Dear Mr. McKenzie:
The purpose of writing this letter to you sir, is to address the issue of use of glass bottles in storing the drinks that the company manufactures and also innovation opportunities that the company can utilize by manufacturing fruit drinks as well to accommodate all people in all the corners of the world. The company has adopted plastic bottle to store the drinks that they manufacture, with the notion of enabling easy portability. Am not against the plastic bottles when I state this, but I would like to suggest that it would be more appropriate if the company did away with the glass bottles that are widely throughout the world since the company is an international company.
This is because I did my graduate research in the University on this issue. According to the data that I collected from people of all kinds, the young, old, rich, poor, students, scholars, employers as well as employees, it is evident that 94% prefers the plastic bottles. The glass bottles are non-degradable and fragile unlike the plastic bottles that can always be re- used without necessarily offering much intensive care. The company could also increase its profitability by use of fruits to prepare ready drinks. This will attract people who suffer from ulcers since they are not allowed to take soda drinks by medical physicians. This makes them prefer fruit drinks, which they purchase from other companies since they are not available in Coca Cola Company to take care of their health.
I am a Student in the United States currently pursuing my Master Degree in the University. I would in like to work in the field of business in the future. This is the reason why I was motivated to write to you concerning the above issues that could have an impact to the company. I have a passion for business and I am optimistic in the field no matter the competition that is always there. Any opportunity that arises in the field moves me to think critically of the chance that it gives to me to exercise my skills that I have so far gained in my studies.
I admire the diversification in the company in the manufacture of the products it offers. Coca Cola Company has many products like the wide variety of the soda drinks and mineral water. This wide variety of products increases the profitability of the company. I also admire the wide scope of its markets. The company has established its markets all over the world with various processing plants in all the corners of the world. These sub-branches make it convenient for the consumers to access easily the products. The management in the company is effective and cooperative. Due to this good leadership from the management, the employees feel contented with the job as well as the company thus, retaining the qualified staff that has kept the company going.
I would like to request for any internship as well as attachment opportunities in the company if they arise at any time. I would like to exercise my skills and knowledge that I have acquired in my studies as well as acquire other skills from the company. This is because it has been rated as one of the most effective companies in the world.
I will appreciate if you consider my suggestion and request regarding your company and my plea. You can always reach me using my phone number 423-672-2967 and my e-mail address Murray.email@example.com. I wish you and the company all the best.
Thank you for your time reading my letter.
Running Head: ENGLISH 1
Human Resource Management Practices
Similarities between the Domestic and International HRM
Human Resource Management plays a very important role in any forms of organizations (Sims, 2007). In fact, it is the hub of the corporate strategy. This is because HRM can help the company in improving their performance and in the formation of sustainable competitive advantages. Moreover, it helps the organization to have a guiding role, especially within the enterprise management.
General HRM is used to refer to the activities, which are undertaken by organizations in effective utilization of their human resources. Therefore, the domestic and international HRM have similarities in their functions. This means that all the basic functions of the two are the same, whether they are definite in one country or in several countries. These functions include procurement, utilization, allocation, and motivation. Moreover, both domestic as well as international HRM have similar major activities and functions in HR recruitment, planning, performance management, development and training, industrial relations, and compensation.
Another similarity relates to the environmental forces, which influence the functions of the HRM. The external constraints usually include economical, political, cultural, and legal. These have significant impacts on the way the HR functions are executed in both domestic and the global environment (Sims, 2007).
Moreover, both the domestic and international HRM have similar basic objectives. One of the objectives is ensuring that the organization has maximum satisfaction as far as the human resource demands are concerned. Another objective is ensuring that there is effectiveness in the organization. This is achieved through interventions. The other objective is promoting sustainable developments of the firms. This is achieved through maximization of the development of internal as well as external human resource management.
Differences Between Domestic and International HRM
The differences between the domestic and the international HRM are more striking compared to their similarities. In the context of globalization, HRM activities are materially different from its domestic operations. This is because the Domestic HRM is only dealing with one national employee while the International HRM is operating across national boundaries. In fact, the national patterns of HRM are very different from country to country. This is due to the factors of HR roles and competence, culture, institution, and business structure. Therefore, differences are mainly referring to the way they complete the administrative functions within the different environments (Sims, 2007).
There are many literatures about HRM, which indicates the differences between the international and the domestic HRM. One of the main differences in HRM essentially comes from the interconnection between culture and structure of a particular society.
The International HRM is distinguished from the domestic HRM basing on the core activities. These activities include training and development, recruitment and selection, performance management, rewards, and expatriate management. These activities require cultural sensitivity in order for IHRM is effective in the cross-cultural multinational environment.
In order to understand the above differences better, the International Human Resources Management may be defined as an interaction among some dimension. These include Human Resource Activities, and Countries of operation, and Type of employees. It can, therefore, be pointed out that the important variable, which differentiate the international HRM from the Domestic HRM is mainly the complexity of operating in different countries as well as employing different national categories of employees. This is as opposed to the major differences between HRM activities performed.
Standardization of HRM Practices
Standardization of MNE can be defined as the standardization of the overseas subsidiaries’ management practices towards the HQ practices. There are a number of factors, which drives the standardization of the HRM practices. Some of these factors include organizational context, the strategic issues, and the host country context.
The organizational context includes the strategy as well as the structure of the firm, the size, and maturity of the firm and the mode of operation that is employed. It also includes the relative significance of the particular subsidiary. The size of the firm in relation to the MNE has impact of the HRM practices. Closely linked to the size of the firm is the degree of the international experience.
Under the strategic issues, a multinational firm operates in the framework of worldwide conditions. These conditions include the external situations of industry, religion, nation, and inter-organizational alliances and networks. Apart from these factors influencing the international HRM strategy as well as the practice, they also have an influence on the MNE goals.
The factors driving standardization are usually related. They mainly revolve around the environment of the host. It is therefore crucial to understand the culture of the host. This is thus another driving factor for standardization. The work behavior is culturally determined. It is contained in role definition as well as the expectations. It is required to clearly state whether corporate culture would supersede or supplant the other cultures. However, this is usually a subject of much debate. Often, what is meant by corporate culture translates into common practices rather than common values.
The three cultures that interact to influence standardization as well as adaptation include the national culture of the parent company, the national culture of the subsidiary unit, and the corporate culture. The corporate culture acts as a subtle informal control mechanism. It also acts as a potential unifier. Standardization can be achieved through HR practices such as staffing procedure and criteria, appraisal system, training and development programs, staff rotation, and corporate code of conduct.
Research has shown that the cultures as well as the institutional context have significant effects on the human resource management practices. Existing research provides evidence that MNEs adapt to a certain degree to national cultures in which they operate. In addition, subsidiaries that are managed consistently with national cultural expectations have been found to perform better compared to subsidiaries that are managed otherwise.
The aim of the global standardization of the HRM practices is reaching transparency, consistency, and an alignment of the geographically fragmented workforces around the common principles as well as objectives. It is therefore advantageous for an MNE to adopt a worldwide corporate culture for each of its subsidiaries. This will enable the firm to realize its goals, because it will avoid cultural clashes.
The Role of Subsidiaries
Subsidiaries play a very important role in the MNEs. One of the major roles of the Subsidiaries includes specifying the positions of particular units in relation to the rest of the given organization (Kretschmer, 2008). In addition, they are usually expected to perform the contributions. Apart from this, it is important to note that subsidiaries vary in their function, power as well as resource relationships, and initiative taking. They always execute their functions in the host-country environment. The position held by a certain subsidiary within a given global family is a vital aspect. This is especially when discussing the transfers of work practices (Kretschmer, 2008).
The Global Innovators
The Global Innovator (GI) subsidiary is a fountainhead of knowledge for other units (Morgan, Kristensen, & Whitley, 2001). This subsidiary role has become more important as MNCs move toward a transnational model in which individual subsidiaries can act as a center-of-excellence for specific product lines.
