Dear Mr. McKenzie:
The purpose of writing this letter to you sir, is to address the issue of use of glass bottles in storing the drinks that the company manufactures and also innovation opportunities that the company can utilize by manufacturing fruit drinks as well to accommodate all people in all the corners of the world. The company has adopted plastic bottle to store the drinks that they manufacture, with the notion of enabling easy portability. Am not against the plastic bottles when I state this, but I would like to suggest that it would be more appropriate if the company did away with the glass bottles that are widely throughout the world since the company is an international company.
This is because I did my graduate research in the University on this issue. According to the data that I collected from people of all kinds, the young, old, rich, poor, students, scholars, employers as well as employees, it is evident that 94% prefers the plastic bottles. The glass bottles are non-degradable and fragile unlike the plastic bottles that can always be re- used without necessarily offering much intensive care. The company could also increase its profitability by use of fruits to prepare ready drinks. This will attract people who suffer from ulcers since they are not allowed to take soda drinks by medical physicians. This makes them prefer fruit drinks, which they purchase from other companies since they are not available in Coca Cola Company to take care of their health.
I am a Student in the United States currently pursuing my Master Degree in the University. I would in like to work in the field of business in the future. This is the reason why I was motivated to write to you concerning the above issues that could have an impact to the company. I have a passion for business and I am optimistic in the field no matter the competition that is always there. Any opportunity that arises in the field moves me to think critically of the chance that it gives to me to exercise my skills that I have so far gained in my studies.
I admire the diversification in the company in the manufacture of the products it offers. Coca Cola Company has many products like the wide variety of the soda drinks and mineral water. This wide variety of products increases the profitability of the company. I also admire the wide scope of its markets. The company has established its markets all over the world with various processing plants in all the corners of the world. These sub-branches make it convenient for the consumers to access easily the products. The management in the company is effective and cooperative. Due to this good leadership from the management, the employees feel contented with the job as well as the company thus, retaining the qualified staff that has kept the company going.
I would like to request for any internship as well as attachment opportunities in the company if they arise at any time. I would like to exercise my skills and knowledge that I have acquired in my studies as well as acquire other skills from the company. This is because it has been rated as one of the most effective companies in the world.
I will appreciate if you consider my suggestion and request regarding your company and my plea. You can always reach me using my phone number 423-672-2967 and my e-mail address Murray.email@example.com. I wish you and the company all the best.
Thank you for your time reading my letter.
Running Head: ENGLISH 1
Human Resource Management Practices
Similarities between the Domestic and International HRM
Human Resource Management plays a very important role in any forms of organizations (Sims, 2007). In fact, it is the hub of the corporate strategy. This is because HRM can help the company in improving their performance and in the formation of sustainable competitive advantages. Moreover, it helps the organization to have a guiding role, especially within the enterprise management.
General HRM is used to refer to the activities, which are undertaken by organizations in effective utilization of their human resources. Therefore, the domestic and international HRM have similarities in their functions. This means that all the basic functions of the two are the same, whether they are definite in one country or in several countries. These functions include procurement, utilization, allocation, and motivation. Moreover, both domestic as well as international HRM have similar major activities and functions in HR recruitment, planning, performance management, development and training, industrial relations, and compensation.
Another similarity relates to the environmental forces, which influence the functions of the HRM. The external constraints usually include economical, political, cultural, and legal. These have significant impacts on the way the HR functions are executed in both domestic and the global environment (Sims, 2007).
Moreover, both the domestic and international HRM have similar basic objectives. One of the objectives is ensuring that the organization has maximum satisfaction as far as the human resource demands are concerned. Another objective is ensuring that there is effectiveness in the organization. This is achieved through interventions. The other objective is promoting sustainable developments of the firms. This is achieved through maximization of the development of internal as well as external human resource management.
Differences Between Domestic and International HRM
The differences between the domestic and the international HRM are more striking compared to their similarities. In the context of globalization, HRM activities are materially different from its domestic operations. This is because the Domestic HRM is only dealing with one national employee while the International HRM is operating across national boundaries. In fact, the national patterns of HRM are very different from country to country. This is due to the factors of HR roles and competence, culture, institution, and business structure. Therefore, differences are mainly referring to the way they complete the administrative functions within the different environments (Sims, 2007).
There are many literatures about HRM, which indicates the differences between the international and the domestic HRM. One of the main differences in HRM essentially comes from the interconnection between culture and structure of a particular society.
The International HRM is distinguished from the domestic HRM basing on the core activities. These activities include training and development, recruitment and selection, performance management, rewards, and expatriate management. These activities require cultural sensitivity in order for IHRM is effective in the cross-cultural multinational environment.
In order to understand the above differences better, the International Human Resources Management may be defined as an interaction among some dimension. These include Human Resource Activities, and Countries of operation, and Type of employees. It can, therefore, be pointed out that the important variable, which differentiate the international HRM from the Domestic HRM is mainly the complexity of operating in different countries as well as employing different national categories of employees. This is as opposed to the major differences between HRM activities performed.
