Smartphones comparisons: iPhone versus Galaxy
Mobile phones have turned out to be integral part of human life. Advancement in technology has transformed mobile phones from huge brick-like shape to small and stylish Smartphones, which are vastly becoming the leading computing devices in the world. There are over one billion users of Smartphones in the world and the market is still growing. This has prompted a war between Apple and Samsung. Apple used to be leading mobile manufacture with its products such as iPhone attracting a great number of consumers but the death of icon founder Steve Job’s has coincided with decline of its volume of sales. On the other hand, Samsung Galaxy series has boasted increase in volume of sales. A number of consumers are torn between the superiority of the two Smartphones. They are compared in terms of form factor, operating system, internal storage, and display resolution (Carare 294). I believe that Galaxy series are better than iPhone series.
Galaxy series S1 to S4 are made up of polycarbonate (plastic) which enhances swapping out battery. IPhone series are made up of aluminum and glass that makes them very fragile. The plastic material of Galaxy series makes them better because it can accommodate rough usage. S4 has a 5.8Super AMOLED screen with more pixel density of 441 pixel per inch compared to iPhone which has 326 pixel per inch. This provides the galaxy series with a high-resolution effort. Furthermore, Samsung colors are visible and more saturated. With the 1080p screen, Galaxy offers a better option of watching movies and playing games (Magid para. 2). S4 has a longer battery life when compared to iPhone 5. Galaxy has 14 hours of talk time and iPhone 8 hours.
Galaxy series uses Android operation system, which is more popular with Google Maps application. Google maps have been available for a very long time and it offers comprehensive and accurate mapping information with complete features such as voice-guided navigation and street view mode. Google map also offers pedestrian navigation and public transport. Galaxy series such as S3 and S4 offers Near Field Connectivity (NFC), which iPhone series do not offer. The NFC connectivity facilitates expedient short-range communication between electronic devices thus easy connection to other consumer devices. The NFC connectivity makes Galaxy series better than iPhone series. S3 and S4 have a pop up play features, which enables users to watch video through a minute floating window. This is normally located on top of other applications that are being used. This feature is not found in any of the iPhone series making Galaxy series better than iPhone series (Sharma 1965).
Galaxy series has standard mass storage and USB host capacity that facilitates easy transfer of photos. iPhone series do not have mass storage mode meaning that individuals do not have an access to file systems of connected storage. In addition, Galaxy series operating system allows third party browser engines to run the system in total contrast to iPhone series, which does not. Chrome is a third party browser engine for android; it is very fast in benchmarks and provides several user interfaces. The other browser engines are Firefox and Opera. The three browsers allow individuals to synchronize tabs between desktop and phone. Galaxy has a quad-core Snapdragon while iPhone such as iPhone 5 is dual-core. This means that Galaxy is twice as fast as iPhone (Sharma 1965).
Carare, Petru. “Unfair Competition: Samsung versus Apple.” International Journal of Innovations in Business 2.3 (2013): 293-297.
Magid, Larry. First Impressions of Samsung Galaxy S4. Forbes Magazine, March 14 2013. Web 21 October 2013 < http://www.forbes.com/sites/larrymagid/2013/03/14/first-impressions-of-samsung-galaxy-s4/>
Sharma, Kavita. “Android In Opposition To Iphone.” International Journal on Computer Science & Engineering 3.5 (2011): 1965-1969.
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Frederick of Prussia and Emperor Joseph II of Austria
Fredrick and Joseph were enlightened despots who came to power to and introduced great reforms to their respective territories. Fredrick was dedicated to building Prussis to become one of the strongest at that time. He offered the territorial princes position in the government bureaucracy. He also put up universal religious toleration and approved freedom of the press. He put up protection against the laws by speeding up legal processes. Fredrick abolished torture and made death penalty minimal. He came up with first German law code. Joseph enforced educational rules all over Prussia.
Immediately after taking over leadership from his mother Maria Theresa, Joseph enacted a number of reforms that his mother did not consider. Joseph abolished serfdom to put to an end press censorship. He restricted the powers of Catholic Church. He charged churches with the responsibility of caring for the sick and the poor. Joseph gave the minority religions the capability to live and worship in a more free way. Joseph abolished brutal punishments and limited death penalty. He made elementary level of education compulsory for all children in order to bring into being literate citizens. Joseph introduced universal system of accounting and centralized medical care.
The form of government run by the two leaders is efficient because decisions regarding response to predicament are determined immediately. Monarchy leads to conservation of democracy because it offers equal opportunities to every citizen since it does not belong to any party. In military dictatorship, it is the army, which holds power, and in presidential system, power belongs to the political minority. Monarch form of government enhances patriotism because its serves patriotism interests better than republic systems of government.
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Organizations are increasingly becoming aware that leadership plays a crucial role in driving them towards their goals and objectives. Leaders have the task of restructuring and transforming the organization in key areas that aim at meeting customers at their point of need as well as fulfilling market demands as and when they arise. In such a scenario, transformational leaders are the ideal people to bolster performance and ensure value based leadership techniques are widely utilized to transform the business into something bigger than before. Leaders, ought to stay focused and determined enough to spearhead the organization’s key endeavors while aiming to satisfy the unpredictable rising needs of customers.
Losing the focus will only mean that the leader has failed to perform his or her task accordingly and the organization’s failure is in the looming. To avoid such incidences, it is imperative for organization leaders to settle conscientiously those leadership styles and strategies that aim at improving the overall performance of the organization from various perspectives. Certainly, leaders are the backbone of any organization whereby all employees look up to such influential persons to stay focused and foster the best way ahead towards meeting its goals and objectives among them being meeting or even exceeding the expectations of their customers both in service provision and in products. Clear leadership roles should be spelt out clearly and in the best way possible to enhance efficiency in the running of the organization while ensuring that the organization is always ready and willing to give its customers more than what they expected, which will then help to win their loyalty and keep the business flourishing. Additionally, a good leader should strive towards achieving a competent organizational structure that reflects nothing less than success throughout the life of the organization.
This paper explicates the case of AT&T Incorporation identifying key challenges and barriers to the success of the company leading to its failure to meet its customers’ expectations as well as an in-depth analysis of leadership roles needed to bring change and bolster the company towards achieving its goals.
According to Sander & Bobo (2012), AT&T Inc. is the leading Dallas based telecommunications service provider in the United States, whose operational segments include wireline and wireless communication and other services and products through its affiliates and subsidiaries all over the United States and other international destinations. Formally, it operated under the brand name of SBC Communications Inc. pending 2005 when it changed its name to AT&T Inc. up to date.
The company’s wireline segment encompasses the provision of dial-up internet services, U-verse services, enterprise network services, Wi-Fi services, and packet services as well as local and international voice services for a wide array of business applications such as sales and reservation centers among other services. Its wireless segment as well offers both voice and data communication services, sells AT&T branded handsets, and wireless data cards to various individuals with personal computers among other products and services. The company has experienced tough times during its operations since its inception in 1983 having to stomach dubious distinction as America’s worst performing cell phone company. Lately, the company has had to concede to a number of criticisms after rated with poor performance in terms of customer satisfaction according to customer reports.
Information Gatekeepers (2013), explains that currently, AT&T faces three main challenges, which include awful performance, absolute abysmal customer service, and poor value. Apparently, AT&T has been noted with a lot of concern for being the incompetent and unresponsive to new and emerging customer needs. Notably, the company has been lagging behind on 4G technology, which is the latest technology that that enables customers who use smartphones to access and browse with a relatively high speed. The company has also been using fiber optic-based network in provision of TV services to its mere 2 million U-TV customers, which has not worked either as customers keep complaining of poor network reception among other complains.
Information Gatekeepers (2013) explicates that despite the company’s downs, it has a chance of overcoming all the aforementioned challenges should it consider undertaking organizational changes that might help to deal accordingly with these challenges. Embracing these changes would enhance the company to face any form of challenge and keep the company aware of imminent consumer behaviors that the company ought to prepare for and strategize on the best way to go about them. Certainly, when organizations start to experience such turbulent times as those of AT&T, the problem must be emanating from leadership and in such a case, organizational change is necessary. Regarding the case of AT&T Company, embracing structural change, task change, and technological change would be the best thing to do in a bid to save the reputation of the company. Structural change would include restructuring and reviewing of the various spans of authority as well as centralization of authority despite the company’s operations with a number of subsidiaries.