The Integrated Player
Integrated Players (IP) also engage in knowledge transfer to other organizational units, but at the same time they are at the receiving end of knowledge flows from other units. As such, this type of subsidiary is a very important node in the MNC network.
Subsidiaries with an Implementer (IM) role do not typically engage in extensive knowledge creation and hence provide little knowledge to other organizational units. They are heavily dependent on knowledge inflows from either HQ or other subsidiaries though.
The Local Innovators
Local innovators (LI) are self-standing subsidiaries, who do engage in knowledge creation, but do not transfer this knowledge to other organizational units, nor receive knowledge from them. Typically, this situation occurs when local knowledge is seen as too idiosyncratic to be of much use in other organizational units.
Every company will have its role to play. However, this will depend mainly on the status of the company, among other factor. The best role that can be played by a company, which is just begging to expand internationally, is the Local Innovators. This is because they have much knowledge about the local. The fact that they need not to transfer their knowledge to other organization is also advantageous in this regard.
Localization of HRM Practices
There are a number of factors, which drives the localization of the HRM practices. Some of these factors include cultural environment, the institutional environment, the mode of operation abroad, as well as the subsidiary roles (Kretschmer, 2008).
The primary reason most companies move to localization is the cost savings. Cendant Mobility’s study underscores this expectation. In all three regions, more than 50 percent of companies listed cost maintenance as the primary benefit of localized transfers. Though the exact savings vary greatly depending on location and extent of localization, it is reasonable to expect that the costs to maintain an employee on a local compensation and benefits package vs. an expatriate package will results in savings of at least 50 percent. Even though cost savings are a result, there are typically other reasons why companies consider localization in the first place. Often, it is to align the terms of the employment with the business purpose.
The Impact of the Culture and Institutional Context
Just like most management practices, the HRM practices are also based on cultural beliefs, which reflect the basic assumptions as well as the values of the national culture in which the organizations are embedded. This leads to the question of what happens in case MNEs want to transfer some of their HRM practices overseas, especially in cases when the assumptions that underlie such practices do not fit with the cultures of the recipient host-countries. Failure to adapt HRM practices to the culture of the host-country can lead to negative results, which may inhibit the performance of the subsidiary.
Some of the effects have been explained below.
Impact on Recruitment and Selection
Recruitment is always an important part in the HRM. In this environment, the importance of finding the right person for the job cannot be over emphasized. This is because the decision of appointing an individual is one of the most critical decisions an employer will ever take (Morgan, Kristensen, & Whitley, 2001). When dealing with a MNE, the selection decisions should no longer be based on ethnic backgrounds or tribal lines. This new environment challenges the traditional approach to recruitment and selection.
Impact on Training and Development
There is also a need to continuously train and develop the workforce. This is meant to achieve competitive advantage. Training will ensure that the employees develop the right skills, attitudes, and knowledge that will enable them to perform their jobs effectively and efficiently. Employees from different cultures will need different type of training. Therefore, the HRM should come up with programs that best fits the employees in their specific environments and culture. This will in turn raise the costs involved.
Impact on Compensation
Wages do provide sources of motivation for various employees. This in turn enables them to perform effectively. The amount as well as nature of compensation is highly determined by the culture as well as the environment of these employees. Globalization has resulted to free mobility of labor. Because of this, people from different cultures have interacted freely. However, this has had a great impact on the HRM, especially when it comes to compensation matters. International companies can advertise through the Internet and recruit employees from across borders.
Impact on Task Distribution
Employee participation will tend to enhance their contribution despite of their culture or environment. In fact, there are various methods of employee involvement. These may include quality circles, joint consultation, and suggestion schemes (Morgan, Kristensen, & Whitley, 2001).
In addition, managers should have a vision. They should always understand what is expected of them. Because of Cultural Differences and complexity, managers should be trained in a way that will enable them to think globally but act locally. In addition, there should be people succession plans for management. The capabilities of any organization to achieve its business strategies in the light of critical success factors for the business depend largely on the capability of its managers as developed within the organization to meet its particular demands and circumstances. These include innovation, quality leadership, etc.
Kretschmer, K. (2008). Performance evaluation of foreign subsidiaries (1. Aufl. ed.). Wiesbaden: Gabler Edition Wissenschaft.
Morgan, G., Kristensen, P. H., & Whitley, R. (2001). The multinational firm: organizing across institutional and national divides. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sims, R. R. (2007). Human resource management: contemporary issues, challenges, and opportunities. Charlotte, N.C.: Information Age Pub..
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES 7
Running Head: HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
COMPLETING THE VISION PART OF YOUR CANVAS
TEMPLATE V.1 VISION DEVELOPMENT
House hold valuesWhat are the kind of things we can do together (a vision that realizes all values)Market (what will the new system provide for stakeholders)Challenges (what is outside your control)What are the success measures that we want to achieveSystems involved (Partnership)Key requirementsTo introduce a technology that will lead to the management of electricity on the demand side.Electricity is crucial to the urban communities targeted by this project. The community has continued to use the more electricity, characterised by increased capita consumption which further drives the power lines on the supply side to meet the high demand.The installation of the smart meters is a technological solution that leads to the efficient consumption of electricity leading to reduce cost due to frequent installation of the plants to meet increased demand(Anderson and White 403)..The introduction of the smart meters will serve all the stakeholders by provision of better information on the householders about the amount of energy used. The retailers of the generators could omit the functionalities that are to deliver benefits to the environment and the consumer householder. It is important that the technology achieve 100% success in meeting all the objectives of all the stakeholders.
This will be measured by home are network that has ability to deliver sustained reduction in the demand for electricity that is measured by the appropriate tariffs and shedding of loads (Darby, 300).
For effectiveness, the system has to comprise the house community members in the urban centres who are the most affected; the retailers of the gadgets should be given financial motivation to sell the right technology, the local government and the power supply companies.All the ministries concerned like the one in charge of infrastructure, ministry of energy and the local government should ensure that the smart meters that are installed meet the requirements for home are network by developing the relevant guidelines (Boice, 133) To increase the conservation of the environment by reduction of the carbon dioxide and also reduce the need to construct new power plants to meet the increased demand.
Increased real time interaction between the retailers and the house hold community that consume the electricityIt reduces consumption and competitive demands leading to poor services by the company. The householders will be able to control their habits in the use of the electricity and energy since it has financial incentivesThe efficient use provision of the electricity provides little financial benefits to the retailers. The smart meters for the house holder’s community have to be fitted with real time home displays in places where they are easily visible. This will enable the consumers to daily regulate the energy consumptions in the homes.
All the protocols that are used in the smart meters and related appliances should be made open to access to enable the consumers to easily switch between the retailers. It has positive impact on the environment since it leads to reduction of the carbon dioxide and other negative impacts on the environmentIt reduce the cost of the city council and the power companies in reducing the cost of energy productionThere are risks of stalling the deployment of the smart maters to the householdersMany household in the communities already have the smart meters that do not have the home area network, for enjoyment of the consumer and environmental benefits, public awareness campaign should be done to inform the householders about the smart meters that are needed. The community and the government will benefit by reducing negative impact on the environment. The process require huge financial cost on the part of the government and the local councilExperts have indicated that there are also risks of installation of the wrong technology that will disrupt normal power supply for sometimes.