Standardization of HRM Practices
Standardization of MNE can be defined as the standardization of the overseas subsidiaries’ management practices towards the HQ practices. There are a number of factors, which drives the standardization of the HRM practices. Some of these factors include organizational context, the strategic issues, and the host country context.
The organizational context includes the strategy as well as the structure of the firm, the size, and maturity of the firm and the mode of operation that is employed. It also includes the relative significance of the particular subsidiary. The size of the firm in relation to the MNE has impact of the HRM practices. Closely linked to the size of the firm is the degree of the international experience.
Under the strategic issues, a multinational firm operates in the framework of worldwide conditions. These conditions include the external situations of industry, religion, nation, and inter-organizational alliances and networks. Apart from these factors influencing the international HRM strategy as well as the practice, they also have an influence on the MNE goals.
The factors driving standardization are usually related. They mainly revolve around the environment of the host. It is therefore crucial to understand the culture of the host. This is thus another driving factor for standardization. The work behavior is culturally determined. It is contained in role definition as well as the expectations. It is required to clearly state whether corporate culture would supersede or supplant the other cultures. However, this is usually a subject of much debate. Often, what is meant by corporate culture translates into common practices rather than common values.
The three cultures that interact to influence standardization as well as adaptation include the national culture of the parent company, the national culture of the subsidiary unit, and the corporate culture. The corporate culture acts as a subtle informal control mechanism. It also acts as a potential unifier. Standardization can be achieved through HR practices such as staffing procedure and criteria, appraisal system, training and development programs, staff rotation, and corporate code of conduct.
Research has shown that the cultures as well as the institutional context have significant effects on the human resource management practices. Existing research provides evidence that MNEs adapt to a certain degree to national cultures in which they operate. In addition, subsidiaries that are managed consistently with national cultural expectations have been found to perform better compared to subsidiaries that are managed otherwise.
The aim of the global standardization of the HRM practices is reaching transparency, consistency, and an alignment of the geographically fragmented workforces around the common principles as well as objectives. It is therefore advantageous for an MNE to adopt a worldwide corporate culture for each of its subsidiaries. This will enable the firm to realize its goals, because it will avoid cultural clashes.
The Role of Subsidiaries
Subsidiaries play a very important role in the MNEs. One of the major roles of the Subsidiaries includes specifying the positions of particular units in relation to the rest of the given organization (Kretschmer, 2008). In addition, they are usually expected to perform the contributions. Apart from this, it is important to note that subsidiaries vary in their function, power as well as resource relationships, and initiative taking. They always execute their functions in the host-country environment. The position held by a certain subsidiary within a given global family is a vital aspect. This is especially when discussing the transfers of work practices (Kretschmer, 2008).
The Global Innovators
The Global Innovator (GI) subsidiary is a fountainhead of knowledge for other units (Morgan, Kristensen, & Whitley, 2001). This subsidiary role has become more important as MNCs move toward a transnational model in which individual subsidiaries can act as a center-of-excellence for specific product lines.
The Integrated Player
Integrated Players (IP) also engage in knowledge transfer to other organizational units, but at the same time they are at the receiving end of knowledge flows from other units. As such, this type of subsidiary is a very important node in the MNC network.
Subsidiaries with an Implementer (IM) role do not typically engage in extensive knowledge creation and hence provide little knowledge to other organizational units. They are heavily dependent on knowledge inflows from either HQ or other subsidiaries though.
The Local Innovators
Local innovators (LI) are self-standing subsidiaries, who do engage in knowledge creation, but do not transfer this knowledge to other organizational units, nor receive knowledge from them. Typically, this situation occurs when local knowledge is seen as too idiosyncratic to be of much use in other organizational units.
Every company will have its role to play. However, this will depend mainly on the status of the company, among other factor. The best role that can be played by a company, which is just begging to expand internationally, is the Local Innovators. This is because they have much knowledge about the local. The fact that they need not to transfer their knowledge to other organization is also advantageous in this regard.
Localization of HRM Practices
There are a number of factors, which drives the localization of the HRM practices. Some of these factors include cultural environment, the institutional environment, the mode of operation abroad, as well as the subsidiary roles (Kretschmer, 2008).
The primary reason most companies move to localization is the cost savings. Cendant Mobility’s study underscores this expectation. In all three regions, more than 50 percent of companies listed cost maintenance as the primary benefit of localized transfers. Though the exact savings vary greatly depending on location and extent of localization, it is reasonable to expect that the costs to maintain an employee on a local compensation and benefits package vs. an expatriate package will results in savings of at least 50 percent. Even though cost savings are a result, there are typically other reasons why companies consider localization in the first place. Often, it is to align the terms of the employment with the business purpose.