Structural change will enhance quick decision making without having to consume much of a time and thus increasing on efficiency for the benefit of the company. Efficiency will enhance the company and augment its responsive ability to various emerging issues as well as drive the company to greater desirable heights than now. Embracing the change in terms of task will involve a review of the job design geared towards excellence and competence in terms of quality services and products that not only aim to meet customers’ needs and wants but also exceed their expectations. On the other hand, it would be necessary for the company to embrace change in technology in terms of quick absorption of the latest technological arrivals in various aspects to enable the company serve their customers appropriately. Apparently, the company’s technological response is slower besides it being unable to implement competent technology policies that enhance good customer relation in the long run.
For effective change, there is need for AT&T Inc. to settle for an effective change model and utilize it effectively so that the impact is felt and the organization is able to focus on success. Phillips & Gully (2011), elucidates that Lewin’s Force Field Organization Change Model is a classic organizational change management model proposed by Kurt Lewin in 1951. According to Lewin, an organization is a system held by identical conflicting forces in a constant balanced state. He therefore proposed this model on the basis two assumptions, which included the existence of the driving forces for change in an organization and the presence of opposing forces that stand against change. As such, he devised a three-stage process of implementing change to an organization regardless of the nature of the change needed.
The first stage of implementing change as opined by Lewin involved the creation of motivation to change, which he called the process of unfreezing. Under this stage, AT&T Company will need to induce a motivational program for its employees in a bid to prepare them to the imminent changes as far as task, embracing new technology, and structural changes are concerned. Unfreezing will help to do away with retrogressive organizational culture and eliminate the status quo because of the fact that organizational culture is the main obstacle that poses threat and resistance to any form of change. The second crucial stage is adjusting the equilibrium, which will involve implementing of the actual change and developing of a new organizational culture for the benefit of the company in its endeavors. This change may be achieved through three main approaches, which include moral persuasion, re-education, and use of force against forces impeding the change. The third and final stage of implementing change is refreezing, which takes into account the establishment of new norms, regulations, punishments or rewards that have to be done preferably on regular basis for the change to be effective. As such, the company will be able to focus on customer needs and wants with the aim of exceeding their expectation in terms of service delivery and products offered.
Accordingly, the role of the leader who is the chairperson as well as the chief executive officer of AT&T Company has to dominate for successful implementation of the imminent change. Transformational leadership styles have to be take precedence because they have a significantly crucial role in implementing and retaining the required change for AT&T Company. In the field of implementing task change, the leader has to consider a director leadership style in a bid to get b the tasks done in the best way possible to improve the company’s performance. This style will ensure that the leader uses his or her directive in ensuring that whatever is to be undertaken in an organization is achieved.
The style keeps the team focused on organizational goals through supervision and delegation of duties while ensuring that the leader seizes the wider perspective of the firm. Additionally, autocratic leadership style will help in policymaking, make key decisions regarding the future of the organization as well as dictate and assign tasks to each member to enhance a focused environment for employees in a bid to achieve the desired goals and objectives of the company. Better still; the leader should exemplify a high degree of intelligence, social maturity and breadth, inner motivation and achievement desires, and good human relation attitudes for the sake of improving the company’s image. The proper use of the abovementioned approaches to change will enable the leader induce motivation for change as well as achieve the desired goals for the organization.
There are impediments that hamper the success of an organization in its endeavors and no matter how an organization may struggle, there will be success guaranteed if these impediments are not identified, analyzed, and controlled. Information Gatekeepers (2013) reiterates that resistance to change, poor leadership styles, poor customer relations, and corruption among managers leading to embezzlement of funds meant for investment are the key barriers to success. Resistance to change is a major barrier to the success of any organization, which therefore means that an organization will not be able to keep abreast with latest trends in technology, management, and other fields within an organization. Change is an inevitable and yet a significantly phenomenal thing worth the attention of any organization.
Change encourages success as it develops ways and means towards which an organization can easily identify its strength and weaknesses allowing it to strategize on the best way forward to achieving the desired goals and objectives, hence inviting success for the organization’s operations. Additionally, poor leadership styles hamper success by allowing poor implementation of policies and strategies that are worth driving an organization towards realizing its goals. Indeed, poor leadership plays a great role in impeding success of an organization because leaders are the drivers of the organization and failure to execute their duties and responsibilities appropriately means failure of the organization. On the other hand, corruption allows leaders to misuse funds for self-gratification leading to unavailability of funds for investment when needed.
To overcome the aforementioned impediments, there is need to develop a plan that will help in dodging these barriers and instead make them stepping-stones to success. Communication and education as well as the participation and involvement of employees in implementing change will reduce chances of resistance to change and thus allowing the smoothening of the road to success. It will also be prudent for the leader to identify and analyze the nature of his employees in a bid to allow him or her to employ appropriate leadership style that seeks to motivate employees into improving their performance and thus allowing the company to move towards its success.
Appropriate leadership styles will enable the company to focus on the primary goals of the company as well as give employees the morale to work responsibly towards fulfilling the organizational goals. Moreover, the organization can scrape out any corrupt leader within the premises by seeking to test their integrity through various ways and means to reduce embezzlement of funds and allow the organization to focus on profitable investments rather than fulfilling personal goals at the expense of the organization’s money and other resources. In addition, the organization can develop a good customer relationship by always seeking to satisfy their needs and wants.
In conclusion, this paper has explicated the case of AT&T Incorporation, which has consistently performed poorly due to failure to meet its customers’ expectations. The paper has identified three key challenges that face the company ranging from awful performance, absolute abysmal customer service, and poor value. In addition, the paper has covered three organizational changes that are necessary for the company to be able to address these challenges accordingly. Therefore, as regards to the changes required in addressing these issues, the paper has elucidated Lewin’s Force Field Organization Change Model that is crucial in implementing the said changes.
Additionally, the paper delved into an in-depth analysis of leadership needed to bring change and bolster the company towards achieving its goals. The paper has also dealt accordingly with the barriers that hamper organizational strive for success leading to failure in meeting customers’ expectations as well as the plan to overcome these impediments allowing the organization to achieve its goals and thus succeeding in its operations. Indeed, the paper has unveiled that, leaders play a big role in the running of an organization and the choice of the leadership styles and skills to use in managing the activities of an organization determine the path followed by the organization. Therefore, the failure of the leader is the failure of the organization and vice versa.
Information Gatekeepers, I. (2013). MAN: A Monthly Newsletter Covering Worldwide Developments in the “Metropolitan Area Networks” Markets, Applications, Technology. New York: Information Gatekeepers Inc.
Phillips, J. M., & Gully, S. M. (2011). Organizational Behavior: Tools for Success. Cengage Learning: New York.
Sander, P., & Bobo, S. (2012). The 100 Best Stocks to Buy in 2013. Chicago: Adams Media.
AT&T INCORPORATION 9
AT&T INCORPORATION 1
This paper highlights guidelines on ethical decision making process.
An ethical role model who inspires me is my mother. She makes good decisions ethically that guides our entire family. This is by incorporating her personal standards that assist us to choose the right from the wrong. This is evident through her commitment when she serves as an exemplary to the family by doing what is right always. In addition, she is conscious; she acts in a consistent manner by exhibiting good morals that guide us in our daily lives. Furthermore, her competency adds value in my life when she analyses a given situation by identifying potential risks, and gives positive alternatives.
The decisions she makes are good and ethical because; they inspire me to have trust, respect and also to be a caring, and responsible person. Her decisions lay foundation in my life by assisting me to make wise decisions that lead to good behaviors. I choose my mother to be my role model because; she is that kind of a person who shows concern for other people or altruism (Kottler, 2000). She is ready to assist any one in need of help voluntarily to ensure that he or she benefits in life. She is a good listener, whenever an issue arises in the family; she is that type of a person who lends her shoulder to lean on. Sharing problems with her makes me feel comfortable, loved especially when she listens and offers her good advice. She is ready to forgive, and apologize when she goes wrong, gives room to open dialogues and contribute to the welfare of others via support.
An ethical issue involves a situation that allows an individual to select between two alternatives. For instance, there was a situation where my mum’s friend came to pay her a visit and her main interest was to know whether her husband was cheating on her. This was a close family friend and my mother was the only person who could tell the truth because; she worked with her husband. In this case, she was aware of what was going on and she decided to resolve this issue ethically without breaking their marriage. She opted to an ethical alternative of telling the truth by applying a moral decision that could not hurt both parties.
My mother decided to reveal the truth that her husband was unfaithful. This was the bitter truth, but she was effective and ethical in handling the issue by revealing to her friend examples of marital problems including her own (Piliavin, 1990). Despite the fact that her friend was hurt at first, she found comfort after realizing that she was not the only one and the problem could be solved through dialogue or by paying a visit to a counselor. At the moment, the family is now living happily together after following my mother’s advice to visit a counselor. Evaluating this story, I found her so inspiring because; if she could have left her friend hurt without advising her, it could be unethical decision, but she chose to be ethical.
