Lessons Leant from the assignment
This assignment involved using Google Docs to conduct simple surveys. One of the things that I learnt in this assignment is that with basic knowledge on research, internet and Google surveys tools, it is easy to conduct simple surveys using Google Docs. These kinds of survey are simple, fast and fun. The integrated spreadsheets in Google simplifies eliminates the need to transfer data from questionnaires to spreadsheets for analysis. The spreadsheet analyse data automatically with the right commands and take in any additional answers from respondents during the analysis. Google surveys can involve large samples depending on the preferences of the researcher and objectives of the survey (Anandarajan & Anandarajan, 2010).
The integrated spreadsheets can be accessed and shared at any time. They record all the responses from respondents and thus a researcher can keep track on the survey throughout. Google Docs are easy to use in formulating questions and responses for a survey. Google Docs surveys have minimal requirements relative to other kinds of surveys, as they only require one to have access to the internet and a computer. Another advantage of these surveys is that one has access to a large population and thus diverse responses can be obtained.
Personal opinion on this method of conducting a survey
Using Google Docs is fun and easy. The method is useful when conducting simple surveys for personal use or business purposes. Many features and tools could be added to Google Docs to improve its efficiency. However, the Docs are still useful in their current form for simple surveys. This method may be inappropriate for a complex survey that requires vast information to be collected from participants.
Anandarajan, M., & Anandarajan, A. (2010). E-Research Collaboration: Theory, Techniques and Challenges. New York, NY: Springer
Simple Survey 3
What problems did you encounter as individuals and as a group? And what did you learn as a group
In this assignment, I had challenges in understanding how one can easily transit from spreadsheets to Microsoft Access Databases. Understanding this transition was important to this assignment and I had to use multiple data sets to perfect my skills in this area. As a group, we had a challenge in agreeing on the right answers for the case questions. This is because group members had different opinions on how spreadsheets work and some had little experience in modifying spreadsheets. Thus, we took a longer time in completing our assignment as we tried to help each member to understand the basic rules of spreadsheets. Research and a systematic analysis of the lessons in the videos enabled us to agree on the assignment and come up with the right answers.
One of the lessons learnt in this exercise is that spreadsheets can easily be modified to suit an individual needs. One can customize a spreadsheet to suit large volumes of information instead of looking for an alternative software or program. However, basic skills and knowledge on spreadsheets is necessary for an individual to customize spreadsheets successfully. Spreadsheets are not the ideal method of handling multiple records especially when the records have large data.
Handling spreadsheets becomes more cumbersome with increases in the volume of data. However, spreadsheets are easy to understand and use with practice and comprehensive training. Another lesson in this assignment was that accuracy is very important when using spreadsheets. This is because any error that is introduced affects the accuracy of all data in the spreadsheet and is likely to be replicated in other spreadsheets or databases. Storing related data together in a spreadsheet or in a database minimizes the chances of errors and inconsistencies in stored data. This strategy simplifies the process of retrieving and using the stored data as well.
Insert Surname Here 1
Objective of this training
It is import that power point presentation for the work place should not be generic one that consists of boring text and pictures. This training manual will enable the staff in the organisation to learn and produce slideshows that are impressive and convincing to the audience.
Instructions for guiding struggling students
When the teacher notices that some students are struggling in undertaking their assignments and exercise that are given, the teacher is advised to continue with the normal class to the end but organise additional special classes for the students that had difficulty.
Steps in the making of professional PowerPoint slide:
Step 1: preparation of content
Changing the views of the slides
The PowerPoint slide has five different views that include the Normal view, outline, slide, Notes view, Sorter, slideshow and slide. The view can be changed by first selecting the view bar form the menu bar. This can also be done by clicking the required icon on the left hand side of the screen.
This is very important and is equivalent to the thesis statement of an academic presentation. When making a presentation for a business, the content will concentrate on the product or service that one is proposing.
Step 2: concentrate on providing only the information that are new to the audience to keep them engaged and interested. The PowerPoint has one function of backing up what one is saying. It is imperative that PowerPoint is made only after one has rehearsed the presentation.
Step 3: plan the structure of the presentation
In the making of the business presentation, the structure of the presentation can include the following:
Start with the problem
Provide your solution
Indicate the business mode that will be used
Technology or the uniqueness of your proposal
State some of the competition
Indicate the project milestones
Summarize the presentation and call the audience into action
Step 4: make use of the format by streamlining the text. Ensure that the PowerPoint presentation contain as minimal text as possible. It should therefore not just restate what you are saying nor should you be reading from the slides.
Addition of pictures and clip arts to the PowerPoint
This is done by selection of insert/new slide from the Menu bar, then clicking on the clip art and Text, one will be able to double click to select the specific layout.
Assessment of the student understanding
To test the understanding of the student, the student will be given assignment on developing non generic PowerPoint presentation for marketing one of the products of the organisation. To test the student understanding of the concepts, they will be given 8 minutes to deliver the presentation in the classroom. The teachers will be expected to award marks to the student immediately after completing the presentation.
Practise and exercises
After taking the student through all the stages in development of PowerPoint, the student will be required to practise making convincing PowerPoint slides and delivering presentations. This will be class presentation but they will also be given more assignment to do after a break of fifteen minutes.