The Impact of the Culture and Institutional Context
Just like most management practices, the HRM practices are also based on cultural beliefs, which reflect the basic assumptions as well as the values of the national culture in which the organizations are embedded. This leads to the question of what happens in case MNEs want to transfer some of their HRM practices overseas, especially in cases when the assumptions that underlie such practices do not fit with the cultures of the recipient host-countries. Failure to adapt HRM practices to the culture of the host-country can lead to negative results, which may inhibit the performance of the subsidiary.
Some of the effects have been explained below.
Impact on Recruitment and Selection
Recruitment is always an important part in the HRM. In this environment, the importance of finding the right person for the job cannot be over emphasized. This is because the decision of appointing an individual is one of the most critical decisions an employer will ever take (Morgan, Kristensen, & Whitley, 2001). When dealing with a MNE, the selection decisions should no longer be based on ethnic backgrounds or tribal lines. This new environment challenges the traditional approach to recruitment and selection.
Impact on Training and Development
There is also a need to continuously train and develop the workforce. This is meant to achieve competitive advantage. Training will ensure that the employees develop the right skills, attitudes, and knowledge that will enable them to perform their jobs effectively and efficiently. Employees from different cultures will need different type of training. Therefore, the HRM should come up with programs that best fits the employees in their specific environments and culture. This will in turn raise the costs involved.
Impact on Compensation
Wages do provide sources of motivation for various employees. This in turn enables them to perform effectively. The amount as well as nature of compensation is highly determined by the culture as well as the environment of these employees. Globalization has resulted to free mobility of labor. Because of this, people from different cultures have interacted freely. However, this has had a great impact on the HRM, especially when it comes to compensation matters. International companies can advertise through the Internet and recruit employees from across borders.
Impact on Task Distribution
Employee participation will tend to enhance their contribution despite of their culture or environment. In fact, there are various methods of employee involvement. These may include quality circles, joint consultation, and suggestion schemes (Morgan, Kristensen, & Whitley, 2001).
In addition, managers should have a vision. They should always understand what is expected of them. Because of Cultural Differences and complexity, managers should be trained in a way that will enable them to think globally but act locally. In addition, there should be people succession plans for management. The capabilities of any organization to achieve its business strategies in the light of critical success factors for the business depend largely on the capability of its managers as developed within the organization to meet its particular demands and circumstances. These include innovation, quality leadership, etc.
Kretschmer, K. (2008). Performance evaluation of foreign subsidiaries (1. Aufl. ed.). Wiesbaden: Gabler Edition Wissenschaft.
Morgan, G., Kristensen, P. H., & Whitley, R. (2001). The multinational firm: organizing across institutional and national divides. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sims, R. R. (2007). Human resource management: contemporary issues, challenges, and opportunities. Charlotte, N.C.: Information Age Pub..
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES 7
Running Head: HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
COMPLETING THE VISION PART OF YOUR CANVAS
TEMPLATE V.1 VISION DEVELOPMENT
House hold valuesWhat are the kind of things we can do together (a vision that realizes all values)Market (what will the new system provide for stakeholders)Challenges (what is outside your control)What are the success measures that we want to achieveSystems involved (Partnership)Key requirementsTo introduce a technology that will lead to the management of electricity on the demand side.Electricity is crucial to the urban communities targeted by this project. The community has continued to use the more electricity, characterised by increased capita consumption which further drives the power lines on the supply side to meet the high demand.The installation of the smart meters is a technological solution that leads to the efficient consumption of electricity leading to reduce cost due to frequent installation of the plants to meet increased demand(Anderson and White 403)..The introduction of the smart meters will serve all the stakeholders by provision of better information on the householders about the amount of energy used. The retailers of the generators could omit the functionalities that are to deliver benefits to the environment and the consumer householder. It is important that the technology achieve 100% success in meeting all the objectives of all the stakeholders.
This will be measured by home are network that has ability to deliver sustained reduction in the demand for electricity that is measured by the appropriate tariffs and shedding of loads (Darby, 300).
For effectiveness, the system has to comprise the house community members in the urban centres who are the most affected; the retailers of the gadgets should be given financial motivation to sell the right technology, the local government and the power supply companies.All the ministries concerned like the one in charge of infrastructure, ministry of energy and the local government should ensure that the smart meters that are installed meet the requirements for home are network by developing the relevant guidelines (Boice, 133) To increase the conservation of the environment by reduction of the carbon dioxide and also reduce the need to construct new power plants to meet the increased demand.
Increased real time interaction between the retailers and the house hold community that consume the electricityIt reduces consumption and competitive demands leading to poor services by the company. The householders will be able to control their habits in the use of the electricity and energy since it has financial incentivesThe efficient use provision of the electricity provides little financial benefits to the retailers. The smart meters for the house holder’s community have to be fitted with real time home displays in places where they are easily visible. This will enable the consumers to daily regulate the energy consumptions in the homes.
