Airport is an important fraction of the Aeronautical Infrastructure that must meet up the safety standards of Aeronautical Infrastructure. The mandatory level of safety will only be realistic if appropriate maintenance is carried out. Airport maintenance comprises of measures that are aimed at keeping the operational function. It also includes measures that evaluate the present functioning of the airport. The fundamental elements of maintenance consist of inspection, servicing and repair. Maintenance is needed to make sure that there are safe operation of civil equipment, infrastructure and facilities. It also ensures that there is compliance to engineering standards and other pertinent standards.
Pittsburgh international airport
Pittsburgh international airport is public owned airport.
Pittsburgh international airport is classified by NPIAS as large Hub commercial service.
Part 139 classification
Pittsburgh international airport is classified as class I
d. Number of runways
Pittsburgh international airport has four runways. The first three are east-west parallel runways and the fourth one is crosswind runway.
The main objective of FAR Part 77
FAR Part 77 main objective is to put up standards that are used to determine barriers in navigable airspace, make available the impact of obstructions, and set up the requirements for informing administrators of the FAA of construction that may create vulnerabilities to flight (Wolfe and David 99).
Part 77 airspaces
Part 77 airspaces are objects that influence navigable airspace. According to Grothaus, there are five confined surfaces around an airport namely primary surface, approach surface, transitional surface, horizontal surface, and conical surface (74).
Primary Surface. Primary surface is centered longitudinally on a runway. When the runway has a particularly primed hard surface, the primary surface pulls out two hundred feet further than each end of the runway. When the runway has no specifically planned hard surface, or prepared surface, the primary surface ends at the physical ends of the runway. The distance from the ground of any point in primary surface is equal to the distance of any point on the ground of the nearest point on the runway centerline (Grothaus 74).
Horizontal Surface. Horizontal surface is a horizontal plane that is 150 feet above the established Airport Elevation; it is the perimeter of which is constructed by swinging arcs of specified radii from the center of each end of the primary surface of each runway. The perimeter is constructed by generating arcs from the centre of each end of the primary surface and connecting the adjacent arcs by lines tangent to those arcs.
Conical Surface. Conical surface is a surface that extends upward and outward from the external limits of the Horizontal Surface.
Approach surfaces. Approaches surfaces are applied to each end of a runway based on the type of approach available for that runway end. The approach surface has the same inner width as the primary and after that flares out as it arises upward and outward a long extended runway centerline (Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design 97).
Transitional surface. Transitional surface is a surface that extends outward and upward. It can be at right angles to the runway centerline and runway centerline extended, or from the sides of the Primary Surface and the Approach Surfaces (Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design 97).
Airport Markings and Signs
Outbound destination sign: It indicate the directions to common taxi routes.
Taxiway location sign: locates the taxiway you are in.
Holding position for runway approach area: Indicate areas to be protected for aircraft forthcoming or leave-taking a runway.
Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design. Washington, D.C: Transportation Research Board, 2010.
Grothaus, James H. Guidebook for Managing Small Airports. Washington, D.C: Transportation Research Board, 2009. Print.
Wolfe, Harry, and David NewMyer. Aviation Industry Regulation. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1985. Print.
Insert Surname 5
Human Factor Aviation: Error Analysis
Aviation safety and satisfaction, which is in line with human factors, ensures limited flight failure categorization. The safety program aims at increasing effectiveness in aviation through regular training of human factors involved in aviation. Over the years, the aviation department has encountered a variety of accidents that have compromised the integrity of their staff. In one way or the other, human coefficients of aviation safety have failed to do their duties. This paper analyses the role of human factors in ensuring aviation safety. Major stakeholders involved in the elaboration include ANS providers, the management, and human resource team, as well as, Civil Aviation departments.
Understanding Human Factors: Aviation Context
Human error has come to contribute to over 70% of all aviation accidents in the past two years (NTSB report 2012). In addition, reports by Maurino (2005) denote that human error has not only led to bad flight operations but also affected maintenance and management of air traffic. An understanding of the critical relationship between human performance and plane operation is critical to ensure effective daily operations.
In the context of commercial aviation sector, a human factor is a term of delicate people resource. The term has a narrow relationship with management of crew, as well as, the resource management maintenance. According to Helmreich (1982), these linkages are mere coefficients, as the scope appears wider. The other elements in human factor study entail collection of information on human abilities, human limitations, and certain characteristics of human relationship vital to the aviation sector. Such information is applied to necessary tools, machines, and environments to ensure a safe human application. The focus has always dwelt on how humans can integrate with technology to ensure a better performance (Orasanu, 1993 p.23). Such human considerations aid in the design of aircrafts like the Boeing, which help human staff to achieve their best owing to their natural limitations.
A better human performance is a prerequisite to ensure commercial aviation rates of accidents. The major focus to this level lies on human airplane design that interfaces with appropriate procedures for the human resources on board, as well as, the technicians. In retrospection, an examination of human performance, such as the one done by Boeing often increases the usability index, ease of maintenance, reliability, and user comfort. Therefore, human consideration becomes a major factor in airplane design.
The Nature of Human Error
Human factors according to Wiegmann and Shappel (1997) ensure that scientific knowledge reduces human error. One of the human error theories revolves around critical elements of practice and actual revolution. James 1990 asserts that humanity makes a variety of errors for a variety of reasons. One of the reasons could be due to inadequate trainings to perform their functions. Humanity may also not have the basic ability to perform a task even if they have undergone the necessary trainings. Lack of such abilities may be due to lack of motivation or lapses in their activity index. The errors in such cases are beyond human ability. Misinterpretation of information vital to the task may also take place leading to human error. These factors may appear technical not forgetting the psychological orientations of human beings that affect aviation operations. Helmreich (1982) establishes that even the most effective human being may encounter stressful conditions, distraction, illness, or old age, which hinder their operations and reduces their performances. In the light of all these, human error becomes an element of complicated guesses working on error motivations as a means to avoid them. Various models exist to explain the nature of errors and the various paradigms of aviation operations. Aviation management teams have a task to correlate all forms of human predispositions in order to understand error analysis and accident management. Such considerations, as Maurino (2005) comments, are efficient but not adequate to curb all aircraft accidents.
Threat and Error Management (TEM)
Human error in aviation and probably any other field is inevitable. Therefore, the aviation personnel designed a threat and error management model to focus on its reduction. TEM is an overarching concept in aviation safety that touches on operations, as well as, performance of human personnel. The concept is an attempt to improve safety margins through enhancing integration of human factor knowledge, as well as, error analysis management. The TEM is a conceptual framework that explains the interrelationship between performance and safety in dynamic contexts of operations.
The concept dwells upon operations that aid in safety provisions and operational relations in context. It also has a descriptive mechanism and a diagnostic variance that analyses human performance in line with the system operations for efficient production. The descriptive nature emerges from a capture of human-system activity in normal operational situations that lead to realistic descriptions of production. The diagnostic aspect emerges from its ability to allow the personnel and the system to quantify different complexities existing in the operational arena, hence providing a relationship with the description of human performance in the given context.
The usage of TEM is diverse and numerous. The framework forms a tool for safety analysis when channeled to center on a single incident. Such events may include an accident/incident analysis. The framework may also have the ability to understand patterns of systems, which occur within a large set of events including operational audits and such procurement factors related to safe aviation. Another usage also lies in information provision especially on requirements for licenses, clarifications for human performance needs, strength assessment, and vulnerabilities in the human sector. Such considerations allow the definition of aptitude to align from a broader angle of safety management. Subsequently, the TEM serves as a tool for training on the job (OJT). It provides guidance that is necessary to inform training requirements for organizations to safeguard its activities. Ideally, the TEM must have the user perspective first as a system of flight deck activity index.
Some threats may be anticipated while others are natural. For instance, flight crews may foresee thunderstorms and prepare for an onslaught while an unexpected threat may include a malfunction in the aircraft. In all cases, the crews have a task to apply skills through training and experience in operation. Without a system of TEM, some threats may not have a direct linkage in different contexts of operations. Such risks are not covered by the analysis of aviation safety. The threats are latent, for example, design issues in equipments, optical Illusions, and unpredictable schedules in operations. The TEM model recognizes various influences on operational contexts in line with human performance.
Simplified TEM model
Human Resources in Aviation
After understanding the human error and threat analysis in the aviation sector, it is vital to establish the HR management. Such a comprehension is vital in creating the various practices in management as a human influence. The commercial sector is very sensitive and competitive in the hiring and staff management sector. The area is safety sensitive with a high technology provision to maintain continuity and trust in the service industry. According to Orasanu (1993), people must be the core of any organization’s competency. They comprise of major stakeholders in terms of staff, management, and clients. Therefore, the HR affects the organization’s structure and strategy implications. Relative in many airlines today, operations still take the form of a top down model in operations. Critics observe that HR expertise is critical in management of the aviation industry to facilitate safety procedures and prevent unnecessary errors. The secret to a better aviation service lies in good leadership structures that have useful situational leadership styles for every context. The HR leaders can function as strategic architects who are advocators of change both in the cultural and social paradigm.
The airplane designs ensure safety and operational efficiencies to build trust. The airline management schemes must always ensure that continuous improvements in their designs are effective. The human factors in aviations serve a variety of roles. The appropriate means of enhancing their efficiency depends on understanding the various errors that may arise from such operations. Human labor force is significant in organizational operations. However, their roles are marred by the many errors they make in the process of driving aviation operations. This does not mean that management resorts to machines, a variety of models and frameworks are vital to enhance human performance and ensure productive operations in line with safety standards. The maxim is to manage human knowledge to enhance safety bin flights and build consumer trust.
Helmreich (Eds.), Cockpit resource management (pp. 137-72). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Maurino, D. (2005). THREAT AND ERROR MANAGEMENT (TEM). Canadian Aviation Safety Seminar (CASS) Vancouver, BC, 18-20 April 2005. From http://www.skybrary.aero/bookshelf/books/515.pdf.
National Transportation Safety Board (1972). Aircraft Accident Report: Eastern Air Lines, Inc., L-1011, N310EA, Miami, Florida, December 29, 1972. (NTISNTSB AAR-73-14). Springfiled, VA: National Technical Information Service.
Orasanu, J.M. (1993). Decision-making in the cockpit. In E.L. Wiener, B.G. Kanki, and R.L.
Rasmussen, J. (1982). Human errors: A taxonomy for describing human malfunction in industrial installations. Journal of Occupational Accidents, 4, 311-33.
Wiegmann, D.A., and Shappell, S.A. (1997). Human factors analysis of post-accident data: Applying theoretical taxonomies of human error. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 7, 67-81.
Running head: AVIATION HUMAN FACTOR 1
LATENT THREATS (CULTURES)
NATIONAL, ORGANIZATIONAL, AND PROFESSIONAL
OVERT THREATS (Human factor coefficients)
Environmental, individual, crew, organizational
Strategies in threat management and countermeasures
Error detection and response (Inconsequential)
Management state (inconsequential)
GPS and the aviation industry
This paper will analyze the impact and the contribution of the Global Positioning System (GPS) to the aviation industry. It will provide an insight into the contribution of GPS in enhancing air safety. I will analyze the principles of GPS and its principles of operation that make it significant in the aviation management systems. With GPS, aero planes can be safely flown efficiently by pilots and controllers. The applicability of GPS technology is driven by the need that GPS technology should be integrated to operational systems of all the airplanes. GPS utilizes satellite in order to determine a precise location in space. it also affects surveillance system; the aviation industry utilizes GPS for both surveillance and navigation purposes. This essay will highlight the significance of GPS in the aviation industry.
Statement of the project
Since the inception and introduction of GPS, a lot of benefits are accrued by the aviation industry. GPS has tremendously increased the safety of airplanes. This essay will describe the importance of Global positioning system in the airplane technology. This article will provide an insight and benefits of GPS to the aviation industry. GPS was embraced by the aviation industry and subsequently put into use. This is because there was a need to for accurate positioning, and speed in the aviation industry. GPS in the airplane engineering is a route map from the departure location to the destination. The needed information is fed into the system hence making the pilots understand the exact location of the aircraft and whereabouts of the flight.
Global Positioning System (GPS) is a navigation system based in space and aids in the provision of position, location and timing information over the globe and with a high degree of accuracy. GPS was first developed by the military during the cold war period and made available to the public in 1983 by President Ronald Reagan. This was following the shooting down of Korean Airlines flight 007 for straying into the airspace of soviet necessitated by improper navigation. Since 1973, GPS has been an indispensable part of everyday aviation capabilities. Summarily, the GPS technology started in 1973, but permitted, licensed and made operational in 1994. GPS is used to determine the location of an individual or person; it has been gaining popularity since 1990s (Burns, n.d).
GPS is aimed at enabling an individual to determine the exact location of a landmark or position. Currently, the GPS technology is being used all over the world in the enhancement of flight efficiency and safety. It is considered as an essential route map from the original location to the destination. Pilots use GPS in order to understand its exact location, altitude and the distance until the location. Since the introduction of GPS, the industry has been depending on it due to its ability of enabling pilots stay on course and in the event of deviation, it directs the pilot to the right path (Move Ltd., 2012).
Reasons for using GPS in the aviation industry
In the 21st century, has witnessed a surge in air traffic; this has a lot of impact on the existing infrastructure. This has forced the air traffic controllers to manage traffic on the principle of first come first serve basis. They may also be forced to halt plane at low attitudes when they arrive. GPS is designed to enable an individual to find the precise and exact location of certain land mark or individual. The history of GPS in the field of aviation dates to 1978 when satellite was launched into space. Currently, GPS technology is utilized around the world especially in the aviation industry for the safety and efficiency of flights. The precise and interrupted global potential of GPS enhances seamless services hence meeting several needs of the aviation industry. GPS determines every phase of flight departure, and it also provides for navigation and status updates (Ochieng, & Sauer, 2003).
The GPS technology
Utilizing of satellite systems for communication, surveillance, and navigation provide several benefits to the aviation industry. The development and testing of the GPS technology have enhanced the attention given to the use of GPS in the aviation industry. GPS was launched in 1970s, but it was fully operational in 1990 using 24 satellites. GPS technology was readily embraced by the aviation industry and was immediately putting into use. The need for accurate location and positioning and desire to control speed provided a way for use of GPS in aviation and this made it the first technology of its kind in the aviation sector. GPS in the airplane engineering is a route map from the departure location to the destination. The needed information is fed into the system hence making the pilots understand the exact location of the aircraft and whereabouts of the flight. Pilots utilize GPS to understand distance to the destination, altitude of the plane and the nitty-gritty details that related to the location. Since the introduction of GPS, the entire industry has been dependent on it due to its ability to of enabling pilots to stay on course. In the event of flight path deviation, the system is used to direct pilot to the right track (Burns, n.d).
GPS technology is made up of three elements, namely: the space segment, control segment and ground segment. GPS satellite is primarily configured to enable the user with the capacity to determine their location or position in terms of altitude, longitude and latitude. GPS technology is cheap, reliable and undemanding and can be sued to supplement the available techniques of navigation that help airplanes on course. The GPS technology is generated from consternation of satellites that orbit in space and operate and low levels. In order to function properly, GPS receivers should be extremely sensitive. GPS is a system which uses satellite signals to determine the precise location in space and can be used to effect an ATC navigation and surveillance system. The aviation industry supports using GPS as soon as possible for both navigation and surveillance (Burns, n.d).
Importance of GPS
The Global positioning system (GPS) is integrated in every aspect of the aviation industry. It is considered to be the world’s accurate tool of navigation, and it has been instrumental in the aviation industry. Of the two main global satellite instruments of navigation, GPS has been preferred in leading international markets. GPS originated from the United States of America in 1970s; it is known for its precision with time signals that link the global information network by utilizing fiber optics, radio and satellite. The development of GPS has shaped the technology of positioning and navigation. This is because it provides a continuous measurement of velocity, location and time to pilots and players in the aircraft industry. GPS systems come with headsets that are necessary for communication with the crew on the ground based tower thus helping protect the pilot’s hearing (Ochieng, & Sauer, 2003).