It is necessary that the teacher walks round the class to see what each individual student is doing. This will enable the students who are struggling with some stages to receive feedback and direction of the teacher. By students involved in the individual assignment, they will be able to gain confidence and become creative in making the PowerPoint.
DEVELOPMENT ASSIGNMENT 5
Running Head: DEVELOPMENT ASSIGNMENT 1
International Business Assignment
Nations depend on each other for production and distribution of their products. International business involves commercial dealings that occur between countries or regions. International business allows countries to purchase products that are not available locally and sell the locally produced goods in the global market. The problems that may arise in the process of commercial transactions are covered by the international political economy. This study will focus on the role of the political economy in the international trade. The study will evaluate influence of political economy on the international trade, particularly in China and the United States.
The Role of Political Economy in the International Trade
Society develops because of the economic development. The mutual interaction, which exists between a particular state and the market, brings the political economy. Market allocation of resources to regional and international groups is guided by state’s rules. One of the remarkable changes observed in the global economy since the 1980s is the inception of free trade among nations around the globe. These changes have become possible through trade policies developed by political leaders and societal groups. A rational leader will engage in trade agreement if there are benefits involved in the agreement. The benefits and costs involved in joining any trade deal should be political and economic. Political institutions, therefore, provide incentives to the international cooperation.
Flexibility of the political institutions allows policy changes that fit the international political system. Thus, large-scale changes experienced in political institutions, particularly in the democratic space, played a major role in trade liberalization. The political economy covers the issues of planning and development, as well as industrial organization and interconnections. In many developed countries like the U.S. and Britain, international institutions and organizations govern and influence the political economy (Suder, 2009, p. 118). The economic reforms experienced in these regions limits the policy implementation preferences of the states through the international financial institutions like WTO (World Trade Organization).
The political economy in the U.S. is involved with experimental and theoretical justifications of why, or how, the domestic welfare can influence the international policies. The state specifically engages on issues like financial regulation, exchange rates negotiations, climate change and international trade policy (Thurston & Bowen, 2011, p. 1). The political economy carries the weight of shaping the institutional behavior in global market. The political struggles in the U.S. spin around how to compete, cooperate and compensate the players in the international trade.
China’s dependence on the world trade has increased rapidly in the last few years. The current political system in China has embraced a continuous economic development through improvement of structures that support the international practice. The political economy approach to trade policy has improved the way China deals with other players in the international trade (Luo & Zhang, 2010, p.1392). Since joining the WTO, The country has recorded a considerable growth, both economically and politically. In 2007, the Chinese government adopted new economic reforms that targeted foreign direct investment. The government has continued to sign trade agreement with other countries to boost free trade.
Political economy plays a key role in the improvement of international business. It devises plans to share resources within and outside the geographical boundaries of a country. The promotion of the market economy falls squarely on the hands of the political players in the global market. Each country depends on each other for its people to enjoy a desirable lifestyle. Trade agreements signed by respective governments allow other countries to engage in free trade within a given region or states.
Luo, C., & Zhang, J. (2010). China Trade Policy Review: A Political Economy Approach. World Economy, 33(11), 1390-1413. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9701.2010.01322.x
Suder, G. G. S. (2009). International business. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Thurston, C., & Bowen, K. (2011). U.S. Domestic Politics and International Political Economy: An Introduction to the Special Issue. Business & Politics, 13(3), 1-4. doi:10.2202/1469-3569.1413
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS ASSIGNMENT 4
Running Head: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS ASSIGNMENT 1
Assignment Cover Sheet200336 Business Academic Skills
I hold a copy of this assignment if the original is lost or damaged.
I hereby certify that no part of this assignment or product has been copied from any other student’s work or from any other source except where due acknowledgement is made in the assignment.
No part of the assignment/product has been written/produced for me by any other person except where collaboration has been authorised by the subject lecturer/tutor concerned.
I am aware that this work may be reproduced and submitted to plagiarism detection software programs for the purpose of detecting possible plagiarism (which may retain a copy on its database for future plagiarism checking).
I am aware that the plagiarism detection software programs are not the only means that will be used to detect plagiarism (i.e. having a zero report may still result in plagiarism).
Note: An examiner or lecturer/tutor has the right to not mark this assignment if the above declaration has not been signed.
RESEARCHING SECTION 2: ANNOTATED REFERENCE LIST
Assessment questionEvaluate the World Anti Doping Agency (WADA) regulatory regime using three ethical principles of the Global Business Standards Codex.
Reference 1: Internet (Non-scholarly) Staff, H 1999. Lausanne Declaration on Doping in Sport’, Sportunterricht.de, viewed 31 August 2012, <http://www.sportunterricht.de/lksport/Declaration_e.html>.Annotation 1: Summary This online article contains resolutions reached in the Lausanne Declaration on Doping in Sport where doping was declared an unprofessional practice showing irresponsibility and bad professional conduct (Staff 1999).Annotation 1: Use Various elements of discussion that constituted the deliberations in the conference meeting are imperative in understanding the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and how its effecting of anti-doping regulation fits in the Global Business Standards Codex on the basis of professionalism (Staff 1999).