The following are principles I apply to guide me in life. These principles help in differentiating the right from wrong things especially during decision making. I like handling situations in an honest manner. I also consider respect as an important principle because; it enables me to treat others in a fair way. Responsibility is also a vital core principle that enables me to evaluate my actions, and be reliable when an issue arises. Caring is another principle I embrace because; it enables me to be part of other people’s welfare. I emulated these ethical principles from my family, particularly my mother who was my role model (Brehony, 1999).
The following are steps involved in my ethical decision making process;
Commitment; In order to be honest, responsible, caring and respectful, it is vital to coordinate with my family by sharing the same principles to live a positive and happy life. This implies that I have to sacrifice, look beyond what revolves around my life, and focus on welfare of the entire family or society. I choose commitment as part of the process because; it involves efforts and sharing of knowledge to curb obstacles.
Conscience; this is a step that I need to involve a conscious mind, compassion and feelings to care about what revolves in lives of other people. Through conscience, I will be in a position to sense when a problem arises, and find an effective way of solving it. I choose this process because; it reinforces ethical standards and sharing of values.
Conversation; this is an essential step because; it enables me to engage with others in a moral talk. This paves way for honest conversations where people share diverse perspectives to handle an issue or make a significant decision. I choose this step because; it advances the knowledge level of parties involved leading to a perfect process of making an ethical decision.
Brehony, A. (1999). Ordinary grace: Lessons from those who help others in extraordinary ways. New York: Riverhead Books.
Kottler, A. (2000). Doing good: Passion and Commitment for helping others. Philadelphia:Brunner. Routledge.
Piliavin, J. (1990). Altruism: A review of recent theory and research. American sociological review, 16, 27-65.
Running Head: ETHICS CODE
U.K. versus U.S. Health Care Systems
The United Kingdom/Britain is a country whose geographical location is off the north-western coast of the European continent. The National Health Service, NHS, a nation-wide scheme that obtains funding from the government, represents the principal healthcare system in Britain. The NHS constitutes a service that is available on a universal scale for the U.K.’s citizens on the basis of need, rather than the ability to pay for or purchase the service.
The country’s health care system adopts a devolved structure, in which the four semi-autonomous countries making up the kingdom – Wales, Northern Ireland, England, and Scotland – have their own system. The different systems of the NHS in the U.K.’s four countries adopt different policies and show varied emphasis on different priority areas. These variations promote and underlie differences in the four varieties of the NHS system in the Kingdom.
Nevertheless, the NHS scheme in entirety is open and available universally for the populace at the point of requirement. The system consists of two broad sectors, one of which deals with the management/administration, policy, and strategy aspects of healthcare while the other focuses on the actual delivery of medical and clinical care to citizens. This second section further comprises primary (community care, pharmacy, General Practice, and dentistry), secondary (hospital and referral care), and tertiary (specialist care) sections. The cost of healthcare for the country’s citizens in 2010 represented 8.5% of GDP, with the net expenditure per person standing at 1,676, 1,919, 1,758, and 1,770 U.K. Pounds in England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland respectively.
The NHS service is available freely for the whole U.K. citizenship at the point of necessity, with a share of the taxation revenue for the nation’s government meeting the cost of care. The nation’s healthcare system is competent and well-organized in regard to both the provision/delivery of services and administration/management, as apparent in its consistent ranking amongst the best healthcare schemes in the world. The system, which is the largest employer in the country, comprises the directive/administrative and operational/service delivery sections, as mentioned earlier. It features the application of supervisory structures at local and primary levels to ensure adherence to policies and efficient operations in health care. The system also features a variety of professional, trust, and independent monitors to regulate its operations and services and ensure the observation of national guidelines and standards in the delivery and management of health care. The U.K.
healthcare system is more efficient and more effective than the one in the U.S., in coverage, management, and expenditure terms. In the U.S., citizens need to obtain insurance by purchasing it to acquire coverage in the healthcare system. In the U.K., however, citizenship constitutes the only requirement for coverage, as all citizens are subject to the system’s universal coverage at the expense of the national government. In the U.S., the national government’s expenditure on health care stands at about 17-18% of GDP p.a., and despite this level of expenditure, health care insurance is available for less than one-sixth of the population. In contrast, the U.K. government spends about 8.5% of the level of annual GDP on health care, managing to insure all its citizens. In the U.K., funding for the healthcare system originates from taxation revenue, while a combination of public and private funding sources, on partnership platforms, apply in the U.S. case.
This analysis represents evidence that the health care system in the U.K. outscores that in the U.S., especially in the two critical aspects of coverage and expenditure. The observations demonstrate the excellent administration in the U.K. system, contrasting with inefficiencies in the U.S. version.
U.K. VERSUS U.S. HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS 3
Running head: U.K. VERSUS U.S. HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS 1
Australian trade and external economic policy
International trading of Australia has transformed since the 1980s and 1990s due to relative stability. China is recorded as the largest export market accounting for almost a quarter of Australia’s exports. Conversely, India accounts for almost seven percent of the exports with other markets like Japan, Asia and Korea accounting for the rest. The external economic environment in currency exchange on the other hand has also changed with considerable interests being earned over fixed exchange rates. This has been attributed to European Monetary System (EMS) and unification (Ric 2009, p.5).
The Bretton Woods system is regarded as the most recent experiment in the world with regards to fixed exchange rates. After President Richard Nixon closed in August 1971, the de facto fixed exchange rate regime that it had evolved to ended. The Australian international trade has for a long period of time been influenced by international migration policies. This is due to the fact that Australia records more foreigners from various global countries (Fraser, McDonald & Mullineux 2012, p.451). The White Australia Policy in 1973 led to reduced immigrants especially from Europe. Consequently, migrant stocks continue to be European with Australia ranking its major trading partners being Asia. Subsidies for non-white immigration especially from Europe influenced Australia’s ethnic composition where distance, population and per capital income variables accounted for migrant flows. Authors including Gould (1994) assert that migrants encourage increased bilateral trade flows. The past three decades have recorded shifts in Australian immigrant stock which has encouraged trade flows thus, increased international trade relations (Boughton 2009, p.45).
According to Marc, an international currency is a medium of exchange, a store of value and/or a unit of account accounting for a certain share with regards to the official central bank reserves in foreign countries. It is therefore a share denominating international trade and financial markets. The Reserve Bank of Australia publishes quarterly economic forecasts annually. Australia records a Gross Domestic Production (GDP) of over 1.57 trillion dollars thus, ranking as one of the largest capitalist economy in the world. Currently, it is ranked as the nineteenth exporter and importer country in the world. Coupled with the fact that Australia has the largest national economy which includes mining, service and agricultural sectors as well as security exchanges, the international currency rate in Australia has been on the increase (Marc 2012, p.7).
A currency system in international trading is very important. This is mainly because, different countries maintaining a trading relationship translates to different and diverse languages as well currency values. As a result, International Monetary System has set rules and practices governing how nations with different national monies or currencies will transact business activities and honor their debts. Whenever the set international currency is functioning, trading countries benefit from a smooth flow of services, commodities and capital. However, when there is an imbalance like the financial crisis the one witnessed between 2007 and 2012, international trading nations are unable to maintain and sustain large and balanced international trading activities and investments. Such a breakdown in international currencies can be attributed to various factors including poor organization (Fraser, McDonald & Mullineux 2012, p.453).
The Bretton Woods System of monetary management was established in order to govern monetary relations among independent nations involved in international trade. Industrial nations in the twentieth century practiced international trade under this system’s rules in conducting financial and commercial activities. This system has been termed as having been stable though functioning for a short period of time as it only lasted for almost twenty nine years since it was established in 1944 until its official operations ended in 1973 (Michael 1993, p.11).
Bretton Woods System was established with a vision of formulating a monetary arrangement integrating classical gold standard or a stable exchange rate as well as an independent pursue of full national employment policies. Floating rates destabilizing and devaluing competitive exchange rates or defecting fixed exchange rates gold standard were highly avoidable under this system. This made possible by setting up an adjustable peg system among fixed parties that could only be changed under fundamental disequilibrium. It is through this system that the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) which is part of the World Bank Group were formed. After the required of nations ratified the required agreement, these two organizations became operational in 1945. It required every nation involved in international trade to adopt the monetary policy aimed at maintaining an exchange rate tied to the United States Dollar and the IMF abilities to temporary bridge any imbalanced payments or breakdowns in the international currency. United States therefore served the main role of being asymmetric centre where it provided global liquidity, run balance of payment deficits and absorbed exports from the rest of the global nations (Vasnev, Skirtun & Pauwels 2013, p. 157).