GPS and the aviation industry
Since the emergence of the GPS technology, many benefits have been accrued in the aviation industry. GPS has increased safety of aero planes in the air. The aviation industry is establishing a positioning system based on GPS (Move Ltd., 2012).
Officials in the aviation industry rely tremendously much on GPS in the improvement of aircraft landing system. In the aviation industry, GPS is designed to provide a precise landing system; this is of immense benefits to the operators of both private and commercial aircrafts. GPS is beneficial to the aviation industry because it enables planes to have an efficient landing capability which will reduce the costs that relate to accidents, injury and property damage. GPS is also helpful in free flight; this allows pilots with a lot of freedom to select routes and destinations of their choice. Under the Free-Flight, pilots will have the opportunity to select a direct route to their destination and to determine the speed and altitude under which they will fly. Under free-flight, GP eliminates flight restrictions, fuel savings and saving of time. GPS also enables pilots to utilize any available runway.
Furthermore, GPS is used in the improvement of air safety, in regions where the management of air traffic is exceptionally poor. It is also beneficial for the efficient achievement of scheduling and routing. The application of GPS in the aviation industry and maritime community has led to increased safety and a reliable and accurate positioning. In the aviation industry, GPS has replaced radar as the primary instrument for the federal aviation administration. The GPS system utilizes four antennas placed around the airports for better broadcasting; this antenna collect data from several specified locations (Bright Hub, 2011).
The potential benefit of GPS is imminent in all operations of aviation like in routes, landing, terminal, and approach. The application of GPS in the aviation industry has many effects on the cockpit, ground based services. The interest in GPS and its navigation abilities emerged from studies that indicated its potentiality to generate income for the leading airlines and to the general aviation community.
In the aviation industry, GPS comes with three goals on safety: first is the creation of GPS driven airspace that can mitigate all the impacts of air traffic management, to enhance aviation search and rescue mechanism. In the cyber landscape today, there is increased safety due to the introduction of the GPS landing technique. The GPS landing technology is considered to be an alternative for the radar system rendered redundant by the aviation players and experts. Several international and local airports are switching to GPS because it is instrumental in the decongestion of airports. GPS based technique aids in the reduction of air traffic congestion; this is as opposed to the radio system that offers one path for an incoming plane only while GPS offers almost twenty five available paths. This implies that there will be an efficient use of the sky and planes will not have to wait for long hence saving fuel (Ochieng, & Sauer, 2003).
In the aviation industry all over the world, GPS is employed in order to enhance safety and to improve flight efficiency. Because of accuracy and the global capabilities, GPS provides seamless navigation services that meet various needs for the aviation industry. Pilots flying planes without GPS utilize beacons of navigation that located in various parts of any country, but those planes fitted with GPS have the ability to fly direct routes that connect to the airports hence saving fuel and time. GPS helps in the simplification and the improvement of safe landing by planes even in poor weather conditions. With advancement in the GPS system, planes can be guided until touching down. Various airplanes display GPS tracking in their planes and in screens that are inside the cabin crew (Move Ltd., 2012).
In the U.S.A aviation industry, for example, approximately 86 percent of all planes are fitted with GPS. This has been implemented without any regulatory demand but on the phenomenal capabilities of the aviation system. GPS based arrival and departure is precise and fuel efficient hence allowing for high aircraft input.
In the US airline or aviation industry, almost 96 percent of the aircrafts are equipped with GPS; this is due to the commendable capabilities of this navigation. Furthermore, this is due to GPS oriented arrival and departure system that is economical and fuel-efficient than the traditional radar, this has enabled aircraft throughput.
GPS had been utilized in the aviation industry and dates back to 1978, when it was first introduced to the aviation industry, though for only military purposes. GPS is held in the utmost regards, in the aviation industry because in the aviation industry, location, time, and speed are essential. In an airplane, GPS has a map of the area or the zone it is flying, and there is a pointer that indicates the motion of the plane (Ochieng, & Sauer, 2003).
Several countries have a navigation system that is equipped with GPS. This is due to its safety guarantee since it helps in the location of the enemy particularly in defense or military aircrafts. For planes to have the exact location and track their movements perfectly, it is imperative that it has GPS. There has been improvement in the aviation industry since the introduction of GPS technology because it has aided in the reduction of accidents. GPS is instrumental in the reduction of congestion in air traffic, and this will help save time for airport controllers and the passengers.
Using GPS for navigation is considered the best approach in the airline industry. The introduction of GPS technology will help save the aviation industry a lot of fuel, and it has also been argued that it will help in the tripling of air traffic capacity, reduce delays and in the improvement of safety by cutting green house gases emission.
Key proponents of GPS in the aviation industry argue that instead of consuming a lot of time, fuel, with GPS planes will be able to steeply with their engines idling, planes may also be able to land and take off simultaneously irrespective of the weather condition. GPS has the advantage of enabling pilots to have knowledge of the precise location of their planes and other planes. Pilots can understand obstacles on the ground by use of GPS.
Before the introduction of GPS technology, the airline industry was using the old radar technology. Radar, however, had a lot of shortcomings because it could only enable the pilot to keep tract iof a plane flying over large water mass when it is within 200 miles from the land and distance beyond 200 miles will not be noticed. This has many problems in the event the plane experiences some difficulties that might force it to make an emergency landing, which might keep the plane location unnoticed by the traffic controllers (Move Ltd., 2012).
The vulnerability of the radar technology was noticed following the disappearance of Air France Flight 477 and its 228 passengers in 2009. This sparked a lot of criticism from industry players about radar based traffic monitoring and increased the need for GPS, considered to best control flight location. Besides giving the airlines an accurate location of its airplanes, GPS tracker is ten times more accurate hence helping improve the quality of the project. This will have the result of saving airplanes with a lot of fuel, reduction of delays and other cumulative benefits to the passengers (Move Ltd., 2012).
The following are the principal benefits of GPS to the aviation industry: first GPS communications automatically depends on surveillance which help in the reduction of longitudinal and lateral separations needed for an aircraft on their en route levels. This helps in saving fuel and flight time. Furthermore, the utilization of GPS for instrumental approach helps in increasing the lading capacity in several airports. Because GPS provides an area with navigational capabilities, it permits for flexibility in the use of the airspace hence permitting random landing. A study about the benefits of traffic conditions on the use of GPS and communication satellite indicated that airlines could save approximately $280,000 per month and per aircraft and several airlines can increase workload by a thousand pounds with GPs avionics by allowing for improved flight departures (Move Ltd., 2012)
Aircrafts utilize the Garmin aviation GPS specially designed and customized for the aviation industry.
This is because not all GPS systems function in the industry. Among the new concepts introduced, is area navigation that enables aircrafts to fly on user preferred routes based on ground infrastructure. There are infrastructural developments and expansion in flight routes aimed at making them be used with GPS. This will save energy and time. Aero planes often fly over some areas like oceans and hence lack sufficient data. This can be solved through the use of GPS which allows for well organized and favorable flight routes thus increasing cargo revenue. For better precision, satellite signals are augmented to permit for safer landing even in minimal visibility conditions. GPS system forms part of the aviation system nucleus such as enhanced ground proximity warning systems that are instrumental in the controlling of risks of controlled flight into terrain, which is a key reason for several aircrafts accidents (Brandon, 2003).
In conclusion, there is the advancement in the airline industry and these technologies build from the first one. These advancements, particularly GPS technology, have aided the airline industry in several ways that include saving on fuel costs and saving flight times. Safety and security are improved by GPS enabled technology because it warns pilots on available ground obstacles and the weather status. GPS technology eases jobs for pilots and airport controller by making it efficient and secure. GPS use in the aero plane technology has strengthened the base for traffic management hence enabling for flights on time, reduction in workloads and minimization of the operations costs for the service providers and users of airspace.
Brandon, J. (2003). The global positioning system: global developments and opportunities. Retrieved on 24th October, 2012 from: http://www.usitc.gov/publications/332/working_papers/ipr-id06.pdf
Bright Hub. (2011). Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Aviation Industry. Retrieved on 24th October, 2012 from: http://www.brighthub.com/science/aviation/articles/68871.aspx
Burns, J. (n.d). GPS Benefits for Aviation. Retrieved on 25th October 2012 from: http://www.oosa.unvienna.org/pdf/icg/2008/icg3/21.pdf
Move Ltd. (2012). GPS and its importance in aviation industry. Retrieved on 24th October, 2012 from: http://www.moveltd.com/gps-and-its-importance-in-aviation-industry
Ochieng, W & Sauer, K. (2003). GPS Integrity and Potential Impact
on Aviation Safety, The journal of navigation vol. 56, pp. 5165.
GPS and the aviation industry
GPS and the aviation industry 1
The aviation industry is increasingly being faced by myriads of challenges that have resulted in the closure or bankruptcy of some airlines. Therefore, to stay afloat, some have resorted to using unique strategies. One such company is Southwest airlines, which has maintained profitability for several consecutive decades. The company profile for Southwest airline will be used as a pivot for checking how this industry has been successful over the years. The main areas of analysis will be the corporate identity that will include several sections such as Flight Operations and Customer Numbers, Advertising and Brand Name, Employment and Human Resource Management, as well as an analysis of the company’s competitors. This sections highlight some of the mechanisms the company has undertaken to enhance its policies and maintain high profitability and customer volumes. Therefore, this will be analytical report that looks deeply at the operations and company structures of southwest airlines that have maintained their efficiency to customers and productivity by the employees.
The modern airline system is made up of hundreds of both private and public owned airlines. The base of operations is also divided into local flights, as well as short and long way international flights. This industry is considered to be one of the most highly volatile industries due to the myriads of factors that affect its growth and financial stability. Over the past decade, several major and minor airlines have reported losses running into millions of dollars, while some of them have been forced to either shutdown or adopt stringent mechanisms to cut back on fiscal spending and airline efficiency. Some of the factors that have affected the airline industry are such as terrorism (such as the 9/11 terror attacks), volatility of fuel costs, strict labor laws unions, competition from rival airlines, as well as stringent aviation and environmental laws. In this report, the analysis will be made to establish some of the effective strategies that Southwest Airlines has undertaken to remain afloat and profitable through effective human resource policies, in addition to another pertinent information regarding the airline’s company profile.
Southwest Airlines was initially established on March 16, 1967, through the incorporation of Air Southwest Co. Its co-founders were Herb Kelleher and Rollin King. However, during this initial stage, the airline faced intense legal battles with three of the main airlines operating in Texas, in a bid to dethrone them from the airline industry. However, following a Supreme Court victory of their case on March 29, 1971, the company won rights to operate freely within the Texas airspace and beyond (Gittell, 2005). Consequently, it permanently changed its name to Southwest Airline Co., and based its headquarters in Dallas, Texas. The company began its operation within the state of Texas, and exclusively used the 737 Boeing airplanes.
At the beginning, the company only operated three Boeing 737-200 airplanes. However, in the ensuing years, the company has expanded its fleet to exclusively include Boeings 737 the number of which is currently more than 500 airplanes. Additionally, the flights have been limited to domestic flights within the United States airspace, with an average number of more than 3000 flights daily. In 1992, the company acquired Morris Airline, which was a competing company, that resulted in the company increasing its flight routes as well as its number of airplanes at a cost of $134 million. In 1995, Southwest Airlines became the first airline to open its own website where customers could view flight and company information.
In 2008, the company acquired another airline, namely ATA Airlines, at US$7.5 million to obtain New York LaGuardia Airport landing slots as well as the operating certificate for ATA Airlines. In September 2010, Southwest Airlines strategically acquired another rival company in a bid to reduce its competition, as well as increase its flight routes, landing slots, and airplane fleet (Gittell, 2003). The acquisition of Air Tran Airlines was estimated at $3.2 billion and will significantly increase the company’s medium and long term revenues, profits, and market share. The latest addition to Southwest airline fleet is the purchase of 15 new Boeing 737-MAX that have additional seat capacity, effective fuel consumption, and better on-board equipment.
Flight Operations and Customer Numbers
Southwest Airlines is ranked as the largest passenger carrier in the United States, beating other well-established and large international airlines such as Delta airlines. The customer volumes have steadily been on the rise since the company’s inception in 1971. This is accredited to the low cost fares that the company has levied on its customers. For instance, in the course of its starting processes, the company’s flight ambitions were to give customers low prices that were almost similar to bus or car rides to the same destinations. Therefore, owing to its short flight paths at low costs, customers were endeared to this airline, and in 1973 the company was the single airline to induce an increase of passengers along its routes from 3000 to 26000 in about two years.
This customer base has also increased due to customer loyalty owing to its excellent service and quality flight plans. Currently, the company controls close to 40% of the total market share for local flights in the US and made a profit of $7.6 billion in 2010. The company has also adopted a unique customer reward system that allows customers to get one flight for free at their eighth flight, issuance of goodies and gifts during public holidays, and frequent reductions in prices of air tickets (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, & Cardy, 2007).
The company has also generated a highly efficient flight time and operations that have impacted other carriers to follow their model. For instance, the company has one of the lowest turnaround times (about 15 minutes) as compared to other airlines that have a turnaround time of between 30 to 45 minutes. This is achieved through team work and coordination among the employees. Another strategy that has allowed Southwest Airlines to become one of the most profitable and highly efficient airlines is its use of one type of aircraft (Boeings 737). The use of one type of aircraft has considerably reduced the company’s operating costs such as the purchase of equipment and parts, maintenance of aircrafts, and education as well as training of employees on the use and maintenance of aircrafts. The exclusivity of the use of Boeings 737 has resulted in the company’s employees being more productive in their jobs, rather than continually being engaged in frequent and sometimes mandatory education and training on newer equipment and aircrafts.
Finally, the low cost air ticket that is synonymous with the company has made it a unique player in a market dominated by offers of luxury and other amenities within the flight time. This reduced the number of amenities offered by the airline, which has resulted in the company managing to sustain the low cost of tickets without accruing any losses to their flight operations. The company argues that the amenities and luxuries being offered by other airlines would be unsuitable and highly costly to the airline since it operates short flight planes. Some of the amenities that the company does not offer are such as reserved seat assignments, video/audio programming, airport lounges, and first class cabin.
Advertising and Brand Name
The company has over the years been good at attracting their customers through catchy adverts, phrases, and customer satisfaction methodologies. This has resulted in the company having a highly efficient marketing team that surpasses those of other airlines. For instance, the company adopted the use of comical phrases in their adverts such as just plane smart’, love is still our field’, grab your bag, it’s on!’, and welcome aboard’. These slogans have endeared their customers to the airlines. Additionally, the company is accredited to be one of the first airline companies to set up a website to give customers flight information (Muduli, 2011). This beginning created a brand name for the company and resulted in the organization operating one of the most successful websites in the airline industry. The website has been accredited with high online revenues and unique visitors. For instance, 2006 witnessed the company website (southwest.com) having 70% of flight bookings and generating 73% of its revenues from online bookings.
The company has also produced an ingenious marketing plan where they employ themes in their flights and airplanes. Thus, for instance, for in-flight entertainment, the company staff may either sing or use accentuated dialects to give their passengers flight information. Additionally, the company paints their airplanes with different themed caricatures as a means to attract their customers and make them feel at ease. The company has also created a strong brand name that is devoid of accidents that result in passengers dying or aircrafts crashing. In 2012, it was placed at the tenth position among the safest airlines in the world. The airline in question is also accredited as having the best customer satisfaction rates in the US as ranked by the department of transportation, due to its low number of customer complains as compared to other airlines.