Reference 2: Newspaper Article (Non-scholarly) Friedman, M 1970, The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase Profit’, The New York Times Magazine, 12 September 2011, viewed 31 August 2012.Annotation 2: Summary In this article, the author observes that the key objective of a profit making business is to ensure profitability of its endeavours. This according to the author, ensures continued sustainability of the business in the firm which provides shareholders with economnic worth and business viability for investment (Friedman 1970).
It is around this surmise that profit-making businesses find thier importance and strategic operations.Annotation 2: Use Considering sports as business investment for the sportsmen and supportors and sponsors, it can also be thought that economic worth of investing in sports is profitability as supported by the Global Business Codex. In this view therefore, doping practices aimed at giving performing athletes an edge over their counterparts to ensure winning have become prevalent as competition for winning intensifies. This article contains insightful information explaining how need for profit-making pushes business into unprofessional practices and conduct.
Reference 3: Trade Journal / Industry Magazine (Non-scholarly) Jin-Kyung, P 2005, ‘Governing Doped Bodies: The World Anti-Doping Agency and the Global Culture of Surveillance’, Cultural Studies <=> Critical Methodologies, 5: 174, viewed 31 August 2012, <http://csc.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/2/174>.Annotation 3: Summary The author of this journal article discusses the establishment of WADA and its mandate in bringing order, regulation, and professional conduct in the sporting arena as far as doping and enhancement drugs are concerned. The article details the surveillance done by the agency and the rules and definitive guidelines offered by agency and how these ensure global adherence of the established regulations and legislations to prevent use of enhancement substances (drugs) for athletes (Jin-Kyung 2005).Annotation 3: Use This article is very useful in understanding the mandage and operations of WADA in the athletic field and its provisions of the manner in which relevant legislations are made and effected gives a rear capacity to gauge these actions in the light of Global Business Standards Codex.
Reference 4: Scholarly Magazine (Quasi-scholarly) Eichengreen, B 2001, Capital Account Liberalization: What Do Cross-Country Studies Tell Us?’, The World Bank Economic Review, vol. 15, no. 3, viewed 31 August 2012, <http://dx.doi.org/10.1093%2Fwber%2F15.3.341>.Annotation 4: Summary This magazine article talks about capital account liberalization and how culture affects business operations in different jurisdictions around the world. In this article, it is the contention of the author that cultural and environmental trends affects the ethical and operational standards defining business operations (Eichengreen 2001). This creates a variance in the way business operations are undertaken in different countries and societies.Annotation 4: Use The insights of this article, the need for an impertial and global agency that regulates operations without societal bias of any culture but purely majoring on accepted business standards and professionalism is imperative. It is in this view that the discussions of the article present WADA as a relevant agency to bring regulation in the sporting industry to be adherent to Global Business Standards Codex.
Reference 5: Industry / Government Website (Scholarly) UK Anti-Doping Sport 2012, UK Anti-Doping is now testing international athletes arriving to train, compete or stay in the United Kingdom, viewed 31 August 2012, <http://www.ukad.org.uk/news/article/pre-games-international-athlete-testing-initiative-announced>.Annotation 5: Summary This article offers discussions about the milestones made in the UK anti-doping efforts for athletes that train and compete in the UK. It is a requirement that such athletes get tested and any that is found to have violated the established anti-doping rules according to the UK anti-doping agency is denied a chance to compete and train in the UK.Annotation 5: Use The use of this article in the discussion would be as regards the authority that is given to the anti-doping agencies around the world. From this article, the UK Anti-Doping agency enjoys unprecedented authority to vet all athletes (nationals as well as non-nationals) in according to established anti-doping regulation and ensure that they meet the strictest of standards failure to which, one is denied a chance to compete and train in the country.
Reference 6: University / Research Centre (Scholarly) Baum, B 2006, The Rise and Fall of the Caucasian Race: A Political History of Racial Identity, New York University Press, viewed 31 August 2012, <http://books.google.com/books?id=TnVgKpqCxzQC&pg=PA35>.Annotation 6: Summary This article talks about racial discrimination as a culture tearing through social fabric of the world. It has been responsible for inequalities and professional malpractices in different sectors of human life. When considered in isolation, racial identity and discrimination along racial lines, the author observes that successful performance and access to opportunities is limited and cartailed (Baum 2006). It is a trend that is tearing workmanship and good professional conduct.Annotation 6: Use This artilce is very useful in the sporting industry which has recently been receiving a lot of challenges concerned with racial discrimination which undermines good sportsmanship, professionalism, and social justice for victims stigimatized for thier racial and ethnic origins. WADA in its operations is also faced with the challenge of ensuring that it does not become biased along racial lines in its provision of services.
Reference 7: Chapter in an Edited Book (Scholarly) Cetina, K.K & Preda, A (eds.) 2005, The sociology of Financial Markets. Oxford: University Press.Annotation 7: Summary Chapters 4 and 8 of this edited book talk about different concept sin socialogy of financial markets where the authors discuss how financial operations affects market forces within the industry. Chapter 4 gives discussions about business financing based on social and ethical needs (CSR) and chapter 8 talks about the appropriateness of this type of investment; giving back to the society (Cetina & Preda 2005). It is the contention of the authors that good business standards should make the business conscious of the needs of its immediate society in which it operates (Cetina & Preda 2005).Annotation 7: Use As observed by the authors of this book, corporate responsibility is a requirement that has to be embraced by all business operations. With the understanding that sports industry is a business investment intensive industry, it is imperative to ensure that social causes of humanitarian nature are equally fronted concurrent with profit-making initiatives (Cetina & Preda 2005).