The Bretton Woods System main goals and objectives can therefore be summarized as follows. It aimed at avoiding unstable exchange rates of the floating rate regime experienced in 1920s as it was impeding external adjustment and the Post World War I attempts to reconstruct international finance and trade. It sought to prevent a repeat of the beggar thy neighbor’ policy. This is because; the policy was characterizing stages within interwar gold exchange standard whereby nations were operating under competitive currency devaluations in order to reduce trade deficits or improve their business surpluses and trade restrictions. The policy also attempted to reduce domestic the rate of unemployment through shifting these rates to other nations. The third objective of the Bretton Wood System was providing autonomy for national authorities in order to pursue domestic policies that were targeted to achieve full employment rates. It sought to achieve symmetric adjustments among nations experiencing balance of payment surpluses as well as deficits as the fourth objective (Boughton 2009, p.47).
The final objective was that it aimed at achieving symmetric positions among national currencies within the international financial regime. Thus, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) were formed in order promote these goals, collaborate on international monetary issues, facilitate maintenance of full employment, achievement of stable exchange rates, provision of multilateral payment systems and elimination of restrictions within the exchange rate system as well as providing financial aide to member countries with deficits on balance of payments as it would result to eased external disequilibria (Boughton 2009, p.47).
Under the Bretton Woods System, all member countries were mandated to a par value of their currencies in terms of either the United States dollar or gold. This was under the belief that market exchange rate of the currencies would be maintained within one percent of the declared par value as buying and selling of currencies among other nations within foreign exchange market would be intervened (Michael 1993, p.11).
The gold exchange standard is part of the fixed exchange rate regime. Some international trade countries still regard it as an ideal system as it takes central banks out of the business of exchange rate. They therefore regard it as a natural system with neither government control nor behavior. The International gold standard operated under the following six rules. Parity or a fixed gold price and gold would be converted freely among domestic money and gold at the same price. There were no restrictions with regard to export of gold by private citizens or capital among countries conducting international trade. Back national banknotes and coins with gold reserves and conditional long-run money had to encourage increase of gold reserves. With regards to short-run, liquidity crisis due to gold outflow had to prompt central bank into extending liquidity at increased interest rates. This rule was also referred to as the Bagehot’s rule. The fifth rule was based on the temporary suspension of the first rule. It sought to restore convertibility of feasible points at the old parity as soon as possible. The final rule allowed common worldwide price levels in being endogenously determined by world supply and demand of gold (Michael 1993, p.24).
Based on these rules, this standard had its advantages as well as disadvantages. Its main advantages included prevention of inflation although gold discovery inhibited such attempts and long-run production of price stability. More so, it lowered interest rates through adherence to the seal of approval. Conversely, its disadvantage included its inability to prevent fluctuations in price levels and the fact that it tied up all world money supplies into one commodity which was gold. Comparing Bretton Wood System and the gold exchange standard, at least five differences can be listed (Michael 1993, p.24).
In the Bretton Wood System, pegged exchange rates were adjustable as they were subject to existing fundamental disequilibrium. It also had better control on capital flows as an attempt to improve monetary policy credibility values thus, reducing domestic worries and concerns. It also led to creation of the International Monetary Fund as earlier stated. Bretton Wood System limited impositions on private holdings of gold thus, affirming the asymmetric position held by the United States which further enabled the country to act as a nominal anchor (Boughton 2009, p.47).
The End of Bretton Woods System
There were a number of reasons for the end of the Bretton Wood System including; the dollar shortage, global financial crisis and high inflation as well as interest rates.
The Dollar shortage
The United States was in custody of approximately sixty five percent of the world’s monetary gold inventory during the period that marked the completion of World War II. Thus the United States experienced a gold flood in the market which caused the devaluation of the dollar in 1934 and the capital break out from Europe. The gold and dollar reserves continuously funded the World War II expenditures and on termination of the war, these reserves had been exhausted. This depletion saw Europe experience great current account shortfalls. The value of the dollar was therefore worsened in 1946 when the main European Industrial Countries exaggerated the official uniformities. At the same time, the financing of the great shortfalls after the war as well as the exhaustion of the resources reserves led to the belief that the shortage of the dollar would be a permanent state. The reasons given for the shortage were cited as the insufficiency of raw materials, the fact that other countries would take a longer period to catch up with the United States rate of productivity, political insecurity, minimal savings and the absence of entrepreneurial spur. In response to these theories, several policies were proposed such as the support of private capital flows to Europe (Chen & Lai 2010, p.453).
There were three major challenges experienced by the Bretton Woods System which were clearly brought to light during the Bellagio Conference in 1964; the adjustment problem, liquidity and the confidence problem. With regards to liquidity problem, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) presented an initial report which affirmed the adequacy of the world reserves. This report further affirmed the adequacy of the reserves ratio to that of imports for the world and different country groups. However, the International Monetary Fund’s subsequent report stated that the reserve ratio to imports was adequate but only for the present time. They suggested that the reserve would fail to be sufficient in the foreseen decade of the 1960s which would be caused by the rebirth of convertibility and quick economic advancement hence advised on an increase in associate quotas. However, Triffin’s disagreed with the Fund report and brought out a few explanations supporting his thought of the inadequacy of the reserves. He argued that the reserves ratio to imports was extremely low. The argument cited that the rate should be higher than forty percent (Huh 1999, p.501).
Triffin’s argument on the deficiency of liquidity was also based on the scarce gold reserves; moreover, the cost of gold was gradually decreasing since the termination of the war and this would in turn diminish gold production in the world. The adjustment problem was resulted by unemployment. The wage rigidity caused a slow response towards the depreciation adjustments needed by a deficit country. Moreover, the adoption of short period capital control also contributed to the shutdown of automatic mechanism. Automatic adjustment was intended to occur through changing inflows and outflows in the open economy Keynesian model and others through the money supply reaction to changes in reserves. Complete adjustment was highly dependent on fiscal policy, income policy, trade controls as well as discretionary monetary policy. The Confidence Problem resulted through the portfolio transfers between the dollars and the gold. The pending dollar debts retained by the world monetary authorities shifted upwards with respect to the gold inventory held by the United States. As a result, it reduced the chance of any or all dollar holders to change their dollars into gold at a steady exchange rate (Huh 1999, p.503).
After Bretton Woods System ended, countries that would have continued with the efforts to fix some of the reasons leading to its collapse did not. As a result inflation and interest rates therefore increased especially in Europe. Thus, capital mobility, policy autonomy and pegged exchange rates should not be mixed into achieving floating exchange rates for major countries while maintain domestic policy autonomy and currency union (Rose 2007, p.671). The Mundell – Fleming model was applied in Australian trading system after the collapse of the Bretton Woods system. It influenced gender culture and gender subtext on the career trajectories of women in Australia as well as world interest rate, aggregate supply, IS, money supply and money demand shocks in the Mundell – Fleming model (Huh 1999, p.501).
Bretton Woods System commenced official operations in 1947 until 1973. However, active years can be only be accounted as between 1959 and 1968 during which it faced currency crisis, global liquidity, trade flow and capital restrictions mainly by United States. These restrictions were aimed at reducing balance of payment deficits among trading countries although they contributed to its end. Asymmetry tests conducted on member countries before and after the collapse of Bretton Wood System highlight the following suggestions; United States did not pay attention to external balance when setting interest rates, majority of participating countries that formed the periphery considered external factors when setting interest rates and lastly, they also did not take into account the setting of interest rates under the revived Bretton Woods System. Therefore, interest rates, exchange rates and international currencies during international trade should be flexible and adjustable towards economic changes and crisis. Flexible prices, rules, regulations, currencies, exchange and interest rates will guarantee a smooth international trade without economic or political conflicts (Schenk & Singleton 2011, p.120).
Barry, I 2006, Lecture Note on the Gold Standard, Lecture Note on the Gold Standard.
Boughton, J. M 2009, A New Bretton Woods? History Shows that Reforming the International Financial System Requires Leadership and Inclusiveness, Finance & Development, 46(1) 44(3).
Chen, C & Lai, C 2010, An Interpretation of the Collapsing Process of the Bretton Woods System, Open Economies Review, 21(3): 449-463.
Fraser, P., McDonald, G. A & Mullineux, A. W. 2012, Regional Monetary Policy: An Australian Perspective, Regional Studies.