TEMPLATE V.2 MISSION DEVELOPMENT
Proposed missionsKey Requirements addressed by the missionHow the key activities address the key requirementMarket needs addressed by the missionSystems and PartnersWays mission addresses challengesSuccess parameters for the missionTo ensure there is consumer and environmental benefits of the smart metering in among householders and the country at large.Making the consumers aware of the smart meter needed (Boice, 54)Improve the consumers understanding of the smart meter technology. There is need among the consumers to reduce the amount of money that is spending on electricity.The smart metering project work with many partners like energy suppliers, consumer groups in the community and government regulators and ministries.The use of the smart meters enables the household in the project to not only control the amount of energy but also bring about efficient control of the budgets (Anderson and White 609). Success of the project will be measured by:
Flexibility on the part of the householders in the use of electricity
Provision of the in home displays features in the smart meters to provide real time information about electricity consumption The smart meter will be made to work in the pre paid mode thus the house hold consumers are to set control the use of the power and top up whenever they require at night and day time.It reduces consumption and demands of electricity at peak hours.This mission ensures that the house holders using the smart meters have display of the use of the energy within their reach
Reduction of spending in electricity due to energy saving solutions in the smart metersMore than 800,000 smart meters have been installed in homes without the home area network capability. Our project will be standardised to ensure HAN is installed in all the smart meters in the households.The overall effect is the reduction of emission of carbon dioxide leading to reduced environment pollution and climate charge (Darby, 120). The missions empowers consumers with flexibility to reduce consumption at peak hours
Reduction in the emission of the green house gases which cause pollution in the environment and climate change.
TEMPLATE V.3 MISSION EVALUATIONS
Empowerment of the consumers to control energy use
The lack of the home display for provision of information deny the customers the intended services There is potential in the market for supply tested and regulated smart meters that provide needed information about energy use The retailers supplying the smart meters without the functionality that is delivering benefits to the consumers and the environment are cheaper but could make the householders delusion
Reduce the emission of carbon dioxide and climate change
This require huge financial cost since it need to be rolled out in large communities for effect to be felt in the environment
The use of the cost effective tariffs is vital in trading the emission of the carbon dioxide and strengthen the price signal.
More research needs to be done on the load shifting of the carbon dioxide.
Template V. 4 SELECTED MISSION DESCRIPTIONS
Broad Mission Description:
To ensure there is consumer and environmental benefits of the smart metering
Key Requirements addressed by this mission:
Making the consumers aware of the smart meter needed
Key Activities to be developed in this mission to meet the key requirements:
Improve the consumers understanding of the smart meter technology
Ensuring that the installation is done in phases to avoid disruption
What services are suggested
The installers will be expected to provide electricity efficiency advice to the householders
The privacy of the householders will be protected and given full control over the smart meter
Resource Requirements (estimated)
The entire project will cost 6.7 billion us Dollars
Success measures relevant to this mission
The provision of quality meters to the householders
More householders saving money on the use of energy
Systems or partners involved:
Energy suppliers, consumer groups in the community and government regulators and ministries.
Challenges addressed by the mission:
Provision of the smart meters to the household in urban areas
Reduction of the energy that is used in the household and the cost of electricity to the consumers.
Reduction of the emission of carbon dioxide and pollution
Anderson, W. and White, V. Exploring the Functionality of Real-time Home Energy Displays, Report to the Energy Saving Trust, Centre for Sustainable Energy, Bristol, 2009.
Boice, C. Home Energy Display Market Test. Demand Side Plan Technical Appendix, Demand Side Plan, Book 4 of 9, testimony presented to the Public Utilities Commission of Nevada by the Nevada Power Company, February 2009.
Darby, S.,Social learning and public policy: lessons from an energy-conscious village. Energy Policy, 34, 29292940.2007.
Minimizing Energy losses in surface oil and gas facilities
Requirement for the surface facilities for the steam based includes; treatment for boiler feed water generation, water pipelines, produced water recycle, steam generation plants, and wastewater treatment units in conjunction with oil treatment, gas treatment units, gathering systems, well pads, and other utilities and offsite parts (ISO 13702 1999). These facilities intended for in-situ burning processes needs steam generation on a smaller scale, produced gas treatment, oil treatment, water treatment air compression units, and other utilities and offsite units. This paper is much concerned about facilities for steam based and in-situ combustion, oil recovery methods. The surface facilities may possibly consist of carbon capture sour gas treatment, equestration units’, cogeneration units for electric power, and s sulfur recovery, being inclusive of the general project.
Thus, the process technique of surface facilities includes process combination and energy regulation to reduce general expenses of steam and power production and increase heat recuperation making out the costs of operating between capital and trade-offs, and reducing the general heat loss and utility heating or cooling. Consequence and risk studies according to Seveso-II (2002) are often referred to as worst-case assessments.
Natural gas covers for 29 percent of the total energy supply in United States’ (2009) and plays a significant role in satisfying our energy needs.1 Although the U.S. at present generates approximately 21 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) in a years, other sources of supply have to be brought in for three major reasons. Primarily traditional sources have been exhausted and new sources must be initiated to cover for this loss. Second, use of natural gas is projected to increase since natural gas taken by many as a necessary part of any tactic to implement optional forms of energy to fight global warming. Third, to attain the national goal of increased energy independence, additional energy generation is required because U.S. production is not enough to achieve demand.
The major sources of air emissions (continuous or non-continuous) as a result from onshore activities comprise the use of compressors, and heat generation, and combustion sources from power pumps, and reciprocating engines (boilers, turbines, and other engines); emissions as a result from venting and flaring of fugitive emissions; and hydrocarbons
All reasonable effort s should be made to increase energy efficiency and modify facilities to reduce energy use. The general goal should be to decrease air emissions and assess less costly alternatives for minimizing emissions that are technically viable. The other suggestions on the management of energy conservation and greenhouse gases are noted in the General EHS Guidelines.
Energy optimization is a significant part of surface facilities process method. The following are general approaches to optimize the energy;
Calculate and measure the thermodynamic shortcomings of the treatment procedures. The actual energy usage has to be higher than the thermodynamic minimum Select procedures with lower thermodynamic lowest energy needed.
Select the surface process unit operating situations go hand in hand with the reservoir working conditions. Thus, the exchange of heat will be reduced. Any heat exchange will have efficiency limitation owing to entropy alterations.
reduce transportation of hot liquid for treatment to keep away from insulation losses
Calculate if straight contact heat exchange can be attained as it will be more resourceful than indirect heat exchange.
If cogeneration is essential, ensure efficiency of fuel by heat recovery steam production.
Keep away from too much production of low-level heat because of seasonal changes of ambient temperatures; less heat from process cooling will have to be detached expending energy in air or water-cooling.
Make the most of heat combination between hot and cold process streams to reduce outside cooling or heating.
Choose equipment like steam pumps, heater turbine s and boilers, with increased efficiencies.
Consider waste heat energy recovery units, If low level heat generation could not be evaded
Thermodynamics gives less energy necessities and most thermodynamic efficiency for a separation procedure, the minimum thermodynamic work needed for separating a uniform mixture in to pure products at stable temperature is given by the rise of Gibb’s free energy of the products over the input (Semiat 8196).
Venting and Flaring
Related gas brought to the surface with crude oil process of oil generation is at times disposed of at onshore facilities by flaring or venting to the environment. This exercise is now extensively seen to be a waste of a valuable supply, as well as an important source of GHG eliminations. Nevertheless, venting or flaring are also significant safety procedures used on onshore oil and gas facilities to make sure gas and other hydrocarbons are carefully disposed of in the time of power, equipment failure, or emergency.
Steps consistent with the Global Gas Venting and Flaring Reduction Voluntary Standard (part of the World Bank Group’s Global Gas Flaring Reduction Public-Private Partnership (World Bank Group 2004) should be taken on when considering flaring and venting alternatives for onshore activities. The standard gives direction on how to remove or attain reductions in the f venting and flaring of natural gas.
Constant venting of associated gas is not seen as current accepted exercise and should be evaded. The related gas stream should be directed to an efficient flare method, even though constant flaring of gas should be evaded if viable options are available. Before adopting flaring, viable options for the use of the gas should be calculated to the maximum point possible and incorporated into production method.
Other options may entail export of the gas to a neighboring facility or to market , gas injection for reservoir pressure maintenance, gas utilization for on-site energy requirements, enhanced recovery using gas lift, or gas for instrumentation. An evaluation of options should be effectively documented and filed. If none of the alternative courses is currently viable, then steps to reduce are volumes should be assessed and flaring should be seen as a temporary resolution, with the eradication of continuous production associated gas flaring as the ideal objective.