Reference 8: Journal Article (Scholarly) Houlihan, B 2004, Civil Rights, Doping Control and the World Anti-doping Code’, Sport in Society:Cultures, Commerce, Media, Politics, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 420-437, viewed 31 August 2012, <http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1743042000291712>.Annotation 8: Summary This journal article summarizes the civil rights and the Doping Control and the World Anti-Doping Code and the instances where the code is applicable as well as the extent of its application in the sporting industry (Houlihan 2004).The author of the article provides different elements of the code and presents the rational used in classifying certain drugs as being unfit for use by sportsmen (Houlihan 2004).Annotation 8: Use This article can be used in understanding how WADA operates and its mandate and the manner in which regulations established by the agency are applied in the sporting industry. In addition, the article also provides insightful thoughts about professional conduct of athletes as regards what is required of them (Houlihan 2004).
Reference 9: Journal Article (Scholarly) Hemphill, D 2009, Performance enhancement and drug control in sport: Ethical Considerations’, Sport in Society: Cultures, Commerce, Media, Politics, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 313-326, viewed 31 August 2012, <http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17430430802673668>.Annotation 8: Summary In this article, the author talks about ethical considerations in performance enhancement and drug control in the sports industry where he identifies social, legal, and ethical elements in support for the control of drug use in the industry. Winning according to the author which is the primary goal of an athlete, should be obtained fairly and without one athlete having due advantage over others, and certainly not because of performance enhancement drug use (Hemphill 2009). This is both unprofessional, unethical, irresponsible, and unfair.Annotation 8: Use This article is useful in highlighting ethical and social elements that come into play when anti-doping efforts are considered in view of the larger picture of making the sports industry adherent to Global Business Standards Codex.
Reference 10: Journal Article (Scholarly)Hanstad, D.V., Smith, A & Waddington, I 2008, ‘The Establishment of the World Anti-Doping Agency: A Study of the Management of Organizational Change and Unplanned Outcomes’, International Review for the Sociology of Sport,; vol. 43, pp. 227 287, viewed <http://irs.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/43/3/227>. Annotation 11: Summary This article talks about the management of organizational change and unplanned outcomes in the WADA efforts. The authors present various organizational change initiatives that have been effected by the agency in ensuring that there is success and effectiveness in the sports industry especially as regards ridding the industry of malpractices due to use of performance enhancement drugs (Hanstad, Smith & Waddington 2008).Annotation 8: Use This article can be used in helping to assess how WADA regulatory regime addresses ethical and professional issues in the way the sports industry conducts its operations as regards use of performance enhancement products and drugs.
Marking Matrix – Office use onlySource 1Source 2Source 3Source 4Source 5Source 6Source 7Source 8TotalReferenceGenre Summary UseExpression, SP&G
RESEARCHING SECTION 2: ANNOTATED REFERENCE LIST /40 %Clear FailNeeds WorkPassCreditDistinctionHigh DistinctionHarvard
referenceNot in any known referencing format
Missing required bibliographic details OR
No references included.All or most references are not in Harvard style but:
All required bibliographic details are present.
May or may not include view date and url/data base/DOI.All references are in Harvard style but:
Some required bibliographic details are not present and/or
They are poorly formatted.The Harvard style is acceptable:
Most of the required bibliographic details are present and/or
Not correctly formatted.The Harvard style is very good:
All required bibliographic details are present; but
It is not properly punctuated and/or
May or may not include view date and url/data base/DOI.
Correctly formatted.The Harvard style is excellent:
Authors’ names are presented correctly
Date presented correctly
Titles are italicised
All required bibliographic details are present
May or may not include view date and url/data base/DOI.