All the protocols that are used in the smart meters and related appliances should be made open to access to enable the consumers to easily switch between the retailers. It has positive impact on the environment since it leads to reduction of the carbon dioxide and other negative impacts on the environmentIt reduce the cost of the city council and the power companies in reducing the cost of energy productionThere are risks of stalling the deployment of the smart maters to the householdersMany household in the communities already have the smart meters that do not have the home area network, for enjoyment of the consumer and environmental benefits, public awareness campaign should be done to inform the householders about the smart meters that are needed. The community and the government will benefit by reducing negative impact on the environment. The process require huge financial cost on the part of the government and the local councilExperts have indicated that there are also risks of installation of the wrong technology that will disrupt normal power supply for sometimes.
TEMPLATE V.2 MISSION DEVELOPMENT
Proposed missionsKey Requirements addressed by the missionHow the key activities address the key requirementMarket needs addressed by the missionSystems and PartnersWays mission addresses challengesSuccess parameters for the missionTo ensure there is consumer and environmental benefits of the smart metering in among householders and the country at large.Making the consumers aware of the smart meter needed (Boice, 54)Improve the consumers understanding of the smart meter technology. There is need among the consumers to reduce the amount of money that is spending on electricity.The smart metering project work with many partners like energy suppliers, consumer groups in the community and government regulators and ministries.The use of the smart meters enables the household in the project to not only control the amount of energy but also bring about efficient control of the budgets (Anderson and White 609). Success of the project will be measured by:
Flexibility on the part of the householders in the use of electricity
Provision of the in home displays features in the smart meters to provide real time information about electricity consumption The smart meter will be made to work in the pre paid mode thus the house hold consumers are to set control the use of the power and top up whenever they require at night and day time.It reduces consumption and demands of electricity at peak hours.This mission ensures that the house holders using the smart meters have display of the use of the energy within their reach
Reduction of spending in electricity due to energy saving solutions in the smart metersMore than 800,000 smart meters have been installed in homes without the home area network capability. Our project will be standardised to ensure HAN is installed in all the smart meters in the households.The overall effect is the reduction of emission of carbon dioxide leading to reduced environment pollution and climate charge (Darby, 120). The missions empowers consumers with flexibility to reduce consumption at peak hours
Reduction in the emission of the green house gases which cause pollution in the environment and climate change.
TEMPLATE V.3 MISSION EVALUATIONS
Empowerment of the consumers to control energy use
The lack of the home display for provision of information deny the customers the intended services There is potential in the market for supply tested and regulated smart meters that provide needed information about energy use The retailers supplying the smart meters without the functionality that is delivering benefits to the consumers and the environment are cheaper but could make the householders delusion
Reduce the emission of carbon dioxide and climate change
This require huge financial cost since it need to be rolled out in large communities for effect to be felt in the environment
The use of the cost effective tariffs is vital in trading the emission of the carbon dioxide and strengthen the price signal.
More research needs to be done on the load shifting of the carbon dioxide.
Template V. 4 SELECTED MISSION DESCRIPTIONS
Broad Mission Description:
To ensure there is consumer and environmental benefits of the smart metering
Key Requirements addressed by this mission:
Making the consumers aware of the smart meter needed
Key Activities to be developed in this mission to meet the key requirements:
Improve the consumers understanding of the smart meter technology
Ensuring that the installation is done in phases to avoid disruption
What services are suggested
The installers will be expected to provide electricity efficiency advice to the householders
The privacy of the householders will be protected and given full control over the smart meter
Resource Requirements (estimated)
The entire project will cost 6.7 billion us Dollars
Success measures relevant to this mission
The provision of quality meters to the householders
More householders saving money on the use of energy
Systems or partners involved:
Energy suppliers, consumer groups in the community and government regulators and ministries.
Challenges addressed by the mission:
Provision of the smart meters to the household in urban areas
Reduction of the energy that is used in the household and the cost of electricity to the consumers.
Reduction of the emission of carbon dioxide and pollution
Anderson, W. and White, V. Exploring the Functionality of Real-time Home Energy Displays, Report to the Energy Saving Trust, Centre for Sustainable Energy, Bristol, 2009.
Boice, C. Home Energy Display Market Test. Demand Side Plan Technical Appendix, Demand Side Plan, Book 4 of 9, testimony presented to the Public Utilities Commission of Nevada by the Nevada Power Company, February 2009.
Darby, S.,Social learning and public policy: lessons from an energy-conscious village. Energy Policy, 34, 29292940.2007.
Minimizing Energy losses in surface oil and gas facilities
Requirement for the surface facilities for the steam based includes; treatment for boiler feed water generation, water pipelines, produced water recycle, steam generation plants, and wastewater treatment units in conjunction with oil treatment, gas treatment units, gathering systems, well pads, and other utilities and offsite parts (ISO 13702 1999). These facilities intended for in-situ burning processes needs steam generation on a smaller scale, produced gas treatment, oil treatment, water treatment air compression units, and other utilities and offsite units. This paper is much concerned about facilities for steam based and in-situ combustion, oil recovery methods. The surface facilities may possibly consist of carbon capture sour gas treatment, equestration units’, cogeneration units for electric power, and s sulfur recovery, being inclusive of the general project.
