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Individualized Transition Plan
Long-Term Employment Goal (May Include Integrated Employment)
Mary will work in the entertainment industry as a musician and a producer.
Yearly goals to accomplish long-term goals
Mary is already concerned with music since she is a member of a group that is involved in performing on different occasions to raise awareness on the dangers associated with poor dietary habits. She intends to continue singing in the group and take up music composition to learn the art making music in order to prepare for her future career as a musician. She will learn from the soloist who is also a part of the group and who also composes music. She will also be visiting a local studio where she will learn the basics of music production.
Person(s) responsible for implementation.
Mary, the group soloist, the teacher of music.
Long-Term Vocational/Technical Training Goals Mary will attend a music college and pursue her music-related ambitions. She will learn all the aspects of music in order to find out how to sing properly and train others to sing as well as gain professional skills with regard to music composition.
Yearly goals to accomplish long-term goals.
Mary will continue singing with her group and she will try to take a leading role when she matures. This will increase her responsibilities and expose her to music composition and other aspects of music she is not familiar with.
She will collect music materials to learn about the basics of music, and also she will start composing songs.
She will participate in the church choir to nurture her musical talent
Persons responsible for implementation.
Mary, a choirmaster, music group leaders, parents.
Post Secondary Education and Training Outcomes
3. Long-Term Higher Education Goals
Mary will attend a college that she feels meets her needs with regard to studying music.
Yearly goals to attend long-term goals.
Mary will buy music books and attend music classes at her school to gain more knowledge concerning her sphere of interest.
She will seek assistance on the part of her friends in the music group who have been singing for a longer period than she has, and those who have professional training in the area in question.
She will be attending music festivals organized every year to watch and learn from others involved in the field under consideration.
Persons responsible for implementation.
Mary, a music teacher, parents.
Long-Term Continuing and Adult Education, Career/Technical Education Goals (May Include Public or Private Technical School)
Mary intends to pursue a college course in music, and, as far as her wish to get higher education is concerned, her plans to go technical college are minimal.
Yearly goals to accomplish long-term target.
Person(s) responsible for implementation.
Community, Financial, Self-Determination, Social, and Life Skills Outcomes
Long-Term Residential Goal
Mary will live with her parents not unless she secures a job far away from home or establishes her career far from home. She will apparently mange her finances and other aspects of her life, though she will be consulting her parents regularly.
Yearly goals to accomplish long-term goal.
Mary will assist in household chores at home including cooking, washing utensils, laundry, and cleaning the house.
Mary will be managing the money her parents give her any time she successfully completes a task Mary was charged with. This will be done with assistance from her parents to enable Mary to learn how to manage her future finances.
Person(s) responsible for implementation.
Her parents and a special education teacher.
Long-Term Transportation/Mobility Goal
Mary will be trained on how to drive, though she will also be using public transport occasionally.
Yearly goals to achieve long-term goals.
Mary will start her driving lessons by August of this year while she will also be using public transport when going to different places.
Person(s) responsible for implementation.
Her special education teacher, her parents, and Mary herself.
7. Long-Term Financial/Income Needs Goal
Mary will open a bank account, make deposits at least once a month, develop a budget, and manage her finances on her own.
Yearly goals to accomplish long-term goals.
Mary will open a bank account and balance her own financial statements to monitor her deposit withdrawals and interests generated. She will operate through a budget that she has developed and will be buying her personal items by August the next year.
Persons(s) responsible for implementation.
Mary, her parents, her business teacher and a special education teacher.
8. Long-Term Self-Determination Plans
Mary will have the freedom to choose what she should be involved in and to determine the level of her participation in different activities. She will request for special facilities where it will be needed and in case the teachers forget to supply her with some.
Yearly goals to accomplish long-term goal.
Mary will undergo training on self-determination in her social skills class. She will be asking for modification and accommodation from teachers who forget to supply them. She will create a profile detailing her strengths, weaknesses and goals she has set to accomplish by August the next year.
Person(s) responsible for implementation
Mary, her parents, and a special education teacher.
9. Long-Term Social and Communicative Competence Goal
Mary will monitor and evaluate her own behavior and compare her performance to her set plan.
Yearly goals to accomplish long-term goals.
Mary will monitor and assess her behavior and report to her special education teacher every Friday to ask for rewards and recommendations.
Person(s) responsible for implementation.
Mary and a special education teacher.
10. Health/Safety Goals
She will live with her parents for safety and health reasons and where alone follow her hygiene program.
Yearly goals to accomplish long-term goals.
Similar to those under the residential plan.
Person(s) responsible for implementation.
Similar to those in the residential plan.
Student’s career preference.
To work in the music industry.
Student’s major transition needs.