The airline has several competitors with the low cost, short-flight market strategy within the United States. In 2003, the company had seven major competitors that were JetBlue, Air Tran, America West, Spirit, Frontier, and ATA airlines. Other rivals that have tried using the Southwest flight model are such as Continental and Delta, though their efforts have yielded little fruit and thus have had to be abandoned (Gittell, 2003). However, in 2013, the airline’s competitors have reduced considerably due to bankruptcy, acquisitions, and losses. Southwest Airlines has already acquired ATA and Air Tran in a bid to reduce competition, increasing market share, incrementing landing slots, and elevating its fleet. Another company, namely Frontier, was also acquired by another company. Currently, the airline’s main competitor is JetBlue, since it offers products and flight models that are similar to those of Southwest Airlines. Additionally, JetBlue provides offers better amenities during flight than those offered by Southwest, which thus poses a threat to the future and the survival of Southwest in the medium and long term.
Employment and Human Resource Management
The airline currently has a staff of about 40,000 people. In 2010, it received more than 140,000 applications for various posts within the company. This is due to the company’s unique employment opportunities, employee welfare, employee engagement with the management, and the experience that the company provides for its employees (Muduli, 2011). Its founder, Kelleher, has built the airline and the human resource team to become efficient in the delegation of their duties with minimal supervision, while providing the employees with independence to be innovative and exploit their talents. According to Kelleher, his primary objective is to ensure that his employees have unique and comfortable working environments that enhance employee satisfaction. This strategy ascertains that the employees’ productivity is heightened, which thus makes their customer service better.
The human resource team has also been highly valuable in enhancing employee job satisfaction, as well as promoting customer experience that rivals all other airlines. For instance, the HR management team has promoted work environments that enhance cohesion and team work. Employees working as team support each other, and thus increase efficiency in their provision of services to the customers and the airline. The laxity of the team means that the whole team is inefficient rather than one individual. Using this analogy, the HR team has created mechanisms to build efficiency and exercise cohesiveness among the employees such as through simple gestures where the pilots are sometimes involved in luggage packaging or loading.
Additionally, the HR management team has also been influential enhancing cordial relations between the top management and the employees, through the creation of policies and frameworks through which the two groups can integrate freely. It has created an open door policy, where employees can air their grievances to the top management unperturbed. This culture is further amplified with the frequent meetings between employees and top management, which normally have no specific agenda aside from creating a forum where the employees can air their ideas, policies, and problems to the top management (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, & Cardy, 2007). Once the issues have been identified, a culture committee’ is then created, that caters for the needs of the employees by addressing the issues raised, finding fair and long lasting solutions, and communicating with the HR team, as well as the top management.
The policies employed by the HR team are also quite unique in relation to the hiring and training process. During the hiring process, the company uses a target selection’ policy where the new employees are hired on the basis of which position would best suit their talents (Hauck, 2004). This means that these employees are given positions that would suit their job characteristics and talents. Once the hiring is complete, the company then uses a trial employment policy where the employees are given a trial to adjust to their new role, as well as for the management to ascertain the suitability for the employee to be suitable for the position. The HR team also ensures that the employee is engaged in regular training, as well as departmental transfers to enhance their knowledge and skills within the company. The HR team has also developed a system of internal career improvement. This reinforces employee productivity, since training and identification of potential managers and supervisors is done internally. As a result, the company has one of the lowest turnover rates in the industry.
Future Threats to the Company
One of the major threats that the company faces is confined to the rising costs of fuel globally. These costs have a direct effect on the cost of operations for the company in question. However, the company has employed a system of fuel hedging which allows it to cushion itself from the volatile fuel markets. Secondly, the company faces the threat of the anticipated rise in labor costs arising from costs linked to defiant labor unions and the rising economic trends. Thirdly, the business under consideration has the threat of the rising and volatile economic trends that would affect crucial factors such as the strength of the dollar and inflation (Gittell, 2005). These factors usually cause a reduction in consumer spending that has the negative effect of reducing customer volumes using the airlines. In conclusion, Southwest Airlines are an airline that has endured hardships, but has grown to become one of the dominant players in the aviation industry. It has maintained constant profitability for several years since its creation, in spite of the hard economic times that have resulted in other airlines becoming bankrupt or experiencing losses. Therefore, this airline should be considered as an epitome of excellence that should be followed by other industry players.
Gittell, J. H. (2003). The Southwest Airlines Way: Using the Power of Relationships to Achieve High Performance. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Gittell, J. H. (2005). The Southwest Airlines Way. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Professional.
Gomez-Mejia, L. R., Balkin, D. B., & Cardy, R. L. (2007). Managing Human Resources (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Hauck, T. (2004). Southwest airlines: case study. Beechmont Avenue, Cincinnati: Garrison & Keller.
Muduli, A. and Kaura, V. (2011). Southwest Airlines Success: A Case Study Analysis. BVIMR Management Egde, 4 (2): 115-118.
Running head: SOUTHWEST AIRLINES 1
SOUTHWEST AIRLINES 2
Strategic Plan for EasyJet
Historical background of EasyJet
Sir Stelios founded EasyJet airline in mid 90s, and he had a vision of creating a customer-focused brand to revolutionize the concept of air travel. Towards the end of mid 90s, Easy Jet’s foundational voyages took to the skies by flying from Luton’ to Glasgow’ and Edinburgh.’ It was the year that followed that EasyJet airline started operating its wholly owned aircraft. In essence, the airline started its first European route to Amsterdam, and more routes followed suit that year, including Nice and Barcelona. The need for rapid expansion led to the opening of a new United Kingdom base at Liverpool in 1997. This paved way for the ordering of fifteen brand new Boeing 737-700, next generation aircrafts. Mayer (2007) reveals that the subsequent launching of EasyJet.com for online booking followed, and within four years after the launch, about ten million seats had been sold online. In late 90s, EasyJet airline had its very first screening of ITV`s fly on the wall documentary airline. This brought the airline`s operations to millions of viewers in the United Kingdom every week. Interestingly, the airline`s floatation on the London stock exchange took place in early 2000, where the shares were offered at a price of about 310p, thereby valuing the company at about £778 million.
Shortly after this, the airline joined the FTSE 250 list of companies and London Gatwick became the airline’s fifth base in the year that followed. The expansion plans gathered more pace in 2002 where it merged with low cost airline Go and there after created Europe`s leading air transport network. The growth of EasyJet took a motivating turn when it became the first carrier to gain from the recently distended European Union’ by starting voyages to Slovenia and Hungary. After taking delivery of its hundredth aircraft in 2005, the carrier opened its new headquarters at Hangar 89 at London Luton airport two years later. The carrier subsequently completed its acquisition of GB airways, which was a London Gatwick based airline that operated destinations across southern Europe and North Africa (Mayer, 2007). By 2009 EasyJet airline had become a pan European airline operating about four hundred routes and with about one hundred and seventy-six aircraft in twenty-seven countries around Europe.
At this point, more than fifty percent of the airline`s passengers originated from other European countries as compared to the United Kingdom itself. In the year twenty ten, the airline reached five-hundred-route’ mark sand thereafter celebrated the fifteenth anniversary after its launch and it reaffirmed its strategy of turn Europe orange. It is at this point that, EasyJet was voted best low fares airline for the tenth consecutive year at the business travel magazine awards. At this point, the airline took advantage and launched the flexible fares that targeted at business travellers. The recent record of the year twenty eleven reveals that, EasyJet planned to expand its fleet by confirming an order of 15 additional airbus A320 aircraft, in that line the airline carries about fifty million passengers for the first time.
EasyJet Mission and Vision Statement
Studies show that every organization has its own mission concerning certain objectives and goals and it is the guiding principle of what an organization is today and what it will be in the future. Essentially, EasyJet has its own mission; to afford their clients with innocuous, worthy value, involving point air facilities. Wetch (2006) asserts that, the company effects and offers a consistent and reliable product and fares, thereby appealing to leisure and business markets on range of European routes. To achieve this, EasyJet needs to develop its persons and founding lasting association with its dealers and clients. Thus, Easy Jet’s resolution or apparition of the future is constructed on upsurge of its forte as the major low rate carrier in Europe.
EasyJet`s Pecuniary Report
Studies reveal that in the first half of the fiscal year, EasyJet has sustained delivery of enhancements in client gratification, operative, and pecuniary performance. However, the pecuniary setting relics indeterminate where the flight commerce faces gales like the United Kingdom APD. Easy Jet’s strategy of low fares and the focus on it easy for customers is aligned with light cost management and sternly managed apportionment resources that ensures the airline is well put to deliver good results for shareholders. Essentially, during that period, passengers flown grew by 5.4 percent to about twenty-six million as the airline continued to grow its share of the short-haul business travel market. It was also revealed that cost for each seat rises at a one and a half percent at a constant currency. However, there was about £15 million reduction in disruption costs because of the benefits brought about by the benign winter weather across Europe. Moreover, there was strong performance regarding ground operations and the factor was because of benefits emanating from further contract renegotiation with ground handlers. This facilitated the holding of ground operations costs for a seat at a constant level for that year. Consequently, EasyJet continues to deliver in class on time performance across the network with arrivals at an interval fifteen minutes, an increase of sixteen percent. This contributed to a seven percent point increase in overall customer satisfaction to about eighty-five percent. In overall, total revenue for each seat grew by about twelve percent representing £50.5 and under the driving force of a combination of tighter market capacity, revenue management improvements, website initiatives and Europe by EasyJet, marketing campaign. This performance is set to rise over the years to about twenty percent in the next five or six years based on the factors highlighted among others as this discussion will unveil in due time (Richard, 2012). This leads the discussion on the importance of a strategic plan in line with how EasyJet will make up its operations to achieve such great total revenue per seat, increase of twenty percent.
Importance of a Premeditated Blueprint to an Association
For every successful organization, a good strategic plan leads to long-term direction where the organization’s performance will be at the highest levels compared to a business that does not have a strategic plan in place. A strategic plan is a framework that will serve to provide the basis for detailed planning. It can also be used for performance monitoring and future business growth. This forms the basis for benchmarking, allows better business understanding by both stakeholders and employees. A good strategic plan of two to five years describes how the business will grow and prosper over that span of time to the desired level. A strategic plan sets overall business objectives and helps in developing plans on how to achieve the set goals through a daily operation. Strategic planning becomes sophisticated when a business expansion becomes complex. This helps in sustaining the competitive environment for the growth and need for keeping a business developing through leadership and resources. There are a number of ultimate rudiments of premeditated formation. They include where the corporate is now (involves the process of finding out the present locus and competences of the corporate and how it functions, and it includes competitors` comparison,’ and its success). The other constituent involves where the corporate is to be, (where a need ascends of setting corporate purposes,’ vision,’ mission,’ and values,’ techniques,’ and goals.’ It also involves the desire of where a business wants to focus so that it can gain a more competitive advantage (Wetch, 2007). The third element relates to what is required to do so that the set goals and objectives can be met, and at this stage, it calls for the implementation of the strategic plan by setting deadlines, budgets, goals, and assignment responsibilities to achieve goals within the stipulated period. Evidently, a strategic plan needs to be flexible and consistent since the setting of targets and deadlines provides a way through which monitoring and control can be done on the achievement of goals and performance measurement.
Essential achievement aspects for EasyJet
Studies reveal the design, structure, usability, and usefulness of EasyJet website has enabled the company to secure advantage over its competitors. This among other factors have caused the company to become one of the most successful low cost airlines, and it had been able to secure its top position among travel and tours through various factors that still play key roles in realizing the strategic plan that EasyJet has to date. The first factor that will help EasyJet in realizing its strategic plan in the next five years involves a website. This will help to increase its overall revenues per seat to twenty percent. Operating e-business’ entails thoughtful corporate and technical reflection that ranges from the stance of the location, its usability’ and construction. Evidently, EasyJet understands its European customers are looking for cheap, comprehensive and comfortable flights without hassle of third party agents. The website forms one of the airline`s critical factors and the airline targets a hundred percent online booking in the next five years through effective website marketing and usability. Essentially, the company has put in place easy steps for making the search simple for clients. Moreover, the company utilizes information based on reliability, usefulness and usability of information, rather than visibility and color only. The other factor involves business focus, where EasyJet is comprehensive to its wide audience. For instance, for its leisure consumers, the airline offers various services such as airport lounges, hotels, parking spaces, accommodation, transportation, and easy booking flights. Based on such services and on this target audience, EasyJet is the ideal reinter-mediation (is in direct contact with its consumers through the internet). This kind of intermediation serves to reduce costs by helping in transforming the business to corporate structure. Thus, through technological mediation, the company creates business value that shifts the attention of clients positively.
To achieve the set objectives, the business used the impression of a corporate prototype, set up an online business,’ which safeguards development, competence, modest lead and influence over its challengers. Therefore, as an e-commerce company, EasyJet has cut down its supply chain to deal with the customers directly. Through this critical factor, the airline has been able to sell over ninety percent flights online and as the process stabilizes over the next five years, the total flight sold will be a hundred percent. On the other hand, by subletting such services as hotels, car rental, and apartment booking services, EasyJet has become the intermediary. This factor has and still will generate more profits and add value to its products offered thus, target a wide range of customers thereby increasing overall revenues. Further still, the other key factor involves understanding the business model. EasyJet success could be attributed to the excellent management skills that anticipates and adopts the advance endeavors. This enables the business to develop competitive advantage and value to its products and services. At this point, this helps in reducing in efficient functions, design and adoption of new business models that are always a step ahead of competition (especially regarding internet business models need constant evaluation to meet customers` demands). Regarding flexibility as a factor, a flexible company has the capability of keeping its business model dynamic and it anticipates changes whenever required. This is critical for any type of organization because change management is very important for a business to succeed (since change involves transactions, costs, budget, organizational design, and the impact of the change on the business in light of profitability). The management of an organization has to be able to implement change whenever need arises to gain competitive advantage, and at the same time, forecast emergence. In essence, a business that does not capitalize on opportunity cost by ignoring flexibility is set to lose out in competitive advantage and it thereby fails to deliver its product and services it has to offer.
Endorsements for Premeditated Executions of EasyJet
Implementation of organization strategy involves the application of the management process to get desired results. Strategy implementation includes an organization`s structure, allocation of resources, development of information and decision making process. On the other hand, management of human resources includes areas like the reward system, approaches to leadership, and staffing. It calls for the senior administration squad to meet together in revising, deliberating, stimulating, and approving on the premeditated course including key mechanisms of the proposal. Moreover, without candid obligation from the senior management team, fruitful execution may not be comprehended. Therefore, a mutual way to begin is by revising the business`s contemporary state and forthcoming potentials using a SWOT examination progression. This generally, involves identification of strengths and core competences in products, resources, people, and customers. Communication of a strategy requires a clear and consistent message, thus, it is an ideal time for the leadership to define each area of the plan operationally to ensure agreement and commitment. In general, key investors should be included in the process and imploring their contribution as treasured support in enactment. Before formulating recommendations for Easy Jet’s strategic implementation, it is important to highlight its strategic priorities and SWOT analysis. EasyJet has four strategic priorities: to deliver low cost and maximize margins, to build Europe`s leading transport network, and to deliver a winning customer proposition, and safety.