In the situation of a need or equipment failure, or plant trouble conditions, supplementary gas should not be vented but rather be sent to a resourceful flare gas system. Emergency venting may be essential under particular field events where flaring of the gas stream is impossible, or where a flare gas method is unavailable, such as a lack of enough hydrocarbon content in the gas stream to support burning or a lack of enough gas pressure to let it to go into the flare system. Explanation for not including a gas flaring system should be completely documented before an emergency gas venting facility is well thought-out.
To reduce flaring situations as a because of equipment failure and plant upsets, plant consistency should be 95 percent and equipment sparing and plant turn down should be provided for in order.
If flaring is essential, non-stop upgrading of flaring through putting up of best practices and new technologies should be established. The following control steps and pollution prevention ought to be taken into consideration for gas flaring: Putting in place of source gas reduction steps to high extent possible;
Use of resourceful flare information, and optimization of the number and size of burning nozzles;
Making best use of flare burning efficiency by controlling and optimizing flare fuel / air stream flow rates to make sure the right ratio of support stream to flare stream;
Reducing flaring from wash out and pilots, without compromising security, through steps comprising;, flare gas recovery units, inert wash out gas, setting up of wash out gas reduction equipments, and setting up of conservation pilots, soft seat valve technology where suitable;
Reducing danger of pilot blow-out by making enough exit velocity and giving wind guards; Use of a dependable direct ignition system;
Setting up high reliable instrument pressure protection systems, where suitable, to minimize over pressure situations and evade or minimize flaring events.
Reducing fluid carry-over and entrainment in the gas flare stream with a appropriate fluid separation system;
Reducing flame lift off
Using flare to manage odor and visible smoke emissions Constructing flare at a secure distance from local communities and the labor force including workforce accommodation units;
Putting in place of burner replacement and maintenance programs to make sure non-stop total flare efficiency;
Metering of the flare gas.
To reduce flaring situations because of equipment failure and plant breakdown plant dependability should be 95 percent and provision are supposed to be made for plant turn down and equipment sparing protocols. Flaring quantities for brand facilities should be anticipated during the primary commissioning time so that fixed quantity flaring objectives can be made up. The quantity of gas flared for all flaring events should be wrote down and reported.
Cooling and Heating Systems
Water preservation opportunities given in the General EHS rule should be well thought-out for oil and gas facility cooling and heating systems. If cooling water is to be used, it should be given out to surface waters in a place that will let utmost mixing and cooling of the thermal plume to make sure that the temperature is ranging 3 degrees Celsius of ambient temperature at the edge of the distinct mixing region or within 100 meters of the discharge place
If biocides and or additional chemical additives are used in the cooling water system, concern should be given to residual result at discharge using methods such as risk-based assessment.
Fire and Explosion
Onshore oil and gas production facilities should be designed, built, and used as per international standards10 for the control and prevention of fire and explosion risks (Ontario Fire Marshal 2010). The major effective method of stopping fires and explosions at oil and gas facilities is by controlling the discharge of combustible substances and gas, and the early disruption and detection of leaks (Wormald n.p). Possible ignition sources should be kept to a lowest and sufficient isolation distance between possible ignition sources and combustible material, and between processing facilities and nearby buildings11, should be in place. Facilities should be categorized into risk areas, as per international good practice,12 and according to possibility of discharge of combustible gases and fluid (IFC 16).
All equipment ought to be scrutinized on a daily basis for any of leakage, with corrective step taken, as required, to make sure the equipment keep on operating in a secure and environmentally satisfactory way. All disposal and injection sites supplied with tubing and packed should occasionally oversee the tubing covering annulus pressure in order check the reliability of the packer and tubing. If a well is not finished with a packer, alternative techniques should be implemented, such as temperature logs or tracer logs to make sure the liquids imputed are appropriately controlled and are going into an appropriate disposal formation. Rate of testing depends on the working state. Like, if an area has many corrosion breakdowns, then testing for the mechanical reliability of the well should be regular (API 12).
Interstage Cooling (IC) is a smart alternative for upgrading the efficiency of the HTGR PCS. As extra phases are added, the standard temperature over which injected energy is increased remains higher and/or the standard temperature over which rejection energy is decreased remains lower. If only these were the single effect of the IC, the cycle efficiency would all the time raise with more phases. However, with each extra phase, pressure go down is present.
Additional inter-phase pumping must be completed to cover up for this extra pressure drop. Since the pumps aren’t 100% competent, in the end the entropy loss at some stage in an additional pumping operation results in a lesser overall energy input than without that phase. When this happens, the cycle efficiency in reality reduces. When cycle efficiency upgrading is not justified for the extra cost, the extra phase can be evaluated against attainable component performances.
Intercooler boosts the cycle effectiveness because of reducing the temperature input to the compressor. One intercooler upgrades the cycle effectiveness by approximately 3 %. Once the primary intercooler is used, the second and third intercooler gives much slighter efficiency boosts (Barner 2006).
Major ordinary type of cooling equipment employs a compression cooling cycle. Subsequent to the refrigerant being evaporated through heating from the cooling load, the steam is compressed. This increases the temperature of the gas well beyond ambient temperature, so the heat in the gas can be extracted by cooling it with water or air at ambient temperature. Extracting heat leads the compressed gas to condense back to a warm fluid.
Warm refrigerant liquid coming from condenser is directed into the cooling place by a flow control machine of some kind. The pressure in the cooling place is determined by the suction of the compressor and by the rate of cooling. Because the evaporator pressure is, lower than the condenser pressure, a small part of the liquid refrigerant spark into steam when it goes through the control machine. This sparking cools the remaining fluid to the temperature of the evaporator. The liquid refrigerant is prepared to take up heat from the cooling load, going through the phase (Wulfinghoff 1300).
Compression cooling method may as well have accomplice devices or specialized qualities, like; hot gas bypass circuits, , purge units, crankcase heaters valves for controlling the flow of refrigerant to different parts of a coil and many others. The majority of these accessories are particular to specific models, types, or system models.
The temperature differential between condenser and cooling pace is normally higher than those of the real cooling load. This is an issue of great attention, since the temperature differential is the main theoretical aspect that confines COP. As a reasonable example of how the temperature differential comes up, the example of an air-cooled water chiller used for air conditioning is taken into consideration.
Gas Turbines Energy Losses
Gas compressor engines gets their power from burning fuel in a combustion compartment and using the rapid flowing burning gases to move turbine in almost the same manner as the high pressure vapor moves a vapor turbine. It has the second turbine stand-in as an air compressor put on the similar shaft. The air compressor takes in air, compresses it, and provides it at high pressure into the burning engines hence increase the strength of the flames burning.
It is an encouraging response mechanism. As the gas engines speeds up, it also makes the turbine to run hence forcing a lot of air through the burning compartment, which on the other hand boost s the combustion speed of the fuel sending extra high pressure burning gases into the gas compressor raising its momentum more. An exit not controlled is taken care of by controls on the fuel provider line that minimizes the quantity of fuel imputed to the compressors hence minimizing its speed.
Gas turbine uses reasonable quantities of power just to move its turbine. with all cyclic heat turbines, a highest working temperature in the mechanism entails bigger effectiveness (Carnot’s Law), but in a compressor it too entails that extra energy is lost as misuse heat via the burning exhaust gases whose temperatures are usually over 1,000°C . As a result simple cycle compressor effectiveness is low. For heavy machines, design effectiveness varies between 30% and 40%. (The effectiveness of aero machines is in varying of 38% and 42% whereas a low power micro turbine attains simply 18% to 22%). Although raising the firing temperature raises the yield power at a given pressure proportion, there is too a sacrifice of effectiveness as a result of rise in losses because of the cooling air necessary to uphold the turbine mechanism at sensible working temperatures. Compression raises the air temperature so that the air at the discharge of compressor is at a higher temperature and pressure (Brooks 2).