Monitor health hygiene
Participate in community activities
Increase social skills Inquire about possible music colleges
Provide direct instructions in self determination
Running head: TRANSITION PLAN 1
TRANSITION PLAN 2
The WOMAD Music festival
` Music is the language that best defines the world and its inhabitants. It is the best and most effective way of passing messages and expressing one’s point of view in any occasion. The WOMAD concert, which in full stands for World of Music, Arts, and Dance, is among the well-known international concerts that have made a great impact on the world entertainment industry. Since its formation in 1980, the organization has seen tremendous growth and achieved abundant fame. The WOMAD concert that I recently attended was graceful as usual but exceptional. It was scheduled to take place on 27 September 2013 from 6pm to 6am in the UK. A stream of spectacular performances took place that night but the most outstanding and eye catching was the performance of the Kanda Bongo Man. The uniqueness of his genre of music and dance style makes him prominent.
Kanda Bongo Man was born in a remote village called Inongo in the Democratic Republic of Congo in the province of Bandundu. His passion for music started back in those days when he decided to join orchestra belle mambo’ as a singer. He did well and developed a sound influenced by his mentor and teacher, Rochereau Tabu Ley, who was then the founder of Orchestra Belle Mambo’ band and one of Congolese living legends. After gaining enough exposure and experience, he headed to Europe in search of greener pastures in his music career.
He settled in Paris (France) and developed his music further through incorporating some elements of the vibrant zouk’ music that had its roots from the French West Indies. His former two unaccompanied albums, “Iyole” in 1981 and “Djessy” in 1982 made him famous in the world. He had reinvented the famous soukuos’ genre of songs. The initial soukuos’ music was in such a way that the singers would first sing a few verses and then the guitar would solo at the end. Nevertheless, kanda rearranged the order by incorporating the solo guitar at the beginning of the song and at the end of every verse. This made his music different from the others.
His presence at the WOMAD concert became evident even before he came on stage. As he was called upon to perform, the crowd shouted and praised him. His efficient and able band came in first and took their positions. The unique musical instruments present included the tumba, maracas, and combo. They worked together with the drums to ensure a smooth flow of the beat and guide the tempo of the lead instruments, which are the guitars in the case of soukuos’ music. Kanda finally graced the occasion by taking the stage with his famous song isambe monie’. Dancing to the soukuos’ beat was one of the most amazing experiences in the concert.
The lead guitar gave the exquisite melody that made the rhythm of the song flow hand in hand with the base guitar that was providing a rhythmic back up. A true revelation of his style of music was evident, especially when there were subsequent breaks after every verse of the song to pave way for the lead guitar to solo and usher them to the next verse. At this point, there was vigorous dancing. Just next to Kanda Bongo Man was a team of four dancers. There were two women with black attires and two men in white. Both danced to the rhythm letting their waists to do the talking whereas their hands danced rhythmically behind their waists. The quality of the song was unique as compared to other performances. Every single trick made by the guitarists was audible enough for anyone in the concert to notice. The song was well balanced such that every aspect was well presented to the audience.
Everything about the first piece of his performance was perfect. The second song performed was, however, slower in tempo as compared to the first one. The lyrics of the song were well organized and they fitted well in the flow of the song. This performance was the reason why most of us were there.
Arousing the dance feelings of the audience was the motive behind the performance. The message passed was an appreciation of the West African culture and a show of the richness of West African songs. It was a uniting performance that highlighted how the European culture blends in with the West African culture. This is evident from the soukuos’ songs style of composition that has borrowed some elements from the French zouk’ songs. When Kanda Bongo Man was performing, he could request the audience to wave their hands and the response was immediate. This proved a uniting bond with the audience.
The WOMAD is a concert that I would recommend to anyone who loves West African music. This project has been a good learning experience and has taught me much about the diverse genres of music that I did not know on a practical basis.
Mona Lisa, the mother of modern art
In the world today, art has continued to receive outstanding attention from every quota of human society. Its evolution has been witnessed over the years with remarkable improvement experienced day by day. The Italian art is one of the most celebrated forms of art in the modern world. Its history is vast and deep. Moreover, its development contributed in many ways to the evolution of modern art. Italian art is quite unique, and it ranges from architectural designs to drawings and paintings. These forms of art are well represented to depict the Italian culture as well as the artists’ deep mastery of art that they have acquired over the years.
There are several pieces of art acknowledged all over the world that come from Italy. The most famous art work associated with this country is the Mona Lisa portrait. Since it was painted by the famous Leonardo Da Vinci between the year 1503 and 1506, this piece of art has been the most written and sung about, the most visited and the best work of art in the world (Mohen et al. 18).
Leonardo’s inspiration to prepare this painting was drawn from his undying urge to understand nature and how everything worked. In this piece of art, which is a significant symbol of the Renaissance art, he attempted to depict his understanding of geometry, color combination and depth that the Renaissance art had brought. In many ways, this piece of art succeeded in showing how art had evolved at that time. It depicted the ambiguity of expression, magnificent expression, subtle modeling and the atmospheric illusionism that the Renaissance age had brought to the world of art. Today, the piece sits in the Louvre museum in Paris on permanent display (Mohen et al. 21). This piece of work together with other works of Leonardo such as the painting of the last supper, brought about remarkable developments in art that have continued to influence many artists in subsequent years.