Properly punctuated and
Genre Less than 3 genres are included.All or most genres are included but are not correctly identified.3 genres are included and correctly identified.4-5 genres are included and correctly identified.6-7 genres are included and correctly identified.All required genres are included and correctly identified./70-1.52.0-3.03.5-4.04.55.0-5.56.0-7.0
Summary Less than 3 annotations clearly summarise the appropriate information.3-4 annotations clearly summarise the appropriate information.5 annotations clearly summarise the appropriate information.6 annotations clearly summarise the appropriate information.7 annotations clearly summarise the appropriate information.All 8 annotations clearly summarise the appropriate information./80-2.02.5-3.54.0-4.55.0-5.56.0-6.57.0-8.0
UseLess than 3 annotations identify specific information and highlight how it could be used to address the assessment task.3-4 annotations identify specific information and highlight how it could be used to address the assessment task.5 annotations identify specific information and highlight how it could be used to address the assessment task.6 annotations identify specific information and highlight how it could be used to address the assessment task.7 annotations identify specific information and highlight how it could be used to address the assessment task.All 8 annotations identify specific information and highlight how it could be used to address the assessment task./100-2.53.0-4.55.0-6.06.5-7.07.5-8.08.5-10.0
Expression, spelling, grammar & punctuationThere are major grammatical errors which make the essay difficult to comprehend.Does not use formal, objective and concise language and/or
There are a lot of spelling, grammatical and punctuation errors.Sometimes uses formal, objective and concise language and/or
There are some spelling, grammatical and punctuation errors.Mostly uses formal, objective and concise language and/or
There are a few spelling, grammatical and punctuation errors.Uses formal, objective and concise language or
There are minor spelling, grammatical and punctuation errors.Uses formal, objective and concise language and
There are no spelling, grammatical and punctuation errors./50-1.01.5-2.02.5-3.03.54.04.5-5.0
(40)Number of Days LateLate Penalties(minus 4 marks/day)Total
2 of 10
An offer is an expression of willingness by one party to enter into a contract with another party on specific terms. An offer is made with the intention that it would legally bind the parties immediately it is accepted by the individual to whom it is addressed. This implies that without an offer, there is no contract. For an offer to be made, there has to be two or more parties. Whenever an offer is accepted, it results in a legally binding contract. For example, individual A has made an offer to sell his horse to individual B for $800.
Acceptance is a complete and final expression of approval of the terms of an offer. For a contract to exist, the person to whom the offer was addressed must accept it. An offer can be accepted in writing or through word of mouth. For example, an individual requests information on the cost and availability of accommodation in a hotel for one week. The hotel personnel respond to the inquiry by informing the customer that the cost of accommodation for one week is $900. If the individual accepts the offer, the hotel and the individual have entered into a contract.
All contracts have to be supported by a valuable consideration. Consideration is defined as the promise given or done by one party of the contract to the other. In other words, it is a promise to do something in exchange for a promise from the other party to provide a benefit of value. Consideration is not necessarily money, and can include refraining from exercising a given right or a promise not to do something (Andrews, 2011, p. 39). For example, a customer in a fast food joint, such as Starbucks orders a set of snacks for $30. By making the order, the customer agrees to pay a fee of $30 as consideration for the snacks.
Intention to Create Legal Relations
This component is of significant importance in any contract. In any agreement where the parties do not intend to be legally bound, such an agreement is not a contract. Therefore, no agreement can be enforced in law, unless the parties to the agreement had intended for such a consequence. For example, there can be an agreement between a parent and his daughter, under which they agree that in the event of the father`s death, the daughter will assume possession of all his properties. Such an agreement has the intent of creating legal relations, and is enforceable.
The terms of a contract should be plainly stipulated and well understood by all the parties to the contract. Where an agreement is ambiguous, it cannot be treated as a valid contract. For example, if a tourist wants accommodation in a given hotel, he has to provide the hotel with information related to his duration of stay, the type of room he needs, and date of arrival among others (Andrews, 2011, p. 43).
All parties to a contract must have the legal ability to enter into a contractual relationship. In most jurisdictions in the common wealth, individuals who have not attained the majority age (18 years) lack the capacity to contract. Similarly, people of unsound mind are equally not qualified to contract. For example, if X enters into a contract for the sale of a parcel of land to Y who is only 12 years, the contract is not valid, unless a parent or guardian who has attained the majority age accompanies the minor.
Carlill v. Carbolic Smoke Ball Co.  Q.B. 256 (C.A.) (Whaley, 2002, p. 34)
The company (defendant) placed an advertisement in several newspapers offering a £100 reward to any individual who used the smoke ball thrice in a day as instructed, but still caught influenza, colds, or any other illness. The Carbolic Smoke Ball Company was engaged in the manufacture and sale of the Carbolic Smoke Ball. After spotting the advertisement, Carlill (the plaintiff) bought a ball and used it as instructed. However, she still contacted influenza and claimed for the reward from the company. The defendant declined to pay, and Carlill sued the company for damages occasioned by the breach of the contract. The court ruled in the plaintiff`s favor requiring the company to pay her £100, and the company appealed.
The specific issues involved in the case relate to the two elements of offer and acceptance. The question before the court was whether an offer for the sale of a product made through an advertisement impliedly waives notice of acceptance if the intention is to sell many products. Justice Lindley held that it is true that an individual who makes a unilateral offer for the sale of goods through an advertisement impliedly waives acceptance notification if the objective is to sell many products. The court further observed that a person making an offer may if he so wishes, declines to demand a notice of acceptance from the person or persons accepting the offer. Similarly, the person making the offer dispenses with the notification of the acceptance requirement if the method of the offer indicates that notification of acceptance is not required, in this case performance is sufficient acceptance (Whaley, 2002, p. 44).
The court held that an advertisement could be an offer if it stipulates the number of persons who qualify to accept its terms. If such adverts call for performance, the person accepting the offer is not required to give his/her notification of acceptance. As to whether the advert was a mere advertising puff, the court indicated that the company`s claim in the advert that it had deposited £1000 with Alliance Bank was meant to demonstrate the seriousness and sincerity in giving the reward. In my opinion, the outcome of the case was justified and in accordance with the law of contract. Under the contract law, the individual making the offer is at liberty to either impliedly or expressly formulate his preferred method of acceptance, and the person accepting the offer must observe the stipulated method for acceptance (Whaley, 2002, p. 33). In the present case, the type of transaction involved indicates that a person is not required to notify his/her acceptance prior to performing the condition, yet at the same time when he/she performs the condition, the need for notification is dispensed with.