Gases going through a perfect gas turbine experience three thermodynamic procedures. These are isobaric compression, isentropic (constant pressure) burning and isentropic expansion. Jointly, these make up the Brayton cycle.
In a practical gas compressor, gases are primarily speeded up in either an axial compressor or a Centrifugal. They gases are subsequently slowed by use of diverging nozzle called a diffuser; these procedures raise the temperature and pressure of the process. In a perfect method, this is isentropic. However, in practical, energy is lost to heat, because of turbulence and friction. Gases then go from where it diffuses to a burning chamber, or same machine, where heat is increased. In a perfect method, this happens at steady pressure (isobaric heat addition). Since there is no vary in pressure the particular of the gases rises. In practical circumstances these procedures normally go together with a small loss in pressure, because of friction. Lastly, this larger volume of gases are extended and sped by nozzle lead vanes before energy is taken out by a turbine. In an perfect system, these gases are long-drawn-out isentropically and come out of the turbine at their initial pressure. Practically, this procedure is not isentropic as energy is once more lost to turbulence and friction.
Recent research by Bolszo and McDonnell (2009) on emissions optimization of a biodiesel fired 30-kW gas compressor shows that biodiesel liquid properties is a consequence of inferior atomization and prolonged evaporation periods in contrast to hydrocarbon diesel. It emerged that the smallest amount NOx emission levels attained for biodiesel goes beyond the least attained for diesel, and that optimizing the fuel injection procedure will upgrade the biodiesel NOx emissions (Fagbenle 38).
Theoretical research was recently doner by Glaude et al. (2009) to elucidate the NOx index of biodiesels in gas compressor taking natural gas and conventional petroleum gas oils as reference fuels. The adiabatic flame temperature was seen as the main determinant of NOx emissions in gas compressors and used as a solution for NOx emission.
API, Environmental Protection for Onshore Oil and Gas Production Operations and Leases. API Recommended Practice 51rfirst Edition, July 2009
Chang H. Oh Robert Barner, Effects of Interstage Cooling on Brayton Cycle Efficiency: ANS Annual Meeting, 2006. Web. http://www.inl.gov/technicalpublications/Documents/3479831.pdf
C. D. Bolszo and V. G. McDonell, Emissions optimization of a biodiesel fired gas turbine, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol 32, Issue 2, 2009, Pages 2949-2956.
EIA, Offshore Gross Withdrawals of Natural GasEIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2010
Frank. Brooks, GE Gas Turbine Performance Characteristics,’ New York: GE Power Systems Schenectady.
ISO 13702, Petroleum and natural gas industries – Control and mitigation of fires and explosions on offshore production installations – Requirements and guidelines, the Int. Org. for Standardization. 1999.
Mercx, W. P. M., Modeling and experimental research into gas explosions. Overall report of the MERGE project, CEC contract: STEP-CT-0111 (SSMA), 1994. Print.
Ontario Fire Marshal, 2010, Sunrise Propane explosion investigation report, inv. no: 212-007 2008.
Raphael Semiat, Energy Issues in Desalination Processes, Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 42, No. 22, 2008, pp 8193-8201.
Richard ‘Layi Fagbenle (2010). Exergy and Environmental Considerations in Gas Turbine Technology and Applications, Gas Turbines, Gurrappa Injeti (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-146-6, InTech
Pierre A. Glaude, Rene Fournet, Roda Bounaceur and Michel Moliere, (2009). Gas Turbines and Biodiesel: A clarification of the relative NOx indices of FAME, Gasoil and Natural Gas
Seveso-II Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances, The European Commission,2002.
Wulfinghoff, ENERGY EFFICIENCY MANUAL: Compression Cooling’ Reference note 32, 1999. Web. http://www.energybooks.com/pdf/D1132.pdf
World Bank Group. 2004. A Voluntary Standard for Global Gas Flaring and Venting Reduction. Global Gas Flaring Reduction (GGFR) Public-Private Partnership. Report No. 4. Washington, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / World Bank.
Wormald, Fire Protection Solutions for the Oil & Gas Industry Reduce the risks associated with highly flammable and explosive products, 2009. web. http://www.wormald.com.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/153955/Wormald_ResourcesBrochure_Dec09_EmailCopy.pdf
12 Domains of Culture Experiential and Formal Learning
Learning is an act, activity and practice aimed at acquiring new, improved or modified skills, values, knowledge, behaviors and information. Humans, machines and animals possess a certain level of capability with regard to learning. Progress in life forms a gradual learning curve which follows certain principles. Although learning is not a compulsory necessity, it is recommended and contextual. Learning is therefore a process where procedural and actual knowledgeable values and skills are gathered in order to transform an organism’s life relatively and permanently. Therefore, this article will discuss both formal and experiential learning cultures focusing on their learning processes, how they are adapted among people, institutions, organizations and communities as well as the various experiences they undergo when learning and/or teaching.
Human learning culture can be categorized as an educative, training, goal oriented and personal improvement motivational process. Experiential learning culture is a procedure in creating knowledge as well as life changes and transformations attributed to various learning experiences. Thus, it provides multi-linear and holistic models in adult transformation and development. Discussing experiential learning will mostly utilize cognitive skills as the focal point. Formal learning conversely revolves around an education system involving concepts and presentations comprised in a systematic, structured, well organized and administered plan or model. They are based on a set of norms and laws in an institution between a student and a teacher. Although these two learning models seem different, this article aims at retrieving and discussing the similarities.
This model discusses two sets of dialect modes; Concrete Experience and Abstract Conceptualization. They are applied in a learning process in order to grasp values, skills and knowledge from an experience as well as Reflective Observation and Active Experimentation. These are involved in transforming lives from learning experiences. These four dialectally related modes of experiential learning form experiential learning observations and reflections (David et al. 2).
Experiential learning modes emphasize on polar opposite capabilities chosen by the students in order to apply them in a learning environment and situation. While most people in the world depend on their senses, tangible and experienced world qualities, the rest depend on their assumptions and perceptions. However, in both sets, they are able to acquire new informative knowledge and skills. They revise symbolic representations in their lives and/or abstract conceptualization whereby they think, analyze and plan without relying on their sensed guidelines (David et al. 3).
A transforming or processing experience on the other hand involves various individuals watching people they interact with in life undergoing a learning and reflective occurrence while the rest opt at actually going through a similar experience. Individuals prefer to watch their friends, colleagues and neighbors favor Reflective Observation. Individuals who decide to jump right in and do similar things therefore favor Active Experimentation. Based on these four dimensions, it is clear that experiential learning theory offers people different and diverse choices to choose from in order to learn, improve and advance. Thus, experiential learning is utilized by people seeking to resolve conflicting dilemmas as it is based on; hereditary equipment’s, past experiences and environmental demands. Conflicts between Abstract and Concrete as well as Reflective and Active are resolved in patterned learning styles and characteristics (David et al. 4).
This is an educative process adopted in schools, universities and colleges across the world. These education institutions are administratively, physically and curricular planned and organized. They demand that students should always attend classroom based on a formulated formal education program followed by both instructors and learners. This program is believed to assist instructors in carrying out intermediate and final assessment tests aimed at advancing their learners to the next level in a learning process. Formal learning offers degrees, certificates and diplomas to students who pass and advance to the next learning stage. Therefore, it can be classified as a strict, well organized and planned education process governed by a set of rules and regulations (Claudio 1).