This piece of art has drawn attention of many art writers. One of them is Ernst Gombrich. In his book, the story of art (301), he makes a very candid analysis of the Mona Lisa painting and its impact in the art world. He has dedicated a considerable amount of time and effort to study Renaissance art which this outstanding painting originated. Using this painting as an example, Gombrich cites how different themes of art have been developed since the Renaissance age. These themes include proportion, depth and color illusions. This piece of art has depicted these themes in an outstanding manner that has rendered it the best piece of visual art in the world. Gombrich has also compared this piece of art with other works done by Leonardo Da Vinci to show its superiority. For instance, he compares this portrait with that of the last supper, and others that were done by artists who prevailed in this era (303). This helps other scholars in understanding the contribution that this piece of art contributed in shaping the trends in modern world of art.
This work of art also draws similar reactions from critics and other artists. Upon properly observing this piece, it is evident that it has the status of a masterpiece that portrays how Leonardo had superior mastery of art. The use of pyramid design to center the portrait was a clear manifestation of expertise. The landscape effect that is found on this piece, which appears to be in harmony with Mona shows how Leonardo had succeeded in bringing a new form of art into existence (Mohen et al. 42). This piece of art scores high in every angle of analysis, hence making it a success story as far as Renaissance art is concerned.
On a personal point of view, this piece changed the history of art in a big way. The way it managed to bring about the use of color contrast to depict depth on flat surfaces is magnificent. In the context to which it was prepared, this painting demonstrates how art had taken big steps in advancement in Italy. It tells much about the artists and architects who existed in Italy in the age it was made. Anyone who visits Italy can bear witness that the structures and artwork that is found in this country is magnificent. Cities like Rome and Venice have phenomenon landmarks that have been preserved over the years, and they depict the success of those artists that existed at the time they were made. The Mona Lisa is just one of the many outstanding pieces that ancient Italian artists managed to come up with during their time, and their legacy has persisted in the modern Italian artists and architects. This work of art managed to change how artist approach their work in a big way.
From the discussion of the Mona Lisa, important lessons have been learnt concerning the evolution of art. As one of the most famous pieces of art of all times, this painting offer important lessons to the modern artists. As much as it can be seen as if new ideas in art have been exhausted, it is never too late for any of the modern artists to bring new ideas that can change how people will view art in the future. The Mona Lisa was a success story for Leonardo during his time, but this does not mean he exhausted any meaningful discoveries. The world is changing, and so is art.
Gombrich, Ernst Hans. The Story of Art. London: Phaidon Press, 1995. Print
Mohen, Jean-Pierre , Michel Menu and Bruno Mottin. Mona Lisa: Inside the Painting. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2006. Print
Renaissance and Modernity
Renaissance is a term used to describe the modern world in various aspects. It’s therefore, concerned with rebirth, regeneration or a new start. It is the time when human beings started to accept an objective, statistical and coherent approach to the truth and rediscovered the significance of human beings with their resourcefulness and creativity in arts.
This paper will address how Renaissance marked a significant step towards the rebirth of Modernity as studied in the contemporary society. In order to fully understand this assertion, we shall consider two aspects of Renaissance which are; Arts and Literature. During renaissance, new form of thoughts, organization and expressions were given worldview way by medieval society. For some scholars, renaissance is concerned with cultural revival while others described renaissance with regard to rapid social, cultural, technological, geographical and economic changes which the scholars assigned different geographical and chronological limits. Renaissance in literature and arts is all about how poets and writers regarded themselves in various societal aspects.
Italy is believed to be the origin of renaissance where various aspects are concerned. Northern Italy had city states where renaissance states were developed from urban centers, where Florence State is being considered as the most powerful and influential aspect. According to Marvin Perry, Florence can be considered to be the origin of renaissance and a post of trade that was very powerful during those periods. The city states developed as independent political units due to weakness of Roman Empire and papacy. Therefore, powerful states grew to fill the vacancies which were left by weak existing ones. In these urban centers, the residents had a lot of possessions, sovereignty and a liking to develop and enhance arts in order for people to take pleasure in worldly life. The reminders of ancient Rome’s prominence were everywhere in Italy.
Businesses and industries expanded which led to disputes on military prowess, civil strife, warfare and a fixed hierarchy of lords and vassals decayed in favor of individual achievements, excellence and ambitions. However, the states were not politically stable and thus the need for new governments as a solution. Initially, they were experimenting with devised theories as a way to validate republicanism rather than imperial and papal governance which they regarded as interference. According to Marvin Perry, pope had a great responsibility to rule Rome and run the Catholic Church. Papacy was growing to be a worldwide politician instead of being an influential spiritual leader. All this was happening while the city states became more powerful.