Thus, the process technique of surface facilities includes process combination and energy regulation to reduce general expenses of steam and power production and increase heat recuperation making out the costs of operating between capital and trade-offs, and reducing the general heat loss and utility heating or cooling. Consequence and risk studies according to Seveso-II (2002) are often referred to as worst-case assessments.
Natural gas covers for 29 percent of the total energy supply in United States’ (2009) and plays a significant role in satisfying our energy needs.1 Although the U.S. at present generates approximately 21 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) in a years, other sources of supply have to be brought in for three major reasons. Primarily traditional sources have been exhausted and new sources must be initiated to cover for this loss. Second, use of natural gas is projected to increase since natural gas taken by many as a necessary part of any tactic to implement optional forms of energy to fight global warming. Third, to attain the national goal of increased energy independence, additional energy generation is required because U.S. production is not enough to achieve demand.
The major sources of air emissions (continuous or non-continuous) as a result from onshore activities comprise the use of compressors, and heat generation, and combustion sources from power pumps, and reciprocating engines (boilers, turbines, and other engines); emissions as a result from venting and flaring of fugitive emissions; and hydrocarbons
All reasonable effort s should be made to increase energy efficiency and modify facilities to reduce energy use. The general goal should be to decrease air emissions and assess less costly alternatives for minimizing emissions that are technically viable. The other suggestions on the management of energy conservation and greenhouse gases are noted in the General EHS Guidelines.
Energy optimization is a significant part of surface facilities process method. The following are general approaches to optimize the energy;
Calculate and measure the thermodynamic shortcomings of the treatment procedures. The actual energy usage has to be higher than the thermodynamic minimum Select procedures with lower thermodynamic lowest energy needed.
Select the surface process unit operating situations go hand in hand with the reservoir working conditions. Thus, the exchange of heat will be reduced. Any heat exchange will have efficiency limitation owing to entropy alterations.
reduce transportation of hot liquid for treatment to keep away from insulation losses
Calculate if straight contact heat exchange can be attained as it will be more resourceful than indirect heat exchange.
If cogeneration is essential, ensure efficiency of fuel by heat recovery steam production.
Keep away from too much production of low-level heat because of seasonal changes of ambient temperatures; less heat from process cooling will have to be detached expending energy in air or water-cooling.
Make the most of heat combination between hot and cold process streams to reduce outside cooling or heating.
Choose equipment like steam pumps, heater turbine s and boilers, with increased efficiencies.
Consider waste heat energy recovery units, If low level heat generation could not be evaded
Thermodynamics gives less energy necessities and most thermodynamic efficiency for a separation procedure, the minimum thermodynamic work needed for separating a uniform mixture in to pure products at stable temperature is given by the rise of Gibb’s free energy of the products over the input (Semiat 8196).
Venting and Flaring
Related gas brought to the surface with crude oil process of oil generation is at times disposed of at onshore facilities by flaring or venting to the environment. This exercise is now extensively seen to be a waste of a valuable supply, as well as an important source of GHG eliminations. Nevertheless, venting or flaring are also significant safety procedures used on onshore oil and gas facilities to make sure gas and other hydrocarbons are carefully disposed of in the time of power, equipment failure, or emergency.
Steps consistent with the Global Gas Venting and Flaring Reduction Voluntary Standard (part of the World Bank Group’s Global Gas Flaring Reduction Public-Private Partnership (World Bank Group 2004) should be taken on when considering flaring and venting alternatives for onshore activities. The standard gives direction on how to remove or attain reductions in the f venting and flaring of natural gas.
Constant venting of associated gas is not seen as current accepted exercise and should be evaded. The related gas stream should be directed to an efficient flare method, even though constant flaring of gas should be evaded if viable options are available. Before adopting flaring, viable options for the use of the gas should be calculated to the maximum point possible and incorporated into production method.
Other options may entail export of the gas to a neighboring facility or to market , gas injection for reservoir pressure maintenance, gas utilization for on-site energy requirements, enhanced recovery using gas lift, or gas for instrumentation. An evaluation of options should be effectively documented and filed. If none of the alternative courses is currently viable, then steps to reduce are volumes should be assessed and flaring should be seen as a temporary resolution, with the eradication of continuous production associated gas flaring as the ideal objective.
In the situation of a need or equipment failure, or plant trouble conditions, supplementary gas should not be vented but rather be sent to a resourceful flare gas system. Emergency venting may be essential under particular field events where flaring of the gas stream is impossible, or where a flare gas method is unavailable, such as a lack of enough hydrocarbon content in the gas stream to support burning or a lack of enough gas pressure to let it to go into the flare system. Explanation for not including a gas flaring system should be completely documented before an emergency gas venting facility is well thought-out.
