drugs or medication including Thalidomide to ease nausea. Thalidomide causes adverse effects on bones during aging (Lepper, et al, 2006). Thalidomide changes the growth of bones negatively and in some cases this results in baby’s bone with short limbs (Chanan-Khan, 2012; Gordinier, et al, 2007). Thalidomide also affects bone marrow resulting in blood clots or deep vein thrombosis (Mughal, et al, 2009; Lepper, et al, 2006).
The cycle of life presents varied opportunities for bone health risks. For instance, during youthfulness and beauty stage of the life cycle, individuals can be involved in the use and application of beauty contents on their bodies, which consequently poses health risks to bones including bone polarization. Also, during the optimal active stage, individuals may be inclined towards the use of substances or exposure to certain waves in order to maintain their body activeness. Furthermore, during menopause adults engage in fewer activities, something that exposes their bones to increased fracture and damage risks (Ebeling, et al 2013; Gordinier, et al, 2007).
Chanan-Khan, A., A., A., (2012).Immunomodulating Drugs for the Treatment of Cancer. Baltimore, United States: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Ebeling, R., P., Daly, M., R., Kerr, A., D. &Kimlin, G., M., (2013).Building Healthy bones throughout life. Retrieved from: <https://www.mja.com.au/sites/default/files/issues/002_01_040213/MJA%20OpenSupplement.pdf>
Gordinier, M., E., Dizon, D., S., Weitzen, S., Disilverstro, P., A., Moore, R., G. & Granai, C., O., (2007). Oral thalidomide as palliative chemotherapy in women with advanced ovarian cancer,’ J Palliat Med, vol. 10. no. 1, pp. 61-66
Lepper, E., R., Smith, N., F., Cox, M., C., Scripture, C., D. & Figg, W., D., (2006). Thalidomide metabolism and hydrolysis: Mechanisms and implications,’ Curr Drug Metab, vol, 7, pp. 677-685
Mughal, I., T., Mughal, T., Goldman, J., Goldman, J., M., Mughal, T., S. & Mughal, S., (2009) Understanding Leukemias, Lymphomas and Myelomas. 2nd Edition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press
Shapiro, F., (2008). Bone Development and its Relation to Fracture Repair: The role of Menenchymal Osteoblasts and Surface Osteoblasts,’ European Cells and Materials, vol. 15, pp. 53-76
PUBLIC HEALTH BIOLOGY WEEK 3 DISCUSSION 3