Andrews, N. (2011). Contract law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Whaley, D. (2002).Problems and materials on consumer law.New York: Aspen Law & Business.
CONTRACT LAW 2
Running head: CONTRACT LAW 1
Impact of Violent Video Games
The article, Chronic Exposure to Violent Video Games is not associated with Alterations of Emotional Memory by Bowen and Spaniol seeks to find out the correlation between chronic exposure to VVGs (Violent Video Games) and the alterations in an individual’s emotional long-term memory. Bowen and Spaniol assert that though the impact of VVGs on people’s behavior has been widely studied little is known about the impact of the latter on cognition (Bowen & Spaniol, 2011). This aspect makes the article more intriguing compared to other related articles especially on matters pertaining to the overall impact of the VVG’s. The study concludes that long-term memory may actually be strong to the harmful influences triggered by chronic exposure to VVGs. This is contrary to the desensitization hypothesis that, VVG playing would be associated with reduced memory or a less liberal response bias to negative stimuli (Bowen & Spaniol, 2011 p 908). The authors of the article confirm that there is no strong correlation between an individual’s long-term memory and violent video games. Hence, the research article suggests that there is a difference between the impact of violent video games on behaviors and that of cognition.
Quasi-experimental and individual differences have both been used in coming up with evidence on the long-term effects of constant contact of VVGs (Bowen & Spaniol, 2011). Bowen and Spaniol illustrate such studies. However, the study uses individual differences in violence video game experience. It was argued that violent video game players, played over an extended period and develop significant expertise. It was therefore, important to choose individuals who had developed such expertise so that the desensitization effect is maintained. 122 undergraduate students participated in the study amongst them 45 had a video game experience which had a VES (Video Exposure Violence) of 19.5 in the last six months while the remaining seventy-seven had no exposure to VVG’s. Participants filled in questionnaires where they were mainly asked to mention the frequency they played a particular game and intensity of violence they were exposed to (Bowen & Spaniol, 2011). This was done in order to bring out the main variables under investigation, which include the exposure of violence and cognition. Additionally, participants who were not exposed to violence helped in making comparisons i.e. the differences on the impact of cognition/ memory between those who were exposed to violence and those were not.
The division of participants in terms of those exposed to violence helped in keeping the study relevant to the main hypothesis, which is VVG exposure is associated with alterations in long term memory, specifically, with reduced memory or a less liberal response bias for negative stimuli (Bowen & Spaniol, 2011 p 913). Negative stimuli in the context of the research study is represented in form of violent video games while the alterations of long term memory may either mean that there is a liberal response or reduced memory. Hence, the method and design used in the study are compatible in terms of affirming the hypothesis under investigation.
Nevertheless, it is worth noting that the use of quasi-experimental design did not control other factors or variables that came up during the study and ultimately affected the results of the study. For instance, Bowen and Spaniol affirm that though there was no association with VVG exposure, the drift rates were quite reactive to experimental manipulations. The drift rate analysis revealed intriguing blueprints. The experiment conducted revealed the memory performance as very high. The participants were probably making judgments based on recollection. Meaning that the absence of recollection made participants believe that a particular stimuli was new (Bowen and Stimuli, 2011). The quasi experiment was structured to find out the impact of VVGs on long-term memory. However, other pre-existing factors emerged and thus affected the results of the study i.e. neutral distracters.
The research article was able to confirm the hypotheses formulated. This article is ideal for students who want to be objective in their research and want to produce results that are both valid and reliable. The authors were quite consistent in terms of reflecting on similar research studies that could be related to the topic under investigation. This enabled them identify what lacked in past research studies and ought to be given more attention in the near future research. The article was focused on undergraduate students since they are more likely to be exposed to violent video games, hence, the results can only apply to undergraduate students. This makes it harder to generalizations especially, on individuals who are exposed to real violence such as the police or military personnel. Moreover, it is imperative to use designs that are not likely to introduce in other variables. This makes the use of designs or methodologies that control variables essential. Though it may seem inevitable to do so, it is better to minimize their use since they may replicate results that are not conclusive or do not answer the research questions.
Bowen, H.J & Spaniol, J. (2011). Chronic Exposure to Violent Video Games is not Associated with Alterations of Emotional Memory. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25, 906-916.
VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES 3
Running Head: VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES 1
Kelly’s Assignment in Japan
Explain The Clashes In Culture, Customs, and Expectations That Occurred In This Situation.
The first clash of culture that Kelly entered upon starting her assignment in Japan is the greeting. America and Japan have different mode of greetings especially in the introduction and interaction during the first moments. For instance, in Japan greeting are mainly non-verbal unlike in America where greeting are mainly verbal. Therefore, when Kelly went to address the staff meeting in Japan she had to great the Americans differently from the Japanese.
While Americans mainly exchange handshakes, Japanese usually bow and smile. Further, American culture uses inductive method, which makes them open up to discuss their private life during introduction. Most Americans talk about their family, children, and other private matters. On the other hand Japanese use deductive method, which means they only talk about general, matters concerning them. This was the case in Kelly’s case. During introduction, Americans talked about their family while Japanese only talked about their family position (352).