Easy Jet’s SWOT Examination
EasyJet leads the provision of low budget or low cost, no frills air travel, thereby servicing many of the great cities destinations in the United Kingdom and across Europe (Amsterdam, Berlin, Prague, and Barcelona, among others). The company`s leadership is pegged on the fact that the airline offers high quality services at competitive prices and offer various features that include ticketless travel, online booking and assisted travel services. The airline boasts of a highly distinctive livery concerning their fleet aircraft, which makes their recognition and distinction from competitors easy. EasyJet has a user-friendly website that discloses the price breakdown regarding passenger-planned travel (McLaney, 2010). Offering a full price breakdown plan prevents incidences of hidden charges at a time when the customers confirm their travel booking online. Moreover, EasyJet offers an online promotion alert that is usually e-mailed to existing customers and contacts on the airline`s website. Thus, EasyJet is documented as the foremost trademark name in the United Kingdom travel commerce. Consequently, as a market leader in an industry that has been branded as the leading contributor to the greenhouse effect and global warming, EasyJet vigorously embraces its environmental responsibilities and continue to keep these factors as a priority when developing future strategies. EasyJet operates a fast and efficient service with an average turnaround time of thirty minutes and even less, which enables the airline to maintain a reliable and hassle free service to its esteemed passengers.
Studies reveal that domestic air travel is an extremely competitive industry and EasyJet`s main competitors are Jet2, BMI Baby, Ryan air, and a host of other followers. Exterior modest forces can confine and silhouette the valuing dogma on some of the carrier’s less moneymaking courses as the corporation seeks to contend with their challengers. Furthermore, EasyJet does not offer free foodstuff service on lengthier voyages of about two hours and above. In addition, there is no amusement on board in short trips. Moreover, there is allowance that is restricted to only five kilograms on board, the airline has uncomfortable airline seats band, and thus there is no lounging of the seat and less legroom (Meyer, 2007).
There is possible opening of alternative routes to major cities around Europe, and one of the key routes could be from the United Kingdoms to Dublin. This is because it has a large potential for travellers going to soccer matches in the United Kingdom and new links into corporate flyers to and from the United Kingdom. Offering free refreshments on flights with a travel time of over two and a half hours will offer an extra perquisite and comfort to passengers, making their experience with EasyJet more comfortable and enjoyable (McLaney, 2010). Accordingly, having updated versions of the fly on the wall documentaries would provide the brand more coverage and publicity, thereby increasing customer base through increase of first timers and repeat passengers who keep loving the experience they receive from EasyJet.
It is has been found out that competitors flying on the same routes compete very modestly on price, imposing pressure on margin regarding more popular flights and time slots. Consequently, external market forces can have a significant impact on Easy Jet’s business. For instance, the rising cost of oil can significantly have an impact on the running costs because a significant pressure it exerts on profitability of concerning less popular routes and time slots. Evidently, pressure from unions and employee relations committees can significantly influence the day to day operations with strikes provoking to be costly to the airline`s image. On the other hand, pecuniary slump may lead to a diminution in unpremeditated flyers and company travel as firms seek to restrain what they see as redundant spending, which in turn makes less commerce excursions.
Endorsed Premeditated Tactics for EasyJet
Following analysis of EasyJet`s SWOT and strategic priorities, it is therefore clear, that the going is not as smooth as it seems. However, for the airline to achieve set goals as discussed earlier, various strategies are recommended for implementation. This is because EasyJet faces stiff competition on routes from their competitors, which calls for the airline`s management team to focus more on its customer services so that customers can get satisfaction from the offered services. This can start by making critical improvements on how concerned employees and the company as a whole communicates to their esteemed customers, ensuring efficiency in time management. Regarding EasyJet`s feebleness, it is clear that it does not deal free munchies on lengthier voyages of about two hours, this might give its challengers some benefit. Therefore, it is recommended that EasyJet should introduce the offerings of refreshments on their longer routes as part of the strategy to seal loopholes for competition. One of EasyJet`s threats is employees` dissatisfaction, which causes strikes and union power to coerce the organization to look into their demands. This may result to court battles, thereby ruining or tainting the image of the organization. It is therefore endorsed that EasyJet`s administration should use approaches of executing supervision human resource structures, tactics to control employment, in order to content staffs and meet their needs. Accordingly, executing tactical diplomacies may call for frontrunners to lead through stimulus and tutoring rather than through knack and rheostat. Thus, by recognizing and rewarding success, inspiring, and exhibiting performances, results in true binder than use of power, which can lead to unreceptive resistance and hidden revolt. EasyJet should strategize in giving their regular customers incentives such as air mile packages to entice the customers to always travel using the services of the airline.
Another great strategy towards meeting set goals and alleviating huddles in terms of competition, rising costs and that of employee resistance, involves the process of diversification. This is where EasyJet is called not to focus on air travel business only, but to explore other profit making business ventures like the introduction of EasyJet hotels, trains, and other related activities or ventures to boost the revenue base. Essentially, this would be a great alternative when the flight business goes low and there is need for money to shield the operations of the company to keep in line with its objectives and goals all year round. On the other hand, EasyJet`s senior management needs to include their stakeholders in formulating their strategies through communication and providing training to their employees in regard to the strategies to be introduced. This may help the airline to have the best way of implementing their strategies by finding out which strategies have more benefits to the company as well as to the stakeholders. From the chairman`s point of view, the European frugality is in a stimulating slump of an indeterminate stretch. Many critics signify that this could be the nastiest pecuniary environments of a cohort. The harsh effects of this are already being felt by many companies and industries. This means that good and clear strategies have to be instituted to help the company meet the set goals, thereby satisfying, customers, stakeholders, and employees at the same time.
Strategic Objectives Establishment
To continue leading in these tough economic times requires, establishment of strategic objects geared towards solving issues associated with the realization of such set goals. Strategic objectives points where the organization wants to be at some predetermined level in the future, and how the organization intends to get there. Studies indicate that skills in strategic planning are essential for the long-term success of an organization. In general, there are about five premeditated intentions vital to every corporate; superiority (aptitude to create in agreement with requirement without fault). On the other hand, charge means the aptitude to yield at low rate and suppleness, which means the capacity to alter processes). The other aspects involves swiftness, which means the capacity to do things rapidly in reaction to client demands and thereby offer petite lead-times’ between when clients order a merchandise or service and when they collect it. Lastly, trustworthiness means the propensity to convey merchandises and services in harmony with assurances made to clients.
EasyJet has to use the above strategic objectives in various ways to achieve set goals, and especially cut cost while increasing internet sales to a hundred percent. This is because its online system employs a variable pricing system to maximize the load factors. In this sense, the carrier uses ticketless travel, since travellers are transmitted with their particulars and reservation reference (Katie, 2013). This in turn helps in meaningfully reducing the rate of delivering, dispensing, processing, and integrating millions of tickets each year. Importantly, EasyJet does not pre-assign seats on-board. Thus, passengers sit where they like, and this eliminates unnecessary complexity and speeds up passenger boarding. The carrier employs well-organized use of landing fields by hovering to the less congested landing fields of minor European metropolises. In addition, this favors subordinate airfields in foremost metropolises. Such landing fields have lesser touchdown charges and generally offer quicker reversals since there are fewer in-flight activities. Subsequently, EasyJet`s efficient ground operations enable it to achieve turnarounds of less than thirty minutes. This allows the airline to achieve fast rotations on high frequency routes, maximizing the utilization of aircraft. Since EasyJet offers point-point travel, it is therefore advantageous and there is no need to worry about onward connections for passengers and their luggage. This further simplifies the airline`s operations. As a result, EasyJet`s premeditated purposes allow it to purse its stratagem, founding on the conforming modest aspect.
Improved safety operations and performance gains that EasyJet passes directly to customers is the greatest gear that drives the company towards realization of the set goals and objectives (Katie, 2013). As such, improving safety is of great supremacy to EasyJet. Consequently, it is used to improve customer confidence, and it is the first objective in terms of priority. Importantly, any airline that does not consider the highest level of safety is courting hazards. This is in terms of loss of lives and aircraft, and greatly the loss of the airline`s commercial operating position. In this regard, security is an indispensable component of profitable achievement. For further acceleration of progress and generally succeeding, EasyJet`s sole purpose will be adopting the head up guidance system. This involves enhancing safety, and improving its operating performance by furthering improvement in its commercial efficiency. Thus, head up guidance system have significant potential to further improve, and enhance flight capabilities of aircraft. Essentially, more benefits can be realized through improvement of the pilot`s situation awareness, and achieving this is the major goal for EasyJet.
On the other hand, another strategy involves improvement of operations and performance since EasyJet operates modern aircraft intensively on busy routes. The company operates and will operate at a profit and since it is expanding by buying a fleet of brand new aircraft that profoundly increases both its route structure and the intensity of operations. Collier (2009) affirms that, by looking at all features of its maneuvers, EasyJet can decrease expenses wherever and whenever they transpire. The airline has a cost structure for every seat prototype, which allows the carrier to relate its rate with its challengers so that it may offer the lowermost conceivable rate for every seat. Moreover, EasyJet is pioneering. For instance, the online reservation arrangement is way ahead of its challengers, thus the business has resolutely established it as preferred with its clients. EasyJet`s other strategic objective also focuses on people development, where the people strategy is underpinned by cornerstone of talent engagement. Organizational design ensures that through strong leadership, people have the right skills in the right place at the right time. This creates an environment where people perform better. Thus, recognize that having the right skills, experience, and culturally influencing directly their performance across other strategic objectives is key. In conclusion, by generating strategic options regarding the airline is set to improve its current state by realizing the set goals and objectives. Therefore, in the next five years, the airline would have realized its set goals very well by employing the discussed strategic plan and objectives.
Collier, P. (2009). CIMA Official Learning System Performance Strategy. Washington, DC: Elsevier.
Katie, J. (2013). How should EasyJet manage the declining markets? Michigan: GRIN Verlag.
Mayer, F. (2007). A Case Study of EasyJet and the Airline Industry. Florida: GRIN Verlag.
McLaney, E. (2010). Accounting: An Introduction. Jean Morton.
Meyer, S. (2007). Acquisition of EasyJet plc. by British Airways plc. Washington, DC: GRIN Verlag.
Richard, M. (2012). Strategic Marketing Planning. New York, NY: Routledge.
Welch, D. E. (2006). The Internationalization Process and Networks: A Strategic Management Perspective.’ Journal of International Marketing 4(3): 1128.
Welch, L. S. (2007) Internationalization: Evolution of a Concept.’ Journal of General Management 14(2): 3455.
STRATEGIC PLANNING 3
Running head: STRATEGIC PLANNING 1
Cost effectiveness of changing military primary flight trainer from
T-34 Mentor to T-6 Texan II
Hawker Beechcraft Corporation is the leading manufacturer of trainer aircraft designing and special mission, business, marketing, and supporting aviation products and services for governments, individuals, and businesses globally. It provides a perfect example of private a private equity acquisition of a high potential division a corporation that is not willing to focus its resources on realizing its division potential (Kensinger, 2011, p. 129). The headquarters of the company and its most important facilities are situated at Wichita, Kansas. Other operations are in Chester in United Kingdom, Salina in Kansas, and Little Rock in Arkansas. Hawker Beechcraft Corporation leads the aircraft industry with a worldwide set of connections of more than one hundred factory owned as well as authorized service centers. Walter H. and Olive Ann Beech founded the company in 1932, on February 8, �1�9�8�0�;� �t�h�e� �c�o�m�p�a�n�y� �b�e�c�a�m�e� �a� �s�u�b�s�i�d�i�a�r�y� �o�f� �R�a�y�t�h�e�o�n� �C�o�m�p�a�n�y�.� �R�a�y�t�h�e�o�n� �C�o�m�p�a�n�y� �i�s� �a� �d�i�v�e�r�s�i�ûe�d� �e�l�e�c�t�r�o�n�i�c�s� �a�n�d� �t�e�c�h�n�o�l�o�g�y� �c�o�m�p�a�n�y� �t�h�a�t� �i�s� �s�i�t�u�a�t�e�d� �i�n� �L�e�x�i�n�g�t�o�n�,� �M�a�s�s�a�c�h�u�s�e�t�t�s�.� �B�e�e�c�h� �a�n�n�o�u�n�c�e�d� �i�n� �e�a�r�l�y� �1�9�8�8� �t�h�a�t� �i�t� �w�o�u�l�d� �p�u�t� �s�o�m�e�w�h�e�r�e� �e�l�s�e� �a�s�s�e�m�b�l�y� �a�n�d� �s�u�b�a�s�s�embly work on the Beech jet from Mitsubishi facilities in Japan to Kansas, creating hundreds of new jobs for American workers (redfordcorporation.com, n.d., p. 1).
Hawker offers the smartest solutions to business aviation for those companies that look to right size their flight departments with the most intelligent, high performance business jets available today. When it comes to value, hawker jets are the leading segment with models that delivers more for less. With its reputation and quality spanning nearly eight decades, the company continues to inspire with segment leading aircraft that can deliver performance, value, and reliability in business aviation. By any measure, every Beechcraft model defines its class effectively from the leader IA that is the for the most part highly developed distinct pilot business jet in the world (21).
Hawker Beechcraft delivers more military training and special mission aircraft than any other general aviation manufacturer, therefore setting the standard for dependable versatility in all applications ranging from weapons and pilot training to light attack. Their applications also include flight inspection, utility, Very Important Persons (VIP) transport, surveillance, and air ambulance. Militaries and governments use applications from Hawker Beechcraft worldwide. The T-34 Mentor T-6 Texan II transition are the most commonly used products of the Hawker Beechcraft Corporation (hawkerbeechcraft.com, n.d., p. 34).
There are several stations that support the primary flight training; among them is Naval Air Station Field (NASWF). Naval Air Station Field (NASWF) supports primary flight training. T-34 can use its single engine turboprop to make good use of Navy outlying landing fields. This happens when the aircraft is on its mission. T-6 Texan II on the other hand is a single engine turboprop that has been selected as the new joint primary aircraft training system (JPATS) aircraft for the military forces in the United States combined.
The T-6 Texan II will replace the T-34 mentor. Contrastingly, to T-34, the T-6 Texan II cannot be reversed to slow the aircraft after landing. Moreover, its brakes are very conducive for landing in fields that are considered shorter for the T-34 model. Using T-6 Texan II model requires that there is a minimum safe runaway length of four thousand feet for its dual operations and five thousand feet for its solo operations. On the other hand, T-34 requires three thousand foot long when it comes ton its runway operations. In order to maintain the T-6 Texan II, Hawker Beechcraft Corporation designed it for durability, sustained performance, and reliability. T-6 Texan II has been designed to have a guaranteed airframe lift that is over eighteen thousand hours (NAEC, 2010, P. 1-1).
As far as operations that involve wind are concerned, T-6 Texan II is more restricted than the T-34 because it has lower thresholds for cross wind components that can easily jeopardize the pilot safety. T-6 Texan II normally has pilot ejection seats for emergency exit and it is not found in the T-34. Other than the safe runway length, a one thousand foot long obstruction free run out safety zone is mandatory within the periphery of the runway. As far as the specifications are, concerned T-6 Texan II has a maximum speed of three hundred and sixteen knots while T-34 has a maximum speed of two hundred and eighty knots. The approach speed of T-34 is one hundred and twenty knots, which is the same with those of T-6 Texan II. The height of T-6 Texan II is ten feet eight inches as compared to T-34 that has nine feet eleven inches. On average T-34 weighs four thousand four hundred pounds as compared to T-6 Texan II that weigh six thousand nine hundred pounds (NAEC, 2010, p. 1-2).
Undergraduate pilot training system mostly trains pilot candidates for the employment in the three generally flying categories of the air force jet, multi-engine wing operations, and helicopter. Primary flight training normally represents the most critical and important elements of the undergraduate pilot training system. Pilot candidates usually receive their instructions to the forces flying training and it is in the primary training that they receive their first training mission. Primary flight training helps in refining the selection process while identifying those candidates that can achieve the required time. Identifying the potential early helps the candidates to succeed because it provides them with confidence to succeed in future pilot training (www.rcaf-arc.forces.gc.ca, 2011. para. 1). Changing primary flight trainer from T-34 Mentor to T-6A Texan II, requires sound financial management concepts and practices to be applied. This concepts are planning policy, Annual budget plans, cash balance, debt ratios, moral obligations and underlying debt, Internal control, cash management, and performance measurement. Is changing military primary flight trainer from T-34 Mentor to T-6 Texan II cost effective?