In order to teach an important lesson, acquire good characters and respect the sole purpose in formal learning, punishments are applied to those who fail to obey and uphold the mono-directional methodology, rules and regulations. The learners are encouraged in undertaking active participation within the formal learning process. As a result, there are punitive records to learners who fail to advance due to indiscipline and disrespect of the learning process. Learner’s values, attitudes, standards are rendered neither important to the education process nor efficient or effective. Courses offered in this learning system are categorized into; theory, exercises and laboratory activities. Thus, they disregard the course’s adequate order and correlation. Student’s needs and desires in order to record personal growth are therefore disregarded because; basic education values and principles are ignored in the planning and implementation stages of an education system which aims at improving general performance rates. However, students are neither prohibited nor denied the chance to apply; Reflective Observation, Active Experimentation, Concrete Experience and Abstract Conceptualization in order to grasp values, skills and knowledge when they are not following the formal education program (Claudio 1).
Formal learning can be summarized as a system where the students, teachers and institutions are involved in pretense. Instructors pretend they are teaching students who pretend they are learning in an institution pretending to cater, respect and uphold society, teacher and student interests, personal values and principles. Experiential learning conversely assists learners to acquire deep, flexible and comprehensive understanding from life practices and experiences. Therefore, although the two modes portray different modes of learning, they both have similar aims and objectives. They both aim at improving, enhancing, advancing, developing and designing better education systems, processes and assessment methodologies. Thus, learners and instructors in both modes of learning are involved in experiences, concepts and abstracts that are either active or reflective.
Claudio, Dib. Formal, Non-formal and Informal Education: Concepts/Applicability, New York, American Institute of Physics, 2013. Print.
David, Kolb, Richard Boyatzis, and Charalampos Mainemelis. Experiential Learning Theory: Previous Research and New Directions, Weather head School of Management, Department of Organizational Behavior, Case Western Reserve University, 1999. Print.
Smartphones comparisons: iPhone versus Galaxy
Mobile phones have turned out to be integral part of human life. Advancement in technology has transformed mobile phones from huge brick-like shape to small and stylish Smartphones, which are vastly becoming the leading computing devices in the world. There are over one billion users of Smartphones in the world and the market is still growing. This has prompted a war between Apple and Samsung. Apple used to be leading mobile manufacture with its products such as iPhone attracting a great number of consumers but the death of icon founder Steve Job’s has coincided with decline of its volume of sales. On the other hand, Samsung Galaxy series has boasted increase in volume of sales. A number of consumers are torn between the superiority of the two Smartphones. They are compared in terms of form factor, operating system, internal storage, and display resolution (Carare 294). I believe that Galaxy series are better than iPhone series.
Galaxy series S1 to S4 are made up of polycarbonate (plastic) which enhances swapping out battery. IPhone series are made up of aluminum and glass that makes them very fragile. The plastic material of Galaxy series makes them better because it can accommodate rough usage. S4 has a 5.8Super AMOLED screen with more pixel density of 441 pixel per inch compared to iPhone which has 326 pixel per inch. This provides the galaxy series with a high-resolution effort. Furthermore, Samsung colors are visible and more saturated. With the 1080p screen, Galaxy offers a better option of watching movies and playing games (Magid para. 2). S4 has a longer battery life when compared to iPhone 5. Galaxy has 14 hours of talk time and iPhone 8 hours.
Galaxy series uses Android operation system, which is more popular with Google Maps application. Google maps have been available for a very long time and it offers comprehensive and accurate mapping information with complete features such as voice-guided navigation and street view mode. Google map also offers pedestrian navigation and public transport. Galaxy series such as S3 and S4 offers Near Field Connectivity (NFC), which iPhone series do not offer. The NFC connectivity facilitates expedient short-range communication between electronic devices thus easy connection to other consumer devices. The NFC connectivity makes Galaxy series better than iPhone series. S3 and S4 have a pop up play features, which enables users to watch video through a minute floating window. This is normally located on top of other applications that are being used. This feature is not found in any of the iPhone series making Galaxy series better than iPhone series (Sharma 1965).
Galaxy series has standard mass storage and USB host capacity that facilitates easy transfer of photos. iPhone series do not have mass storage mode meaning that individuals do not have an access to file systems of connected storage. In addition, Galaxy series operating system allows third party browser engines to run the system in total contrast to iPhone series, which does not. Chrome is a third party browser engine for android; it is very fast in benchmarks and provides several user interfaces. The other browser engines are Firefox and Opera. The three browsers allow individuals to synchronize tabs between desktop and phone. Galaxy has a quad-core Snapdragon while iPhone such as iPhone 5 is dual-core. This means that Galaxy is twice as fast as iPhone (Sharma 1965).
Carare, Petru. “Unfair Competition: Samsung versus Apple.” International Journal of Innovations in Business 2.3 (2013): 293-297.
Magid, Larry. First Impressions of Samsung Galaxy S4. Forbes Magazine, March 14 2013. Web 21 October 2013 < http://www.forbes.com/sites/larrymagid/2013/03/14/first-impressions-of-samsung-galaxy-s4/>
Sharma, Kavita. “Android In Opposition To Iphone.” International Journal on Computer Science & Engineering 3.5 (2011): 1965-1969.
Insert Surname 1
Frederick of Prussia and Emperor Joseph II of Austria
Fredrick and Joseph were enlightened despots who came to power to and introduced great reforms to their respective territories. Fredrick was dedicated to building Prussis to become one of the strongest at that time. He offered the territorial princes position in the government bureaucracy. He also put up universal religious toleration and approved freedom of the press. He put up protection against the laws by speeding up legal processes. Fredrick abolished torture and made death penalty minimal. He came up with first German law code. Joseph enforced educational rules all over Prussia.
Immediately after taking over leadership from his mother Maria Theresa, Joseph enacted a number of reforms that his mother did not consider. Joseph abolished serfdom to put to an end press censorship. He restricted the powers of Catholic Church. He charged churches with the responsibility of caring for the sick and the poor. Joseph gave the minority religions the capability to live and worship in a more free way. Joseph abolished brutal punishments and limited death penalty. He made elementary level of education compulsory for all children in order to bring into being literate citizens. Joseph introduced universal system of accounting and centralized medical care.
The form of government run by the two leaders is efficient because decisions regarding response to predicament are determined immediately. Monarchy leads to conservation of democracy because it offers equal opportunities to every citizen since it does not belong to any party. In military dictatorship, it is the army, which holds power, and in presidential system, power belongs to the political minority. Monarch form of government enhances patriotism because its serves patriotism interests better than republic systems of government.
Insert Surname 1
Organizations are increasingly becoming aware that leadership plays a crucial role in driving them towards their goals and objectives. Leaders have the task of restructuring and transforming the organization in key areas that aim at meeting customers at their point of need as well as fulfilling market demands as and when they arise. In such a scenario, transformational leaders are the ideal people to bolster performance and ensure value based leadership techniques are widely utilized to transform the business into something bigger than before. Leaders, ought to stay focused and determined enough to spearhead the organization’s key endeavors while aiming to satisfy the unpredictable rising needs of customers.
Losing the focus will only mean that the leader has failed to perform his or her task accordingly and the organization’s failure is in the looming. To avoid such incidences, it is imperative for organization leaders to settle conscientiously those leadership styles and strategies that aim at improving the overall performance of the organization from various perspectives. Certainly, leaders are the backbone of any organization whereby all employees look up to such influential persons to stay focused and foster the best way ahead towards meeting its goals and objectives among them being meeting or even exceeding the expectations of their customers both in service provision and in products. Clear leadership roles should be spelt out clearly and in the best way possible to enhance efficiency in the running of the organization while ensuring that the organization is always ready and willing to give its customers more than what they expected, which will then help to win their loyalty and keep the business flourishing. Additionally, a good leader should strive towards achieving a competent organizational structure that reflects nothing less than success throughout the life of the organization.
This paper explicates the case of AT&T Incorporation identifying key challenges and barriers to the success of the company leading to its failure to meet its customers’ expectations as well as an in-depth analysis of leadership roles needed to bring change and bolster the company towards achieving its goals.