Another culture contradiction is the roles and expectations among women and men. The Japanese men were shocked to learn that their new boss, Kelly was a woman. In Japanese culture, women are not supposed to address men. Therefore, it was embarrassing to address men; hence, they addressed her assistant anytime they wanted to present their ideas; they expected that their new boss would be a man. In American culture and customs, roles are individualized unlike in Japan where the overall opinion is critical. For this reason when Kelly requested for presentations, the Japanese had to consult the rest of the group. Further, after presentation the Japanese team leader agreed that the proposal was very good but he could not make a decision without following the hierarchy in the company.
Such culture differences are important when a company decides to go global. This is because cultural differences are critical in determining the success of a business in the global market. This is the preparation that Kelly and the company did not consider before sending her to Japan to spearhead the new project. If they had considered cultural differences, they would have known that Japan would prefer a man presenting the proposal and leading the project.
What Stage Of Culture Shock Is Kelly’s Family Experiencing?
When Kelly and her family relocated to Tokyo, they underwent an excitement phase. They were happy about the new environment and they were looking forward to settling in Japan. However, that was short-lived when the withdrawal stage settled in. At this stage, a person starts resenting the new culture and frustrations set in. Kelly and her family are undergoing withdrawal stage. Her husband is finding the new life and environment boring. He hates their small house, the food packaging and how to prepare the food. In addition, the children hate the new schools since they cannot speak Japanese. they hate the food and they miss to go back home, U.S. Kelly is also getting frustrated at her place of work and is often irritated by how things are done in Japan. These are characteristics of Withdrawal stage of culture shock.
Turn Back To When Kelly Was Offered the Position in Tokyo. What If Anything Should Have Been Done Differently, and by Whom?
The difficulties that Kelly is experiencing are worsened by lack of preparation both by her and by the company. The company should have prepared her for cultural differences expected during her new assignment in Japan. The company should have given her time to plan and prepare before relocating to Japan. In addition, she should have prepared on how to approach the new assignment. The management made a mistake by assuming that she would be effective and successful in spearheading the project in Japan as she had been in Boston. Therefore, the company should have taken time to prepare for the new assignment by training Kelly especially due to culture shock.
You Are Kelly. What Should You Do Now?
Kelly should re-strategize on how to approach the assignment. This is because she cannot give job. Therefore, if I were Kelly I would first accept the current situation so that I can move from withdrawal stage to adjustment stage. This would help me execute the assignment more effectively. Thereafter, I would study Japanese culture in business context and away from business, to make sure I meet their expectations. I would then execute my duties in the organization, but appoint a competent man to do presentation when need arises. This is because as noted earlier Japan culture is more receptive to men addressing men in the corporate environment than women addressing men. Therefore, I would put together a team of competent people and assign them various roles.
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Elementary School Teachers and Teaching with Technology
The radical changes that affect teachers’ roles are moving to learner-centered constructivist approaches and developing new tools for educational purposes. The radical changes require teachers to be careful on their learning objectives, the content to be covered in class, the strategies to be adopted, the technology, and other related tools to be used to enhance the instruction process.
Teachers’ knowledge of ICT influence their decisions on the classroom practices and the instruction media adopted to enhance learning. The factors considered include content and technological pedagogical knowledge. For a successful integration of technology, teachers should have the basic skills of using technology in the process of instruction. Moreover, they should be in a position to integrate both hardware and software into the process of offering instruction.
Literature indicates that for successful integration of technology into the teaching process, instructors should be able to choose the particular technological tools or media that can effectively support the curricular goals in question. It helps to come up with a specific strategy on how technology can be helpful to students and help them meet their goals in learning. Moreover, the use of technology should be applicable in different phases of learning that includes exploration, analysis, and production, thus making it a proficient tool that can be used to solve practical problems within the classroom context. Finally, the selected technology should be able to deal with issues and solve problems related to their professional practice and growth.
Teachers’ beliefs and attitudes towards the adoption and use of ICT is an important factor that determines whether they will integrate it in the process of teaching or not. Individual beliefs are shaped by prior experience just like teachers, whose beliefs in the need for and effectiveness of ICT integration in the teaching process is influenced by their experience as pupils. Teachers’ beliefs are also influenced by their professional experiences, becoming stable and resistant to change as they settle into their teaching practice.
The sample size of the study was 157 elementary school teachers who were selected through the process of random sampling from the eastern part of Turkey. Fifteen teachers were not able to participate in the study because of workload. Moreover, 17 teachers could not fill in the questionnaire and participate in the study.
The data in the research was collected through primary sources and questionnaires were used as the source of information from the selected sample. Two questionnaires were used to collect data that was considered to be conclusive for the study. The questionnaires were developed and translated into Turkish with the first part designed to collect demographic information and the other part to assess teachers’ knowledge of ICT. In addition, the questionnaire will assess teachers’ use of ICT as an instruction instrument, their attitude towards the use of computers, and their self-confidence for the efficiency of technology in teaching. The second questionnaire was developed by Tezci to assess internet attitude scale for teachers. The factors looked into include opportunities of internet, change in education, and effects of technology use in people’s daily life’s.