History of T-34 Mentor
T-34 Mentor Series served Navy and Air force of United States vey well in training generations of aviators in years that preceded the world war two. T-34 Mentor led a productive life in the inventory of numerous other foreign operators. The basic T-34B (USN) and T-34A (USAF) models were bettered in the T-34C turbo-prop powered (Alex, 2011, para. 1).
T-34 origins was placed a private venture undertaken by American aviator Walter beech of the Beechcraft aircraft company. He earned his stripes as a fighting aviator in the First World War. After numerous victories in commercial races with Beechcraft planes, the company attention turned to the production contract known as the world war two. The T-34design was developed from the single-engine and designed under the project name of Beechcraft model 45.
It is a two-seat primary trainer with a definite military bearing; its history separates it from other ordinary crafts. Its Beechcraft design and functional nature have made it more popular thus sought after for war bird with honesty and straightforward handling characteristics in fight as well as on the ground (Alex, 2011, para. 2).
After its development, T-34 Mentor Series was exported widely to various countries that friendly to Americans. Most of these countries are centered in Latin and South America. T-34 Mentor Series was introduced to the Air Force cadets for the first time in 1953 and it become an immediate hit. In the recent days, T-34 series took center stage at many air shows in United States and other various parts of the world and despite its 1950s origin; the T-34 series is still used to train the USMC and USN aviators. Her numbers are dwindling as years goes by because it is being replaced by T-6 Texan II (Alex, 2011, para. 10-11).
History of T-6 Texan II
Hawker Beechcraft aircraft builds Beechcraft T-6 Texan II; it is a single engine turboprop. T-6 Texan II is normally used by the air force of United States for its basic pilot training; it is also used by the navy of the United States for intermediate and join Naval Flight Officer (NFO) and air force combat system officer (CSO) training. It replaced the Air force T-37B Tweet and it is replacing the Navy’s T-34C turbo mentor. It is also used as a basic trainer by the Canadian forces, the Greek air force, Iraqi air force, the luftware of Germany, and the Israeli air force (weaponsandwar.com, 2010, para. 1). The aircraft was designed under United States Tri-Service aircraft designation system of 1962 and it was named T-6 Texan (weaponsandwar.com, 2010, para. 2-3).
The T-6 Texan II is a development of the Pilatus PC-9 that is modified significantly by Beechcraft so that it can enter the Join primary aircraft training system (JPATS) competition in the 1990s. In 1980s, Pilatus and British Aerospace had an arrangement to use royal air force competition to select short Tucano. The Join primary aircraft training system (JPATS) competition winning design was always based on the commercial off the shelf Pilatus PC-9 that had minor modifications. The Navy and Air Force have using the named the T-6A Texan II following the archetypal T-6 Texan trainer from 1940s and 1950s. The T-6A Texan II puts forward enhanced presentation and considerable improvements in training effectiveness, safety, cockpit accommodations, and operational capabilities than present aircraft (weaponsandwar.com, 2010, para. 2-3).
Costs involved in the changeover of primary flight trainer from the T-34 Mentor to the T-6 Texan II
Flight training is a normal business and cost is a major drive. Flight training aircraft are the business tools therefore they need to meet the business mission, generate maximum margin for the business, and it has to be safe. The change over costs incurred in T-34 Mentor and T-6 Texan II are considered in the capital cost, fuel cost, parts costs, resale value, and record of accomplishment, labor cost, insurance costs, and fleet commonality.
While capital cost is the true value of an aircraft, it is easy to understand that the capital cost for the changeover process is very high. Fuel cost has become the largest single expenditure for the operations of the aircrafts. Though is was difficult to maintain T-34 Mentor because of the fuel cost, moving to the T-6 Texan was not a breathing space because the same fuel cost are going to be incurred but the good news is that T-6 Texan is more efficient. This can be seen when the speed of the two aircraft are considered. T-6 Texan is thirty-six knots more faster than T-34 Mentor therefore through this efficiency; it can save the fuel cost (www.diamondaircraft.com, n.d).
While changing the two primary training flights from the T-34 Mentor to T-6 Texan II spare parts costs has to be considered. Spare parts costs are considered significant because they are part of the overall operation costs. T-6 Texan II has their parts to last for a very long period of time and they have priced them to a low price thus the spare parts costs during the changeover are very minimal.
As far as labour costs are concerned, T-6 Texan II has placed emphasis on the reduction of wasted time as well as labour costs. Their design is has built such that it can be easily inspected thus reduction of labour. In the end, it means the changeover period that not incurs much labour cost. The safety records of T-6 Texan II as well as its economical repairability has made it pay low premiums for the aircraft operators thus the insurance costs involved during the changeover are very minimal. When it comes to changeover process, fleet commonality of T-6 Texan II has enabled it to do the business. They offer all the advantages of fleet commonality ranging from rapid student transition, minimal instructor standardization, maintenance training to reduced parts inventories (www.diamondaircraft.com, n.d.).
Costs of using and maintaining the T-34, vs. the T-6 Texan II through statistical data
Full Mission Capable Rate for Fiscal Year 2011
Cost per flight hour
Fiscal Year 2011 T-34 T6
Petroleum Oils Lubricants $124.21 $222.67
Other (Variables) $51.89 $64.00
Contractor Services $854.47 $865.39
Total $1031.66 $1152.06
Pilot Training Time 31.1(weeks) 29.4(weeks)
The costs of developing, producing, and maintaining the T-6 Texan II
The Department of Defense (DoD) is committed to developing and acquiring a joint military service weapon systems as well as delivering the much-needed abilities to war fighter. With its constant objective of improving the acquisition process, they continue to pursue new and creative methodologies so that can purchase a complex system (Kinzig & Bailey, n.d., p. 1). While designing the T-6 Texan II safety was number one priority, it provides performance and characteristics that can lead safely the students from abinito through primary to an advanced curriculum. The development and production of T-6 Texan II is very expensive when compared to its predecessor. There are huge amount of cash involved when the basic design is changed so that it can fly over five hundred times. The main reason for doing this is to improve aircraft performance and at the same time not affecting the encouraging qualities of the base aircraft. The price of a T-6 Texan II varies as per given year in the year 2012, it is going to be around six million United States dollars. This cost excludes the ancillary equipment cost as well as the initial spare parts cost (Oestergaard, 2012, para. 4).
Adopted from (Orlansky & String, n.d., p. 98)
The above costs come from the accumulation of the production and development costs. T-6 Texan II is developed with a new Aft Fuselage so that it can improve the flying qualities. This alone attracts huge amount of money hence high cost. T-6 Texan II has been developed to use the new canopy shape for purposes of pressurization. The aircraft has new cowling that helps in reducing maintenance time. The maintenance time is reduced by the technology but the maintenance costs are becoming so high. T-6 Texan II has been produced to have a single point refueling or defueling so that the time for turn around becomes minimal. This technology involves using a lot of money. During its production, T-6 Texan II has seen integration of its external shapes so that it can encourage enhanced handling characteristics (Www.rcaf-arc.forces.gc.ca, 2011, para. 4).
The development and production of T-6 Texan II has it has an improved seat installation hardware that can expedite replacement and the process is so expensive. T-6 Texan II has bird strike canopy for the pilot protection. This adds more costs when compared with the production of T-34 Mentor. The complex production of the T-6 Texan II means more costs. An increased horsepower can allow for outstanding aerobatics, the design of engine control is digital just like that of jet. T-6 Texan II has a continuous inertia separator for the Foreign Object Damage Protection, this increase the maintenance cost. The Cockpit of T-6 Texan II has been redesigned so that it can accommodate very wide range of pilot body sizes thus increasing costs (Www.rcaf-arc.forces.gc.ca, 2011, para. 4).
In order to maintain the T-6 Texan II, Hawker Beechcraft Corporation designed it for durability, sustained performance, and reliability. T-6 Texan II has been designed to have a guaranteed airframe lift that is over eighteen thousand hours. Number of feature that has been incorporated in the aircraft during its designing has further eased the maintenance cost. With the high technology T-6 Texan II is produced with, the fuel servicing responsibilities can be accomplished in less than five minutes all the way through to one access door. The filter of T-6 Texan II can inspected at the same time the aircraft can be refueled. T-6 Texan II does not have deport maintenance because it has onboard oxygen generating system that allows for constant operations without routine servicing (airforce-technology.com, 2011, para. 15).
Adopted from (DoD, 2012, P.1-7)
The effect of legislation laws on the cost of transitioning from the T-34 to the T-6 Texan II
There are two challenges that are associated with the changing of the primary flight trainer in the legislation laws. First is the inherency in the technology itself and this the constant need by the Hawker Beechcraft Corporation to make T-6 Texan II to obtain all the maximum and possible advantages over its adversaries. Military equipments are usually designed at a very edge of the state of art. The second challenge is found in the military acquisition environment. The military acquisition environment has confused people with free enterprise system. This will become increasingly present in areas that had a normal incentive free market. In the end, this can damage the commercial free- enterprise (McKinley, 2000. P. 16).
Joint Primary Aircraft Training System (JPATS) office progress of the transition
Joint Primary Aircraft Training System (JPATS) is a set of primary flight devices that are tailored to meet US navy (USN) and US Air force (USAF) aircrew requirements. The main mission of Joint Primary Aircraft Training System is to train entry-level student pilots in primary flying skills to a level of expertise whereby the advance into pilot training track thus eventually becoming military pilots, naval flight officers, and navigators. Joint Primary Aircraft Training System comprises of T-6A Texan II air vehicles, training integration management system, simulators as well as ground based training device, and instructional course work. The main function of Joint Primary Aircraft Training System (JPATS) is to do test and evaluation activity. They also do other tests and evaluation assessments (www.dote.osd.mil, n.d., para. 1).
While T-6A Texan II presented itself to Joint Primary Aircraft Training System (JPATS), they were taken as setting the standard for the next couple of decades on how other aircraft will go about efficiently producing skilled pilots. Joint Primary Aircraft Training System (JPATS) believes that T-6A Texan II is a win-win product for the industry. As for Navy and its war fighters, Joint Primary Aircraft Training System believes it is aligning fleet driven metrics to their priorities. The greatest advantage of T-6A Texan II over other aircraft is that they have a digital cockpit. T-6A Texan II allows students to start their training with technology that could enable them to fly I fleet. The navy accepted the first T-6A Texan II to part of its inventory by November 2002 and they are planning to buy three hundred and twenty eight aircraft. Navy has procured forty-nine T-6A Texan II aircraft. From the forty nine aircrafts, thirty one of them has been delivered to training air wing (TW) 6 which is situated at Naval Air station in Pensacola for naval flight officer training. The remaining aircrafts are going to be delivered by financial year of 2013. It is believed that T-6A Texan II is setting the right foundation for the digital revolution as far as naval aviation training goes. Therefore, the progress of the transition from T-34 Mentor to T-6A Texan II is going on smoothly (Hatcher, 2004, para. 2-3).
US Government Accountability Office (GAO) on the progress of the transition
This is the arm of government that performs variety of services among them is audit and evaluation, investigation, reporting and accounting and auditing. Government Accountability Office (GAO) offers several products so that they can communicate the result of their work. The Government Accountability Office at first rejected the first protest for Hawker Beechcraft transformation of T-34 Mentor to T-6A Texan II. Government Accountability Office (GAO) prevented the government from awarding any contract until the Hawker Beechcraft clears it case in court (Associated Press, 2011).
Technology and production maturity
Government Accountability Office program officers believes that T-6A Texan II technologies are yet to mature. At the same time, Government Accountability Office argues that its design has not become stable. This program asserts that the engine particle separator that cannot keep the debris out of engines thus technically unacceptable. The program officers believe that once the result has been deemed unacceptable they may lead to mission risk. Government Accountability Office believes that the Hawker Beechcraft did not give enough detail of their production technology (Associated Press, 2011).
Maintenance knowledge, practices, efficiency, and the pilot training effects on the community
More classroom time in the primary fight training has been devoted to the aerial navigation. This consists of the resolution drift of changing the T-34 Mentor to T-6A Texan II. Aviation maintenance is a demanding and very complex process. Its success can be completely measured by the success of the fight. Safety is measured by the occupational injuries, airworthiness, reliability, and ground damage incidents. Within the aviation maintenance industry, there has been very crucial progress. Every industry is creating and implanting the human factors training programs.
Airports are considered as the economic assets of the particular community they serve. They offer employment to the residents within the area and enhancing business opportunities for all the entities that are taking part in aviation-oriented activities. They can offer services ranging from the maintenance and the repair of aircraft to flight training not forgetting the fuel sales and the charter air services. Any airport provides businesses to the community that they serve by offering the convenient location that can be used to send and receive shipment of goods. Most airports serve as the gateway to the economic activity. They provide business enterprises and generate employment opportunities to the local residents. In summary, airport offers services like Aircraft storage and maintenance, pilot training and aircraft rentals as well as logistic support for supplies, personnel, and equipment (www.ct.gov, n.d., p. 1).
In the United States, the general aviation comprises of majority of the civil aircraft. They perform several functions and among them are flight training for numerous pilots, law enforcement, and medical evacuation. All the new developments taking place have a real effect on the general aviation flight operations. The new airspace changes can b
e magnified to be a new cockpit. This will see other flight technologies and the changes will be inevitable to accommodate any security concerns. Introduction of new aircraft will affect positively the general aviation. The transition has indicated the need to have a flight training system that will improve the utility of general aviation and the safety of flight operators (Wright, 2002, p. 4).
Sound financial management concepts and practices that can be used to evaluate the cost effectiveness of changing T-34 Mentor to T-6A Texan II.
In order ton evaluate the cost effectiveness of the changing primary flight trainer from T-34 Mentor to T-6A Texan II, sound financial management concepts and practices are applied.
The panning system in an aviation industry by Hawker Beechcraft continues to be a very dynamic process that can synchronized with any capital improvement program, operating costs and capital costs. The plans involved for the changing over should be allowed at one point or another to become that static. The plans have to be reviewed continuously for at least five years. Plans that are considered small do not necessary need to be modified without prior considerations of the contiguous plans. Capital improvement programs has to be structured in such a way that implement plans for any new and expanded capital facilities that can contained in the Hawker Beechcraft comprehensive plans and their other facility plans. Planning policy has its capital improvement program that can support periodic reinvestment in the old technology, capital to make sure that at any point there is no loss of service, and that operation continues safely (fairfaxcounty.gov, 2002, para. 5).
Annual budget plans
In every organization, annual budget plans has to continue showing fiscal restraint. At a given point, the annual budget of Hawker Beechcraft has to be balanced between the project to produce and develop T-6A Texan II total funds that are at disposal and the overall disbursements that can include the established reserves. While changing to T-6A Texan II, Hawker Beechcraft has to ensure that their managed reserve has to be maintained in the general fund at a level that is considered sufficient to provide temporary financing for any important unforeseen disbursements that may arise from catastrophic emergency nature. Budgetary adjustments that can propose for the use of obtainable universal funds indentified at quarterly reviews have to be minimized so that it can address other critical issues. Using non-recurring funds shall be done by the capital expenditures only. For sound management practices, the budget shall gather for some funds that are necessary for cyclic as well as scheduled replacement. The budget should also include some funds that can used for the rehabilitation of equipments as well as other properties to help in minimizing disruption of budgetary planning that comes from the monetary demands scheduled irregularly (fairfaxcounty.gov, 2002, para. 6).