According to Sander & Bobo (2012), AT&T Inc. is the leading Dallas based telecommunications service provider in the United States, whose operational segments include wireline and wireless communication and other services and products through its affiliates and subsidiaries all over the United States and other international destinations. Formally, it operated under the brand name of SBC Communications Inc. pending 2005 when it changed its name to AT&T Inc. up to date.
The company’s wireline segment encompasses the provision of dial-up internet services, U-verse services, enterprise network services, Wi-Fi services, and packet services as well as local and international voice services for a wide array of business applications such as sales and reservation centers among other services. Its wireless segment as well offers both voice and data communication services, sells AT&T branded handsets, and wireless data cards to various individuals with personal computers among other products and services. The company has experienced tough times during its operations since its inception in 1983 having to stomach dubious distinction as America’s worst performing cell phone company. Lately, the company has had to concede to a number of criticisms after rated with poor performance in terms of customer satisfaction according to customer reports.
Information Gatekeepers (2013), explains that currently, AT&T faces three main challenges, which include awful performance, absolute abysmal customer service, and poor value. Apparently, AT&T has been noted with a lot of concern for being the incompetent and unresponsive to new and emerging customer needs. Notably, the company has been lagging behind on 4G technology, which is the latest technology that that enables customers who use smartphones to access and browse with a relatively high speed. The company has also been using fiber optic-based network in provision of TV services to its mere 2 million U-TV customers, which has not worked either as customers keep complaining of poor network reception among other complains.
Information Gatekeepers (2013) explicates that despite the company’s downs, it has a chance of overcoming all the aforementioned challenges should it consider undertaking organizational changes that might help to deal accordingly with these challenges. Embracing these changes would enhance the company to face any form of challenge and keep the company aware of imminent consumer behaviors that the company ought to prepare for and strategize on the best way to go about them. Certainly, when organizations start to experience such turbulent times as those of AT&T, the problem must be emanating from leadership and in such a case, organizational change is necessary. Regarding the case of AT&T Company, embracing structural change, task change, and technological change would be the best thing to do in a bid to save the reputation of the company. Structural change would include restructuring and reviewing of the various spans of authority as well as centralization of authority despite the company’s operations with a number of subsidiaries.
Structural change will enhance quick decision making without having to consume much of a time and thus increasing on efficiency for the benefit of the company. Efficiency will enhance the company and augment its responsive ability to various emerging issues as well as drive the company to greater desirable heights than now. Embracing the change in terms of task will involve a review of the job design geared towards excellence and competence in terms of quality services and products that not only aim to meet customers’ needs and wants but also exceed their expectations. On the other hand, it would be necessary for the company to embrace change in technology in terms of quick absorption of the latest technological arrivals in various aspects to enable the company serve their customers appropriately. Apparently, the company’s technological response is slower besides it being unable to implement competent technology policies that enhance good customer relation in the long run.
For effective change, there is need for AT&T Inc. to settle for an effective change model and utilize it effectively so that the impact is felt and the organization is able to focus on success. Phillips & Gully (2011), elucidates that Lewin’s Force Field Organization Change Model is a classic organizational change management model proposed by Kurt Lewin in 1951. According to Lewin, an organization is a system held by identical conflicting forces in a constant balanced state. He therefore proposed this model on the basis two assumptions, which included the existence of the driving forces for change in an organization and the presence of opposing forces that stand against change. As such, he devised a three-stage process of implementing change to an organization regardless of the nature of the change needed.
The first stage of implementing change as opined by Lewin involved the creation of motivation to change, which he called the process of unfreezing. Under this stage, AT&T Company will need to induce a motivational program for its employees in a bid to prepare them to the imminent changes as far as task, embracing new technology, and structural changes are concerned. Unfreezing will help to do away with retrogressive organizational culture and eliminate the status quo because of the fact that organizational culture is the main obstacle that poses threat and resistance to any form of change. The second crucial stage is adjusting the equilibrium, which will involve implementing of the actual change and developing of a new organizational culture for the benefit of the company in its endeavors. This change may be achieved through three main approaches, which include moral persuasion, re-education, and use of force against forces impeding the change. The third and final stage of implementing change is refreezing, which takes into account the establishment of new norms, regulations, punishments or rewards that have to be done preferably on regular basis for the change to be effective. As such, the company will be able to focus on customer needs and wants with the aim of exceeding their expectation in terms of service delivery and products offered.
Accordingly, the role of the leader who is the chairperson as well as the chief executive officer of AT&T Company has to dominate for successful implementation of the imminent change. Transformational leadership styles have to be take precedence because they have a significantly crucial role in implementing and retaining the required change for AT&T Company. In the field of implementing task change, the leader has to consider a director leadership style in a bid to get b the tasks done in the best way possible to improve the company’s performance. This style will ensure that the leader uses his or her directive in ensuring that whatever is to be undertaken in an organization is achieved.
The style keeps the team focused on organizational goals through supervision and delegation of duties while ensuring that the leader seizes the wider perspective of the firm. Additionally, autocratic leadership style will help in policymaking, make key decisions regarding the future of the organization as well as dictate and assign tasks to each member to enhance a focused environment for employees in a bid to achieve the desired goals and objectives of the company. Better still; the leader should exemplify a high degree of intelligence, social maturity and breadth, inner motivation and achievement desires, and good human relation attitudes for the sake of improving the company’s image. The proper use of the abovementioned approaches to change will enable the leader induce motivation for change as well as achieve the desired goals for the organization.
There are impediments that hamper the success of an organization in its endeavors and no matter how an organization may struggle, there will be success guaranteed if these impediments are not identified, analyzed, and controlled. Information Gatekeepers (2013) reiterates that resistance to change, poor leadership styles, poor customer relations, and corruption among managers leading to embezzlement of funds meant for investment are the key barriers to success. Resistance to change is a major barrier to the success of any organization, which therefore means that an organization will not be able to keep abreast with latest trends in technology, management, and other fields within an organization. Change is an inevitable and yet a significantly phenomenal thing worth the attention of any organization.
Change encourages success as it develops ways and means towards which an organization can easily identify its strength and weaknesses allowing it to strategize on the best way forward to achieving the desired goals and objectives, hence inviting success for the organization’s operations. Additionally, poor leadership styles hamper success by allowing poor implementation of policies and strategies that are worth driving an organization towards realizing its goals. Indeed, poor leadership plays a great role in impeding success of an organization because leaders are the drivers of the organization and failure to execute their duties and responsibilities appropriately means failure of the organization. On the other hand, corruption allows leaders to misuse funds for self-gratification leading to unavailability of funds for investment when needed.
To overcome the aforementioned impediments, there is need to develop a plan that will help in dodging these barriers and instead make them stepping-stones to success. Communication and education as well as the participation and involvement of employees in implementing change will reduce chances of resistance to change and thus allowing the smoothening of the road to success. It will also be prudent for the leader to identify and analyze the nature of his employees in a bid to allow him or her to employ appropriate leadership style that seeks to motivate employees into improving their performance and thus allowing the company to move towards its success.
Appropriate leadership styles will enable the company to focus on the primary goals of the company as well as give employees the morale to work responsibly towards fulfilling the organizational goals. Moreover, the organization can scrape out any corrupt leader within the premises by seeking to test their integrity through various ways and means to reduce embezzlement of funds and allow the organization to focus on profitable investments rather than fulfilling personal goals at the expense of the organization’s money and other resources. In addition, the organization can develop a good customer relationship by always seeking to satisfy their needs and wants.
In conclusion, this paper has explicated the case of AT&T Incorporation, which has consistently performed poorly due to failure to meet its customers’ expectations. The paper has identified three key challenges that face the company ranging from awful performance, absolute abysmal customer service, and poor value. In addition, the paper has covered three organizational changes that are necessary for the company to be able to address these challenges accordingly. Therefore, as regards to the changes required in addressing these issues, the paper has elucidated Lewin’s Force Field Organization Change Model that is crucial in implementing the said changes.