Many of Roman Catholic Church leaders also became influenced just like the pope and they started giving special treatments and adapted to the norm of bribery which was practiced in powerful positions. Due to the witnessed declination, Rome had shattered the ancient city but in the middle Ages, it began to grow, flourish and develop. All this happened during renaissance under the rule of papacy although experiencing weak institutions and political base. Venice and Milan gained power and wealth which attracted many artists and literature writers to go back to politics and wealthy streets to emulate them.
Individualism in Renaissance towards Modernity
Individualism is defined as the moral stand of a person, the communal outlook that emphasizes sovereignty, independence political philosophy and personal authorization. Humanism on the other hand was a term used in social philosophy principles and the intellectual periods that occurred between 1350 and 1600. Humanism was a culture of the elite who were the privileged minority in the society at the expense of the majority masses. Appreciation of worldly pleasures, individual independence, the philosophy of secularism and expressions were all supported and favored by return of classics. Renaissance was mainly characterized by humanism and literature study of Roman and ancient Greek which was an educational and cultural based program. However, humanism later changed to dictatorial rule which replaced the ideal individual with the ideal nobility.
There are many renowned writers and poets from Italy who have contributed to various issues and vital areas affecting the society. Some of the renowned poetic include: Petrarch, Dante Alighieri and Giovanni Boccaccio. Petrarch was regarded as the founder and father of humanism in the period ranging from 1304 and 1374. He published a book by the title Secretum’ based on his personal and imaginative dialogue with Augustine. Dante Alighieri was also a great Italian poet who was well known for writing the poem Commedia’ which demonstrated the real life activities in society between 1310 to 1314. He later renamed it Divina Commedia’ which predestined divine comedy in English. He was also a well known writer with regard to European literature. Giovanni Boccaccio was an Italian poet as well as a famous author who was a correspondence of Petrarch. He authored Decameron’ among other well known books and was also famous for his writings that were focused on issues to deal with women. All his poetry was in Italian language probably to reach well to his audience.
Niccolo Machiavelli is said to have given the best expression on renaissance preoccupation with political authority and power. He was an Italian a poet, political philosopher, a musician, a diplomat and a playwright. He was the main feature of Italian renaissance while at the same time at the center of Italian political scene. He wrote a thesis on Western World and its political powers. He is also worldly known as the original writer on realist’s political theory which is contemporary employed in various aspects in political circles. Machiavelli’s modern political theory according to his book The Prince’ was rational, secular and realistic. The invention of printing and transition to Modern Age led to literature being an important aspect of many people’s daily life which was why all the above writers among others made developments and innovations for their literature to be distributed at cheaper prices even as demand had also increased. These contributions greatly contributed to the modern predicaments in various aspects of life.
Renaissance and the Aspect of Art and Literature towards Modernism
Renaissance Art had three art forms that reflected a style emphasized on balance, harmony and proportion. Therefore, renaissance’s essential meanings in Italy were mainly conveyed through art sculptures and paintings. Due to renaissance movements, there was widespread development of arts and new techniques and styles were incorporated. Early stages of renaissance saw different artists, poets and writers try different techniques to make the end product better and improved.
This method of improving and developing techniques saw other renowned artists influenced thus they tried to emulate them. Well renowned Italian artists included; Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael Sanzio Santi and Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni. All the three formed the traditional trinity of great masters during their time. Leonardo ser Piero da Vinci was mainly known for his paintings of Monalisa’ and The Last Supper’ that were his most famous works worldly known to be unique, mostly religious which were reproduced. Michelangelo was regarded as an Italian renaissance painter, engineer and a poet. He was so versatile in his disciplines thus, considered to seek the title of Archetypal renaissance alongside Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci who doubled as his competitor. Raphael Santi was an Italian painter and architect of renaissance worldly celebrated for his gracious and perfect seeking drawings and paintings.
Renaissance with the help of art and printing development spread to Germany, England, Spain, and France. This was in the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries when liberalization in political and soci0-economic aspects was taking shape. As it moved towards the North, renaissance culture adopted each country’s culture which was very different from that of Italy. In France for example, classical scholar Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus is hugely accredited for making renaissance humanism a global movement. Renaissance spread led to a lot of prosperity which influenced and encouraged education and new technology and print development despite a lot of censorship creating a publishing industry. However, Sir Thomas More is known as the most dominant humanist of the English renaissance.
Besides being a lawyer and a statesman, he was also an author in various topics touching on modern life. He was credited for having written the book Utopia which further advanced the aspect of modernity. William Shakespeare also a renowned writer who gave renaissance four vales including honor, heroism, fortune and struggle against fate. Middle age was formed and became active after the Italian renaissance where philosophy of humanism was developed. This philosophical humanism paid attention to the overall meaning and significance of an individual’s excellent achievements that were based on many wide areas. Humanists were regarded to be responsible for the influence on arts and literature that even the importance of both arts and literature sky rocketed into a new level of huge and great significance.