To reduce flaring situations as a because of equipment failure and plant upsets, plant consistency should be 95 percent and equipment sparing and plant turn down should be provided for in order.
If flaring is essential, non-stop upgrading of flaring through putting up of best practices and new technologies should be established. The following control steps and pollution prevention ought to be taken into consideration for gas flaring: Putting in place of source gas reduction steps to high extent possible;
Use of resourceful flare information, and optimization of the number and size of burning nozzles;
Making best use of flare burning efficiency by controlling and optimizing flare fuel / air stream flow rates to make sure the right ratio of support stream to flare stream;
Reducing flaring from wash out and pilots, without compromising security, through steps comprising;, flare gas recovery units, inert wash out gas, setting up of wash out gas reduction equipments, and setting up of conservation pilots, soft seat valve technology where suitable;
Reducing danger of pilot blow-out by making enough exit velocity and giving wind guards; Use of a dependable direct ignition system;
Setting up high reliable instrument pressure protection systems, where suitable, to minimize over pressure situations and evade or minimize flaring events.
Reducing fluid carry-over and entrainment in the gas flare stream with a appropriate fluid separation system;
Reducing flame lift off
Using flare to manage odor and visible smoke emissions Constructing flare at a secure distance from local communities and the labor force including workforce accommodation units;
Putting in place of burner replacement and maintenance programs to make sure non-stop total flare efficiency;
Metering of the flare gas.
To reduce flaring situations because of equipment failure and plant breakdown plant dependability should be 95 percent and provision are supposed to be made for plant turn down and equipment sparing protocols. Flaring quantities for brand facilities should be anticipated during the primary commissioning time so that fixed quantity flaring objectives can be made up. The quantity of gas flared for all flaring events should be wrote down and reported.
Cooling and Heating Systems
Water preservation opportunities given in the General EHS rule should be well thought-out for oil and gas facility cooling and heating systems. If cooling water is to be used, it should be given out to surface waters in a place that will let utmost mixing and cooling of the thermal plume to make sure that the temperature is ranging 3 degrees Celsius of ambient temperature at the edge of the distinct mixing region or within 100 meters of the discharge place
If biocides and or additional chemical additives are used in the cooling water system, concern should be given to residual result at discharge using methods such as risk-based assessment.
Fire and Explosion
Onshore oil and gas production facilities should be designed, built, and used as per international standards10 for the control and prevention of fire and explosion risks (Ontario Fire Marshal 2010). The major effective method of stopping fires and explosions at oil and gas facilities is by controlling the discharge of combustible substances and gas, and the early disruption and detection of leaks (Wormald n.p). Possible ignition sources should be kept to a lowest and sufficient isolation distance between possible ignition sources and combustible material, and between processing facilities and nearby buildings11, should be in place. Facilities should be categorized into risk areas, as per international good practice,12 and according to possibility of discharge of combustible gases and fluid (IFC 16).
All equipment ought to be scrutinized on a daily basis for any of leakage, with corrective step taken, as required, to make sure the equipment keep on operating in a secure and environmentally satisfactory way. All disposal and injection sites supplied with tubing and packed should occasionally oversee the tubing covering annulus pressure in order check the reliability of the packer and tubing. If a well is not finished with a packer, alternative techniques should be implemented, such as temperature logs or tracer logs to make sure the liquids imputed are appropriately controlled and are going into an appropriate disposal formation. Rate of testing depends on the working state. Like, if an area has many corrosion breakdowns, then testing for the mechanical reliability of the well should be regular (API 12).
Interstage Cooling (IC) is a smart alternative for upgrading the efficiency of the HTGR PCS. As extra phases are added, the standard temperature over which injected energy is increased remains higher and/or the standard temperature over which rejection energy is decreased remains lower. If only these were the single effect of the IC, the cycle efficiency would all the time raise with more phases. However, with each extra phase, pressure go down is present.
Additional inter-phase pumping must be completed to cover up for this extra pressure drop. Since the pumps aren’t 100% competent, in the end the entropy loss at some stage in an additional pumping operation results in a lesser overall energy input than without that phase. When this happens, the cycle efficiency in reality reduces. When cycle efficiency upgrading is not justified for the extra cost, the extra phase can be evaluated against attainable component performances.
Intercooler boosts the cycle effectiveness because of reducing the temperature input to the compressor. One intercooler upgrades the cycle effectiveness by approximately 3 %. Once the primary intercooler is used, the second and third intercooler gives much slighter efficiency boosts (Barner 2006).
Major ordinary type of cooling equipment employs a compression cooling cycle. Subsequent to the refrigerant being evaporated through heating from the cooling load, the steam is compressed. This increases the temperature of the gas well beyond ambient temperature, so the heat in the gas can be extracted by cooling it with water or air at ambient temperature. Extracting heat leads the compressed gas to condense back to a warm fluid.