Huh, H 1999, How well does the Mundell-Fleming Model Fit Australian Data since the Collapse of Bretton Woods? Applied Economics, 31(3):497-407.
Marc, A 2012, World Trade Organization: Use of Currencies in International Trade, Economic Research and Statistics Division Working Paper.
Michael, D 1993, The Gold Standard, Bretton Woods and Other Monetary Regimes: A Historical Appraisal, Economics Research at Rutgers University.
Ric, B 2009, Australia’s Foreign Trade and Investment Relationships, Annual Australian Parliamentary Conference.
Rose, A. K 2007, A Stable International Monetary System Emerges: Inflation Targeting is Bretton Woods, Reversed, Journal of International Money and Finance, 26(5):663-681.
Schenk, C & Singleton, J 2011, Basket Pegs and Exchange Rate Regime Change: Australia and New Zealand in the Mid- Seventies, Australian Economic History Review, July, 51(2): 120.
Vasnev, A., Skirtun, M & Pauwels, L 2013, Forecasting Monetary Policy Decisions in Australia: A Forecast Combinations Approach, Journal of Forecasting, 32(2):151-166.
In the current modern world, the lifestyle of consumers is impacted by group association within the society at large. This is in particular to subcultures of age, region of residence and race/ethnicity. In analyzing the age subculture, the age of a consumer has a great influence in relation to his or her identity. The basic idea of age subculture entails analyzing it from three primary age segmentation; generation Y, Generation X and baby boomers.
In relation to research and study findings, generation Y comprises of the current consumer market of people born from the early 1980s to now, mainly the youth. On the other hand, generation x comprises of consumers born between 1966 and 1976, while baby boomers were born between 1946 and 1965. In particular to the segmentation, they have different preferences hence, have unique buying habits. For instance, baby boomers would spend a lot on brand loyalty thus; new products have to put a lot of effort in marketing to this subculture. The generation X consumers is considered to be very skeptical, while generation Y consumers are easily attracted to products that enhance their perception of cool images (Diffley, Kearns, Bennett, & Kawalek 2011). Australia has high life expectancy and thus its current consumer market largely comprises of baby boomers. However, in particular to one of its indigenous subcultures the Maori, their consumer market comprises mostly of the generation Y.
Australia is one of the primary exporters of dairy products to Malaysia. This is based on the fact that Malaysia has a very small dairy faming industry that sums up only 2 percent of the overall required dairy products to meet the needs of the people. This is considered as one of the primary reasons as to why Malaysian government cut on giving support to the farming sector back in the early 2000s. Baby boomers are characterized as consumers who are focused on their health and fitness. This acts a strong foundation for marketers to know that these people prefer milk more than other dairy products and the milk should be low in fat to reduce their cholesterol. However, this is not the case in Malaysia: for instance, based on their dairy industry they have a large milk recombining industry, a yogurt and ice cream manufacturing sector and a large food processing industry which largely focuses on the manufacture of infant formula and other products based on powdered milk (Dairy Australia limited 2011). This is an indication that the consumer market in Malaysia largely comprises of generation Y as compared to Australia.
The baby boomers consumers comprise of a very large segment. Having this information and understanding is critical for marketers in the dairy farming industry in Australia. Moreover, based on their characteristic of brand loyalty is an indication that they are value oriented in comparison to other segmentations of age subculture. In this sense what they would prefer would be largely different to the consumer market in Malaysia. For instance, the idea of powdered milk is considered to be new in comparison to baby boomers consumer market. Moreover, baby boomers would relate the product with having added chemicals hence would not be good for their general health and fitness. On the other hand, Malaysia relies largely on importation and without such measures as milk powder, it would be in overall more costly and also not appeal to their generation Y consumers.
Dairy Australia Limited. (2011). Australian government study of a bilateral Free Trade Agreement(FTA) between Australia and Malaysia. Dairy Australia.
Diffley, S., Kearns, J., Bennett, W., & Kawalek, P. 2011, Consumer behaviour in social networking sites: implications for marketers. Irish Journal of Management, Vol. 30 No. 2, pp 47-65.
Aristotle’s Account of Friendship
Aristotle believes that virtue is the foundation of living good lives in the world. For this reason, he advocates for ethical virtues like justice and courage as very important aspects of equipping people’s social skills. This explains his reason for believing that friendship helps in defining whom people live. According Aristotle, friendship helps in defining the kind of morals held by people, since out of it, certain virtues like generosity, courage, and self-sacrifice are expressed. To other people, friendship is the only avenue of fulfillment and joy. This is the major reason Aristotle believes that by studying the subject of friendship; we can easily understand how virtues come into play to define people. He also believes that practical wisdom can only be acquired through emotional and social interactions available in friendship. In his work, Aristotle argues that perfect friendships can only take place between parties who share the same morals and enjoy the same activities, something that may not be entirely true.
In Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle brings three kinds of friendships that depend on the grounds on which they are based. The first type is based on what each of the parties can gain from each other. This means that the parties are close to each other because of what they stand to benefit from each other. This kind of friendship will also continue as long as there is hope of gaining some advantage out of it. Secondly, friendships can also be based on pleasure. According to Aristotle, this kind of friendship is mostly common among the younger generation.
The young people are also driven by their feelings and will respond according to the opportunity that the moment provides. This explains why a person can choose to hang out with a certain character just because of the pleasure that is received. The last type of friendship is pure and based on genuineness. In such friendship, each partner wants the best for each other as true partner. This kind of friendship that is free from selfishness or self-centeredness as each party does prioritize personal gain but well being of the other person. Aristotle points out that such pleasing friendship can only come from the good people.
The analogy Aristotle brings describes the reasons as to why a person may like the other. Friendships are based on the goodness, quality, and usefulness of the other partner. He presents two kinds of friendships, perfect and the imperfect. Perfect friendship comes when a person identifies goodness in a person and starts to spend more time together. The main reason of spending time together is to share their good qualities in an attempt of building their virtues. These people build a mutually beneficial friendship with much character growth in the process. On the other hand, an imperfect friendship may rise from a situation where there is a wide gap in between the parties in terms of the moral virtues. When one person is good and the other is bad, then there is likelihood of a moral development gap, leading to an imperfect friendship. Therefore, inequality is the major reason for an imperfect friendship between parties as is evident between a gown up and a small child.
Apparently, good character is not a determinant that defines imperfect relationship. Aristotle points out that such friendship is based on selfish gains or pleasure that each party seeks to gain from each other. In most cases, unequal relationship is unsatisfying as it there exists little trust between the parties, making the relationship insecure. For this reason, the parties are involved in quarrels and may easily part ways. According to Aristotle, acknowledgement of the good character in a friendship does not necessarily make it imperfect. He bases his argument o the fact that perfect friendship is built on the ability by the parties involved to spend time together undertaking similar activities. This kind of relationship can only be developed when all parties have equal moral development.
Aristotle’s viewpoint of friendship is evident when he states his understanding of a true friend. According to him, a true friend is one who loves the other person for the sake of the other person. This is what he calls goodwill’, and he insists that true friend’s must t have goodwill between them, wanting the best for each other. If goodwill is this important in any friendship, then we can attribute it to all the above types of friendships. He goes ahead to mention three reasons: goodness, pleasure, and advantage as the determinant of goodwill in any relationships. There is no clear indication that goodwill can develop a particular friendship. According to his analysis, goodwill can help determine all the three types of friendships. Goodwill originates from a point where each party develops mutual awareness and approval of each other. In a situation like this, where both parties approve each other’s choices and actions, a perfect type of friendship is formed. However, a situation where each party perceives the other to be good, friendship is formed as a result of the advantage and pleasure that is likely to be received, thus forming an imperfect relationship. This makes goodwill an insufficient pointer towards establishing a perfect relationship.
However, his arguments seem to progress by emphasizing on the character as the main drive towards perfect friendship that seeks the good of the other person. In the process, pleasure is also experienced. This analogy also proves the fact in situations where only pleasure and advantage exists, and then friendship is developed though it may not be perfect. It strikingly clear that Aristotle fails to point out the fact that in any of the friendship types, all parties have a desire for the good of the other. There are instances where a morally mature person may decide to make friendship with another person out the desire to help. Such kind of a situation is not influenced by the selfish ambitions of an individual but out of the moral obligation to share virtues to the other party. In this process, one continues to care for personal needs while at the same time helping develop characters in another person.