Renaissance formed the rebirth of modernity in many aspects especially in literature and art. These aspects included individual roles played by human beings in history and nature, politics, war, diplomacy, society and most importantly arts and literature. Humanists revived ancient times into what is currently available and practiced in modern world. However, this does not mean that they understood, branded or identified completely with renaissance as has been demonstrated in the discussion above. That is why; the rebirth was done cautiously and with self-consciousness.
Modernity on the other hand is a wide spread process of progressive social changes. Northern humanism encouraged a rich tradition in literature which Shakespeare among others came to represent. The transition from middle age to modern age was barred by economy expansion, secularization and political centralization. Due to internal wrangles, differences and arguments between the church (Catholic) and the state, the relationship was weakening considerably. According to Marvin Perry, a change due to new techniques and ideas that made arts and literature be viewed differently still currently cause conflicts in the society and formed the basis for emergence of modern interest groups, political institutions and the current era of modernity.
Gene, Brucker., Buonaccorso, Pitt., Gregorio, Dati and Julia, Martines. Two memoirs of Renaissance Florence, New York: Harper & Row, 1967.
Perry, Marvin and Margret, Jacob. Outlines & Highlights for Western Civilization, Journal of International and Political Economy, 2009, 2(1): 210-230
Walter Horatio Pater, The Renaissance Studies in Art and Poetry, Journal of Modernism and Fascism, 2004, 25(2): 421-475
Werner, Leonard Gundersheimer. The Italian Renaissance, European Renaissance and Reformation, 1993, 12(4): 23-98.
Walter Horatio Pater, The Renaissance Studies in Art and Poetry, Journal of Modernism and Fascism, 2004, 25(2): 423
Werner, Leonard Gundersheimer. The Italian Renaissance, European Renaissance and Reformation, 1993, 12(4): 33
Perry, Marvin and Margret, Jacob. Outlines & Highlights for Western Civilization, Journal of International and Political Economy, 2009, 2(1): 211
Perry, Marvin and Margret, Jacob. Outlines & Highlights for Western Civilization, Journal of International and Political Economy, 2009, 2(1): 212
Gene, Brucker., Buonaccorso, Pitt., Gregorio, Dati and Julia, Martines. Two memoirs of Renaissance Florence, (New York: Harper & Row, 1967) 23
Perry, Marvin and Margret, Jacob. Outlines & Highlights for Western Civilization, Journal of International and Political Economy, 2009, 2(1): 216
Walter Horatio Pater, The Renaissance Studies in Art and Poetry, Journal of Modernism and Fascism, 2004, 25(2): 435
Werner, Leonard Gundersheimer. The Italian Renaissance, European Renaissance and Reformation, 1993, 12(4): 43
Gene, Brucker., Buonaccorso, Pitt., Gregorio, Dati and Julia, Martines. Two memoirs of Renaissance Florence, (New York: Harper & Row, 1967) 29
Perry, Marvin and Margret, Jacob. Outlines & Highlights for Western Civilization, Journal of International and Political Economy, 2009, 2(1): 219
Werner, Leonard Gundersheimer. The Italian Renaissance, European Renaissance and Reformation, 1993, 12(4): 67
Expression of Creative Activity
Art is the various ways of expressing human creative skills, either by music, painting, literature, and dance among other ways. It helps the creator to be able to communicate to his target in a certain way they can understand and appreciate the art contents. According to this article the author believes that art has been about manufacturing narratives and creating them in the right context.
I agree with the Times author on this article. Reason being, as much as many people believe the power to come up with creative paintings ,it has to do with passions and also training. This is not necessarily true since there other activities that artists engage in, for instance music and do not need much training. Aelita has got talent in coming up with creative paintings. Many parents would assume that their kids could do that too, but in this case her paintings are being shown at different exhibitions and sold at five figure amounts, keeping in mind it is a five year old’s painting, and the reason being the painting are interesting for a young profession like Aelita. However, the author tries to show there is a need for parents learn their children’s talents at a tender age. With this knowledge on what their child can do, they can support the child in perfecting the talent especially during their leisure times.
Aelita Andre ability to understand her talent with the help of her parents, is a challenge offered to parents, especially those who believe that Aelita’s paintings are done mostly by her parents. Parents are very protective of their children’s activities, it is not possible to find a parent commenting on such a matter, knowing well, there are many situations the parents would be put through and the child.
Cy Twombly an American painter, started painting and art by scribbling, calligraphic and graffiti works. His paintings could be interpreted by their shapes, forms and words as he applied to his work a lot of classical myths and allegories.
It is therefore for every adult to contribute to nurturing the young child’s talents since it can also earn them a living in the future.