Warm refrigerant liquid coming from condenser is directed into the cooling place by a flow control machine of some kind. The pressure in the cooling place is determined by the suction of the compressor and by the rate of cooling. Because the evaporator pressure is, lower than the condenser pressure, a small part of the liquid refrigerant spark into steam when it goes through the control machine. This sparking cools the remaining fluid to the temperature of the evaporator. The liquid refrigerant is prepared to take up heat from the cooling load, going through the phase (Wulfinghoff 1300).
Compression cooling method may as well have accomplice devices or specialized qualities, like; hot gas bypass circuits, , purge units, crankcase heaters valves for controlling the flow of refrigerant to different parts of a coil and many others. The majority of these accessories are particular to specific models, types, or system models.
The temperature differential between condenser and cooling pace is normally higher than those of the real cooling load. This is an issue of great attention, since the temperature differential is the main theoretical aspect that confines COP. As a reasonable example of how the temperature differential comes up, the example of an air-cooled water chiller used for air conditioning is taken into consideration.
Gas Turbines Energy Losses
Gas compressor engines gets their power from burning fuel in a combustion compartment and using the rapid flowing burning gases to move turbine in almost the same manner as the high pressure vapor moves a vapor turbine. It has the second turbine stand-in as an air compressor put on the similar shaft. The air compressor takes in air, compresses it, and provides it at high pressure into the burning engines hence increase the strength of the flames burning.
It is an encouraging response mechanism. As the gas engines speeds up, it also makes the turbine to run hence forcing a lot of air through the burning compartment, which on the other hand boost s the combustion speed of the fuel sending extra high pressure burning gases into the gas compressor raising its momentum more. An exit not controlled is taken care of by controls on the fuel provider line that minimizes the quantity of fuel imputed to the compressors hence minimizing its speed.
Gas turbine uses reasonable quantities of power just to move its turbine. with all cyclic heat turbines, a highest working temperature in the mechanism entails bigger effectiveness (Carnot’s Law), but in a compressor it too entails that extra energy is lost as misuse heat via the burning exhaust gases whose temperatures are usually over 1,000°C . As a result simple cycle compressor effectiveness is low. For heavy machines, design effectiveness varies between 30% and 40%. (The effectiveness of aero machines is in varying of 38% and 42% whereas a low power micro turbine attains simply 18% to 22%). Although raising the firing temperature raises the yield power at a given pressure proportion, there is too a sacrifice of effectiveness as a result of rise in losses because of the cooling air necessary to uphold the turbine mechanism at sensible working temperatures. Compression raises the air temperature so that the air at the discharge of compressor is at a higher temperature and pressure (Brooks 2).
Gases going through a perfect gas turbine experience three thermodynamic procedures. These are isobaric compression, isentropic (constant pressure) burning and isentropic expansion. Jointly, these make up the Brayton cycle.
In a practical gas compressor, gases are primarily speeded up in either an axial compressor or a Centrifugal. They gases are subsequently slowed by use of diverging nozzle called a diffuser; these procedures raise the temperature and pressure of the process. In a perfect method, this is isentropic. However, in practical, energy is lost to heat, because of turbulence and friction. Gases then go from where it diffuses to a burning chamber, or same machine, where heat is increased. In a perfect method, this happens at steady pressure (isobaric heat addition). Since there is no vary in pressure the particular of the gases rises. In practical circumstances these procedures normally go together with a small loss in pressure, because of friction. Lastly, this larger volume of gases are extended and sped by nozzle lead vanes before energy is taken out by a turbine. In an perfect system, these gases are long-drawn-out isentropically and come out of the turbine at their initial pressure. Practically, this procedure is not isentropic as energy is once more lost to turbulence and friction.
Recent research by Bolszo and McDonnell (2009) on emissions optimization of a biodiesel fired 30-kW gas compressor shows that biodiesel liquid properties is a consequence of inferior atomization and prolonged evaporation periods in contrast to hydrocarbon diesel. It emerged that the smallest amount NOx emission levels attained for biodiesel goes beyond the least attained for diesel, and that optimizing the fuel injection procedure will upgrade the biodiesel NOx emissions (Fagbenle 38).
Theoretical research was recently doner by Glaude et al. (2009) to elucidate the NOx index of biodiesels in gas compressor taking natural gas and conventional petroleum gas oils as reference fuels. The adiabatic flame temperature was seen as the main determinant of NOx emissions in gas compressors and used as a solution for NOx emission.
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C. D. Bolszo and V. G. McDonell, Emissions optimization of a biodiesel fired gas turbine, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol 32, Issue 2, 2009, Pages 2949-2956.