Goodness and likeness between Friends
Aristotle asserts that a perfect friendship takes place when two parties are both good and alike, sharing human attributes. This is a disputable argument because in the human species, what makes one person admirable can also make the other admirable. This brings to our attention the fact that Aristotle’s understanding of goodness may differ to our current ethical definition of the same. His understanding seems to take a wider view on the subject, majorly adopting a Unitarian approach. This is evident by his that friendship comes from two people who admire themselves, having common values and sharing similar ways of life. This approach seems to have been adopted from metaphysics. The explanation
Unique Characters of Individuals
An argument that perfect friendship only arise from the individuals with similar characters and likes differs from other viewpoints that seek to distinguish individuals. Does similarities of attributes contribute to the formulating the perfect friendship? This argument can be disputed by the Romantic theorists who believe that differences in personal attributes help in personality identifications. Such tradition directs us to the fact that we admire other people out of the unique characters they posses. Therefore, we only admire someone else out of the charm that comes from the unique attributes and not how similar we are. This viewpoint challenges Aristotle’s argument that friendship is built from similar strong areas. It is a fact that other than what we both can do together, friendship can also be built on the qualities that can only be exhibited by the other partner. To respond to this, Aristotelian metaphysics indicate that such unique attributes are not important, as they may be accidental in nature. For this reason, such attributes cannot be claimed by individuals, and must never be used to identify and admire individuals.
Another Self Notion
According to Aristotle, your friend should be another self’. This means that a friend must be someone with whom you relate with the same way one relates with self. He points out that good people like recognizing their own goodness and enjoy their characters are recognized by others. The same way, he believes that friendship should take place between people of similar characters in a way that one can easily identify characters similar and appreciate. However, this argument does not give full explanation of the reason to only identify and recognize virtues similar to yours in a friend but fail to recognize other moral virtues in other people elsewhere. How well can a person appreciate virtues in another person? In addition, is it a possibility to see your friend as another self?
Lack of Close Friends
Aristotle’s analogy does not admit to the consequence of not having close friends with whom one shares virtues. In such a situation, people would be limited to the kind of moral activities they undertake. Instead, his argument does not envisage lack of close friends. In fact, he points private setting like families as the appropriate avenues to exercise moral virtues. He also believes that a well-lived life can only be possible within the private life setting. Another important aspect left out is why lack of close friendship can lead to lack of well-lived life.
Friendship is an important aspect of life since time immemorial. Aristotle dwells on the subject to show what type of friendship can bring the best in another person. This is the reason he routes for the perfect friendship where each party desires the best for each other. Irrespective of the few challenges in his analogy, he believes that true friendship starts from the self-love, after which, it is replicated to another friend who possess the same virtues. Nevertheless, the above arguments show that issues need to either be clarified or considered. Despite of all the arguments, it turns out that all types of friendships must entail certain equalization or give and take. Aristotle disregards imperfect friendship composed of unequal moral development; however, it is evident that a person with superior moral virtues can deliberately make friends with another in order to share the virtues. For this reason, I do not agree that all friendships with unequal moral developments are imperfect, as some are meant to develop the characters of the other.
Running head: ARISTOTLE’S ACCOUNT OF FRIENDSHIP 1
ARISTOTLE’S ACCOUNT OF FRIENDSHIP 7
Japanese Management Techniques
In Japanese, the word hourensou denotesto qualities appreciated for the description of teamwork and statistics movement inside operative Japanese commercial philosophy. This corporate culture in Japanese is an important aspect of management that has helped in the success of many organizations. Almost every management technique in Japan revolves around this rich cultural principle and it enables organization to achieve results through the involvement of every individual in the organization. As will be unveiled in the discussion of various management theories or techniques employed by Japanese organization, the idea of collaboration and active involvement in problem solving takes center stage.
Studies indicate that since the end of the termed pacific war’ modernization of Japanese ways of life has materialized as a national goal. The determinations are apparent in the course of justifying administration systems of large and small dealings in the country (Matejka 55). Because of technical revolutions taking place in production methods and increase in in integration, japan into the international economy has forced the country to devise better management techniques that could be adopted by all organizations locally and internationally to better their operations and increase productivity as well as profits. This discussion will show the application of these instances in and outside japan in various situations. This aims at proving the argument that Japanese management techniques are not just a passing fad but rather techniques that can foster growth and success in every area they are applied.
Philosophy assessment of Japanese administration practices
Many people or scholars may speculate that the Japanese management techniques are just another passing fad, but the following discussion aims at reveling the real factors behind the great success that Japanese businesses have enjoyed over the years to an extend of taking over strong united states markets. Studies indicate that productivity is the paraphernalia of which a country`s wealth is made. Without progressively snowballing productivity, a country`s standard of living will stagnate, the economic strength may wither and thereby weaken national security. Throughout history, relative economic growth of nations predetermines shifts of national power. For instance, after the second world war, England`s productivity growth has averaged at about 1.49 percent while that of Japan averaged at about 6.9 percent.
This caused England to convert to a third fecund supremacy, while Japan is fast fetching first-rank’ supremacy. Furthermore, the United States has in the last twenty years trialed all other industrialized nations in terms productivity growth. its productivity growth is about one percent yearly, and it has brought the arte of improvement in the nation`s standard of living to a virtual standstill, averaged annually at about 0.004 percent. A case at hand, the United States has lost much of its industrial headship position to Japan over the last thirty-nine years. Matejka (54) asserts that, once booming and seemingly untouchable United States industries like steel, machine tools, automobiles, and electronics have tumbled essentially to the verge by Japan`s extraordinary industrial progression. Japan`s productivity surpassed that of the United Sates since 50s and industry after industry, United states has lost its leadership of the world`s market share to Japan. A question that comes to one`s mind is why is Japan so successful? For instance in the automobile industry, Japan produces cars in fewer years of three and a half as compared to five years of the United States.
Moreover, in cases where Japanese took over American plants; Toyota in Kentucky, Kawasaki in Nebraska, and Sony inn California, they achieved productivity improvements similar to those accomplished in plants in Japan. This begins to point out that production management techniques applied by the Japanese play a big role in improving productivity, and thus they are not another passing fad for the mention of it. It has been found that Japanese use a multi-disciplined team of engineers, marketers, and production managers to design a product and the process involved. Such team remains intact during the production process to improve continuously both the product and process during the life of production. Japanese industries have produced lower cost, higher quality products; have dominated many strong United Sates markets as a result of this.
Studies have indicated for instance that, the number of repairs for every vehicle for the first twelve thousand miles of operation, Toyota had only an eighth of the repairs of American vehicles (Matejka 56). It was also found that Japanese inventory business ratios exceeded that of the United States in thirteen out of fifteen industries. This shows that there is something special about the Japanese management methods, which they employ in achieving great results with minimal costs. In view of this, many management techniques have emerged in the Japanese corporate world (Sasaki 65). For instance ringiseido, which is the basic philosophical concept concerning Japanese management, which gains ground on its fundamental process of making decisions through consensus.
Ringiseido forms an important aspect of Japanese culture that arises from Japan’s group alignment. This allows group members to participate in decision-making while observing and maintaining their respective hierarchical interactions. The ringi policymaking method involves application of ringiseido’ and most Japanese commerce, including regime establishments make choices based on accord; this is an settlement reached by all involved parties in a group`s choice creation (Sasaki 49). Studies reveal that consensus decision making is a vital element of Japanese business tradition, where Japanese regard workers in a holistic framework and individual`s contribution is viewed as of having secondary importance to a group`s harmony and conformity.
On the other hand, Japanese narugakae, which translates to total ma, is a concept that leads to total emotional participation in a group, since consensus and togetherness are valued contributors to group morale and harmony.
Essentially, decision-making philosophy emanates from the traditions of Japanese family system that base on authority that is highly concentrated in the head of the household. The head maintains harmony and consensus over his authority; this allows him to consult other household members before making important decisions. On top of these, the discussion will target the applicability of various techniques in Japan and globally, to affirm their benefit and importance in sustaining management in business beyond just a fad. As a matter of fact, the study was chosen to give a revelation of the Japanese management techniques and their importance in terms of business success and sustainability.
Just in-time practice
The first thing to begin with concerning Japanese management techniques is what is referred to as just in time production.’ This kind of system requires producing precisely the right units in the required quantities at the right time (Sasaki 62). Thus, a factory produces exactly what is required to assemble the final product; with just in time,’ the ideal lot sine is assumed one. Therefore, the process is set to flow from the raw materials through each terminal until it is a finished product. This sets the plant in a process flow and not functionally as compared to many other countries industries for instance, the United States. Each terminal receives the unfinished or works in process product and the necessary parts for that terminal at the same time.