At the end of every fiscal year, it is imperative that all the positive cash balances should exist in the general fund. When operating deficits are sensed in the present fiscal year that the total disbursements exceeds the total funds that are available, then it will be the obligation of the board members to act. They need to ensure that there is a balance between the expenditure and the revenues as this will ensure that each fiscal year ends with a positive cash balance (fairfaxcounty.gov, 2002, para. 7).
To ensure that its financial management is sound, Hawker Beechcraft has to maintain a net debt from the estimated market value and it has to be less that three percent. Hawker Beechcraft should ensure that debt expenditures when expressed as a percentage of the general fund disbursements do not go beyond a ten percent mark. Financing its capital project of T-6A Texan II by Hawker Beechcraft from its present revenues is an indication that Hawker Beechcraft plans to use restraint that is purposeful to incur long-term debts. To enhance it planning purposes, Hawker Beechcraft should ensure that annual bond sales are structured in way that shows that Hawker Beechcraft debt burden will not exceed the three and four percent limits. Hawker Beechcraft should ensure that the payment of equipments and other business property are purchased through a long-term lease purchase Payment plans that are secured by the equipments that are taken as the operation expenses of Hawker Beechcraft Company (fairfaxcounty.gov, 2002, para. 8).
Hawker Beechcraft Company management policies have to reflect primarily on the safety of the public assets and at the same time maintaining the much-needed liquidity as this can help achieve an encouraging return on investment. For the policies to produce sound management practices, it has to be certified by professional from outside the company. As part of the essential elements of sound financial management practice and sound management practice, all the Hawker Beechcraft agencies and the component units shall offer their maximum support (fairfaxcounty.gov, 2002, para. 9).
Hawker Beechcraft shall maintain a very comprehensive system of its internal financial controls and it has to be maintained so that it can protect the company’s assets and be in a position to sustain the integrity of Hawker Beechcraft financial systems. All the managers at every level in the company shall ensure that they are responsible for the implementation of sound controls as it can help in promoting regular measuring and monitoring of effectiveness (fairfaxcounty.gov, 2002, para. 10).
To make sure that Hawker Beechcraft remains a very high performing organization even after the development and production of T-6A Texan II, each and every effort has to be made so that it can improve the productivity of the Hawker Beechcraft programs. Through measurement, Hawker Beechcraft will remain committed to constant improvement of its productivity and service by means of analyzing and measuring the actual performance perfection and customer feedback information (fairfaxcounty.gov, 2002, para. 11).
Sound Financial Management calls for ways of reducing duplication. This can be done through reorganization and redesigning the business strategies of the company (fairfaxcounty.gov, 2002, para. 12).
Moral obligations and underlying debt
Moral obligations can exist and lead to Sound Financial Management when the board of supervisors in the company makes a commitment to support debt belonging to other jurisdiction so that it can prevent any potential default. Hawker Beechcraft moral obligations have to be authorized only under strictly controlled circumstances. The company moral obligations shall be used to enhance its credit worthiness. This can be very useful to the company when it is planning for partnership in essential projects. Underlying debts includes tax; it has to be carefully analyzed so that the company can achieve fiscal soundness (fairfaxcounty.gov, 2002, para. 13).
Aviation safety significant role in costs of developing, using, and maintaining a new aircraft in primary flight training
In aviation industry, to maintain a high level of situation awareness is considered the most crucial and the most challenging features of an aircrew job. It is thought as an internalized model of the up to date state of flight environment. The most significant impact of issues pertaining the environment on the military aviation is associated with the combat readiness and deployment of airborne services that are related to the limitations of realism of all the training activities. Most of the issues results from the noise. Clean air act provides the minimum air quality standards for specific pollutants. Numerous ethics can be used to assess the noise and the emission performance of the aircraft as well the civil and military systems that they operate. The changing of the primary military trainer could further compound the ethics but the aviation legislations are watching the move (Waitz, Lukachko, & Lee, n.d).
Hawker Beechcraft is the most important manufacturer of trainer aircraft designing and special mission, business, marketing, and supporting aviation products and services for governments, individuals, and businesses globally. The company and its most important facilities are situated at Wichita, Kansas. Other operations are in Chester in United Kingdom, Salina in Kansas, and Little Rock in Arkansas. Hawker Beechcraft Corporation leads the aircraft industry with a worldwide set of connections of more than one hundred factory owned as well as authorized service centers.
Developing new Aircraft is a long course of action and it takes many years to bring in a new one to the market. Due to the complexities of aerospace products, several industries are involved and as a result, the entire related fields to aerospace industry are affected by choices made in the process designing the aircraft ranging from first of its kind test phase to the assembly phase. The T-34 has been used by the United States military for the last thirty-five years in the training navy. Its successor T-6 Texan II relies heavily on the essential airframe of the Pilatus PC-9 and its production company have modified its design more significantly so that it can suit the Joint Primary Aircraft Training System (PATS) programs.
T-34 Mentor series uses analog technology when compared with the T-6 Texan II that uses all glass cockpits. When unpressurized, T-34 Mentor if flown at around five thousand to ten thousand feet while the T-6 Texan II is flown around eighteen thousand to twenty thousand feet. T-6 Texan II is more of a procedural aircraft when compared with T-34 Mentor. T-6 Texan II very has avionics that are contemporary and can enable students to obtain the desired hands on feel. As far as performance is concerned, T-6 Texan II has a speed of 316 knots, it is rated at an impressive seven grams, and it is very agile. T-6 Texan II has a very good information technology that teaches students to understand to be serous as it is not game while they are in the T-6 Texan II. T-6 Texan II has ejections seats and a head-up display it can make an excellent trainer. There costs for the technology are very high thus very expensive. In order to maintain the T-6 Texan II, Hawker Beechcraft Corporation designed it for durability, sustained performance, and reliability.
T-6 Texan II has been designed to have a guaranteed airframe lift that is over eighteen thousand hours. Number of feature that has been incorporated in the aircraft during its designing has further eased the maintenance cost. With the high technology T-6 Texan II is produced with, the fuel servicing responsibilities can be accomplished in less than five minutes all the way through to one access door. Joint Primary Aircraft Training System (JPATS) is a set of primary flight devices that are tailored to meet US navy (USN) and US Air force (USAF) aircrew requirements. The main mission of Joint Primary Aircraft Training System is to train entry-level student pilots in primary flying skills to a level of expertise whereby the advance into pilot training track thus eventually becoming military pilots, naval flight officers, and navigators. Government Accountability Office program officers believes that T-6A Texan II technologies are yet to mature. At the same time, Government Accountability Office argues that its design has not become stable. This program asserts that the engine particle separator that cannot keep the debris out of engines thus technically unacceptable.
In order ton evaluate the cost effectiveness of the changing primary flight trainer from T-34 Mentor to T-6A Texan II, sound financial management concepts and practices are applied. This concept includes planning policy, Annual budget plans, cash balance, debt ratios, moral obligations and underlying debt, internal control, cash management, and performance measurement.
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Orlansky, J., & String, J. (n.d.). The Cost-Effectiveness of Military Training retrieved April 11, 2012 from http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/p000168.pdf
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Robert A. Wright. (2002). Changes in General Aviation Flight Operations and Their Impact on System Safety and Flight Training. 800 Independence Avenue SW :Washington, DC 20591
Waitz, I., Lukachko, S., & Lee, J. (n.d). Military Aviation and the Environment: Historical Trends and Comparison to Civil Aviation retrieved April 9, 2012 from http://web.mit.edu/aeroastro/people/waitz/publications/Mil.paper.pdf
Weaponsandwar.com. (2010). Weapons and war: T-6 Texan II retrieved April 9, 2012 from http://weaponsandwar.com/weapons/60-aircraft/290-t-6-texan-ii.html
www.ct.gov. (n.d.). Airport Economic Impact retrieved April 12, 2012 from http://www.ct.gov/dot/lib/dot/documents/dpolicy/danielsonairportplan/appendixc.pdf
www.diamondaircraft.com. (n.d). Flight Training: Flight School retrieved April 12, 2012 from http://www.diamondaircraft.com/flight/flight.php
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Www.rcaf-arc.forces.gc.ca. (2011). Phase I – Primary Flying Training retrieved April 9, 2012 from http://www.rcaf-arc.forces.gc.ca/cfts-fevs/page-eng.asp?id=1398
Changing Military Primary Flight Trainer 23
Southwest airline is United States fourth largest carrier in terms of carrying customers. The airline began its operations on June 1971 as a charter airline company known as the wild goose flying service, operating a twin beech aircraft flying passengers on hunting trips within different cities in Texas. During the first days of the airline’s operations, there were no computers to support ticketing hence the airline relied on a phone that helped in making reservations for its customers. However, in current times, it operates over 261 planes, covering and operating in 27 states marking 25 years of continued profitability. The airline is the only major carrier that made profits for consecutive three years at a time when the airline industry was at a slump. At the onset of technology in 1997, the airline implemented a boarding system that offered an improved customer airport experience, which saw it make significant improvements in revenue management by optimizing its network and achieving organizational and customer service excellence, soaring to greater heights later in the year generating revenues of about $178 million dollars. The airline employed competitive strategies by using an online booking ticketless system that reached more customers, hence making sure that flights had been booked to capacity resulting into increased revenue by utilizing plane capacity. Currently, Southwest Airlines is America’s largest low fare carrier, serving more customers in the domestic market than any other airline with a unique combination of low fares and transparency in fees, friendly customer service delivered by outstanding people, being safe and offering reliable operations propelled by an extraordinary corporate culture. Southwest airlines carry more than 100 million passengers to over sixty-seven cities in thirty-four states.
The company has grown its fleet size to more than 500 aircrafts, all Boeing 737’s, with each plane averaging nine years of great service.
In 1978, the airline deregulation removed many of the regulatory controls, hence significantly bringing about change in the aviation industry in the United States with the main purpose of removing government control over fares, routes, and entry of new airlines in a given market. The act was twofold, both in air cargo and passenger deregulation. In the cargo, cargo aircrafts had the freedom to operate on any domestic route while in passenger deregulation, restrictions that were present on domestic routes and schedules were eliminated along with government control over domestic fares, which involved removing or reducing state regulations in the airline industry. The airline industry became a market-driven industry, with customer demand determining the levels of service and price. After the deregulation of the aviation industry, there was free competition within the air travel. Southwest airlines took a low cost carrier model (Belobaba, 2009) and developed an innovative operating strategy offering multimodal point-to-point routes serving both domestic and international routes. Southwest airlines offered nimbler point-to-point services in high-density markets that showed significant cost advantages in an expensive network infrastructure that had high labor costs. The airline employed differentiation tactics that clearly differentiated it from other rival carriers. Southwest airline core advantage was that the company employs more innovative work practices and dedication to the highest quality of customer service. The main objective of southwest airline business strategy included focusing on low fares, making a strong commitment to its employees and customers while aggressively marketing its products.
The marketing strategy helped the airline in product differentiation compared to other airlines by communicating to the customer about offers that had value. This promoted the airline in offering safe, reliable, and outstanding service among its competitors. The airline used the best strategy in countering its competitors. The airline offered unique products that resonated well with the market and customers. One of the differentiators that the airline employed was the use of customer service business, with customer centric behavior. This strategy was that every customer that used the airline was treated with much dignity irrespective of his rank (Bacon and Pugh, 2003). The airline natured its customers and employees well that ensured a fulfilling environment to work in at that particular time, making employees very happy, satisfied and as such offered customers one of the best service that enabled them to keep coming back and hence being loyal to the airline. On the other hand, the airline employed another strategy, using operations as an internal customer service. The airline regarded its pilot as being a very important person, and at the same time employed a servant leader mentality, with its C.E.O, Herb Kelleher having the idea that employees came first. On another perspective, strategic pricing was used by the airline that worked well, whereby they branded the organization in regard to its service outlining the benefits that one got while using their services. The concept of a low fare airline utilizing a point-to-point carrier model that has the fastest plane turnaround of all airlines and one best time record in the industry with the lowest employee headcount worked and reduced the overall operation costs.
The airline creates value for its customers by using customer friendly policies and ensuring safety of all onboard. This has made Southwest airlines much differentiated from other airlines, and being the preferred airline with the lowest cases of complaints. The airline industry is quite big in its operations and employees different carrier personnel for it to be effective in planning and executing its operations. Several cadres of people are employed ranging from stewardship, flight operations, communications, customer service, technology, marketing, purchasing, safety, maintenance, engineering, and finance and revenue management. The in flight crew ensures a safe and comfortable flight to passengers in the south western airlines with pilots having the overall responsibility of ensuring that the passengers onboard are safe until the flight destination. On board are the cabin crews who have the responsibility of ensuring that flight processes are continuing as normal, ensuring the service provided meets the standards of southwest airlines. They also administer emergency procedures to southwest airlines customers, in case of illness and performing security checks as customers board the plane. The crew planning division handles areas of schedule preparation ensuring that the schedule runs as per planning. They also ensure that each flight meets the regulatory take off requirements that is within flight standards. Crew planning also helps to prepare schedules, which are efficient for the company and appropriate for individual crewmembers. Flight Support staff ensures the availability of all data and other information to facilitate the airline’s daily operations. They carry out data processing, analysis, and maintenance of the airline’s database as well as weight and balancing checks on the aircraft to eradicate performance issues that may hinder proper flight performance and arrival to various destinations.
Flight dispatchers and flight operations coordinators are responsible for operational control of day-to-day flight operations, with the main function of a flight dispatcher being to prepare for takeoff and preparing alternative routes in case of emergencies. They also prepare weight sheets and monitors weather conditions, to check how well the navigation systems are to ensure a safe journey while on route. On the other hand, they play a very important role of ensuring a point of contact the pilots, majorly to issuing updates regarding weather patterns and other operational status. Upon take off, they carry out flight following, ensuring that the flight is safe at all points as they navigate. A flight is successfully released upon ensuring that maintenance issues are met. They liaise with the control center upon release of a flight and to make the determination as regards to measures to ensure that flight issues pertaining fueling are adhered to, as well as assisting in planning of routes of flight under permission from respective control operations centers. Flight operations coordinators coordinate matters relating to the execution of the daily traffic program and during irregular operations, implement flight delays when conditions warrant, recommend flight cancellations, and initiate alternative plans.
They also collect and enter data to meet company information and reporting requirements. At the center of proper navigation and flight take off is the meteorological division, which helps in creating weather forecasts based on data from the National weather service. They prepare weather reports, air turbulence, wind data, and the production of satellite images through a radar system that helps ascertain the safety of flights as pertains to weather patterns that may be hazardous to flights.
The departments rely heavily on an operations control center, which provides some of the key functions in monitoring as well as providing an emergency facility in the event of an accident. The center is maintained by an information system, which reports on issues relating to aircraft performance, and load utilization, which helps in the overall aircraft navigation. On the other side, interfacing with the airport operations department, which is vested with the overall responsibility of ensuring that ground services such as fueling and cargo handling are working appropriately to support continued operations. Revenue management is a key area that facilitates the collection and management of income and expenditure. It refers to the application of disciplined tactics that predict buyer response to price, optimistic product availability to yield greatest business income. Southwest airlines managed its revenue management in a more innovative way that led to its success. One of the key areas was implementing loyalty reward program. In this section, a loyalty card was used that attracted more customers hence increasing the number of loyal customers since customers were attracted by the incentives (Bidgoli, 2010), resulting to higher revenues. The airline stored the customers purchasing behavior in a data warehouse, which helped it produce products that resonated well with the customer’s preferences, hence stimulating demand on their routes thereby swaying the undecided traveler to the airline.
The airline also used a tactical strategy in pricing known as price bundling, which differentiated every category of travelers into two groups mainly leisure and business travelers. In this, different revenue streams created enabled it to target and suit every customer needs hence growing massive revenues by tapping into every customer needs.