EXPRESSION OF CREATIVE ACTIVITY 4
Running head:EXPRESSION OF CREATIVE ACTIVITY 1
ESSAY 5: American Musical Theater
A. What famous ballad opera was shown at the Chestnut Street Theater?
The Beggar’s Opera
B. What type of performance would the minstrel show is called today?
A variety show
A. What three (3) artistic acts (idioms) were combined in The Black Crook?
A. Who wrote Alexander’s Ragtime Band?
B. From what heritage did he come?
C. What was his real name?
A. What is the reason that some people classify Kiss Me Kate as a musical, while others classifying it as a musical comedy?
It is a play within a play with parallels between farcical plays and actor’s equally farcical lives including cleverly composed songs.
B. In the United States, what date is used to separate operettas from musicals?
A. The first operettas came from France and are the work of vaudevillistes; what is the definition of a vaudevilliste?
These were street musicians and lyricists who frequented the boulevard of Paris.
A. How is Leonard Bernstein’s West Side Story categorized as a musical? A musical comedy? An operetta?
B. Why? (Justify your answer.)
All theatrical events from 1927 were considered to be in the category of musicals.
A.In his Princess Theater shows (1915 through 1918), name three (3) new practices that Jerome Kern used in his new musical theater work
Used real American characters
Started with a story and made music that fits the dramatic situation.
Used smaller theatre to present a more intimate show
B. Kern also wrote the model for what a show tune should sound like. What is the name of that song?
They Didn’t Believe Me
C. What is the new (present-day) model for a show tune?
This is music whose role in a musical was not pure entertainment but helped in building the storyline.
A. Define leitmotif.
A musical intention related to a person or a situation
B. Give an example (not from the essay) that uses a leitmotif.
In the movie Jeepers Creepers, a musical motive is always heard when as the dreaded beast approaches
C. Explain why you chose this example.
This is an outstanding part in the movie since it prepares a viewer for what is about to happen.
A. State two (2) reasons why the 1936 movie version of Show Boat was picked to be required viewing
It reveals the use of musical motives to build the plot of the movie
It shows reveals historical injustices in America based on racism thereby telling the true American history
B. Should Show Boat be edited? Be sure to state why or why not.
Show Boat should not be edited since it reveals the way of live among Americans of different races and how the society evolved to overcome racial segregation.
A. Describe the scene in Show Boat where the sheriff tries to arrest the lead actress of the Cotton Blossom.
That night Julie, actress of the Cotton Blossom, was warned that the Sheriff was on his way to arrest her. Steve, the main actor, cuts Julie’s hand and drinks a drop of her blood. When the sheriff arrives to announce that Julie is under arrest because she is of mixed which makes her marriage illegal.
B. On what grounds (for what reason) does the sheriff threaten to arrest her?
She is to be arrested because she is a black woman who married to a white man.
C. How was she able to prevent being arrested?
Steve drank a drop of her blood and claimed that he had black blood and their marriage was legal. This made the sheriff unable to arrest Julie.
A. Describe the olio scene in Show Boat.
The Olio scene illustrates an entertaining variety show that customarily complemented the play.
B. What did the duck have to do in this scene?
The ducks in this scene created an impression on the theme of the musical. They acted as a leitmotif.
C. Describe how the captain finished the scene on the Cotton Blossom.
Captain warned the main actor to stay away from trouble with the authority.
A. What did George Gershwin mean when he called Porgy and Bess a folk opera?
The people had a major role to play in the opera. They were embodied to most of the choral parts.
B. Duke Ellington criticized Gershwin’s opera and music critic Virgil Thomson defended Gershwin’s work. State in some detail both sides of this argument, and tell me your thoughts about it.
Duke Ellington’s criticism was centered on the issue of appropriateness. It was not appropriate to represent the black life using stereotypical terms. Vigil Thomas argued that George Gershwin was acting within his artistic province. Artists according to Thomas must be given some artistic license to present their work.
It is true that Gershwin was acting within his artistic freedom to address racial issues in the society.
A. After listening to Leontyne Price sing Summertime, tell me whether or not she sings in bel canto, and be sure to justify your answer.
Leontyne Price sings in bel canto voice but the lyrics of the song are in English. She is remembered as the singing voice in Gershwin’s Opera. Her great dexterity and bel canto techniques are portrayed in Summertime.
A. What is the meaning (in English) of the Italian word aria?
B. What was done to Porgy and Bess to make it sound more like a musical?
The shows was cut by forty five minutes to make it shorter
The recitatives were deleted
C. What was the final form of Porgy and Bess a musical or an opera?
Opera, since the recitatives were restored.
A. What is the name of the villain in Oklahoma!?
B. Describe the scene in the smokehouse, and include some details in your description.
When Curly goes into the smoke house, he finds Jud polishing him pistol. The hatred between them makes him tell Jud that people will miss him when he is dead. Jud responds by telling Curly the story that he hates about Laurey. The two start arguing and Jud tries to shoot Curly, when the latter takes out his gun
C. What is the title of the song sung in the smokehouse?
Oh What A Beautiful Morning
A. Name and describe two (2) techniques Oscar Hammerstein uses in his lyrics.
He used ordinary speech by refraining from indulging in clever wordplay
He kept everything in the version of a song verse form by restricting his songs to advancing the storyline.