This allows a worker at that station to complete his process, which requires several different functions, and he passes it to the next station for the process to continue to the end. The just in time’ production reduces inventory investment since workers produce only enough for the finished product. On the contrary case, the United States companies` functional work stations produce lot sizes termed just in case’ something went wrong (a schedule change). This is because United Sates companies require larger lot sizes in part since set up time (time to retool to make the next product) are too long. Furthermore American businesses use ideal economic order quantities that determine lot sizes based on set up times.
Just in-time practice and the jikoda conception
However, Japanese businesses reduce set up times to correctly optimize or minimize lot sizes, thus gaining ground through inventory reduction. The Japanese businesses viewed quality differently, where workers themselves are responsible for quality and check fort defects at every step in the process. This development conception is labeled jikoda (denoting stop when something goes wrong). In this regard, any Japanese worker can stop the entire process and a team would resolve the problem immediately before any more defective parts are produced (Sasaki 26). Essentially, just in time means all parts (including supplier delivered parts) are provided at the right time. This allows the Japanese to foster an enormous close-knit subcontractor network. This network is developed basing on long-term partnerships and trust. This relationship fits the just in time concept since the entire process depends on delivery of subcomponents at a preferred time. The just in time production concept increases productivity through maximization of inventory investment and thereby shorten product lead times. This leads to excellence enhancement and quicker response to request vicissitudes.
Principally, the just in time system comprises of many sub-concepts that can improve productivity performance of companies in other countries or environmental set up, and hence confirm the point that the techniques are not another passing fad but principles beneficial to everyone around and within organizations (Sasaki 53). First just in time Japanese production technique, manufacturing flexibility, has greatly contributed to Japanese productivity gains. It emphasizes on design for manufacturability and the integration of design and production leads to greater flexibility. Here, the worker is more flexible and the management designs jobs with more breadth (more skills for a job). Thus, Japanese easily adopts to change and by significantly reducing set-up times, Japanese are able to adjust their manufacturing process in as little as a tenth of the time United Sates counterparts do.
On the other hand, vertical integration is another concept and it works on the basis that for a just in-time system to function, manufacturing must get reliable suppliers. Japanese are experts in developing networks of subcontractors, for instance, Toyota purchases about seventy-nine percent of the value of sales from suppliers, compared to Ford and General motors that purchases less than fifty percent. Much of Japanese vertical integration has been achieved with less investment in its subcontractor physical plant. This gives the Japanese an advantage of vertical integration, which is reduced transaction costs, assured suppliers, and improved integration as well as coordination in production, inventory, and technology. This overcomes the disadvantage of heavy capital investment and reduced flexibility. This Japanese system of networking is ingrained in their infrastructure and culture.
Aggregate excellence administration
The total quality administration is another concept in line with the just in-time premier concept, which revolves around competitive benchmarking and customer service audits. This implies that quality beyond the plant itself, total quality management, which ensures the quality of the product progressively throughout its production, may help achieve great results. As such, Japanese productivity has kept on growing because the quality of the product is followed up beyond its production level to the customers (Nevan 40). Lastly, the other concept under just in time is the stockless production (Kanban) and it entails commitment for achieving zero lead times and zero inventory. This helps in keeping materials flow steadily through a fully integrated production process.
Stockless’ manufacture involves the lessening of set-up stretches and the method of incessant enhancement. At the end, productivity improves leading to profitability and flourishing of a company amid competition or other inhibiting factors. On top of this, Japanese management techniques go beyond production and extend to human resources, since without better ways of harnessing the power of human resources any good production management technique may fail terribly (Nevan 56).
Human resource’ methods
Further still, to affirm the point that Japanese management techniques are not a passing fad, the following discussion continues the revelation of how the techniques are rather beneficial in every way. As such, studies reveal that Japanese management of human resources is a function of its culture, and in Japan, most employees are hired for life. Here, college graduates choose a firm based on the location they wish to live, not the company or job, because most firms in Japan do not hire for a specific job since they require an adaptable individual. In essence, recruitments emphasize on personality and character As opposed to vocational or educational qualification. Basing on the management techniques, once a graduate is hired, an employee undergoes various job rotations while receiving considerable on the job training.
In this kind of set up major training programs are internal to the company and an average Japanese manager of a large organization works in about six different functional areas at the time he reaches forty years. This happens since at any point in time, a certain number of the top executives and about two thirds of managers and specialist get registered in an education program of some kind, training is constant throughout the carrier of Japanese managers. Through job rotation and training, general managers are born and these groups of people are better as compared to functional specialists. This process aims at developing seasoned managers for the posts of executive officers. In about three hundred firms, their respective executives stay for life in the companies.
Still on human resources, in Japan, salaries as well as promotion are based on seniority and merit, and promotions are strictly from within. Nevan (25) reveals that, interestingly, college graduates enter a company as a class and members of that class are endorsed into mid and upper management positions on merit basis. Such great production and human resources techniques that foster faster growth receive backing from better problem solving techniques that allow generation of good decisions (Sasaki 85). Thus, in review of the ringi system of making decisions, which is based on consensus management, it involves the cat of obtaining approval of a proposed matter through vertical and horizontal circulation of documents to concerned members of an organization. In this state, a middle-level manager prepares the document and circulates it in the company.
All appropriate departments agree to it by signing on the document. In this, middle management take the initiative of making proposals and decisions while senior management creates the environment for fostering cooperation in the organization. In essence, the ringi structure of administration allows many people, especially the junior administration groups to play a part in policymaking. This fosters group leadership and group decision making becomes the norm in an organization and increases productivity and general firm improvement for many years. In essence, through the continuous learning and improvement process, Japanese are always trying to improve the process (Nevan 52). This is because the constant learning of new skills makes them more adaptable should any change occur broader skills and high flexibility leads to great adaptability of the Japanese workers. This among other issues together contribute to the benefits attained by applying the Japanese management techniques, which keep confirming that the techniques are not just a passing fad but rather better ways of incorporating organizational management and workers in achieving better results for short term as well as long-term periods.
Consequently, to continue driving the point home concerning the importance of Japanese management techniques, some more discussions are required to unveil the relevance of the techniques in advancing objectives of any organization. Far from being over other Japanese techniques for management of organizations still prove that the techniques are not just any sort of principles but actual practical management techniques that can be applied in an organization anywhere in the world and achieve the required results (Dinero 25). One of the techniques that put much emphasis on the importance of Japanese management techniques is Keizen. Keizen is a very vital concept in quality management and the term is translated from Japanese to mean continuous improvement. In actual terms, Keizen’ is a dominant code of quality management within the approaches of total superiority administration as well as slender built-up.
It was originally developed and applied by Japanese industries in the 60s and it continuous as a successful philosophy where it stand as a practical aspect of the best Japanese corporations. In essence, Keizen is way of thinking, working, and behaving, as embedment in the philosophy and culture or values of an organization; where it is confirmed that establishments should be lived rather than being obligatory or endured at every level. Maurer (56) asserts that, a Keizen’ association targets at becoming lucrative, steady, defensible, and pioneering. It also targets at eradicating excess stretch of time’, resources,’ coinage,’ wealth,’ and determinations,’ and thereby snowballing efficiency. A Keizen organization aims at making incremental improvements to systems, processes and activities before problems occur as opposed to correcting the problems after they occur. Additionally, a Keizen organization creates a harmonious and dynamic organization that allows every employee to participate in the company`s activities as a valued person or individual. Keizen’ conception involves enlightening all that each person does in each feature of an association, in each section, every single minute of the day.
This calls for evolution and not revolution, which requires continuous making small percentages of improvements to many things. In addition, this is more effective, less disruptive and more sustainable than improving one thing by a hundred percent when it becomes unavoidable. The conception of Keizen’ affirms a viewpoint where each person in a progression, however inconsequential, has appreciated information and he contributes in a functioning group (Keizen’ group). At this point, every employee is permitted to partake fully in the enhancement procedure; taking charge, examining and synchronizing his or her own activities (Dinero 38). The management practice plays a big role by enabling and facilitating this through creation of a serene environment for employees. Thus, every employee is involved in the running of the company by being offered training and necessary information about the company he or she may have joined.