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Richard ‘Layi Fagbenle (2010). Exergy and Environmental Considerations in Gas Turbine Technology and Applications, Gas Turbines, Gurrappa Injeti (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-146-6, InTech
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12 Domains of Culture Experiential and Formal Learning
Learning is an act, activity and practice aimed at acquiring new, improved or modified skills, values, knowledge, behaviors and information. Humans, machines and animals possess a certain level of capability with regard to learning. Progress in life forms a gradual learning curve which follows certain principles. Although learning is not a compulsory necessity, it is recommended and contextual. Learning is therefore a process where procedural and actual knowledgeable values and skills are gathered in order to transform an organism’s life relatively and permanently. Therefore, this article will discuss both formal and experiential learning cultures focusing on their learning processes, how they are adapted among people, institutions, organizations and communities as well as the various experiences they undergo when learning and/or teaching.
Human learning culture can be categorized as an educative, training, goal oriented and personal improvement motivational process. Experiential learning culture is a procedure in creating knowledge as well as life changes and transformations attributed to various learning experiences. Thus, it provides multi-linear and holistic models in adult transformation and development. Discussing experiential learning will mostly utilize cognitive skills as the focal point. Formal learning conversely revolves around an education system involving concepts and presentations comprised in a systematic, structured, well organized and administered plan or model. They are based on a set of norms and laws in an institution between a student and a teacher. Although these two learning models seem different, this article aims at retrieving and discussing the similarities.
This model discusses two sets of dialect modes; Concrete Experience and Abstract Conceptualization. They are applied in a learning process in order to grasp values, skills and knowledge from an experience as well as Reflective Observation and Active Experimentation. These are involved in transforming lives from learning experiences. These four dialectally related modes of experiential learning form experiential learning observations and reflections (David et al. 2).
Experiential learning modes emphasize on polar opposite capabilities chosen by the students in order to apply them in a learning environment and situation. While most people in the world depend on their senses, tangible and experienced world qualities, the rest depend on their assumptions and perceptions. However, in both sets, they are able to acquire new informative knowledge and skills. They revise symbolic representations in their lives and/or abstract conceptualization whereby they think, analyze and plan without relying on their sensed guidelines (David et al. 3).
A transforming or processing experience on the other hand involves various individuals watching people they interact with in life undergoing a learning and reflective occurrence while the rest opt at actually going through a similar experience. Individuals prefer to watch their friends, colleagues and neighbors favor Reflective Observation. Individuals who decide to jump right in and do similar things therefore favor Active Experimentation. Based on these four dimensions, it is clear that experiential learning theory offers people different and diverse choices to choose from in order to learn, improve and advance. Thus, experiential learning is utilized by people seeking to resolve conflicting dilemmas as it is based on; hereditary equipment’s, past experiences and environmental demands. Conflicts between Abstract and Concrete as well as Reflective and Active are resolved in patterned learning styles and characteristics (David et al. 4).
This is an educative process adopted in schools, universities and colleges across the world. These education institutions are administratively, physically and curricular planned and organized. They demand that students should always attend classroom based on a formulated formal education program followed by both instructors and learners. This program is believed to assist instructors in carrying out intermediate and final assessment tests aimed at advancing their learners to the next level in a learning process. Formal learning offers degrees, certificates and diplomas to students who pass and advance to the next learning stage. Therefore, it can be classified as a strict, well organized and planned education process governed by a set of rules and regulations (Claudio 1).
In order to teach an important lesson, acquire good characters and respect the sole purpose in formal learning, punishments are applied to those who fail to obey and uphold the mono-directional methodology, rules and regulations. The learners are encouraged in undertaking active participation within the formal learning process. As a result, there are punitive records to learners who fail to advance due to indiscipline and disrespect of the learning process. Learner’s values, attitudes, standards are rendered neither important to the education process nor efficient or effective. Courses offered in this learning system are categorized into; theory, exercises and laboratory activities. Thus, they disregard the course’s adequate order and correlation. Student’s needs and desires in order to record personal growth are therefore disregarded because; basic education values and principles are ignored in the planning and implementation stages of an education system which aims at improving general performance rates. However, students are neither prohibited nor denied the chance to apply; Reflective Observation, Active Experimentation, Concrete Experience and Abstract Conceptualization in order to grasp values, skills and knowledge when they are not following the formal education program (Claudio 1).
Formal learning can be summarized as a system where the students, teachers and institutions are involved in pretense. Instructors pretend they are teaching students who pretend they are learning in an institution pretending to cater, respect and uphold society, teacher and student interests, personal values and principles. Experiential learning conversely assists learners to acquire deep, flexible and comprehensive understanding from life practices and experiences. Therefore, although the two modes portray different modes of learning, they both have similar aims and objectives. They both aim at improving, enhancing, advancing, developing and designing better education systems, processes and assessment methodologies. Thus, learners and instructors in both modes of learning are involved in experiences, concepts and abstracts that are either active or reflective.
Claudio, Dib. Formal, Non-formal and Informal Education: Concepts/Applicability, New York, American Institute of Physics, 2013. Print.
David, Kolb, Richard Boyatzis, and Charalampos Mainemelis. Experiential Learning Theory: Previous Research and New Directions, Weather head School of Management, Department of Organizational Behavior, Case Western Reserve University, 1999. Print.