B. What is unusual about the way Rodgers and Hammerstein opened (began) the musical Oklahoma!?
He used the ballet sequence to paint a psychological problem faced by the central characters
A. Describe in some detail the nightmare ballet sequence, and state how it serves to further the story line
It entailed a Freudian mental implication which has a sequence that contains murder. The sequence serves to supplement the story by leading to weird ballet sequence. It helped in entertaining the audience who gave their responses while participating throughout the sequence. It also helped in creating an image of the problem facing the main actors.
B. What does this tell us about Laurey?
Laurey is a loving person who to prevent the death of Curly is willing to give herself to Jud
A. How did Jerry Bock make his musical Fiddler on the Roof musically acceptable to American audiences?
He modified it using the traditional harmonic minor scale to make it sound American.
B. What is Fiddler on the Roof about (what is the story)?
It is about the plight of the Eastern European Jews during the time of pogroms. It also reveals how Eastern European Jews were forced to migrate to other countries.
C. Define the word pogrom.
The persecution of Jews in Czarist Russia
A. The critic Walter Kerr was critical of Stephen Sondheim’s work (particularly Company), as were some others. State two (2) impressions they gave of his work.
His shows were not as popular as other musicals.
His shows were of lower standards compared to other British imports.
B. What has happened to American musicals in the last years of the twentieth century?
American musicals went into decline and were replaced by British imports
A. Describe in a general way, and in some detail, how Sondheim: A Celebration at Carnegie Hall is organized, and state what is it designed to do.
It is structured as another session accolade to the writers.
B. Describe the antics of the Master of Ceremonies in some detail.
Performers share their talents in the musical theatres leaving a lasting impact. The masters of ceremony make this event unforgettable to the onlookers.
C. When did Sondheim appear in this video?
Sondheim appears at the end.
A. What did you learn in this essay that you didn’t know before?
Leitmotif and the way it is used in musicals.
B. What do you think about musicals and musical theater in general?
Musicals and musical theatres are essential in the development of movies and informative music. In addition, through musicals, numerous artistically compositions have been witnessed in the development of the film industry
C. What kind of musicals do you prefer light comedy? Fantasy? Romantic? Dark? Be sure to tell me why.
I prefer romantic musicals. This is because; the music composers and musical script writes blend the two genres in ways that evoke emotions from the audience.
The Mythical Toad versus Hetaira
This short essay compares and contrasts two works of art that are archived in the Indianapolis Museum of Art, which is the encyclopedic museum of Indiana in USA. The first piece of art is the Ballgame Waist Yoke in the Form of a Mythical Toad, whereas the second piece of art is the Attic Red Figure Kylix: Hetaira Drawing Water from a Pithos.
According to information from www.imamuseum.org, the yoke is a depiction of a toad, which, according to the Veracruz culture, is a symbol of fertility and ruler-ship on earth. The two edges of the sculpture are a symbol of jaguars that are associated with royalty, whereas the circular shape represents entrance into the underworld. The green sculpture color gives it a natural appeal and resemblance to a bug-eyed toad of the genus Bufo, which is also found in the Mexican jungles and known for its big mouth. Historically, it is believed that the Veracruz ancient population used to play a ballgame in which the toad sculpture was used to serve as a trophy and an accessory in the games. This game is believed to have been played among the Aztecs, Maya and Olmec, which were the tribes of Veracruz. During the game, the yokes were worn around the hip and used as a tool for hitting a ball made of rubber from one player to the other, or to deflect the ball.
The second artwork, depicting Hetaira, is a drawing on the surface of an ancient cup. This is believed to have been used by the early Greek men to drink wine and beer during their functions and symposia. The drawing portrays a naked woman in a squatting position, with the right knee resting on the pathos (a huge water pot) from which she wants to bathe. According to ancient history, the adult males from the Greek community would hold several parties, which were exclusively for men. No woman was allowed in these parties except when they were invited to entertain or as concubines (also referred to as hetaerae).
There are several similarities that can be observed in the two pieces of art identified above. For instance, the fact that they both originate from the Hellenic era between 500BC and 300 BC. The Ballgame Waist Yoke is believed to have been created between 300 and 600BC, whereas the attic red figure kylix dates back to 500BC. In addition, the Steve Central website depicts that both sculptures are made of very smooth texture, although the yoke is a green-stoneware while the kylix is made from earthenware. Moreover, both the kylix and the yoke are made by unknown artists, and were only received by the museum as gifts fromMr. & Mrs. Eli Lilly, and Lucille Stewart respectively (www.imamuseum.org).
On the other hand, several differences also exist between the two pieces of art, such as the fact that they are made from different materials. As mentioned above, the yoke is carved from a special polished green stone whereas the kylix is carved from polished earthenware. In addition, whereas the yoke hasa Mexican history of the Veracruz culture, the inscription in the kylix has a Greek history behind it. Furthermore, both the pieces of art lack a specific dimension that can be used to define their size and space accurately, though from the images, it can be assumed that they are both portable and probably less than 1 cubic foot (30 cubic centimeters).