Additionally, the paper delved into an in-depth analysis of leadership needed to bring change and bolster the company towards achieving its goals. The paper has also dealt accordingly with the barriers that hamper organizational strive for success leading to failure in meeting customers’ expectations as well as the plan to overcome these impediments allowing the organization to achieve its goals and thus succeeding in its operations. Indeed, the paper has unveiled that, leaders play a big role in the running of an organization and the choice of the leadership styles and skills to use in managing the activities of an organization determine the path followed by the organization. Therefore, the failure of the leader is the failure of the organization and vice versa.
Information Gatekeepers, I. (2013). MAN: A Monthly Newsletter Covering Worldwide Developments in the “Metropolitan Area Networks” Markets, Applications, Technology. New York: Information Gatekeepers Inc.
Phillips, J. M., & Gully, S. M. (2011). Organizational Behavior: Tools for Success. Cengage Learning: New York.
Sander, P., & Bobo, S. (2012). The 100 Best Stocks to Buy in 2013. Chicago: Adams Media.
AT&T INCORPORATION 9
AT&T INCORPORATION 1
This paper highlights guidelines on ethical decision making process.
An ethical role model who inspires me is my mother. She makes good decisions ethically that guides our entire family. This is by incorporating her personal standards that assist us to choose the right from the wrong. This is evident through her commitment when she serves as an exemplary to the family by doing what is right always. In addition, she is conscious; she acts in a consistent manner by exhibiting good morals that guide us in our daily lives. Furthermore, her competency adds value in my life when she analyses a given situation by identifying potential risks, and gives positive alternatives.
The decisions she makes are good and ethical because; they inspire me to have trust, respect and also to be a caring, and responsible person. Her decisions lay foundation in my life by assisting me to make wise decisions that lead to good behaviors. I choose my mother to be my role model because; she is that kind of a person who shows concern for other people or altruism (Kottler, 2000). She is ready to assist any one in need of help voluntarily to ensure that he or she benefits in life. She is a good listener, whenever an issue arises in the family; she is that type of a person who lends her shoulder to lean on. Sharing problems with her makes me feel comfortable, loved especially when she listens and offers her good advice. She is ready to forgive, and apologize when she goes wrong, gives room to open dialogues and contribute to the welfare of others via support.
An ethical issue involves a situation that allows an individual to select between two alternatives. For instance, there was a situation where my mum’s friend came to pay her a visit and her main interest was to know whether her husband was cheating on her. This was a close family friend and my mother was the only person who could tell the truth because; she worked with her husband. In this case, she was aware of what was going on and she decided to resolve this issue ethically without breaking their marriage. She opted to an ethical alternative of telling the truth by applying a moral decision that could not hurt both parties.
My mother decided to reveal the truth that her husband was unfaithful. This was the bitter truth, but she was effective and ethical in handling the issue by revealing to her friend examples of marital problems including her own (Piliavin, 1990). Despite the fact that her friend was hurt at first, she found comfort after realizing that she was not the only one and the problem could be solved through dialogue or by paying a visit to a counselor. At the moment, the family is now living happily together after following my mother’s advice to visit a counselor. Evaluating this story, I found her so inspiring because; if she could have left her friend hurt without advising her, it could be unethical decision, but she chose to be ethical.
The following are principles I apply to guide me in life. These principles help in differentiating the right from wrong things especially during decision making. I like handling situations in an honest manner. I also consider respect as an important principle because; it enables me to treat others in a fair way. Responsibility is also a vital core principle that enables me to evaluate my actions, and be reliable when an issue arises. Caring is another principle I embrace because; it enables me to be part of other people’s welfare. I emulated these ethical principles from my family, particularly my mother who was my role model (Brehony, 1999).
The following are steps involved in my ethical decision making process;
Commitment; In order to be honest, responsible, caring and respectful, it is vital to coordinate with my family by sharing the same principles to live a positive and happy life. This implies that I have to sacrifice, look beyond what revolves around my life, and focus on welfare of the entire family or society. I choose commitment as part of the process because; it involves efforts and sharing of knowledge to curb obstacles.
Conscience; this is a step that I need to involve a conscious mind, compassion and feelings to care about what revolves in lives of other people. Through conscience, I will be in a position to sense when a problem arises, and find an effective way of solving it. I choose this process because; it reinforces ethical standards and sharing of values.
Conversation; this is an essential step because; it enables me to engage with others in a moral talk. This paves way for honest conversations where people share diverse perspectives to handle an issue or make a significant decision. I choose this step because; it advances the knowledge level of parties involved leading to a perfect process of making an ethical decision.
Brehony, A. (1999). Ordinary grace: Lessons from those who help others in extraordinary ways. New York: Riverhead Books.
Kottler, A. (2000). Doing good: Passion and Commitment for helping others. Philadelphia:Brunner. Routledge.
Piliavin, J. (1990). Altruism: A review of recent theory and research. American sociological review, 16, 27-65.
Running Head: ETHICS CODE
U.K. versus U.S. Health Care Systems
The United Kingdom/Britain is a country whose geographical location is off the north-western coast of the European continent. The National Health Service, NHS, a nation-wide scheme that obtains funding from the government, represents the principal healthcare system in Britain. The NHS constitutes a service that is available on a universal scale for the U.K.’s citizens on the basis of need, rather than the ability to pay for or purchase the service.
The country’s health care system adopts a devolved structure, in which the four semi-autonomous countries making up the kingdom – Wales, Northern Ireland, England, and Scotland – have their own system. The different systems of the NHS in the U.K.’s four countries adopt different policies and show varied emphasis on different priority areas. These variations promote and underlie differences in the four varieties of the NHS system in the Kingdom.
Nevertheless, the NHS scheme in entirety is open and available universally for the populace at the point of requirement. The system consists of two broad sectors, one of which deals with the management/administration, policy, and strategy aspects of healthcare while the other focuses on the actual delivery of medical and clinical care to citizens. This second section further comprises primary (community care, pharmacy, General Practice, and dentistry), secondary (hospital and referral care), and tertiary (specialist care) sections. The cost of healthcare for the country’s citizens in 2010 represented 8.5% of GDP, with the net expenditure per person standing at 1,676, 1,919, 1,758, and 1,770 U.K. Pounds in England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland respectively.
The NHS service is available freely for the whole U.K. citizenship at the point of necessity, with a share of the taxation revenue for the nation’s government meeting the cost of care. The nation’s healthcare system is competent and well-organized in regard to both the provision/delivery of services and administration/management, as apparent in its consistent ranking amongst the best healthcare schemes in the world. The system, which is the largest employer in the country, comprises the directive/administrative and operational/service delivery sections, as mentioned earlier. It features the application of supervisory structures at local and primary levels to ensure adherence to policies and efficient operations in health care. The system also features a variety of professional, trust, and independent monitors to regulate its operations and services and ensure the observation of national guidelines and standards in the delivery and management of health care. The U.K.
healthcare system is more efficient and more effective than the one in the U.S., in coverage, management, and expenditure terms. In the U.S., citizens need to obtain insurance by purchasing it to acquire coverage in the healthcare system. In the U.K., however, citizenship constitutes the only requirement for coverage, as all citizens are subject to the system’s universal coverage at the expense of the national government. In the U.S., the national government’s expenditure on health care stands at about 17-18% of GDP p.a., and despite this level of expenditure, health care insurance is available for less than one-sixth of the population. In contrast, the U.K. government spends about 8.5% of the level of annual GDP on health care, managing to insure all its citizens. In the U.K., funding for the healthcare system originates from taxation revenue, while a combination of public and private funding sources, on partnership platforms, apply in the U.S. case.
This analysis represents evidence that the health care system in the U.K. outscores that in the U.S., especially in the two critical aspects of coverage and expenditure. The observations demonstrate the excellent administration in the U.K. system, contrasting with inefficiencies in the U.S. version.
U.K. VERSUS U.S. HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS 3
Running head: U.K. VERSUS U.S. HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS 1