On the other hand, Southwest airline utilized its computing system to display appealing deals on schedules that attracted a large number of customers who bargained directly through the company’s website, thus enabling the airline to compete well with new entrants. Southwest airline has spread its fixed costs over more seats capitalizing on short flights to competitor’s larger hubs hence resulting in more direct routes reducing connections and delays.
The airline offered a service that attracted customers due to low airfare, regular based services that were reliable. This leveraged its cost structure in terms of fixed and variable costs streamlining the operations of the airline (Lauer, 2010).
Southwest airlines had a bunch of fixed costs it uses on paying its employee salaries such as pilots and flight crew, luggage handlers that could also be variable by monitoring staff numbers to avoid straining the revenue streams of the airline. The number of employees is considered as a controllable cost since the company only employs the number that it can sustain to maintain its profit levels (Holloway, 2008), while on the other hand, marketing costs are controllable since the airline controls its advertising and marketing costs, ensuring that a more sustainable costs structure is employed to reach and attract more customers flying on the planes. Because of Southwest airlines operations, maintenance costs are classified as either fixed or variable, while salaries for employees and fueling costs being classified as variable costs.Southwest is the U.s low fare airline, serving the short-haul city pairs, and providing single class air transportation, which targets the business commuter as well as leisure travelers. Southwest has one of the best overall customer service records and lowest operating cost structures that consistently offered the lowest and simplest fares in the domestic airline industry.
Southwest airline won the Triple Crown, five years in a row from 1992 to 1996. The Triple Crown consisted of best baggage handling, fewest customer complaints and best on time performance among all major airlines, according to the statistics published by the United States department of transport, Southwest finished first, according to the criteria deemed most important from respondents to Money magazine’s survey. The criteria included safety, price, baggage handling, timeliness, customer service, comfort, ticketing, and others. In this poll, safety was the No. 1 concern of passengers, followed by price. Baggage handling and on time, performance taking the last slot. Southwest airline offered low cost, friendly, and simple service that distinguished itself from its competitors hence sustaining its profitability. The airline managed to build a total customer base with the genuine customer service and employees love for their job as instilled by the founders always employing a strategy of doing it better. The airline has proven its ability to be successful as it offers customer efficient and low cost air transportation. The airlines has a strong commitment in the airline industry, with up to 17.1 billion dollars generated as total operating revenue in 2012, with the year marking its 40th year of profitability. The airline strategic code sharing arrangement has fundamentally improved its network to newer markets, with its customer base on the rise. It has focused on domestic routes, making it much profitable than mainstream carriers.
Bacon, T. R., & Pugh, D. G. (2003). Winning behavior: What the smartest, most successful companies do differently. New York: Amacom.
Belobaba, P., Odoni, A. R., & Barnhart, C. (2009). The global airline industry. Chichester, U.K: Wiley.
Bidgoli, H. (2010). Supply chain management, marketing and advertising, and global management. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Holloway, S. (2008). Straight and level: Practical airline economics. Aldershot, England: Ashgate Pub.
Lauer, C. (2010). Southwest Airlines. Santa Barbara, Calif: Greenwood.
Running head: SOUTHWEST AIRLINE 1
SOUTHWEST AIRLINE 9
Turkish Airlines Company Analysis
The Turkish Airline Company was founded in the year 1933, which is the national airline of Turkey. The company serves 146 international airports and 38 domestic airports. It operates a network of scheduled services to Asia, Africa, America, and Europe. The main base of the airport is at the Ataturk International Airport, which is in Turkey. Other secondary hubs include Sabiha Gokcen International Airport, Adnan Menderes Airport, and Esenboga International Airport (Sigma). This company won the world’s best premium economy class airline seat in the year 2011 together with other awards. Apart from passenger operations, which make most of its sales, the company also offers cargo and aircraft maintenance services. The Turkish government owns half of the company. Turkish Airlines joined the Stars Alliance in order to extend its international network. This company is a growing force in the European and Middle East aviation industry, where it is capturing the interests of investors, rivals, and alliance partners. Although other European counterparts are experiencing a downfall, the company is not only increasing in size. However, it is also profitable. It has been reported to be the third largest net profit in the aviation industry. In addition, it has been ranked the seventh largest operating profit in aviation in 2008. Since then, its revenues and profits are expected to rise from the basis in 2009 (Sigma).
The company’s international involvement
The Turkish Airline Company is the most known European and Middle East airline that flies to the most destinations nonstop from a single airport. Statistics have shown that not only is the company adding its destinations, but it is adding its passengers too. Over the past ten years, this company tripled the number of air travelers, where the biggest number came from North America and Asia. This company is concerned with international relations where it is widening its market around the world. For example, Turkish airline Atlas jet began its operations for religious pilgrims from Nigeria to Israel (Blumenkrantz 2013). This follows the signing of flight agreements between Israel and Nigeria, which allowed regular direct flights between the two countries. The agreement will also allow direct flights between Ben-Gurion International Airport and several other destinations in Nigeria like Abuja and Lagos.
The recent high costs of fuel have cut into many airline companies across the globe. This has in one way or another affected their revenues by reducing the ticket sale. However, this case has been different with Turkish Airline Company. The reason behind this is the large-scale investment, which has made the company to be one of the world’s youngest fleets. The company has doubled its passenger traffic after expanding to serve 175 destinations, which majorities of them are international. It is estimated that the company will continue to increase its shares in the international aviation market. One of the airline key strengths in this move is its geographic location of Istanbul as a hub for flights to Asia and Europe. It has a growing reputation of high-quality service, investing in new aircrafts, strong support from the government and the huge global visibility of the company’s brand. Regardless of the high oil prices, the company’s young fleet gives it better fuel economy and thus it is able to invest in the international market. This company has been able to succeed in all these since its country has a good political and economic stability (Davis 2013).
In the year 2012, the company opened additional 32 international and domestic routes, which brought the total number of flight destinations to 219, out of which 182 are international. This shows that the company has invested more in the international market than in the domestic market. The company has thus been ranked as the one that flies to more countries than any other company does. There are more aircrafts that have been ordered by the company, which means that it will continue to increase its international market investment. The company is aiming at making Turkish Airlines a global trademark in the air transport sector (Davis 2013). By connecting with Star Alliance, which is the world’s largest and leading airline alliances, the company is strategizing to make connection points between Europe and Asia.
Parts of the world the company is focused on
The rapid growth in this company has made it be able to invest in different parts of the world. The growth in passengers numbers in many of the regions have been influenced by international traffic and in particular international transfer traffic. The highest growth rates have been experienced in regions such as North America, Far East and in Africa. However, the biggest region by the number of passengers remains to be Europe. The company has also invested in countries, which are much closer in terms of geographical location. These countries include Europe, Latin America, Western, and Northern America. Considering Africa, Northern parts are the main strengths of the company (Daniel, 2012). This may be because most of these countries are economically stable and well developed. The company has low presence in Eastern and Southern parts of Africa and not forgetting the Western and Central Africa.
When it comes to Asia-pacific region, it is stronger on the North East Asia and underweight in the Southern parts and South Eastern Asia. From Istanbul hub, Turkish Airline Company is able to serve all countries in the Middle East, Europe, Central Asia, much of Africa and the North West parts of India these regions it uses its narrow body aircrafts, while with its wide body fleet, it is able to reach almost the rest parts of the world exempting Australia and South America. With its Boeing 777-300ER aircraft it can reach Western Australia since it is within its range, but unfortunately it lacks a domestic partner from Australia with whom it can serve the Eastern Australian market. The company is able to access New Zealand and Australia through a code share that is operated by Thai Airways. Most of the African destinations are served through stopovers. Comparing Turkish Airline Company with other Gulf Curries, the company has more destinations in Africa, Middle East, and Europe than any of Qatar, Emirates, or Etihad. However, it has fewer in Asia-Pacific regioDue to the fact that this company is aiming at global recognition, it has been involved with many countries, which experience different political and economic status. The company has mainly majored on those countries that have both economic and political stabilities. It is also investing in developing countries for example Somalia, where it became the first international carrier to fly to Somalia in 20 years. Somalia is not only considered a developing country, but it is also a very insecure country. Whether you travel by land, there are al-shabab militant, by air there is the Black Hawk Down incident and by sea there are the pirates that are known for hijacking vessels, which cross to the Somalia waters. The country is also not economically stable and the airline company helped it make repairs to the Mogadishu airport.
Another country the airline company is planning to invest in is India. The company’s management has been watching the Indian market for possible chance to enter its market. Indian government is known for giving flying rights to few airline companies, where it does not allow others to expand their operations in the country. Indian market is still underserved and thus there are so much market opportunities if the government allows more investment into the region. There are also so many more airports being constructed, which show there is a good and stable economy (Daniel 2012). There are very high costs in the India, especially because of oil costs. However, the Turkish Company does not pass the increased costs to passengers and therefore it is able to increase the number of passengers. Despite the fact that India is one of the poorest countries in the world, its economy is one of the largest and fastest growing across the world. The main reason behind this is the large population the country has. This is also a good place for such companies to get many passengers, which will increase their revenue. The government of India however, has been making concerted efforts to improve the country’s economy although it still has a long way to go.
This government has struggled for many years because of poor government policy that has been there for many years. It had put too many regulations, which restricted foreign investment, and thus the slower growth rate. India is the world’s largest democratic nation with a population of about one billion people. It has a good political stability, and thus is not a threat to investment.
Globalization strategies of the company
Globalization is the process of transformation from a local of domestic phenomena into a global one. The process involves economic, technological, socio-cultural, and political forces that are merged to create strategies. Globalization entails integration of the national economies into the international economy through, trade, foreign direct investment, capital flow, migration, and the spread of technology, which drives much of the process. The aim of the company is to open new markets and to expand its destination as much as possible. The company has increased its destinations in the international level each year, a trend that is expected to be maintained every year. Most of its international destinations are in countries that experience political and economic stability. However, the company has been seen investing in the developing countries and in others that are not economically and politically stable (Air Guide Business 2012).
Market entry strategies
Turkish airlines market entry strategy is to make Istanbul a city, which is perfectly situated, in a natural hub for connecting flights between Europe and the Middle East, reaching Asia Pacific eastwards. The strategy was designed to expand the transit market. Through this strategy, the company has been able to penetrate many markets across the world until it has been ranked to be one of the top airline companies in the world. Its strategies are good because, though other airline companies are experiencing a drawback in the market, this company is always making a progress. In order to attract most of its customers, it offers a lot of goodies, which include cheap international flights and hassle free booking options to Athens. The company has an online booking service, which most people prefer since it is much faster and needs less time. Customers could book flights at the comfort of their homes. This move has attracted many customers, which has increased its revenues and has enabled the company to invest into new markets. Because of its difference in the services it offers, it is easily accepted in the market more than other airline companies (Davis 2013).
The company is planning to add more destinations, where currently it has more than 230 destinations in 103 countries across the world. The company management is planning to add more 100 locations in the next one decade. The more the destinations added, the more aircrafts will be added. This carrier company has around 228 aircrafts currently, and it is planning to add more so than it can expand its market. It s expected that by the year 2020 the company’s aircrafts will have doubled to about 415 aircrafts. The current aircrafts are narrow body, or what is called single aisle aircrafts. It is planning to order bigger ones like the Boeing 787 Dream liner and the Airbus A350, which will enable it to expand the market even the more. The company’s CEO states that it is more important to add the capacity to meet the demand than to buy planes that are more economical.
Historic market/ country expansion strategies
During the historic market, airlines were seen as symbols of international commercial presence. They provided for high-speed mail services and mediums of long-term passenger transport. It was regulated and protected by domestic regulatory structures to a great deal with the intention of it being used by as a lever for broader and larger political objectives.
Technology changes however have contributed significantly in the introduction of planes with far longer ranges, faster speeds, enhanced lift, and the increasingly ability to cope up with dynamic weather conditions. Presently airlines industry operates within liberal market context with minimal government control over fares, market entry, and capacity.
International control are increasingly moving towards broad open skies formulations, allowing free provision of services between the countries involved. Unrestricting nationality ownership of airlines on open markets is however coming up slowly (Negroni 2012).
Marketing and production strategies
Turkish airline focuses on investments that support its band equity such as offering quality, entertainment systems within the aircrafts, comfortable seats, aesthetics, and quality of presentation, investments in personnel having high profiles. They regard flight safety and service quality as the most indispensable items in their industry. They constantly increase the quality and continue the studies for flight safety and services quality. They follow the technological innovations in developing and growing their fleets as well as training of their employees. It works towards maintaining its target of becoming the regional leader and a global airlines company prominent in Europe, which is most preferred for its service quality, trustworthiness, and competitive power (Davis 2013).
Problems, issues faced, and their response
During the globalization process, Turkish airlines’ faced challenges in liberalizing international services stemming from the interaction of domestic air transport with international markets. Globalization inevitably means high demand for the movement of people and goods between countries which, given the largely commercial orientation of modern air transport Given the economies in air transport, most notably the decreasing costs involved in infrastructure use, this in turn can bring about further fare reductions. In addition, international trade increases global income that results in more international tourist travel and shipment of higher value goods, such as exotics, in which air transport often has a comparative advantage. It also incurred increasing debt levels as it grew its fleet in the face of falling profits. They were able to overcome this by adding capitalized operating leases at eight times annually, which brought down the debt levels.
Changes they have made in their overall strategies /operation due to globalization
Due to the globalization process of Turkish airlines a number of things have changed in their operations and some other have advanced to higher level to suit the need of the services needed by the passengers. They have increased their security services to make sure passengers are safe throughout their period of travel. The passengers are entertained to keep them live and enjoy their travel. They have reviewed their fare rates and tried as much as possible to avoid government control. They have opened up new routes of aviation leading to new locations as they expand their market. There is also introduction of new flight to suit their passengers’ needs. The well-trained employees also ensure delivery of the very best of their service to the passengers (Erika).
Over time the airlines company has experienced financial growth, with huge operating profits despite the fact that, there has been one a few drawbacks in terms of losses in a few years. Its revenue has been on a strong upward curve for a number of years, but profits had been on a downward trend since but with time, there has been a recovery in both the operating profit and net profit to record levels. Margins have varied significantly since it embarked on its growth strategy with a current operating profit of 7.0%. Much of the company’s success is built on the efficient workforce and the geographic location of the Istanbul hub, which has enabled the company t have a global connecting strategy. The company cut its operating loss from TRY173 to TRY23 million and revenue grew 28% on capacity up 21%. This improved result was brought by revenue growth as unit costs were held flat despite the higher prices of fuel (CAPA. 2013).
Everyone would desire to travel by the most comfortable air service and the one offering cheaper travelling costs. Turkish Airline Company has realized this fact, where it has regulated its travelling costs. This company has known how to lay its strategies well. In the year 2008, the company celebrated 75 years in civil aviation, where it had started with only 19 seater capacity aircrafts. Currently, the company is aiming at purchasing one of the biggest aircrafts like the Boeing 787. This shows the progress the company has made, with a business mission of becoming the preferred leading European air carrier. The company is moving towards this goal by opening more destinations across the world.
Air Guide Business. (2012). Company Watch Turkish Airlines. Pyramid Media Group
Blumenkrantz, Z. (2013). Turkish Airline Begins Operating Indirect Charter Flights from Nigeria to Israel. Retrieved on 21st November 2013 from http://www.haaretz.com/travel-in- Israel/travel-news/.premium-1.556253
CAPA. (2013). Turkish Airlines 1Q Revenues Grow 28% as Losses Narrow, But Unit Costs will be Key to FY Result. Retrieved on 21st November 2013 from http://centreforaviation.com/analysis/turkish-airlines-1q-revenues-grow-28-as-losses- narrow-but-unit-costs-will-be-key-to-fy-result-110724
Daniel, D. (2012). Turkish Airlines Steps up Expansion with New Craft. The Financial Times
Davis, A. (2013). Turkish Airlines has a Simple Plan to Continue Dominating the Global Airline Industry. Retrieved on 21st November 2013 from http://www.businessinsider.com/turkish-airlines-growth-plan-2013-7
Erika, F. Turkish Airlines goes Global. (2013). 167 (3): p48. Print
Mena Report. (2012). Turkey: Turkish Airline Posts a net profit of TRY164 Million. (Financial Report).