Through this, employees are encouraged to become committed and interested, leading to fulfillment and eventually job satisfaction. Keizen’ is a prudently cultivated thinking, which works efficiently and progressively by aiding in the placement of hard structural contributions and purposes, with soft administration subjects like enablement and enthusiasm. Thus, as it is, it is enough prove that Keizen as part of the great Japanese management techniques. It helps organizational build long-term skills and capabilities to achieve results for many years to come and as such, it is not any other kind of management technique but one that build an organization from the grassroots to create a culture of success (Maurer 45). When people see Keizen as a concept of empowering individuals and teams, and a practical way to improve quality and performance, it leads to mitigation of job boredom and unnecessary strikes since job satisfaction acts as the major reward. Therefore, Keizen together with the other discussed techniques have proved beyond doubt that Japanese techniques are not just a another passing fad but rather efficient and practical way of managing affairs of an organization right from the grassroots to the top organizational heads.
Quality groups system
Dinero (40) affirms that, quality group conception is another major theory or technique of Japanese management that finalizes this discussion by re-emphasizing on the importance of the techniques in improving organizations through increased productivity and revenue increase. A quality circle is one way of hands-on management practice, which conscripts the help of employees in solving company problems related to their own jobs. The circles comprise employees working together in an operation and they meet at intervals to discuss problems of quality and then devise solutions for improvements. Quality groups are usually minor and controlled by an administrator or a high-ranking worker.
Contributing workers normally obtain a prescribed problem-solving approaches, teaching like Pareto analysis’ and cause-and-effect diagrams,’ thereby heartened to put in practice such procedures to either precise or all-purpose structural glitches. After employees complete their scrutiny, they then present their discoveries to the administration and thereafter handle execution of permitted resolutions. Japanese emphasize on quality circles as way of preventing defects from arising in the first place as opposed to scrapping during postproduction assessment. Quality groups are used to curtail tussle and interruption that may result from part’ and merchandise flaws. In general, quality circles are helpful in reducing costs, improving productivity, and increase employee involvement in every company activities, including problem solving. Thus, like most of the discussed techniques, quality circles are effective in building a company culture where quality of production is given the first hand and employees take the forefront in ensuring this is achieved. Therefore, quality circles reaffirm that Japanese management techniques work in a practical way and thus not another passing fad.
From the above discussion, it clear that all the techniques highlighted prove beyond any reasonable doubt that they are not a passing fad but real and practical principles that have kept on helping business elites in Japan achieve great results. The theoretical principles behind these techniques indicate a power set of guidelines that have helped organizations create an environment that allows the involvement of all employees through empowerment and great motivational ways, over the years. For instance, it was found that ringiseido, a vital decision making principle encourages group working and decisions making through consensus, where an agreement has to be reached by all in an engaging way. It makes the structure or association to head for a similar course.
Quality circles encourage involvement through training of employees to solve issues, and Keizen concept involves everyone in making small changes or improvement to everything in a company. The just in time on the other hand, helps in creating reliable relations with sub-contractors for the purpose of increasing productivity. In essence, these techniques share the common concept of empowering employees by building on the corporate culture of collaboration for the common good of all and the organization. Thus, these management techniques are viable in establishing corporate culture for long-term l achievement.
Dinero, Donald. Training within Industry: The Foundation of. Productivity Press. 2005.
Matejka, Ken. “Japanese/American Management myths” Business Horizons 2005:54-59.
Maurer, Robert. The Spirit of Kaizen: Creating Lasting Excellence One Small Step at a Time. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. 2012. Print.
Nevan, Wright. Quality beyond Six Sigma. California: Elsevier, 2003.
Sasaki, Naoto. Management and industrial structure in Japan. London: Pergamum press oxford, 2006. Print.
Youngless, Jay. “Total Quality Misconception.” Quality in Manufacturing.2000.
The Role of Edward Prendrick in the Island of Doctor Moreau
The island of Dr. Moreau describes the startling events surrounding the voyage of Edward Prendick. He is the narrator and protagonist of the novel. Prendrick was a well-off voyager who found himself unaccompanied on a stricken vessel. He was rescued by Montgomery who was shipping animals to certain island in the ocean. Prendrick is the character that has been designed for readers to connect with throughout the story. He is a man whose fortune appears to be dreadful but he remains strong and determined. Prendick is a hero and he exemplifies his heroism when he manages to stop an ensuing fight between Montgomery and the captain of the ship following a lengthy altercations Shut up!’ I said, turning on him sharply, for I had seen danger in Montgomery’s white face (Wells, 2010, p. 17).Regardless of what he was going through, Prendick is not afraid because he has idiosyncratic personality traits of heroism. He presents himself as a role model to the audience by passing out the message that they should be strong and intervene in some situations that require them to with great strength.
Prendrick is has an enlightened mindset and does not want to fight with others; this makes him to become a model in odd situations. He remains calm as Montgomery and captain almost pulls a fight. This affirms his strength and belief in the rules of civilization. Readers are able to connect with him and through this, he teaches them to remain firm with rules of civilization in the society. Prendick finds out that his new home in the Island is full of horrors but he does not scare him from staying there. When he was barred by Moreau from entering certain parts of the island, Prendick becomes increasingly inquisitive and one day he manages to go into the nearby jungle. He is courageous and he does not fear what he sees there.
The jungle is a home to small collection of monstrous people emerging half-animals and half-humans. Prendick is assaulted by one of the creatures as he returns to Moreaus’ camp. He is not afraid to ask Montgomery about what he saw although Montgomery is not ready to reveal anything to him. It is not normal to see people in a new and challenging environment to do what Prendick did. Through his heroic acts, readers are in a position to understand the dark side of animal testing and the senselessness of man’s fight against nature.
Prendrick is able to see and hear what is not exposed to the public upon in the island. Through Prendrick inquisition, it becomes apparent that Moreau was forced to relocate his barbaric laboratory to the island after he was exposed by journalist. Prendrick experiences enables readers to build up a controlling objection against the self-proclaimed right of science to try out animals. His experience further dramatizes what is likely to happen when science irresponsibly interferes with evolution and genetics. Everything that Prendrick is doing is controlled by his arousing response to the astounding unearthing that he makes. When Prendrick runs away from the lab to find out what was in the island, Montgomery uses his discretion to coax him from going to the lab again.
Montgomery says, For God’s sake, cried Montgomery, stop that, Prendick…You’re a silly ass. Come out of the water and take these revolvers, and talk. We can’t do anything more than that could we now? (Wells, 2010, p. 92).
Prendrick do not have any other option other than to stay in the island. He begins to reduce himself to the monstrous of the human animals to enhance his survival. Readers are in a position to know that no matter how Moreau or other scientists will try to make animals to become human beings, they cannot succeed. The superiority of human beings exits outside their bodies.
Prendrick is capable of differentiating men from beast men. This is a not the case for Montgomery who has been so much closer to the beast men to an extent that he could not make clear distinction between real men and beast men. Prendrick has developed an exciting connection with beast folks. This is seen when one examines his relationship with the leopard man. Such relationships help the readers to understand how courageous Prendrick is and his determination to appreciate what is happening inside the island. At the begging, Prendrick finds leopard man very interesting but after he chases him through the forest with the aim of killing him, he becomes peeved at him. He makes the readers to realize that the beast folks can falter in the shackles of humankind when they are at their one without laws created by human beings.
The restrictions and embargoes that Moreau embeds in the minds of animals are recognized as laws. The animals lack the memory of their past lives prior to being operated by Moreau. This means that they believed in the laws set to them by Moreau. Prendrick sets the compound on fire accidentally. It becomes the turning point of animals in the island. Suffering ends and they begin to turn around to bestial natures. Prendrick’s relationship with human animals helps to build the main theme in the novel. Through such relationships, readers capable of understanding that human beings cannot be separated their humanity. Following the death of Montgomery and Moreau, Prendrick remains in the island with the beast men. He is courageous enough to befriend the dog man. For almost eleven months, the island is his home. The laws that governed human animals were no longer there. The beasts began to revert to their original forms and habits. Prendrick woke up one day and he was surprised to find that his best friend, dog man was killed by Hyaena Swine. He was carried by anger and he kills the Hyaena Swine. Few days later, a boat came on the shore and he boarded to sail back to England.
Prendrick experience in the island was scaring but throughout his stay, he remained strong and courageous. He believes that once he narrates the experience, it will not be easy for people to believe in him. He was able to reveal the efforts of scientists in trying to be like God by creating humans from animals. Although he accidentally sets fire on the compound of Moreau, it sounds a mere coincidence. Prendrick put to an end animals suffering. There is no further humanization of animals and already animals were able to revert to their original forms. For many readers who connect with Prendrick, he will remain a hero. His character throughout the story exemplifies heroism.
Wells, G. H. (2010). The Island of Dr. Moreau. Madison, WI: Cricket House Books LLC.
THE ISLAND OF DOCTOR MOREAU 4
Running Head: THE ISLAND OF DOCTOR MOREAU 1