Steve Central, Attic Red-Figure Kylix: Hetaira Drawing Water from a Pithos, Steve Central: Social Tagging for Cultural Collections. 2013. Web. July 07, 2013
www.imamuseum.org, Attic Red-Figure Kylix: Hetaira Drawing Water from a Pithos, Indianapolis Museum of Art. Web. July 07, 2013
www.imamuseum.org, Ballgame Waist Yoke in the Form of a Mythological Toad, Indianapolis Museum of Art. Web. July 07, 2013
The Artistic Design of a Modern Piano
The artistic design of a modern Piano brings meaningful order to its users. The whole process of design is meant to incorporate the six principles of the function complex, which include the use, aesthetics, Telesis, association, need and the method of design. To begin with, modern pianos use the right materials, tools and processes which are all focused to improve the intensity of the voice, pitch and playing mechanisms. Most of the strings are made of brass, a good material known for regulation of the pitch and sound vibrations during operation.
The method of the design also incorporates materials of different shapes, for instance, it has a Damper which is soft and triangular in shape to absorb and control the vibrations of the strings hence optimizing tone and response. In the same note, all the pianos are structurally covered with external key beds that are designed to maintain stability when playing.
Pianos are designed to work properly with the least possible minimum human effort. Any person can operate the machine since it has no complicated procedures. The keys are easy to operate and regulate. Similarly most of the parts of this device are made of soft materials that make it easy for artists to use.
Furthermore, pianos satisfy human needs and wants. Majority of artists derive their satisfaction by playing piano. They achieve self-actualization by composing hymns and playing them through pianos. In addition, modern pianos ensure that people deliberately utilize some of the natural and social processes and practices. The art of music through pianos bring people together in the society during social gatherings and ceremonies.
Many self-portraits of Rembrandt reveal an ill-tempered leadership. They represent his impatience nature as well as indicated by his blurred self-portraits. The Rembrandt’s self-portrait exposes the passion of a young man. They also imply that he is a middle-aged man who is has a sense of self-importance on various life perceptions and activities. The Rembrandt self-portraits revealed good perspectives on his life. They also depicted his ambitions towards Amsterdam’s development. Rembrandt understands that his self-portraits are useful artworks as it relates to the disillusionment of his life experiences that includes personal and financial problems (Hurwitz, and Day 231). Rembrandt was involved in court cases in order to advocate for and administer justice.
In contrast, Cindy Sherman self-portraits revealed distortations that make her unrecognizable to the people. Each of her images is loaded with many details that make her to changes completely. The self-portrait of Cindy Sherman is used as an example of art therapy. The artistic approach of the distortations minimizes photography to documentation. It also reveals the mysteriousness in the Cindy Sherman perception to life. Compared to Rembrandt, the self-portrait of Cindy Sherman does not provide serious issues to be considered. Rembrandt provides significant aspects to be considered (Smethrust 108). Cindy Sherman understands that her self-portrait should not be taken seriously. Since, it does not reflect her real life. However, both self-portraits provide different views and life of perception of two people.
The invasion of Spain took close to 8 years from 1808 to 1814 that had much impact on Francisco Goya. The artistic works on the executions seeks to discourage wars by revealing their effects. Goya explored the themes of corruptions, but it also reflected much darker images. This reflected the emotional views on the executions of Goya. The images that were antiwar, the images focused on war to reflect the human perception Similar to Picasso’s views, Goya reflects political perspectives on various public audiences and the execution of the rebels. With the three of May 1808, Goya created historical events that promoted dramatic impacts (Hurwitz, and Day 211). On the other hand, Picasso’s artwork is comprised of various deformed revelations. This seeks to show the emotions. The movement of the artwork is in the main aspect of painting.
The figures of the artistic works of Goya were dressed in white that hold out his arms in reference to the crucified Jesus Christ. The artistic works of Goya reflect the inhuman of the French soldiers that reflected the suffering and respect to the people. Both artistic works have a symmetrical balance on the aspects of painting. The objects of the two works have the same weight. Both have similar political backgrounds. The artistic works of Goya and Picasso are different in the element of design and the concepts of artwork. Picasso’s is different from the artistic of Goya is lighter than the dark value of Picasso. The value of light value in Picasso indicates the emotional state and the effect of the Spanish Civil war (Smethrust 107). Therefore, the two artistic works of Goya and Picasso reflects antiwar figures revealed on the historical differences.
Hurwitz, Al., and Day, Michael. Children and their art: methods for the elementary school. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning, 2007. Print
Smethrust, E. James. Black arts movement: literary nationalism in the 1960s and 1970s. Chapel Hill, NC: Univ of North Carolina Press, 2006. Print