Negroni, C. (2012). Turkish Airlines Maintains Policy of Rapid Expansion. Retrieved on 21st November 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/15/world/middleeast/turkish- airlines-maintains-policy-of-rapid-expansion.html?_r=1&
Sigma. Airline Profile: Turkish Airlines. Retrieved on 21st November 2013 from http://www.aca.or.at/sites/default/files/THY%20A330-340- B777%20First%20Officer%20Job%20Spec%20July%202012.pdf
Star Alliance. Turkish Airlines. Retrieved on 21 November 2013 from http://www.staralliance.com/en/about/airlines/turkish_airlines/
In the aviation industry, there are various enforcement actions that can be directed to an airman who violates the aviation rules. These include the administrative actions, the certificate enforcement, among others.
The administrative actions are used to enforce the aviation acts on the employees. These enforcement actions include the administrative actions that are informal but are provided by the FAA either verbally or in writing counseling’s. These do not result to the positioning of a sanction or a way of finding a violation but is comprised of the warning notices or letters of correction. Remedial training educates the airmen who have committed an inadvertent violation to help them increase knowledge and skills in the areas violated. Some of the situations that the FAA may offer remedial training when
When the violation committed was not deliberate,
When the noncompliance of the was not of a criminal nature, not caused by negligence, did not indicate a lack of qualification and did not compromise safety
When the compliance was not the cause of the accident.
Remedial training may also be done when the airman was not using the certificate as intended.
The remedy may also be offered if the airman exhibits a constructive attitude towards safety and it is likely that he will not commit such acts of non-compliance in future.
The certificates action is harsher than the administrative actions. In the certificate actions, the FAA is tasked with the burden of proof when prosecuting the certification actions, and civil penalties. This aim of the certificate actions is to remove the privileges of the certificate holder until the demonstration has been done to prove that the airman meets the standards of the certificate. Revocation of the certificates indicates that the holder does not qualify to fly an airplane. In light of the above, certificate revocations are issued when the FAA determines that a possessor is no longer competent to hold the certificate. One fact about these legal enforcement actions is that are revocations or suspensions/civil penalties. Despite all these facts, the pilot’s bill of rights allows the airmen to appeal to the full NTSB decision for a de Novo review.
The penalties that FAA imposes either are in the form of monetary or fines to deter a person from future violations. These fines range from $50000 more or less against a certificate holder but there are exceptions to these regulations which includes being in the public interest or if there was a level of safety equal to that which is provided by the rule.
AD (Airworthiness Directives) is federal rules for ensuring compliance and comprises of the aircraft manufacturers (SB) Service Bulletin, which holds the regulatory approaches. This being the case, if FAA decides to commence an investigation, they open an EIR that may lead top LOI. EIR (enforcement investigation report) contains information about the alleged violations. (LOI) Letter of investigation contains a description of the activities being investigated include the request for inspection, the date when the violator must respond among others. The FAA uses EIR to assemble, organize presentation of all evidence and then entering them into an EIS (enforcement information system). The legal enforcement action process includes the following
The inspector is tasked with the role of completing the sections A, B, and C and then forwards it for review.
The appropriate officer reviews it and make recommendations on possible sanctions then forwards the EIR report to the FAA legal council
Review of the EIR is done by the FAA lawyers to determine whether evidence is sufficient and then the case is transferred to the legal counsel for further investigation, and issuance of administrative actions. In case the parties want an informal conference, there will be no court reporter. This happens when the FAA is aware that the case costs of the litigation, the possibilities of the case being reduced, and issues of compromise among other factors. Despite this fact, the statements uttered in the informal conference may be used in court if the dispute is not resolved at the informal meeting. There are some situations when the certificate holder will not receive the notice of the opportunity to engage in the informal conference. This being the case, the FAA can use the emergency revocation when an airman is obligated to submit the certificates. This usually occurs when the airman flying makes unreasonable safety risk and it is only used when the situations are dangerous. However, the pilot’s bill of rights has altered this process.
The time limits for investigations and legal enforcements may take up to two years for anon-emergency case. In certain situation, the time for reaching the goals may not be achieved. The FAA may therefore present a good cause why it was unable to function within a specified period and the good cause may include the facts that the FAA discovered the alleged violations after the violation date, there was difficulty in obtaining evidence and if the regulatory investigation was held in abeyance. The stale compliant rule exists when an offense was committed more than six months ago before the FAA could make the suspension or revocation. Unfortunately, in the contemporary times, many of the air traffic personnel may not be willing to initiate investigations, or enforcement actions.
Summary of aviation chapter six
In the aviation industries, there are various medical certificates that are issued to the pilots and other people in the industry to ensure that they are health and fit to work in the aviation industry. These certificates are categorized by the FAA in terms of classes and they include the first class, which ought to be held by the airline transport pilot who is authorized to act as a pilot in command of an aircraft in an aircraft which has the capability of carrying a gross weight of 12500 pounds and 9 or more passenger seats. The second class certifications which is awarded to the commercial pilot, the air traffic controllers, the flight navigators, the tower operators, the flight engineers, and does not include the air traffic control specialists is valid for one year plus the numbers of days that are remaining in the months of examinations. The holders of these certificates must maintain a second-class airman medical certificate. The third class certification is given to the private pilots, the recreational pilots, or the student pilots. An exception to this rule is the people who are not supposed to hold a valid medical certificate and they include the mechanics (both A&P), the port pilot, the glider and balloon pilots.
The CFR14 part 61 and 67 contain the regulations that guide certifications. Part 61 describes the requirements, conditions, privileges, and the limitations for issuing the certificates while part 67 explains the standards and the procedures for issuing the certificates and for them to be eligible for the certificate. While part91 of CFR14 contains the rules that regulates the alcohol and drug usage in the aviation.
In the aviation industry, two steps are involved when one wants to get Certification. These steps include
The candidate is expected to visit the aviation appointed doctor and fill the medical history form as well as undergo the physical examination from the AME. Before meeting the AME, one is supposed to fill the form8500-8. After the medical history and the physical examinations are done, the AME makes the decision by either issuing the certificate, deny or defer the decision to the AMCD (aerospace medical certificate division or to the relevant RFS (Regional Flight Surgeon).
The second step is a review by the RAA where the candidate is tested whether they f
Meet the FAA standards. In case one is denied the certificate, the FAA may authorize for special issuance of a medical certificate and it may grant authorizations to static or non-progressive defects. Despite these facts, FAA or any other body may automatically disqualify a person if part 67 conditions are present which include
Coronary heart diseases that are clinically significant
Diabetes mellitus that requires hypoglycemic medication.
Myocardial infarction (heart attack)
Cardiac valve replacement
Permanent cardiac pacemaker
Heart replacement among others is specified in part 67
Predisposing risk that may seem risk to the air safety.
A person who has been denied the certificate may appeal for reconsideration from the manager, the FAA AMCD or FAA RFS. Special issuance may be awarded to an applicant for a specified period to a person who does not meet the standards. Despite this special issuance, the applicant must prove that he /she is able to perform the duties specified in the certificate without putting at risk the public safety. This document is to be carried always when exercising the pilot privileges. It is important to note that the local AME can grant an authorization due to certain conditions even if one had earlier been disqualified. Even though one has been disqualified from getting the certificate, SODA (statement of demonstrated ability) could be issued instead of authorization. This may include the person’s operational experience and other medical facts. SODA does not expire.
Pilots who are on antidepressants are not allowed to fly unless they have been proved stable for the past 12months. The antidepressants that the FAA allows include Fluoxetine (Prozac), Sertraline (Zoloft), Citalopram (Celexa), and Escitalopram (Lexapro). Any pilot caught falsifying FAAform8500 may enter into great trouble as the act requires no person is allowed to falsify information, and all medical certificates found on such a person is medially. In terms of DUI and other drug issues, the air traffic controllers are expected to submit to regular drug testing. The law also requires the pilots to test for malaria, bhang, amphetamines, methamphetamines, and (PCP) phencyclidine. Testing for drugs is done immediately there is an accident or incidence and if anybody is found to have taken drugs should return to the duty screening and follow-up screening, which could take up to 5 years.
One is not required to report any health changes until the next physical testing but certain drugs or alcohol must be reported as well as any convictions or administrative proceeding. Conditions like revocation, suspension, cancellation or denial of a license to operate a motor vehicle, related to the operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence, impaired by, or intoxicated by drugs or alcohol must be reported irrespective of whether one is currently flying or not. One is required to provide personal details, medical certificate number, type of violation, date of conviction, the state that convicted, and whether the accident occurred because of the same incident or others. These details are supposed to be reported to the FAA civil aviation department within 60 days of the motor action.
Chapter seven Summary
An intentional tort is that deliberate act (intentional) that causes harm to others. In law, one must prove that the tortfeasor acted with substantial certainty that there would be an injury. Intentional torts include assault, battery, trespass, defamation, false imprisonment, and the infliction of emotional distress to an individual. A party claiming intentional tort led to the infliction of emotional distress must prove the following.
That the defendant acted in a reckless ad intentional manner
That the conduct can be said to be outraged
That the act led to severe emotional distress
Negligence is the harm that is caused by the carelessness of others and has the following elements
Duty of protecting others from harm
Breach of duty – when one act unreasonably
Causation – whether there is an actual cause or the proximate cause
Damages – the recognizable form of harm
Res ipsa loquitor is a situation where the proof of burden is left to the defendant since it is argued that accidents cannot happen unless there is negligence and the plaintiff has to prove that the accident is not the type that happens in the absence of negligence, that the defendant had the full control of the situation and the plaintiff did nothing to contribute to the injuries.
Defenses of negligence include
Assumption of Risk
Other like the statute of limitations, the last clear chance, and the superseding cause.
On the assumption of risk theory, it is held that if a person is aware of a certain risk and knowingly decides to encounter it, then the person is liable for the risk that may emanate from his actions. Strict liability on the other hand is aimed at deterring and discouraging needless loss as well as reckless behavior. This therefore means that one is responsible to take possible precautions to safeguard the public. Despite this fact, causation has to be proved when asserting strict liability. Strict liability may occur because of product defect and failure to warn people. Federal tort claims act (FTCA) is a statute by which the US authorizes tort to be brought against it. This act was passed in 1946 and makes the US liable for
Any injury or loss of property or even personal injury that is caused by negligent or any wrongful act or omission of employees of the government wile acting within the mandate and scope of his office or employment. Exception to this clause includes feres doctrine, discretionary function and the intentional tort.
Under the feres, a US state pilot would not be liable to recover damages in a given negligence suit against the US for any alleged negligent of activities of an FAA, air controller or a military. Discretionary function, immunizes the from claims based on the exercise or performance or the failure to perform as discretionary function. Intentional tort on the other hand indicates that FTCA does not apply to the claims that arise from assault, battery, malicious prosecution, libel, slander, and false imprisonment among other torts.
Tort law is exercised by individual states and in most cases, defendants chose from where they want the tries to be held. Majority of the claims arising from these accidents in the aviation are called claims of negligence or of product property. In some situations, the res ipsa loquitur may be applied. Potential defendants may involve pilots, air traffic controllers, public or private employees among others. States may operate airports and in case of accidents, they may be sued. Despite this fact, states and federal governments have sovereign immunity and therefore are immune from the acts torts in aviation accidents. Many states have acts that waive the torts of a state.
Products liability holds that the manufacturer and the aircraft manufactures are required to make sure that their products are designed properly and free from defects. Product liability is based on negligence or strict liability. There are strict time limitations for anybody bringing in legal suit for aviation personal injury the limits are called statutes of limitation because they limit the time that a lawsuit can be brought. This period depends on the type of claim and failing to bring a claim leads to the claim being barred. In determining the government contractor defense, the key element is control. In certain times, the state product claim against the private sector manufactures is preempted. This is so when, the US reasonably approved the specification, when the equipment/products were inline/conformed with the specifications and when the supplier had warned the US in the use of the product. This usually occurs within certain duration of time and according to the GARA (general aviation revitalization act) of the 1994 put the time limit to 18 years. The liability of the airline in this case depends on whether the flight is domestic or international.
A common carrier is that flight that carries all passengers indiscriminately and at a uniform price. Most of the states hold that common carriers are held to the highest degree of care. The legal standard that is used to determine the law to be used in case of an accident is called lex loci delicti. Forum non conveniens is a doctrine that tries to change the location of a lawsuit. The airlines are responsible for the torts of their employees if it can be alleged that the tort was performed in the course of duty. Under the theory of negligence in the aviation industry, damages include the special damages, general damages, and the punitive damages.
A contract of carriage is the agreement that does exist between the passenger and the airline. Other laws that help in the provision of aviation disaster victim families Includes the air career access act of 1986, the September 11th victims compensation funds of 2001among others. Determining whether the flight is domestic or international depends on the law of the land where the act took place. The Montreal convection governs the international accidents.
International Aviation Security
I want to pursue a Masters in Art in international security. The field of international security has become one of the most important aspects in the contemporary world. This can be attributed to the fact that with globalization transforming the world into a global village, there are many risks that need to be addressed. This is why international security has become a critical aspect within the modern society. There are many sectors that international security can be applied. For instance, international trade is dependent on communication and transport. This implies there is a need to protect international traders from cyber attacks and transport hijacking.
One of the critical aspects that will enhance an inclusive global economic growth is the increased integration of international cultures and trade. This means that people will need to travel a lot and there will be the need to transport many goods across borders. Aviation will therefore play a critical role and this means that there is a need to focus on aviation security in both the civil and military sectors.
Aviation Security in Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi has registered an impressive economic growth over the last decade. This has been largely attributed to its trade with other countries. The country will need to enhance this trade in order to achieve the objectives of Vision 2030.This means that transport is critical for the sustainment of the economy. Although most of the imports and exports are transported by sea, the economy is also dependent on aviation. This means that the country will need to enhance its security in its airports.
This means that the country will need some people who are well informed about international security with a bias on aviation. This will ensure that the country is safe for investors, tourists, and diplomats. Consequently, there will be a positive impact on the growth of the economy. It is also critical to note that with the aviation sector secure from such aspects as vandalism, traders will be encouraged to trade with Abu Dhabi. This will be critical for the achievement of the goals of Vision 2030.
Terrorism is another issue to be addressed. In the contemporary society, terrorism has claimed many lives. Terrorists have been known to target airplanes, which results in loss of life and damage to property. Experts in international security with a bias to aviation are very critical in improving aviation security. With a good aviation security, terrorists are deterred from perpetrating their terrorist activities. Professionals in aviation security are also useful in both the military and civil aviation organizations. Well-trained aviation securities will play a critical role in identifying possible threats and stopping them before they wreck damage to travelers.
Military intervention for security breaches is another aspect to consider. Militaries all over the world have incorporated international security personnel in their operations. This is because international security personnel have the skills to identify potential international dangers that may impede the development of the country. This could jeopardize the achievement of the goals of Vision 2030 of Abu Dhabi.
International security is critical for any country that has economical goals. This implies that with international security personnel, Abu Dhabi has good prospects of achieving its goals and objectives that have been stated in its Vision 2030 manifesto. This means that the country will need to protect various sectors that have direct impact on its trade and diplomacy. Aviation is one of the sectors that will require to be effectively protected by international security personnel. This will include both civil and military aviation.
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