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Elementary School Teachers and Teaching with Technology 11
Running head: ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHING WITH TECHNOLOGY 1
MULTINATIONAL BUSINESS FINANCE
PERSONAL ASSIGNMENT, 2013
The term purchasing power parity (PPP) is a state that the price of products should be equal worldwide when expressed in different currencies. This means that the home currency should have the same value around the world.
The nature of the McDonald’s Big Mac Index including its role’ in relation to exchange rate prediction
Mc Donald Big Mac index is a guide to predict different currencies against the dollar. it argues that the price of a certain product should be the same. It gives an example of one price which the purchase power parity which is referred to as The law of one price (Shapiro, 2006). In Big Mac index it concludes that price should be the same after exchange rates between the currencies. In its consideration it includes cost of real estate, local taxes, local services which differ from one country to another.
In relation to predicting the country’s exchange rate prediction are not accurate. This might be due to inflation in the countries being considered. Due to this Big Mac index is misleading and not accurate. The home currency (dollar) and the foreign should adjust so as to reflect the price levels of the two countries.
Fill in the blank cells in the Country’, Local Currency Unit’ and the Actual Exchange Rate’ columns. Remember to enter in your spreadsheet the date on which you extracted your actual exchange rates;
Compute the U.S. dollar price of a Big Mac and enter your figures in the relevant blank cells.
BigMac Price = In local currencyActual Exchange rate
For each country, compute the implied purchasing power parity BigMac exchange rate and enter your figures in the blank cells of the relevant column.
Compute the percentage difference between the implied PPP and the actual exchange rate to determine the extent to which the currency is currently over- or under-valued, against the U.S. dollar, and enter your figures in the blank cells of the relevant column.
over or under valuation = implies PPP rate – actual exchange rate x 100% Actual exchange rate
On the Hamburger Standard, which of the currencies in the table is the most over-valued/overvalued against the U.S. dollar? Explain the underlying reasons in light of PPP theory and the implications of this on exchange rate determination.
The Indonesian Rupiah is the most overvalued and the Malaysian Ringgit
Is the most under values with 100 percent. This will depend on the government’s trade barrier and the cash flow caused by exchange adjusted prices to the difference in these countries.
Which currency is closest to purchasing power parity? Why?
Australian Dollar has the closest PPP with 1.05 this is because the local currency in Big Mac policy does not difference compared to that of the U.S dollar.
What do you observe about the U.S. dollar prices of a Big Mac in the countries whose capital cities are Moscow and Riga respectively? Can you suggest any reasons for the observed difference in prices?
Moscow (Russian Rouble), the Big Mac index is higher compared to the actual exchange rate and the PPP of 0.92 is under valued.
Riga is the capital city of Latvia using the Lats as the local currency. We observe that the currency is almost 100 percent undervalued compared to the U.S Dollar and the PPP is equal to 0.05 and the actual exchange rate is too high.
This difference is observed because Big Mac index also includes the local taxes, rent utility expenses and services while the dollar consider these external forces which vary from one country to another and using the law of one price Big Mac index is not credible.
Describe the nature of Commsec’s iPod Index, and compare and contrast the relative potentials of the iPod and Big Mac indices for predicting future exchange rate or price movements.
Commsec’s iPod Index was launched in the year 2007 which was designed to analyse the PPP theory of iPods or multimedia devices prices across the globe. It uses the law of one price whereby the Commsec iPod index and Big Mac indexes are similar because they translate the local currency to other global currencies. The challenges of Commsec index are taxes, telecommunication charges and freight or shipping costs which affect the final price.
The potential of Commsec index is recent and it compares iPod (electronic devices) compared to Big Mac Index which compares the Hamburger. BMI depend on the local food prices while Commsec is standardized from the manufacturer. Although they are faced with external forces, Commsec index can be more reliable compared to Big Mac index and it can be an effective way to predict the future exchange rates.
The Commsec index is in short run while Big Mac index is in the long run. Prices fluctuate rapidly which lead to violation of the law of one price.
Chen, C. F., Shen, C. H., & Wang, C. A. A. (2007). Does PPP hold for Big Mac price or consumer price index? Evidence from panel co integration; Economics Bulletin, 6(16), 1-15
Clementi, F., Gallegati, M., & Palestrini, A. (2010). A Big Mac test of price dynamics and dispersion across euro area. Economics Bulletin, 30(3)
Clements, K. W., Lan, Y., & Seah, S. (2013). 2 Purchasing power parity and the Big Mac Index. Currencies, Commodities and Consumption, 13.
Clements. W., Lan, Y., & Seah, S. P. (2007). The Big Mac Index 21 Years On: An Evaluation of Burger economics. University of Western Australia, Business
Haidar, J. I. (2011). Currency valuation and purchasing power parity. World Economics, 12(3).School, Economics.
Schoonveld, E. (2011). The price of global health: drug pricing strategies to balance patient access and the funding of innovation. Gower Publishing, Ltd.
Shapiro, A.C, (2006). Multinational financial Management: Parity conditions in International Finance and currency Forecasting. John Wiley$ sons Inc.